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1.
Bone Joint J ; 103-B(4): 650-658, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789487

RESUMEN

AIMS: Periprosthetic femoral fractures (PPF) are a serious complication of total hip arthroplasty (THA) and are becoming an increasingly common indication for revision arthroplasty with the ageing population. This study aimed to identify potential risk factors for PPF based on an analysis of registry data. METHODS: Cases recorded with PPF as the primary indication for revision arthroplasty in the German Arthroplasty Registry (Endoprothesenregister Deutschland (EPRD)), as well as those classified as having a PPF according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes in patients' insurance records were identified from the complete datasets of 249,639 registered primary hip arthroplasties in the EPRD and included in the analysis. RESULTS: The incidence of PPFs was higher (24.6%; 1,483) than reported in EPRD annual reports listing PPF as the main reason for revision (10.9%; 654). The majority of fractures occurred intraoperatively and were directly related to the implantation process. Patients who were elderly, female, or had comorbidities were at higher risk of PPFs (p < 0.001). German hospitals with a surgical volume of < 300 primary procedures per year had a higher rate of PPFs (p < 0.001). The use of cemented and collared prostheses had a lower fracture risk PPF compared to uncemented and collarless components, respectively (both p < 0.001). Collared prostheses reduced the risk of PPF irrespective of the fixation method and hospital's surgical volume. CONCLUSION: The high proportion of intraoperative fractures emphasises the need to improve surgeon training and surgical technique. Registry data should be interpreted with caution because of potential differences in coding standards between institutions. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2021;103-B(4):650-658.


Asunto(s)
Artroplastia de Reemplazo de Cadera , Artroplastia de Reemplazo de Rodilla , Fracturas del Fémur/epidemiología , Fracturas Periprotésicas/epidemiología , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Alemania/epidemiología , Prótesis de Cadera , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Sistema de Registros , Reoperación , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Sexuales
2.
Front Public Health ; 9: 623521, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33796495

RESUMEN

Over the last months, mathematical models have been extensively used to help control the COVID-19 pandemic worldwide. Although extremely useful in many tasks, most models have performed poorly in forecasting the pandemic peaks. We investigate this common pitfall by forecasting four countries' pandemic peak: Austria, Germany, Italy, and South Korea. Far from the peaks, our models can forecast the pandemic dynamics 20 days ahead. Nevertheless, when calibrating our models close to the day of the pandemic peak, all forecasts fail. Uncertainty quantification and sensitivity analysis revealed the main obstacle: the misestimation of the transmission rate. Inverse uncertainty quantification has shown that significant changes in transmission rate commonly precede a peak. These changes are a key factor in forecasting the pandemic peak. Long forecasts of the pandemic peak are therefore undermined by the lack of models that can forecast changes in the transmission rate, i.e., how a particular society behaves, changes of mitigation policies, or how society chooses to respond to them. In addition, our studies revealed that even short forecasts of the pandemic peak are challenging. Backward projections have shown us that the correct estimation of any temporal change in the transmission rate is only possible many days ahead. Our results suggest that the distance between a change in the transmission rate and its correct identification in the curve of active infected cases can be as long as 15 days. This is intrinsic to the phenomenon and how it affects epidemic data: a new case is usually only reported after an incubation period followed by a delay associated with the test. In summary, our results suggest the phenomenon itself challenges the task of forecasting the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic when only epidemic data is available. Nevertheless, we show that exciting results can be obtained when using the same models to project different scenarios of reduced transmission rates. Therefore, our results highlight that mathematical modeling can help control COVID-19 pandemic by backward projections that characterize the phenomena' essential features and forward projections when different scenarios and strategies can be tested and used for decision-making.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Predicción , Modelos Teóricos , Austria/epidemiología , Alemania/epidemiología , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Pandemias , República de Corea/epidemiología
3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808537

RESUMEN

An observational cross-sectional survey was planned to analyze the weekly workload reduction of German dentists during lockdown due to the global COVID-19 pandemic. Participants were predominantly members of the Free Association of German Dentists and filled in an online questionnaire. The questionnaire was sent to a total of 9416 dentists, with a response rate of 27.98% (n = 2635). Respondents were divided into seven macro areas by gross domestic product. Nearly two-thirds of dentists (65.16%) reported a reduction in their practice workload of more than 50% compared to the pre-pandemic period with statistically significant differences between German macro areas (p < 0.01). Weekly workload was reduced during the lockdown in 93.00% of study participants, while 55.33% dental care centers with multiple employed dentists under the direction of a non-dentist general manager had only a 40% reduction in weekly workload compared to a solo practice or a practice of a dentist with an employed dentist (30.24% and 28.39%, respectively). Dentists in Germany drastically reduced their practice activity during the first wave of the COVID-19 lockdown, both in rural and urban areas. Short, medium, and long-term effects of the pandemic on dental practices, dental staff as well as patient care need to be further investigated.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Estudios Transversales , Odontólogos , Alemania/epidemiología , Humanos , Pandemias , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Carga de Trabajo
4.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 140, 2021 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33863371

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic and the measures implemented to stop the pandemic had a broad impact on our daily lives. Besides work and social life, health care is affected on many levels. In particular, there is concern that attendance in health care programs will drop or hospital admissions will be delayed due to COVID-19-related anxieties, especially in children. Therefore, we compared the number of weekly visits to 78 German pediatric institutions between 2019 and 2020. RESULTS: We found no significant differences during the first 10 weeks of the year. However, and importantly, from April, the weekly number of visits was more than 35% lower in 2020 than in 2019 (p = 0.005). In conclusion, the COVID-19 pandemic seems to relate to families´ utilization of outpatient well-child clinics and pediatric practice attendance in Germany.


Asunto(s)
Servicios de Salud del Niño/tendencias , Pandemias , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud , Pediatría/tendencias , Niño , Alemania/epidemiología , Humanos
5.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0248813, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831032

RESUMEN

Healthcare personnel are at risk to aquire the corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We evaluated the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and positive nasopharyngeal reverse transcriptase polymerase-chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests in German intensive care and emergency physicians. Physicians attending intensive care and emergency medicine training courses between June 16th and July 2nd 2020 answered a questionnaire and were screened for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies via automated electrochemiluminiscence immunoassay. We recruited 516 physicans from all parts of Germany, 445/516 (86%) worked in high risk areas, and 379/516 (73%) had treated patients with COVID-19. The overall positive rate was 18/516 (3.5%), 16/18 (89%) had antibodies against SARS-COV-2, another 2 reported previous positive RT-PCR results although antibody testing was negative. Of those positive, 7/18 (39%) were unaware of their infection. A stay abroad was stated by 173/498 (35%), mostly in Europe. 87/516 (17%) reported a febrile respiratory infection after January 1st 2020 which was related to SARS-CoV-2 in 4/87 (4.6%). Contact to COVID-19 positive relatives at home was stated by 22/502 (4.4%). This was the only significant risk factor for Covid-19 infection (Fisher´s exact test, p = 0.0005). N95 masks and eye protection devices were available for 87% and 73%, respectively. A total of 254/502 (51%) had been vaccinated against seasonal influenza. The overall SARS-CoV-2 infection rate of german physicians from intensive care and emergency medicine was low compared to reports from other countries and settings. This finding may be explained by the fact that the German health care system was not overwhelmed by the first wave of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Cuidados Críticos , Médicos , /metabolismo , Adulto , Anciano , /diagnóstico , Femenino , Alemania/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos
6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33916134

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected health professionals in a special way, as they are responsible for the care of vulnerable groups. Little is known about how outpatient caregivers perceive their working conditions during the pandemic in Germany and about the difficulties they face. The aims of this study were (1) to examine specific job demands of outpatient caregivers in regard to the COVID-19 pandemic, (2) to illuminate their job resources they can rely on and (3) to identify potential strain reactions they experience. Fifteen semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with outpatient caregivers working in Northern Germany in the period May-June 2020. Interviews were analyzed by using qualitative content analysis. Outpatient caregivers experienced daily mask obligation, lack of personal protection equipment (PPE) and stricter hygiene regulations as demanding during the pandemic. They also described a higher workload and emotional demands such as fear of infection or infecting others. They perceived team spirit and communication as important work-related resources. Depressive symptoms and feelings of stress were described as strain reactions. Outpatient care services need to be better prepared for sudden pandemic situations and provide their employees with sufficient PPE and education to reduce pandemic-related job demands leading to negative strain reactions.


Asunto(s)
Pandemias , Cuidadores , Alemania/epidemiología , Humanos , Pacientes Ambulatorios
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33917493

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is impacting mental health worldwide, particularly among healthcare workers (HCWs). Risk and protective factors for depression and generalized anxiety in healthcare workers need to be identified to protect their health and ability to work. Social support and optimism are known protective psychosocial resources, but have not been adequately studied in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic among healthcare workers in Germany. METHODS: Within the first wave of the VOICE study (n = 7765), a longitudinal web-based survey study among healthcare workers in Germany, we assessed symptoms of depression (PHQ-2) and generalized anxiety (GAD-2), social support (ENRICHD Social Support Inventory; ESSI), and generalized optimism as well as sociodemographic, occupational, and COVID-19 related variables. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between the constructs. RESULTS: The analyses revealed that higher levels of social support and optimism were associated with lower levels of depression and generalized anxiety. They showed a higher association with depression and generalized anxiety than demographic or occupational risk factors such as female gender and direct contact with infected individuals. CONCLUSION: Psychosocial resources such as social support and optimism appear to contribute to successful coping with the COVID-19 pandemic and should be considered in future studies.


Asunto(s)
Pandemias , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/epidemiología , Femenino , Alemania/epidemiología , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Salud Mental , Factores Protectores , Apoyo Social
8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33917840

RESUMEN

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is associated with a potentially severe clinical manifestation, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and currently poses a worldwide challenge. Health care workers (HCWs) are at the forefront of any health care system and thus especially at risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection due to their potentially frequent and close contact with patients suffering from COVID-19. Serum samples from 198 HCWs with direct patient contact of a regional medical center and several outpatient facilities were collected during the early phase of the pandemic (April 2020) and tested for SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. Commercially available IgA- and IgG-specific ELISAs were used as screening technique, followed by an in-house neutralization assay for confirmation. Neutralizing SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies were detected in seven of 198 (3.5%) tested HCWs. There was no significant difference in seroprevalence between the regional medical center (3.4%) and the outpatient institution (5%). The overall seroprevalence of neutralizing SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies in HCWs in both a large regional medical center and a small outpatient institution was low (3.5%) at the beginning of April 2020. The findings may indicate that the timely implemented preventive measures (strict hygiene protocols, personal protective equipment) were effective to protect from transmission of an airborne virus when only limited information on the pathogen was available.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales , Alemania/epidemiología , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos
9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33919180

RESUMEN

Health authorities recommend digital tools for home-based sport and exercise routines to stay active and healthy during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study investigates the prevalence, duration, most popular activities, and social selectivity of home-based digital sport and its contribution to overall levels of sporting activity during the pandemic. It is based on cross-sectional survey data (n = 1508), representing the population >14 years living in Germany. Data collection took place in October 2020, using computer-assisted web interviewing. Results show that overall, 23% of respondents used digital media for sports activities at least one time during the COVID-19 pandemic. Numbers increased during the lockdown and decreased afterwards. People engaged in a variety of fitness workouts, most frequently practiced with the help of publicly accessible fitness videos from video-sharing platforms. Digital sports practitioners are younger, better educated, and financially better off. Females are overrepresented. Individuals engaged in digital sports achieved 30 min/week more sports activity during the pandemic compared to individuals solely involved in offline sports. Hence, home-based digital sports activities were a popular means to stay active, particularly in the period of the lockdown. Strong social disparities indicate that the possible health benefits of digital sports only reach out to particular population groups.


Asunto(s)
Pandemias , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Alemania/epidemiología , Humanos , Internet , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
10.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33891131

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Ideally, health services and interventions to improve immunization rates should be tailored to local target populations, such as spatial clusters. However, to date, little attention has been paid to spatial clusters of underimmunization and have instead been typified based on small-scale data. AIM: Using the example of vaccination against measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) in children, the present study aims to (1) identify the spatial distribution of insufficient MMR vaccination in Westphalia-Lippe on a small scale, (2) identify specific, spatial risk clusters with insufficient vaccination protection, and (3) describe spatial-neighborhood influencing factors of the different risk clusters as starting points for public health interventions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Account data from the Kassenärztliche Vereinigung Westfalen-Lippe (KVWL) were used as a basis. Birth cohorts 2013-2016 of children with statutory health insurance were formed and aggregated at postcode level (n = 410). Statistically significant, spatially compact clusters and relative risks (RRs) of underimmunization were identified. Local risk models were estimated in binary logistic regressions based on spatial-neighborhood variables. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Two significant clusters of underimmunization were identified for each of the vaccination rates "at least one MMR vaccination" and "both MMR vaccinations." Significant risk factors for low immunization rates included age structure, socioeconomic variables, population density, medical coverage, and value attitude. The proposed methodology is suitable for describing spatial variations in vaccination behavior based on identified typologies for targeted evidence-based interventions.


Asunto(s)
Sarampión , Paperas , Rubéola (Sarampión Alemán) , Niño , Alemania/epidemiología , Humanos , Sarampión/epidemiología , Sarampión/prevención & control , Vacuna contra el Sarampión-Parotiditis-Rubéola , Paperas/epidemiología , Paperas/prevención & control , Salud Pública , Rubéola (Sarampión Alemán)/epidemiología , Rubéola (Sarampión Alemán)/prevención & control , Vacunación
11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33922895

RESUMEN

SARS-CoV-2 is a worldwide challenge for the medical sector. Healthcare workers (HCW) are a cohort vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 infection due to frequent and close contact with COVID-19 patients. However, they are also well trained and equipped with protective gear. The SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody status was assessed at three different time points in 450 HCW of the University Hospital Essen in Germany. HCW were stratified according to contact frequencies with COVID-19 patients in (I) a high-risk group with daily contacts with known COVID-19 patients (n = 338), (II) an intermediate-risk group with daily contacts with non-COVID-19 patients (n = 78), and (III) a low-risk group without patient contacts (n = 34). The overall seroprevalence increased from 2.2% in March-May to 4.0% in June-July to 5.1% in October-December. The SARS-CoV-2 IgG detection rate was not significantly different between the high-risk group (1.8%; 3.8%; 5.5%), the intermediate-risk group (5.1%; 6.3%; 6.1%), and the low-risk group (0%, 0%, 0%). The overall SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence remained low in HCW in western Germany one year after the outbreak of COVID-19 in Germany, and hygiene standards seemed to be effective in preventing patient-to-staff virus transmission.


Asunto(s)
Estudios de Seguimiento , Alemania/epidemiología , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos
12.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 317, 2021 Apr 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827570

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To identify the determinants of health care use among homeless individuals. METHODS: Data were taken from the Hamburg survey of homeless individuals (n = 100 individuals in the here used model, mean age 44.8 years, SD 12.5) focusing on homeless individuals in Hamburg, Germany. The number of physician visits in the past 3 months and hospitalization in the preceding 12 months were used as outcome measures. Drawing on the Andersen model of health care use as a conceptual framework, predisposing characteristics, enabling resources and need factors as well as psychosocial variables were included as correlates. RESULTS: Negative binomial regressions showed that increased physician visits were associated with being female (IRR: 4.02 [95% CI: 1.60-10.11]), absence of chronic alcohol consume (IRR: 0.26 [95% CI: 0.12-0.57]) and lower health-related quality of life (IRR: 0.97 [95% CI: 0.96-0.98]). Furthermore, logistic regressions showed that the likelihood of hospitalization was positively associated with lower age (OR: 0.93 [95% CI: 0.89-0.98]), having health insurance (OR: 8.11 [2.11-30.80]) and lower health-related quality of life (OR: 0.97 [95% CI: 0.94-0.99]). CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that predisposing characteristics (both age and sex), enabling resources (i.e., health insurance) and need factors in terms of health-related quality of life are main drivers of health care use among homeless individuals. This knowledge may assist in managing health care use.


Asunto(s)
Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Personas sin Hogar , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/psicología , Adulto , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Femenino , Alemania/epidemiología , Personas sin Hogar/psicología , Humanos , Masculino , Calidad de Vida , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
13.
Dtsch Arztebl Int ; 118(7): 101-108, 2021 Feb 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33835005

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The purpose of neonatal screening is the early detection of congenital metabolic and endocrine disorders that, if untreated, could lead to fatal crises or other long-term adverse sequelae. In Germany, neonatal screening is legally regulated. Quality-assurance reports ("DGNS reports") are created and published annually by the German Society for Neonatal Screening (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Neugeborenen-Screening). Data from the DGNS reports for the years 2006-2018 serve as the basis of the present publication. METHODS: For the years 2006-2018, prevalences were calculated and data on process quality were evaluated. RESULTS: Among 9 218 538 births, 6917 neonates were identified who had one of the target diseases. The overall prevalence was 75 per 100 000 neonates; the disorders most commonly found were congenital hypothyroidism (30 per 100 000) followed by phenylketonuria (PKU) and medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCAD) (10 per 100 000 each). Of the 272 205 follow-up screenings requested, 80% were received. The rate of positive screening findings (recall rate) declined over the observation period, from 0.90% in 2006 to 0.37% in 2018. For every five positive screening findings, one case of a target disorder was confirmed. 79% of the children for whom treatment was indicated began to receive treatment within two weeks. CONCLUSION: The low recall rate and the early initiation of treatment in 79% of the affected children indicate that neonatal screening for metabolic and endocrine disorders in Germany is effective. The incorporation of tracking structures and the introduction of a registry could further improve the quality of the program.


Asunto(s)
Errores Innatos del Metabolismo Lipídico , Fenilcetonurias , Acil-CoA Deshidrogenasa , Niño , Alemania/epidemiología , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Tamizaje Neonatal , Fenilcetonurias/diagnóstico , Fenilcetonurias/epidemiología
14.
Dtsch Arztebl Int ; 118(8): 117-121, 2021 Feb 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33879309

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: E-scooter sharing systems were initiated in Hamburg in June 2019. The number of persons injured in Hamburg in e-scooter accidents rose thereafter. The goal of this study was to determine the typical accident mechanisms and injury patterns after e-scooter accidents in Germany, and to compare these with bicycle accidents. METHODS: In a retrospective study, accidents with e-scooters and bicycles that occurred from June 2019 to June 2020 were registered and analyzed with respect to demography, accident mechanisms, diagnostics, patterns of injury, emergency medical care, operations, and inpatient hospitalizations. RESULTS: 89 persons sustained e-scooter accidents (mean age 33.9 years, standard deviation [SD] 14 years); 435 persons who sustained bicycle accidents (mean age 42.5 years, SD 17 years) served as a comparison group. E-scooter accidents more commonly occurred at night (37% versus 14%), and 28% of the persons who sustained them were under the influence of alcohol (cyclists: 6%). 54% of the injured e-scooter riders suffered trauma to the head or face; 14% had a severe head injury and 16% had a severe facial injury. Fractures of the upper limbs were more common than fractures of the lower limbs (18% versus 6%). On initial assessment in the emergency room, injured cyclists were more frequently classified as needing immediate treatment than injured e-scooter riders (7% versus 1%). CONCLUSION: The head, face, and upper limbs are the most commonly affected parts of the body in e-scooter accidents. Compared to bicycle accidents, e-scooter accidents more commonly occur on weekends and in association with alcohol. From a medical point of view, abstaining from alcohol consumption and wearing a helmet when using an e-scooter is strongly recommended.


Asunto(s)
Traumatismos Craneocerebrales , Dispositivos de Protección de la Cabeza , Accidentes , Accidentes de Tránsito , Adulto , Alemania/epidemiología , Humanos , Estudios Retrospectivos
16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800392

RESUMEN

Briefly before the first peak of the COVID-19 pandemic in Berlin, Germany, schools closed in mid-March 2020. Following re-opening, schools resumed operation at a reduced level for nine weeks. During this phase, we aimed at assessing, among students and teachers, infection status, symptoms, individual behaviour, and institutional infection prevention measures. Twenty-four primary and secondary school classes, randomly selected across Berlin, were examined. Oro-nasopharyngeal swabs and capillary blood samples were collected to determine SARS-CoV-2 infection (PCR) and specific IgG (ELISA), respectively. Medical history, household characteristics, leisure activities, fear of infection, risk perception, hand hygiene, facemask wearing, and institutional preventive measures were assessed. Descriptive analysis was performed. Among 535 participants (385 students, 150 staff), one teenager was found to be infected with SARS-CoV-2 (0.2%), and seven individuals exhibited specific IgG (1.3%). Compared to pre-pandemic times, screen time (e.g., TV, gaming, social media) increased, and the majority of primary school students reported reduced physical activity (42.2%). Fear of infection and risk perception were relatively low, acceptance of adapted health behaviors was high. In this post-lockdown period of low SARS-CoV-2 incidence in Berlin, individual and school-level infection prevention measures were largely adhered to. Nevertheless, vigilance and continued preventive measures are essential to cope with future pandemic activity.


Asunto(s)
Adolescente , Berlin , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Estudios Transversales , Alemania/epidemiología , Humanos , Pandemias , Percepción , Instituciones Académicas
17.
BMJ Open ; 11(3): e044853, 2021 03 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789854

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: One major goal of the emergency department (ED) is to decide, whether patients need to be hospitalised or can be sent home safely. We aim at providing criteria for these decisions without knowing the SARS-CoV-2 test result in suspected cases. SETTING: Tertiary emergency medicine. PARTICIPANTS: All patients were treated at the ED of the Charité during the pandemic peak and underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing. Patients with positive test results were characterised in detail and underwent a 14-day-follow-up. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Logistic regression and classification and regression tree (CART) analyses were performed to identify predictors (primary endpoint), which confirm safe discharge. The clinical endpoint was all-cause mortality or need for mechanical ventilation during index stay or after readmission. RESULTS: The primary test population of suspected COVID-19 consisted of n=1255 cases, 45.2% were women (n=567). Of these, n=110 tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (8.8%). The median age of SARS-CoV-2-positive cases was 45 years (IQR: 33-66 years), whereas the median age of the group tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 was 42 years (IQR: 30-60 years) (p=0.096). 43.6% were directly admitted to hospital care.CART analysis identified the variables oxygen saturation (<95%), dyspnoea and history of cardiovascular (CV) disease to distinguish between high and low-risk groups. If all three variables were negative, most patients were discharged from ED, and the incidence of the clinical endpoint was 0%. The validation cohort confirmed the safety of discharge using these variables and revealed an incidence of the clinical endpoint from 14.3% in patients with CV disease, 9.4% in patients with dyspnoea and 18.2% in patients with O2 satuaration below 95%. CONCLUSIONS: Based on easily available variables like dyspnoea, oxygen saturation, history of CV disease, approximately 25% of patients subsequently confirmed with COVID-19 can be identified for safe discharge. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: DRKS00023117.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Toma de Decisiones , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Anciano , /terapia , /estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios de Cohortes , Tos/etiología , Disnea/etiología , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/organización & administración , Femenino , Fiebre/etiología , Alemania/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Respiración Artificial/estadística & datos numéricos
18.
Soc Sci Med ; 276: 113859, 2021 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799202

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The lockdown measures following the COVID-19 outbreak in early 2020, intended to slow the spread of the virus, forced a sudden and dramatic change to most everyday lives. However, not all individuals may have been affected in the same way. In addition to situational factors such as occupation, family status, and health, personality traits may affect how individuals experienced the initial crisis. METHODS: Using data from the pairfam COVID-19 survey, an online survey of the participants of the German Family Panel pairfam conducted from May to July 2020, as well as personality data from the pairfam panel data, this study analyzes whether the Big Five personality traits influence the degree to which young and middle-aged individuals (16-49 years old) felt negatively affected by and were able to see any benefits of the initial COVID-19 lockdown in Germany. RESULTS: While neuroticism is linked to a more negative perception of the restrictions to daily life, openness to experiences is associated with more positive perceptions of the situation. Like neuroticism, extraversion is also associated with a more negative perception, but only among respondents without a partner. For respondents with a romantic partner, no association was found. CONCLUSION: Results confirm that personality plays a role in individual perceptions of the pandemic situation. Moreover, they show that most individuals perceived not only negative but also positive aspects of the COVID-19 pandemic situation in 2020.


Asunto(s)
Pandemias , Adolescente , Adulto , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Alemania/epidemiología , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Percepción , Personalidad , Adulto Joven
19.
Gesundheitswesen ; 83(4): 274-281, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831971

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic requires containment measures such as contact restrictions and hygiene requirements. It is accompanied by psychological problems and the fear of infection or of a severe course of the disease. This paper examines the relationship between fear of infection and adherence to rules of hygiene as well as the utilization of medical services. METHODS: 1005 patients (20-79 years, 626=62.4% female) were interviewed by online questionnaire before starting a psychosomatic rehabilitation program. Data are presented descriptively and analysed by variance analyses. RESULTS: 68.6% were rarely/sometimes afraid and 17.9% were always afraid of contracting coronavirus or of a severe course of the disease. Those who were afraid intended to wash their hands more frequently (97.2%) than those who were not afraid. Regardless of any change in their physical and mental health status, participants felt it to be risky to seek medical care. CONCLUSION: The intention to follow hygiene rules in people with pre-existing mental illness depends on a fear of infecting oneself or others with the coronavirus or of contracting a severe form of the disease. Especially mentally or psychosomatically affected individuals need to be informed adequately about the coronavirus and the necessary individual protective measures in order to reduce resistance and to increase willingness to seek medical help.


Asunto(s)
Coronavirus , Trastornos Mentales , Estudios Transversales , Miedo , Femenino , Alemania/epidemiología , Humanos , Intención , Masculino , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Pandemias , Percepción
20.
Gesundheitswesen ; 83(4): 282-290, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831972

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Chronic diseases, such as inherited bleeding disorders (IBD) are often associated with high costs of medical care. COVID-19 containment measures, including isolation and triage, led to restrictions in the health care of chronically ill patients. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the health care of IBD patients. METHODS: In this multicentre cross-sectional study to evaluate the effects of COVID-19 on the mental health and quality of care of patients with inherited bleeding disorder, an ad hoc questionnaire was sent to 586 patients/parents of children with haemophilia A, B or von Willebrand syndrome type 3. In addition to demographic and clinical data, patients/parents of patients with inherited bleeding disorders were asked about their thoughts, concerns and experiences regarding their medical care during the COVID-19 pandemic. Differences between clinical subgroups were calculated. RESULTS: Significant differences were found between subgroups (severity, type of therapy, product class, comorbidities) with regard to the transmission of COVID-19 through plasma products, the effects of COVID-19 positive test results, fear of getting COVID-19, delayed drug supply and physiotherapy treatment. DISCUSSION: The medical care of patients with inherited bleeding disorders, who need a continuous supply of essential drugs, is a particular challenge in times of pandemics. Therefore, worries and fears of IBD patients should be taken seriously and innovative communication channels established to maintain therapy standards and quality of care.


Asunto(s)
Pandemias , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Alemania/epidemiología , Humanos
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