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1.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 416(11): 2871-2882, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581531

RESUMEN

Antarctic seaweeds are vital components of polar marine ecosystems, playing a crucial role in nutrient cycling and supporting diverse life forms. The sulfur content in these organisms is particularly interesting due to its implication in biogeochemical processes and potential impacts on local and global environmental systems. In this study, we present a comprehensive characterization of seaweed collected in the Antarctic in terms of their total sulfur content and its distribution among different classes of species, including thiols, using various methods and high-sensitivity techniques. The data presented in this paper are unprecedented in the scientific literature. These methods allowed for the determination of total sulfur content and the distribution of sulfur compounds in different fractions, such as water-soluble and proteins, as well as the speciation of sulfur compounds in these fractions, providing valuable insights into the chemical composition of these unique marine organisms. Our results revealed that the total sulfur concentration in Antarctic seaweeds varied widely across different species, ranging from 5.5 to 56 g kg-1 dry weight. Furthermore, our investigation into the sulfur speciation revealed the presence of various sulfur compounds, including sulfate, and some thiols, which were quantified in all ten seaweed species evaluated. The concentration of these individual sulfur species also displayed considerable variability among the studied seaweeds. This study provides the first in-depth examination of total sulfur content and sulfur speciation in brown and red Antarctic seaweeds.


Asunto(s)
Algas Marinas , Algas Marinas/química , Regiones Antárticas , Peso Molecular , Ecosistema , Azufre/metabolismo , Compuestos de Azufre/metabolismo , Verduras , Compuestos de Sulfhidrilo/metabolismo
2.
Glob Chang Biol ; 30(4): e17249, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38572713

RESUMEN

Warming as well as species introductions have increased over the past centuries, however a link between cause and effect of these two phenomena is still unclear. Here we use distribution records (1813-2023) to reconstruct the invasion histories of marine non-native macrophytes, macroalgae and seagrasses, in the Mediterranean Sea. We defined expansion as the maximum linear rate of spread (km year-1) and the accumulation of occupied grid cells (50 km2) over time and analyzed the relation between expansion rates and the species' thermal conditions at its native distribution range. Our database revealed a marked increase in the introductions and spread rates of non-native macrophytes in the Mediterranean Sea since the 1960s, notably intensifying after the 1990s. During the beginning of this century species velocity of invasion has increased to 26 ± 9 km2 year-1, with an acceleration in the velocity of invasion of tropical/subtropical species, exceeding those of temperate and cosmopolitan macrophytes. The highest spread rates since then were observed in macrophytes coming from native regions with minimum SSTs two to three degrees warmer than in the Mediterranean Sea. In addition, most non-native macrophytes in the Mediterranean (>80%) do not exceed the maximum temperature of their range of origin, whereas approximately half of the species are exposed to lower minimum SST in the Mediterranean than in their native range. This indicates that tropical/subtropical macrophytes might be able to expand as they are not limited by the colder Mediterranean SST due to the plasticity of their lower thermal limit. These results suggest that future warming will increase the thermal habitat available for thermophilic species in the Mediterranean Sea and continue to favor their expansion.


Asunto(s)
Especies Introducidas , Algas Marinas , Mar Mediterráneo , Ecosistema , Temperatura
3.
Planta ; 259(5): 111, 2024 Apr 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578466

RESUMEN

MAIN CONCLUSION: The combined photoinhibitory and PSII-reaction centre quenching against light stress is an important mechanism that allows the green macroalga Ulva rigida to proliferate and form green tides in coastal ecosystems. Eutrophication of coastal ecosystems often stimulates massive and uncontrolled growth of green macroalgae, causing serious ecological problems. These green tides are frequently exposed to light intensities that can reduce their growth via the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). To understand the physiological and biochemical mechanisms leading to the formation and maintenance of green tides, the interaction between inorganic nitrogen (Ni) and light was studied. In a bi-factorial physiological experiment simulating eutrophication under different light levels, the bloom-forming green macroalga Ulva rigida was exposed to a combination of ecologically relevant nitrate concentrations (3.8-44.7 µM) and light intensities (50-1100 µmol photons m-2 s-1) over three days. Although artificial eutrophication (≥ 21.7 µM) stimulated nitrate reductase activity, which regulated both nitrate uptake and vacuolar storage by a feedback mechanism, nitrogen assimilation remained constant. Growth was solely controlled by the light intensity because U. rigida was Ni-replete under oligotrophic conditions (3.8 µM), which requires an effective photoprotective mechanism. Fast declining Fv/Fm and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) under excess light indicate that the combined photoinhibitory and PSII-reaction centre quenching avoided ROS production effectively. Thus, these mechanisms seem to be key to maintaining high photosynthetic activities and growth rates without producing ROS. Nevertheless, these photoprotective mechanisms allowed U. rigida to thrive under the contrasting experimental conditions with high daily growth rates (12-20%). This study helps understand the physiological mechanisms facilitating the formation and persistence of ecologically problematic green tides in coastal areas.


Asunto(s)
Chlorophyta , Algas Marinas , Ulva , Ecosistema , Nitratos , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno , Nitrógeno
4.
Nutrients ; 16(7)2024 Apr 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38613074

RESUMEN

The influence of iodine-rich foods on thyroid cancer (TC) risk remains inadequately understood. Therefore, we aimed to comprehensively investigate the relationship between three iodine-rich food groups and TC prevalence using extensive data from a large Korean population. We assessed the dietary intake of 169,057 participants in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (2004-2013) using a food frequency questionnaire. The top-three iodine-rich food groups (including egg, seaweed, and dairy) were selected based on Korean dietary reference intakes and categorized by weekly consumption frequency. We conducted multiple logistic regression models to examine the relationship between food consumption and TC prevalence. After adjusting for confounding factors, higher seaweed consumption (>5 times/week) was significantly associated with lower TC prevalence (odds ratio [OR], 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.42, 0.32-0.56, p-value < 0.001). In contrast, compared with moderate dairy consumption (3-4 times/week), lower dairy product intake (<1 time/week) was associated with higher TC prevalence (OR, 95% CI = 1.32, 1.05-1.67, p-value = 0.017). Our findings suggest that sufficient seaweed consumption may offer protection against TC, and incorporating dairy products into the diet may lower TC incidence in the Korean population. The most significant limitations of our study are the absence of 24 h urine samples for iodine status assessment and the lack of clinical data on the diagnosis of thyroid cancer.


Asunto(s)
Yodo , Algas Marinas , Neoplasias de la Tiroides , Humanos , Neoplasias de la Tiroides/epidemiología , Neoplasias de la Tiroides/etiología , Pueblo Asiatico , Oportunidad Relativa
5.
Microbiome ; 12(1): 47, 2024 Mar 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38454513

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Macroalgae, especially reds (Rhodophyta Division) and browns (Phaeophyta Division), are known for producing various halogenated compounds. Yet, the reasons underlying their production and the fate of these metabolites remain largely unknown. Some theories suggest their potential antimicrobial activity and involvement in interactions between macroalgae and prokaryotes. However, detailed investigations are currently missing on how the genetic information of prokaryotic communities associated with macroalgae may influence the fate of organohalogenated molecules. RESULTS: To address this challenge, we created a specialized dataset containing 161 enzymes, each with a complete enzyme commission number, known to be involved in halogen metabolism. This dataset served as a reference to annotate the corresponding genes encoded in both the metagenomic contigs and 98 metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) obtained from the microbiome of 2 red (Sphaerococcus coronopifolius and Asparagopsis taxiformis) and 1 brown (Halopteris scoparia) macroalgae. We detected many dehalogenation-related genes, particularly those with hydrolytic functions, suggesting their potential involvement in the degradation of a wide spectrum of halocarbons and haloaromatic molecules, including anthropogenic compounds. We uncovered an array of degradative gene functions within MAGs, spanning various bacterial orders such as Rhodobacterales, Rhizobiales, Caulobacterales, Geminicoccales, Sphingomonadales, Granulosicoccales, Microtrichales, and Pseudomonadales. Less abundant than degradative functions, we also uncovered genes associated with the biosynthesis of halogenated antimicrobial compounds and metabolites. CONCLUSION: The functional data provided here contribute to understanding the still largely unexplored role of unknown prokaryotes. These findings support the hypothesis that macroalgae function as holobionts, where the metabolism of halogenated compounds might play a role in symbiogenesis and act as a possible defense mechanism against environmental chemical stressors. Furthermore, bacterial groups, previously never connected with organohalogen metabolism, e.g., Caulobacterales, Geminicoccales, Granulosicoccales, and Microtrichales, functionally characterized through MAGs reconstruction, revealed a biotechnologically relevant gene content, useful in synthetic biology, and bioprospecting applications. Video Abstract.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos , Microbiota , Rhodophyta , Algas Marinas , Rhodophyta/genética , Rhodophyta/metabolismo , Microbiota/genética , Bacterias/genética , Bacterias/metabolismo , Algas Marinas/genética , Algas Marinas/metabolismo , Metagenoma , Halógenos/metabolismo
6.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 5075, 2024 03 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38429365

RESUMEN

In the present study, three process parameters optimization were assessed as controlling factors for the biogas and biomethane generation from brown algae Cystoceira myrica as the substrate using RSM for the first time. The biomass amount, Co3O4NPs dosage, and digestion time were assessed and optimized by RSM using Box-Behnken design (BBD) to determine their optimum level. BET, FTIR, TGA, XRD, SEM, XPS, and TEM were applied to illustrate the Co3O4NPs. FTIR and XRD analysis established the formation of Co3O4NPs. The kinetic investigation confirmed that the modified model of Gompertz fit the research results satisfactorily, with R2 ranging between 0.989-0.998 and 0.879-0.979 for biogas and biomethane production, respectively. The results recommended that adding Co3O4NPs at doses of 5 mg/L to C. myrica (1.5 g) significantly increases biogas yield (462 mL/g VS) compared to all other treatments. The maximum biomethane generation (96.85 mL/g VS) was obtained with C. myrica at (0 mg/L) of Co3O4NPs. The impacts of Co3O4NPs dosages on biomethane production, direct electron transfer (DIET) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were also investigated in detail. The techno-economic study results demonstrate the financial benefits of this strategy for the biogas with the greatest net energy content, which was 2.82 kWh with a net profit of 0.60 USD/m3 of the substrate and was produced using Co3O4NPs (5 mg/L).


Asunto(s)
Cobalto , Nanopartículas , Óxidos , Algas Marinas , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno , Biocombustibles , Electrones
7.
Carbohydr Polym ; 333: 121962, 2024 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38494219

RESUMEN

Ulva are hardy green seaweeds that contain the sulfated polysaccharide ulvan and grow in two distinct morphologies: foliose and tubular. The authors hypothesise that ulvan from tubular species are more structurally complex than ulvans from foliose species. Herein, using standardised methods, the glycosyl linkage positions and sulfate ester substitutions of constituent monosaccharides of ulvan isolated from foliose (U. lacinulata and U. stenophylloides) and tubular (U. prolifera and U. ralfsii) species of Ulva were investigated. Comparison of native ulvans with 80 and 100 °C desulfated counterparts indicated that 4-linked rhamnose is predominantly 3-O-sulfated in all four ulvans. Ulvans from the foliose species predominantly contained →3,4)-Rhap-(1→, →4)-GlcAp-(1→ and →4)-IdoAp-(1→, collectively accounting for 67 to 81 mol% of the total linkages. In contrast, these same linkages in ulvans from the tubular species only collectively accounted for 29 to 36 mol%. Instead, ulvan from tubular species contained a combination of →2,3,4)-Rhap-(1→, terminal Rhap-(1→, →4)-GlcAp-(1→, →4)-Xylp-(1→, and/or →4)-Galp-(1→ in high proportions; some of the latter three residues were also likely O-2 sulfated. The results presented here suggest that ulvan from foliose species are predominantly unbranched polysaccharides composed of repeat disaccharides while ulvans from tubular species contain a greater diversity of branch and sulfate substitution locations.


Asunto(s)
Algas Marinas , Ulva , Ulva/química , Polisacáridos/química , Sulfatos/química
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(11): e2303366121, 2024 Mar 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38437536

RESUMEN

Phytoplankton and sea ice algae are traditionally considered to be the main primary producers in the Arctic Ocean. In this Perspective, we explore the importance of benthic primary producers (BPPs) encompassing microalgae, macroalgae, and seagrasses, which represent a poorly quantified source of Arctic marine primary production. Despite scarce observations, models predict that BPPs are widespread, colonizing ~3 million km2 of the extensive Arctic coastal and shelf seas. Using a synthesis of published data and a novel model, we estimate that BPPs currently contribute ~77 Tg C y-1 of primary production to the Arctic, equivalent to ~20 to 35% of annual phytoplankton production. Macroalgae contribute ~43 Tg C y-1, seagrasses contribute ~23 Tg C y-1, and microalgae-dominated shelf habitats contribute ~11 to 16 Tg C y-1. Since 2003, the Arctic seafloor area exposed to sunlight has increased by ~47,000 km2 y-1, expanding the realm of BPPs in a warming Arctic. Increased macrophyte abundance and productivity is expected along Arctic coastlines with continued ocean warming and sea ice loss. However, microalgal benthic primary production has increased in only a few shelf regions despite substantial sea ice loss over the past 20 y, as higher solar irradiance in the ice-free ocean is counterbalanced by reduced water transparency. This suggests complex impacts of climate change on Arctic light availability and marine primary production. Despite significant knowledge gaps on Arctic BPPs, their widespread presence and obvious contribution to coastal and shelf ecosystem production call for further investigation and for their inclusion in Arctic ecosystem models and carbon budgets.


Asunto(s)
Microalgas , Algas Marinas , Ecosistema , Presupuestos , Carbono , Cambio Climático , Cubierta de Hielo , Fitoplancton
9.
Nat Methods ; 21(3): 363-364, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38472460

Asunto(s)
Algas Marinas
10.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 6214, 2024 03 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38486008

RESUMEN

Fucoidan has attracted considerable attention from scientists and pharmaceutical companies due to its antioxidant, anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, and health-enhancing properties. However, the extraction of fucoidan from seaweeds often involves the use of harsh chemicals, which necessitates the search for alternative solvents. Additionally, the high viscosity and low cell permeability of high molecular weight (Mw) fucoidan can limit its effectiveness in drug action, while lower Mw fractions exhibit increased biological activity and are also utilized as dietary supplements. The study aimed to (1) extract fucoidan from the seaweed Fucus vesiculosus (FV) using an environmentally friendly solvent and compare it with the most commonly used extraction solvent, hydrochloric acid, and (2) assess the impact of ultrasound-assisted depolymerization on reducing the molecular weight of the fucoidan extracts and examine the cytotoxic effect of different molecular weight fractions. The findings indicated that the green depolymerization solvent, in conjunction with a brief ultrasound treatment, effectively reduced the molecular weight. Moreover, a significant decrease in cell viability was observed in selected samples, indicating potential anticancer properties. As a result, ultrasound was determined to be an effective method for depolymerizing crude fucoidan from Fucus Vesiculosus seaweed.


Asunto(s)
Fucus , Polisacáridos , Algas Marinas , Algas Marinas/química , Fucus/química , Anticoagulantes , Solventes
11.
Bioresour Technol ; 399: 130631, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38554760

RESUMEN

Macroalgae biomass has been considered as a promising renewable feedstock for lactic acid production owing to its lignin-free, high carbohydrate content and high productivity. Herein, the D-lactic acid production from red macroalgae Gelidium amansii by Pediococcus acidilactici was investigated. The fermentable sugars in G. amansii acid-prehydrolysate were mainly galactose and glucose with a small amounts of xylose. P. acidilactici could simultaneously ferment the mixed sugars of galactose, glucose and xylose into D-lactic acid at high yield (0.90 g/g), without carbon catabolite repression (CCR). The assimilating pathways of these sugars in P. acidilactici were proposed based on the whole genome sequences. Simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) of the pretreated and biodetoxified G. amansii was also conducted, a record high of D-lactic acid (41.4 g/L) from macroalgae biomass with the yield of 0.34 g/g dry feedstock was achieved. This study provided an important biorefinery strain for D-lactic acid production from macroalgae biomass.


Asunto(s)
60578 , Ácido Láctico , Rhodophyta , Algas Marinas , Fermentación , Xilosa/metabolismo , Galactosa/metabolismo , Algas Marinas/metabolismo , Glucosa/metabolismo
12.
Food Res Int ; 182: 114135, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38519158

RESUMEN

This study assesses the health risk due to heavy metals/metalloids (HMs/Ms) in edible seaweeds (Caulerpa racemosa, Kappaphycus alvarezii, and Ulva lactuca) through an in vitro bioaccessibility study. The percentage of bioabsorbed HMs/Ms in unprocessed and processed C. racemosa, U. lactuca, and K. alvarezii ranged from 3 % to 46 %, 3 % to 42 %, and 3 % to 40 %, respectively. The levels of HMs/Ms in seawater, sediment, and seaweeds were below the levels recommended by the European Commission (EC) and World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization (WHO/FAO). The maximum accumulation of HMs/Ms was found during monsoons and post-monsoon seasons, and Cd, Pb, Hg, Cr, As, and Pb were predominant in all the samples. Tukey's post hoc test and t-test confirmed that thermal processing significantly reduced HMs/Ms in seaweeds. On the basis of the bioabsorption of HMs/Ms, the TTHQ values were found to be < 1, and the LCR values were within the acceptable limit (10-06 to 10-04), indicating no carcinogenic risks through seaweeds.


Asunto(s)
Metaloides , Metales Pesados , Rhodophyta , Algas Marinas , Ulva , Plomo , Medición de Riesgo
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(6)2024 Mar 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38542473

RESUMEN

The conversion of lignocellulosic and algal biomass by thermophilic bacteria has been an area of active investigation. Thermoanaerobacter species have proven to be particularly capable in the production of bioethanol and biohydrogen from lignocellulosic biomass, although detailed studies of their abilities to utilize the full gamut of carbohydrate, amino acids, and proteins encountered in biomass hydrolysates are seldom comprehensively examined. Here, we re-evaluate the ability of Thermoanaerobacter strain AK15, a highly ethanologenic strain previously isolated from a hot spring in Iceland. Similar to other Thermoanaerobacter species, the strain degraded a wide range of mono- and di-saccharides and produced a maximum of 1.57 mol ethanol per mol of glucose degraded at high liquid-gas phase ratios. The ability of strain AK15 to utilize amino acids in the presence of thiosulfate is limited to the branched-chain amino acids as well as serine and threonine. Similar to other Thermoanaerobacter species, strain AK15 produces a mixture of branched-chain fatty acids and alcohols, making the strain of interest as a potential source of longer-chain alcohols. Finally, the strain was also shown to use butyrate as an electron sink during glucose degradation resulting in the reduced product butanol, in addition to end-products produced from glucose. Thus, strain AK15 is a promising candidate for ethanol and higher-order alcohols from a range of lignocellulosic and algal biomass.


Asunto(s)
Aminoácidos , Algas Marinas , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Algas Marinas/metabolismo , Etanol/metabolismo , Aminoácidos de Cadena Ramificada/metabolismo , Glucosa/metabolismo , Fermentación
14.
Carbohydr Polym ; 334: 122038, 2024 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38553205

RESUMEN

The widespread use of disposable plastic straws has caused a long-lasting environmental problem. Potential alternatives for plastic straws are far from satisfactory due to the low utility, poor water stability, and non-ideal natural degradability. In this work, an edible, hydrostable, and degradable straw was developed from the economically significant seaweed. Seaweed-derived insoluble cellulose fibers were used as the building block of the straw, and the soluble polysaccharide extracts were explored as the natural glue through the chelation with Ca2+. Repeated freeze-thawing was introduced to strengthen the molecular interactions, which further improved its mechanical stability and hydrostability. The straw exhibited remarkable natural degradability in open environments, particularly in marine-mimicking conditions. By incorporating pH-sensitive food pigments, the straws could indicate acid-base property of a beverage or even discriminate the freshness of milk. The versatile seaweed-derived straw adhered to the biocycle concept of "from sea to sea" to alleviate the burden of white pollution on oceans.


Asunto(s)
Celulosa , Algas Marinas , Polisacáridos
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 923: 171390, 2024 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38438044

RESUMEN

Marine microdebris (MDs, <5 mm) and mesodebris (MesDs, 5-25 mm), consist of various components, including microplastics (MPs), antifouling or anticorrosive paint particles (APPs), and metallic particles (Mmps), among others. The accumulation of these anthropogenic particles in macroalgae could have significant implications within coastal ecosystems because of the role of macroalgae as primary producers and their subsequent transfer within the trophic chain. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the abundance of MDs and MesDs pollution in different species of macroalgae (P. morrowii, C. rubrum, Ulva spp., and B. minima) and in surface waters from the Southwest Atlantic coast of Argentina to evaluate the ecological damage. MDs and MesDs were chemically characterized using µ-FTIR and SEM/EDX to identify, and assess their environmental impact based on their composition and degree of pollution by MPs, calculating the Polymer Hazard Index (PHI). The prevalence of MDs was higher in foliose species, followed by filamentous and tubular ones, ranging from 0 to 1.22 items/g w.w. for MPs and 0 to 0.85 items/g w.w. for APPs. It was found that macroalgae accumulate a higher proportion of high-density polymers like PAN and PES, as well as APPs based on alkyd, PMMA, and PE resins, whereas a predominance of CE was observed in surrounding waters. Potentially toxic elements, such as Cr, Cu, and Ti, were detected in APPs and MPs, along with the presence of epiplastic communities on the surface of APPs. According to PHI, the presence of high hazard score polymers, such as PAN and PA, increased the overall risk of MP pollution in macroalgae compared to surrounding waters. This study provided a baseline for MDs and MesDs abundance in macroalgae as well as understanding the environmental impact of this debris and their bioaccumulation in the primary link of the coastal trophic chain.


Asunto(s)
Algas Marinas , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Plásticos , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Ecosistema , Argentina , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Microplásticos
16.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 201: 116259, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38492267

RESUMEN

Early detection of invasive species is crucial to deal effectively with biological invasions in ports, which are hotspots of species introductions. In this study, a simplified end-time PCR methodology conducted on eDNA from water samples was developed for rapid detection of the invasive seaweed Asparagopsis armata (four hours from water collection to result visualization). It was tested dockside in four international Spanish ports in presence of stakeholders, whose feedback was obtained to explore the real applicability of this biotechnology. Although biological invasions were not a main concern for them, results indicate a unanimous approval of the methodology by the stakeholders, having detected the presence of A. armata in three of the ports. Stakeholders suggested further developments for easier application of the tool and multiple species detection, to be adopted for the control of invasive species in ports.


Asunto(s)
Rhodophyta , Algas Marinas , Algas Marinas/genética , Rhodophyta/genética , Especies Introducidas , Agua
17.
J Environ Manage ; 356: 120526, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38492423

RESUMEN

The equilibrium of the marine ecosystem is currently threatened by several constraints, among which climate change and anthropogenic activities stand out. Indeed, these factors favour the growth of macroalgae, which sometimes end up stranded on the beaches at the end of their life cycle, forming what is known as beach wrack. Despite its undeniable important ecological role on beaches, as it is an important source of organic matter (OM), and provides food and habitat for several invertebrates, reptiles, small mammals, and shorebirds, the overaccumulation of beach wrack is often associated with the release of greenhouse gases, negatively impacting tourist activities, and generating economic expenses for its removal. Although currently beach wrack is mainly treated as a waste, it can be used for numerous potential applications in distinct areas. This review aimed at providing a solid point of view regarding the process of wrack formation, its spatiotemporal location, as well as its importance and risks. It also contains the current advances of the research regarding sustainable alternatives to valorise this organic biomass, that range from bioenergy production to the incorporation of wrack in agricultural soils, considering a circular economy concept. Although there are some concerns regarding wrack utilisation, from its variable availability to a possible soil contamination with salts and other contaminants, this review comprises the overall beneficial effects of the incorporation of this residue particularly in the organic agricultural model, strengthening the conversion of this wasted biomass into a valuable resource.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Algas Marinas , Animales , Agricultura , Biomasa , Suelo/química , Mamíferos
18.
J Med Food ; 27(4): 359-368, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38526569

RESUMEN

As the body's largest organ, the skin is located at the internal and external environment interface, serving as a line of defense against various harmful stressors. Recently, marine-derived physiologically active ingredients have attracted considerable attention in the cosmeceutical industry due to their beneficial effects on skin health. Sargassum, a genus of brown macroalgae, has traditionally been consumed as food and medicine in several countries and is rich in bioactive compounds such as meroterpenoids, sulfated polysaccharides, fucoidan, fucoxanthin, flavonoids, and terpenoids. Sargassum spp. have various beneficial effects on skin disorders. They help with atopic dermatitis by improving skin barrier protection and reducing inflammation. Several species show potential in treating acne by inhibiting bacterial growth and reducing inflammation. Some species, such as Sargassum horneri, demonstrate antiallergic effects by modulating mast cell activity. Certain Sargassum species exhibit anticancer activity by inhibiting tumor growth and promoting apoptosis, and some species help with wound healing by promoting angiogenesis and reducing oxidative stress. Overall, Sargassum spp. demonstrate potential for treating and managing various skin conditions. Therefore, the bioactive compounds of Sargassum spp. may be natural ingredients with a wide range of functional properties for preventing and treating skin disorders. The present review focused on the various biological effects of Sargassum extracts and derived compounds on skin disorders.


Asunto(s)
Sargassum , Algas Marinas , Humanos , Piel , Inflamación , Terpenos/farmacología
19.
Eur Thyroid J ; 13(2)2024 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38471306

RESUMEN

Global warming is now universally acknowledged as being responsible for dramatic climate changes with rising sea levels, unprecedented temperatures, resulting fires and threatened widespread species loss. While these effects are extremely damaging, threatening the future of life on our planet, one unexpected and paradoxically beneficial consequence could be a significant contribution to global iodine supply. Climate change and associated global warming are not the primary causes of increased iodine supply, which results from the reaction of ozone (O3) arising from both natural and anthropogenic pollution sources with iodide (I-) present in the oceans and in seaweeds (macro- and microalgae) in coastal waters, producing gaseous iodine (I2). The reaction serves as negative feedback, serving a dual purpose, both diminishing ozone pollution in the lower atmosphere and thereby increasing I2. The potential of this I2 to significantly contribute to human iodine intake is examined in the context of I2 released in a seaweed-abundant coastal area. The bioavailability of the generated I2 offers a long-term possibility of increasing global iodine status and thereby promoting thyroidal health. It is hoped that highlighting possible changes in iodine bioavailability might encourage the health community to address this issue.


Asunto(s)
Yodo , Ozono , Algas Marinas , Humanos , Cambio Climático , Océanos y Mares , Ozono/análisis , Atmósfera
20.
Mar Drugs ; 22(3)2024 Feb 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38535456

RESUMEN

Floridoside is a galactosyl-glycerol compound that acts to supply UDP-galactose and functions as an organic osmolyte in response to salinity in Rhodophyta. Significantly, the UDP-galactose pool is shared for sulfated cell wall galactan synthesis, and, in turn, affected by thallus development alongside carposporogenesis induced by volatile growth regulators, such as ethylene and methyl jasmonate, in the red seaweed Grateloupia imbricata. In this study, we monitored changes in the floridoside reservoir through gene expression controlling both the galactose pool and glyceride pool under different reproductive stages of G. imbricata and we considered changing salinity conditions. Floridoside synthesis was followed by expression analysis of galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) as UDP-galactose is obtained from UDP-glucose and glucose-1P, and through α-galactosidase gene expression as degradation of floridoside occurs through the cleavage of galactosyl residues. Meanwhile, glycerol 3-phosphate is connected with the galactoglyceride biosynthetic pathway by glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PD), monogalactosyl diacylglyceride synthase (MGDGS), and digalactosyl diacylglyceride synthase (DGDGS). The results of our study confirm that low GALT transcripts are correlated with thalli softness to locate reproductive structures, as well as constricting the synthesis of UDP-hexoses for galactan backbone synthesis in the presence of two volatile regulators and methionine. Meanwhile, α-galactosidase modulates expression according to cystocarp maturation, and we found high transcripts in late development stages, as occurred in the presence of methyljasmonate, compared to early stages in ethylene. Regarding the acylglyceride pool, the upregulation of G3PD, MGDGS, and DGDGS gene expression in G. imbricata treated with MEJA supports lipid remodeling, as high levels of transcripts for MGDGS and DGDGS provide membrane stability during late development stages of cystocarps. Similar behavior is assumed in three naturally collected thalli development stages-namely, fertile, fertilized, and fertile-under 65 psu salinity conditions. Low transcripts for α-galactosidase and high for G3PD are reported in infertile and fertilized thalli, which is the opposite to high transcripts for α-galactosidase and low for G3PD encountered in fertile thalli within visible cystocarps compared to each of their corresponding stages in 35 psu. No significant changes are reported for MGDGS and DGDGS. It is concluded that cystocarp and thallus development stages affect galactose and glycerides pools with interwoven effects on cell wall polysaccharides.


Asunto(s)
Ciclopentanos , Glicerol/análogos & derivados , Glicerofosfatos , Oxilipinas , Rhodophyta , Algas Marinas , Galactosa , alfa-Galactosidasa , Galactanos , Glucosa , Uridina Difosfato
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