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1.
Food Chem ; 334: 127562, 2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707368

RESUMEN

Brown seaweeds are traditionally used as food in Asian countries, and they are a valuable source of bioactive compounds. Herein, a novel high-throughput methodological approach was developed for the tracing of compounds with radical scavenging and antimicrobial activities in Saccharina japonica and Undaria pinnatifida methanol extracts. The seaweed metabolites were separated by a novel high-performance thin-layer chromatography method, the bioactive bands were identified by bioautography assays. The bioactive compounds were characterized with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with linear trap quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry. Stearidonic, eicosapentaenoic, and arachidonic acids were identified as major components having radical scavenging and antimicrobial activities. The suggested method provides a fast identification and quantification of bioactive compounds in multicomponent biological samples.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos/análisis , Cromatografía en Capa Delgada/métodos , Algas Marinas/química , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem/métodos , Antiinfecciosos/química , Ácidos Araquidónicos/análisis , Ácidos Araquidónicos/farmacología , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/análisis , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/farmacología , Ácidos Grasos Omega-3/análisis , Ácidos Grasos Omega-3/farmacología , Depuradores de Radicales Libres/química , Depuradores de Radicales Libres/farmacología , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Ensayos Analíticos de Alto Rendimiento/métodos , Laminaria/química , Laminaria/metabolismo , Algas Marinas/metabolismo , Undaria/química , Undaria/metabolismo
2.
Food Chem ; 336: 127725, 2021 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768912

RESUMEN

Thirty one samples from different macroalgae species have been studied to determine the influence of several parameters such as the harvesting season, the geographical origin, the species or a pretreatment procedure on their volatile composition. A Multiple Head Space Sorptive Extraction methodology coupled to Gas Chromatography with Mass Spectrometry Detection (MHSSE-GC-MS) has been used to analyze 44 volatile compounds that can be found in the different samples. Of all the factors, the collection season proved to be the most influential, followed by origin with significantly lower volatile compounds concentrations found in the samples collected in spring and in southern Spain. A Principal Component Analysis showed that beta ionone, benzaldehyde, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, together with some acids were the most strongly affected by the season, with highest values in those samples that had been collected in the autumn. On the other hand, the pretreatment (raw, salting or dehydration) proved to have a low influence.


Asunto(s)
Algas Marinas/química , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles/análisis , Análisis de Varianza , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas/métodos , Análisis de Componente Principal , Estaciones del Año , Algas Marinas/metabolismo , España
3.
Mar Drugs ; 18(12)2020 Dec 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327517

RESUMEN

Seaweeds are broadly distributed and represent an important source of secondary metabolites (e.g., halogenated compounds, polyphenols) eliciting various pharmacological activities and playing a relevant ecological role in the anti-epibiosis. Importantly, host (as known as basibiont such as algae)-microbe (as known as epibiont such as bacteria) interaction (as known as halobiont) is a driving force for coevolution in the marine environment. Nevertheless, halobionts may be fundamental (harmless) or detrimental (harmful) to the functioning of the host. In addition to biotic factors, abiotic factors (e.g., pH, salinity, temperature, nutrients) regulate halobionts. Spatiotemporal and functional exploration of such dynamic interactions appear crucial. Indeed, environmental stress in a constantly changing ocean may disturb complex mutualistic relations, through mechanisms involving host chemical defense strategies (e.g., secretion of secondary metabolites and antifouling chemicals by quorum sensing). It is worth mentioning that many of bioactive compounds, such as terpenoids, previously attributed to macroalgae are in fact produced or metabolized by their associated microorganisms (e.g., bacteria, fungi, viruses, parasites). Eventually, recent metagenomics analyses suggest that microbes may have acquired seaweed associated genes because of increased seaweed in diets. This article retrospectively reviews pertinent studies on the spatiotemporal and functional seaweed-associated microbiota interactions which can lead to the production of bioactive compounds with high antifouling, theranostic, and biotechnological potential.


Asunto(s)
Ecología , Industrias , Microbiota , Algas Marinas/química , Animales , Humanos
4.
Mar Drugs ; 18(11)2020 Oct 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138151

RESUMEN

Seaweed lectins, especially high-mannose-specific lectins from red algae, have been identified as potential antiviral agents that are capable of blocking the replication of various enveloped viruses like influenza virus, herpes virus, and HIV-1 in vitro. Their antiviral activity depends on the recognition of glycoprotein receptors on the surface of sensitive host cells-in particular, hemagglutinin for influenza virus or gp120 for HIV-1, which in turn triggers fusion events, allowing the entry of the viral genome into the cells and its subsequent replication. The diversity of glycans present on the S-glycoproteins forming the spikes covering the SARS-CoV-2 envelope, essentially complex type N-glycans and high-mannose type N-glycans, suggests that high-mannose-specific seaweed lectins are particularly well adapted as glycan probes for coronaviruses. This review presents a detailed study of the carbohydrate-binding specificity of high-mannose-specific seaweed lectins, demonstrating their potential to be used as specific glycan probes for coronaviruses, as well as the biomedical interest for both the detection and immobilization of SARS-CoV-2 to avoid shedding of the virus into the environment. The use of these seaweed lectins as replication blockers for SARS-CoV-2 is also discussed.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Lectinas/química , Manosa/química , Neumonía Viral/virología , Polisacáridos/química , Algas Marinas/química , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 206: 111183, 2020 Dec 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890922

RESUMEN

Seaweed is an inherently important entity in marine ecosystems. It is not only consumed by aquatic animals but also improves environmental quality in the mariculture. Seaweed is also part of the diet of human beings. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the antagonism of selenium (Se)-enriched Gracilaria lemaneiformis against heavy metals, specifically, the potential of dietary Se-enriched Gracilaria to protect against heavy metal toxicity in rabbitfish (Siganus oramin). Growth rate, heavy metal (Se, Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn and Cr) concentrations, malondialdehyde (MDA), metallothionein (MT), and the activity of the antioxidants, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were all assessed. The results showed that the total organic and inorganic Se concentration for the 250 mg L-1 Se-enriched Gracilaria was significantly higher than those of the 50 and 10 mg L-1 treatments after 3 days of enrichment. The mean total Se concentrations in Gracilaria were 42.5 µg g-1 in the 250 mg L-1 treatment, 13.5 µg g-1 in the 50 mg L-1 treatment and 2.5 µg g-1 in the 10 mg L-1 treatment, respectively. Organic Se accounts for 80-82% of total Se in Se-enriched Gracilaria. The Se concentration of rabbitfish fed Se-enriched Gracilaria was significantly higher than control. Furthermore, Se increased Cu and Zn absorption, and enhanced MT generation, and improved GPX, CAT, and SOD antioxidant activity, and decreased MDA concentrations and lipid peroxidation levels, all antagonistic to Cd, Pb and Cr. The effects of Se-enriched Gracilaria on waterborne Cd, Pb and Cr-induced toxicity occurred via both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidative mechanisms in rabbitfish. Selenium had synergistic effects on Zn and Cu in rabbitfish. For the 50 mg L-1 Se-enriched Gracilaria treatment, the Se, Cu, Zn, and antagonistic Cd, Pb, Cr, and the antioxidant enzymes CAT, SOD, GPX activities, and MT concentrations in rabbitfish were higher than that with the 250 mg L-1 and 10 mg L-1 Se-enriched Gracilaria treatments. The 50 mg L-1 Se treatment of Gracilaria was deemed to be the optimum concentration to promote growth of rabbitfish. Therefore, the obtained results suggest Se-enriched Gracilaria can antagonize heavy metal toxicity, and is an advisable Se supplement to improve the edible safety of cultured animals.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Peces/metabolismo , Gracilaria/química , Metales Pesados/toxicidad , Algas Marinas/química , Selenio/análisis , Animales , Catalasa/metabolismo , Ecosistema , Peces/crecimiento & desarrollo , Cadena Alimentaria , Glutatión Peroxidasa/metabolismo , Humanos , Peroxidación de Lípido/efectos de los fármacos , Malondialdehído/metabolismo , Metalotioneína/metabolismo , Metales Pesados/análisis , Metales Pesados/metabolismo , Oxidación-Reducción , Selenio/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutasa/metabolismo
6.
Carbohydr Polym ; 247: 116740, 2020 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829859

RESUMEN

Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a lung disease with highly heterogeneous and mortality rate, but its therapeutic options are now still limited. Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been characterized by WHO as a pandemic, and the global number of confirmed COVID-19 cases has been more than 8.0 million. It is strongly supported for that PF should be one of the major complications in COVID-19 patients by the evidences of epidemiology, viral immunology and current clinical researches. The anti-PF properties of naturally occurring polysaccharides have attracted increasing attention in last two decades, but is still lack of a comprehensively understanding. In present review, the resources, structural features, anti-PF activities, and underlying mechanisms of these polysaccharides are summarized and analyzed, which was expected to provide a scientific evidence supporting the application of polysaccharides for preventing or treating PF in COVID-19 patients.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Productos Biológicos/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/complicaciones , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/complicaciones , Polisacáridos/uso terapéutico , Fibrosis Pulmonar/tratamiento farmacológico , Animales , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Antioxidantes/uso terapéutico , Bleomicina/toxicidad , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Evaluación Preclínica de Medicamentos , Proteína Forkhead Box O3/fisiología , Hongos/química , Ribonucleoproteína Nuclear Heterogénea D0/fisiología , Humanos , Macrófagos/efectos de los fármacos , Medicina China Tradicional , Ratones , Neutrófilos/efectos de los fármacos , Fitoterapia , Plantas Medicinales/química , Polisacáridos/farmacología , Fibrosis Pulmonar/inducido químicamente , Fibrosis Pulmonar/etiología , Fibrosis Pulmonar/prevención & control , ARN Largo no Codificante/antagonistas & inhibidores , Ratas , Algas Marinas/química , Transducción de Señal/efectos de los fármacos , Proteína Smad2/fisiología , Proteína smad3/fisiología , Factor de Crecimiento Transformador beta1/antagonistas & inhibidores
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3783, 2020 07 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32728021

RESUMEN

Current thermochemical methods to generate H2 include gasification and steam reforming of coal and natural gas, in which anthropogenic CO2 emission is inevitable. If biomass is used as a source of H2, the process can be considered carbon-neutral. Seaweeds are among the less studied types of biomass with great potential because they do not require freshwater. Unfortunately, reaction pathways to thermochemically convert salty and wet biomass into H2 are limited. In this study, a catalytic alkaline thermal treatment of brown seaweed is investigated to produce high purity H2 with substantially suppressed CO2 formation making the overall biomass conversion not only carbon-neutral but also potentially carbon-negative. High-purity 69.69 mmol-H2/(dry-ash-free)g-brown seaweed is produced with a conversion as high as 71%. The hydroxide is involved in both H2 production and in situ CO2 capture, while the Ni/ZrO2 catalyst enhanced the secondary H2 formation via steam methane reforming and water-gas shift reactions.


Asunto(s)
Carbono/aislamiento & purificación , Hidrógeno/aislamiento & purificación , Energía Renovable , Algas Marinas/química , Álcalis/química , Biomasa , Carbono/química , Catálisis , Calor , Hidrógeno/química , Vapor
8.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 691: 108486, 2020 09 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710880

RESUMEN

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is emerging as the most common liver disease in industrialized countries. Because hepatic steatosis is an early pathogenesis of NAFLD, the discovery of food components that could ameliorate hepatic steatosis is of interest. Susabinori (Pyropia yezoensis) is recognized as one of the most delicious edible brown algae, and we prepared lipid component of susabinori (SNL), which is rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-containing polar lipids. In this study, we tested whether feeding SNL to db/db mice protects them from developing obesity-induced hepatic steatosis. After four weeks of feeding, hepatomegaly, hepatic steatosis, and hepatic injury were markedly alleviated in SNL-fed db/db mice. These effects were partly attributable to the suppression of activities and mRNA expressions of lipogenic enzymes and enhanced levels of adiponectin due to the SNL diet. Additionally, mRNA expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, an inflammatory chemokine, was markedly suppressed, and the mRNA levels of PPARδ, the anti-inflammatory transcription factor, were strongly enhanced in the livers of db/db mice by the SNL diet. We speculate that the development and progression of obesity-induced hepatic steatosis was prevented by the suppression of chronic inflammation due to the combination of bioactivities of EPA, phospholipids, and glycolipids in the SNL diet.


Asunto(s)
Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/farmacología , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/prevención & control , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Algas Marinas/química , Animales , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Glucolípidos/farmacología , Hepatomegalia/metabolismo , Hepatomegalia/prevención & control , Lipogénesis/efectos de los fármacos , Hígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Ratones Obesos , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/metabolismo , PPAR delta/metabolismo , Fosfolípidos/farmacología , ARN Mensajero/metabolismo , Rhodophyta/química
9.
Food Chem ; 333: 127456, 2020 Dec 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663750

RESUMEN

Bioprospecting for seaweed-derived multimodal acting products have earned increasing attention in the fight against diseases of multifactorial origin, such as neurodegenerative conditions. This is a pioneer study on the in vitro screening of neuroactive properties of phlorotannin-targeted extracts from edible Fucus species. Phlorotannin extracts exhibited multifunctional antioxidant properties, which were suggested to be responsible for counteracting glutamate toxicity in neuronal human-derived SH-SY5Y cells. They also inhibited the activity of enzymes (cholinesterases, monoaminoxidases A and B, and tyrosinase) linked to a set of events that contribute to the onset/progression of neurodegeneration. In general, the bioactivities were correlated with the total phlorotannin content and phloroglucinol tetramers were suggested to be behind the observed effects. The capacity of the phlorotannin extracts to interact with multiple in vitro targets underpinning neurodegeneration points to the potential interest of the selected seaweed species for development of new added-value products and promising neuroactive agents.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Fucus/química , Fármacos Neuroprotectores/química , Fármacos Neuroprotectores/farmacología , Línea Celular , Evaluación Preclínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Inhibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inhibidores Enzimáticos/farmacología , Alimentos , Ácido Glutámico/toxicidad , Humanos , Peroxidación de Lípido/efectos de los fármacos , Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas/tratamiento farmacológico , Neuronas/efectos de los fármacos , Floroglucinol/química , Floroglucinol/farmacología , Polifenoles/química , Polifenoles/farmacología , Análisis de Componente Principal , Algas Marinas/química
10.
Food Chem ; 330: 127324, 2020 Nov 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569938

RESUMEN

Enzymes currently used in cheesemaking have various drawbacks, and there is a continual need to find new coagulants. This study describes the extraction and biochemical characterization of two proteases from the red alga Gracilaria edulis. The proteases were extracted with phosphate buffer and partially purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation and dialysis. The enzymes exhibited optimum caseinolytic activity at 60 °C and a pH range of 6-8. They showed a high ratio of milk-clotting over caseinolytic activity, indicating they had an excellent milk-clotting ability. The proteases were confirmed to be serine protease and metalloprotease with molecular weight (MW) of 44 and 108 kDa. They exhibited high hydrolytic activity on κ-caseins, cleaving κ-casein at four main sites, one of which being the same as that of calf rennet, which is the first reported for an algal protease. The findings demonstrated that the proteases could potentially be used as a milk coagulant in cheesemaking.


Asunto(s)
Caseínas/metabolismo , Gracilaria/enzimología , Péptido Hidrolasas/aislamiento & purificación , Péptido Hidrolasas/metabolismo , Algas Marinas/enzimología , Sulfato de Amonio , Animales , Caseínas/química , Fraccionamiento Químico , Quimosina/metabolismo , Electroforesis en Gel de Poliacrilamida , Gracilaria/química , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Hidrólisis , Leche/química , Leche/metabolismo , Peso Molecular , Péptido Hidrolasas/química , Extractos Vegetales/química , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , Extractos Vegetales/metabolismo , Algas Marinas/química , Serina Proteasas/química , Serina Proteasas/aislamiento & purificación , Serina Proteasas/metabolismo , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem , Temperatura
11.
Food Chem ; 327: 127078, 2020 Oct 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32454272

RESUMEN

The potential of cross-processing herring or salmon by-products with brown seaweed, shrimp peeling by-products and lingonberry press cake (called "helpers") to minimize lipid oxidation during acid/alkaline pH-shift protein isolation was evaluated. Lingonberry press cake remarkably reduced levels of lipid hydroperoxides, malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxy-trans2-hexenal (HHE) in both herring and salmon protein isolates (PI) while seaweed and shrimp by-product mitigated generation of MDA and HHE in herring PI. The salmon PI, however, by itself had very low oxidation levels. Cross-processing reduced protein yield compared with the classical pH-shift process by diminishing protein solubility, but still, the alkaline process version was promising. The color of the PIs varied greatly between different process combinations, reflecting partitioning of natural pigments into isolates. Altogether, cross-processing seems a promising tool for inhibition of lipid oxidation during pH-shift processing of sensitive fish by-products, with the alkaline version and lingonberry press cake being closest at hand for further studies.


Asunto(s)
Productos Pesqueros/análisis , Peces , Lípidos/química , Alimentos Marinos , Algas Marinas/química , Vaccinium vitis-Idaea/química , Animales , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Oxidación-Reducción , Solubilidad
12.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 686: 108364, 2020 06 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315653

RESUMEN

Fucoxanthin (Fx), a major carotenoid found in brown seaweed, is known to show a unique and wide variety of biological activities. Upon absorption, Fx is metabolized to fucoxanthinol and amarouciaxanthin, and these metabolites mainly accumulate in visceral white adipose tissue (WAT). As seen in other carotenoids, Fx can quench singlet oxygen and scavenge a wide range of free radicals. The antioxidant activity is related to the neuroprotective, photoprotective, and hepatoprotective effects of Fx. Fx is also reported to show anti-cancer activity through the regulation of several biomolecules and signaling pathways that are involved in either cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, or metastasis suppression. Among the biological activities of Fx, anti-obesity is the most well-studied and most promising effect. This effect is primarily based on the upregulation of thermogenesis by uncoupling protein 1 expression and the increase in the metabolic rate induced by mitochondrial activation. In addition, Fx shows anti-diabetic effects by improving insulin resistance and promoting glucose utilization in skeletal muscle.


Asunto(s)
Suplementos Dietéticos/análisis , Algas Marinas/química , Xantófilas/química , Xantófilas/metabolismo , Tejido Adiposo Blanco/efectos de los fármacos , Tejido Adiposo Blanco/metabolismo , Animales , Fármacos Antiobesidad/química , Fármacos Antiobesidad/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Descubrimiento de Drogas , Radicales Libres/metabolismo , Regulación de la Expresión Génica/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Hipoglucemiantes/química , Hipoglucemiantes/metabolismo , Resistencia a la Insulina , Hígado/metabolismo , Estructura Molecular , Fármacos Neuroprotectores/química , Fármacos Neuroprotectores/metabolismo , ARN Mensajero/genética , ARN Mensajero/metabolismo , Receptores Depuradores/metabolismo , Oxígeno Singlete/metabolismo , Proteína Desacopladora 1/química , Proteína Desacopladora 1/metabolismo , Xantófilas/efectos adversos , beta Caroteno/análogos & derivados , beta Caroteno/química
13.
Food Chem ; 322: 126713, 2020 Aug 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32283370

RESUMEN

Pre-harvest application of exogenous compounds has been employed in many crops, as a cultural practice, to promote their adaptation to a new climate-changing environment. Effect of foliar pre-harvest application of salicylic acid, glycine-betaine complex and seaweed extract (Ascophyllum nodosum) on the cherry quality from 'Staccato' cultivar was studied. Treatments significantly affected (p < 0.01) the fruit size, soluble solids content, pH, colour, polyphenols, vitamin C and antioxidant activity. Glycine-betaine and A. nodosum treated cherries presented higher dimensions, soluble solids content and pH and lower acidity. In addition, these cherries had a higher content of polyphenols and vitamin C and antioxidant capacity, but lower values of L*, C*ab and hue angle, meaning that both treatments can rise the fruit ripening process. Therefore, the pre-harvest application of glycine-betaine and A. nodosum can be a good alternative to promote the adaptation of sweet cherry tree to stressful environmental conditions, without compromising the fruit quality.


Asunto(s)
Ascophyllum/química , Betaína/farmacología , Conservación de Alimentos/métodos , Conservantes de Alimentos/farmacología , Glicina/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Prunus avium/química , Algas Marinas/química , Antioxidantes/análisis , Ácido Ascórbico/análisis , Color , Frutas/química , Frutas/efectos de los fármacos , Prunus avium/efectos de los fármacos , Control de Calidad
14.
Phytomedicine ; 69: 153201, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276177

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Marine algae are rich in some unique biologically active secondary metabolites having diverse pharmacological benefits. Of these, sterols comprise a group of functional lipid compounds that have attracted much attention to natural product scientists. PURPOSE: This review was aimed to update information on the health effects of algae-derived phytosterols and their molecular interactions in various aspects of human health and diseases and to address some future perspectives that may open up a new dimension of pharmacological potentials of algal sterols. METHODS: A literature-based search was carried out to retrieve published research information on the potential health effects of algal phytosterols with their pharmacological mechanisms from accessible online databases, such as Pubmed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and Scopus, using the key search terms of 'marine algae sterol' and 'health potentials such as antioxidant or anti-inflammatory or anti-Alzheimer's or anti-obesity or cholesterol homeostasis or hepatoprotective, antiproliferative, etc.' RESULTS: Phytosterols of marine algae, particularly fucosterol, have been investigated for a plethora of health benefits, including anti-diabetes, anti-obesity, anti-Alzheimer's, antiaging, anticancer, and hepatoprotection, among many others, which are attributed to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and cholesterol-lowering properties, indicating their potentiality as therapeutic leads. These sterols interact with enzymes and various other proteins that are actively participating in different cellular pathways, including antioxidant defense system, apoptosis and cell survival, metabolism, and homeostasis. CONCLUSION: In this review, we briefly overview the chemistry, pharmacokinetics, and distribution of algal sterols, and provide critical insights into their potential health effects and the underlying pharmacological mechanisms, beyond the well-known cholesterol-lowering paradigm.


Asunto(s)
Fitosteroles/química , Fitosteroles/farmacología , Algas Marinas/química , Antiinflamatorios/química , Antiinflamatorios/farmacología , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Organismos Acuáticos , Colesterol/metabolismo , Humanos , Phaeophyta/química , Fitosteroles/análisis , Fitosteroles/farmacocinética , Rhodophyta/química , Estigmasterol/análogos & derivados , Estigmasterol/farmacología , Distribución Tisular
15.
Carbohydr Res ; 490: 107953, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32146239

RESUMEN

This paper demonstrates an integrated zero liquid discharge (ZLD) process for time-dependent recovery of 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF), levulinic acid (LA) and potassium, nitrogen and sulphur rich mother liquor (KNS-ML) - manure from agar/agarose containing seaweed aqueous solution using transition metal-free KHSO4 as an eco-friendly and reusable catalyst. The selectivity of HMF is higher at 115 °C in 3 h and favorable to LA in 6 h in autoclave conditions. The proposed concept could be fine-tuned for the selective production of 5-HMF (up to 91% yield) or levulinic acid (56% yield) in the presence of the KHSO4 catalyst. We have also achieved recyclability of KHSO4 up to nine (09) cycles and the gram-scale reaction has been demonstrated. The (KNS-ML) obtained after nine cycles followed by neutralization with ammonia solution utilized for manure makes the process zero-liquid discharge and more cost-effective. The efficacy of the KNS-ML after nine cycles has been tested on groundnut plants.


Asunto(s)
Furaldehído/análogos & derivados , Ácidos Levulínicos/química , Algas Marinas/química , Catálisis , Furaldehído/química , Nitrógeno/química , Extractos Vegetales/química , Potasio/química , Sulfatos/química , Azufre/química
16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32181694

RESUMEN

In the past decade, Mexican coasts have received an enormous influx of macroalgae species, producing serious environmental and public health concerns. Here, we developed a green methodology to generate a new polymer from the lignin contained in the macroalgae. The methodology consists in lignin extraction-by-boiling and its subsequent polymerization with a laccase-like enzyme from the green algae Tetraselmis gracilis (Tg-laccase). Mass spectrometry revealed the presence of guaiacyl (G), p-hydroxyphenyl (H), and sinapyl alcohol as the main monolignols in the lignin from Sargassum sp. On the other hand, MALDI-TOF spectra shows an increase in the size of the lignin chain after enzymatic polymerization process with Tg-laccase. Besides, the characterization of the novel polymer -using 1H NMR, FTIR, SEC-FPLC, and UV/Vis- allowed establishing that during the polymerization process there is a decrease in the number of phenolic groups as well as loss of aromatic protons, which allowed proposing a polimerizacion mechanism. This methodology could be promising in the development of a new lignin-based polymer and would open a new direction for the environmental management of the macroalgae on the Mexican beaches.


Asunto(s)
Chlorophyta/enzimología , Tecnología Química Verde/métodos , Lacasa/química , Lignina/síntesis química , Polimerizacion , Algas Marinas/química , Lignina/química , Peso Molecular , Fenoles/química
17.
Mar Drugs ; 18(3)2020 Feb 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32120786

RESUMEN

Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is a clinical syndrome with a variety of causes, mainly characterized by heavy proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, and edema. At present, identification of effective and less toxic therapeutic interventions for nephrotic syndrome remains to be an important issue. In this study, we isolated fucoidan from Saccharina japonica and prepared its depolymerized fragment by oxidant degradation. Fucoidan and its depolymerized fragment had similar chemical constituents. Their average molecular weights were 136 and 9.5 kDa respectively. The effect of fucoidan and its depolymerized fragment on adriamycin-induced nephrotic syndrome were investigated in a rat model. The results showed that adriamycin-treated rats had heavy proteinuria and increased blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (SCr), total cholesterol (TC), and total triglyceride (TG) levels. Oral administration of fucoidan or low-molecular-weight fucoidan for 30 days could significantly inhibit proteinuria and decrease the elevated BUN, SCr, TG, and TC level in a dose-dependent manner. At the same dose (100 mg/kg), low-molecular-weight fucoidan had higher renoprotective activity than fucoidan. Their protective effect on nephrotic syndrome was partly related to their antioxidant activity. The results suggested that both fucoidan and its depolymerized fragment had excellent protective effect on adriamycin-induced nephrotic syndrome, and might have potential for the treatment of nephrotic syndrome.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome Nefrótico/prevención & control , Polisacáridos/farmacología , Sustancias Protectoras/farmacología , Algas Marinas/química , Administración Oral , Animales , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Océanos y Mares , Polisacáridos/administración & dosificación , Sustancias Protectoras/administración & dosificación , Ratas
18.
Mar Drugs ; 18(3)2020 Feb 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32120969

RESUMEN

Macroalgae are potentially excellent sources of bioactive secondary metabolites useful for the development of new functional ingredients. This study was conducted to determine the antimicrobial efficacy of the hot water crude extracts (HWCEs) of three species of local Thai green macroalgae Ulva intestinalis (Ui), U. rigida (Ur), and Caulopa lentillifera (Cl) and a commercial ulvan from U. armoricana (Ua). Chemical analysis indicated that the HWCE of Ur showed the highest sulfate content (13.9% ± 0.4%), while that of Ua contained the highest uronic acid and carbohydrate contents (41.47% ± 4.98% and 64.03% ± 2.75%, respectively), which were higher than those of Ur (32.75% ± 1.53% and 51.02% ± 3.72%). Structural analysis of these extracts by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy revealed that these HWCEs are complex with a signal at 1250 cm-1 corresponding to S=O stretching vibrations, while the signals at 850 cm-1 were attributed to the C-O-S bending vibration of the sulfate ester in the axial position. These HWCEs showed the growth suppression against some pathogenic Vibrio spp. Interestingly, the HWCEs from Ui at concentrations of 5 and 10 mg/mL completely inhibited white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp injected with HWCE-WSSV preincubated solutions. This inhibitory effect was further confirmed by the reduction in viral loads and histopathology of surviving and moribund shrimp.


Asunto(s)
Antivirales/farmacología , Mezclas Complejas/farmacología , Penaeidae/microbiología , Algas Marinas/química , Virus del Síndrome de la Mancha Blanca 1/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Océanos y Mares , Tailandia
19.
Mar Drugs ; 18(3)2020 Feb 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32121043

RESUMEN

Marine macroalgae occurring in the south eastern region of Victoria, Australia, consistingof Port Phillip Bay and the heads entering the bay, is the focus of this review. This area is home toapproximately 200 different species of macroalgae, representing the three major phyla of the greenalgae (Chlorophyta), brown algae (Ochrophyta) and the red algae (Rhodophyta), respectively. Overalmost 50 years, the species of macroalgae associated and occurring within this area have resultedin the identification of a number of different types of secondary metabolites including terpenoids,sterols/steroids, phenolic acids, phenols, lipids/polyenes, pheromones, xanthophylls andphloroglucinols. Many of these compounds have subsequently displayed a variety of bioactivities.A systematic description of the compound classes and their associated bioactivities from marinemacroalgae found within this region is presented.


Asunto(s)
Productos Biológicos/química , Algas Marinas/química , Animales , Océanos y Mares , Victoria
20.
Anal Sci ; 36(2): 233-239, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037373

RESUMEN

An inter-laboratory study was carried out to characterize a candidate hijiki seaweed for its concentrations of total arsenic and water-soluble arsenic compounds, particularly arsenosugar compounds. The candidate material, a dried hijiki seaweed powder, was analyzed by individual techniques in two laboratories. The water-soluble arsenic compounds were separated by anion exchange, and reversed-phase columns, and As(V), DMA and four kinds of arsenosugars, namely glycerol (-OH), phosphate (-PO4), sulfonate (-SO3), and sulfate (-SO4) types were detected by HPLC-ICP-MS. The methods applied were validated by analyzing a second sample, the NMIJ CRM 7405-a hijiki seaweed, which is certified for both total arsenic and As(V). Techniques for the inter-laboratory study, extraction efficiencies under different extraction conditions, some chromatographic techniques and sequential extraction were investigated. The results from the two laboratories for the candidate hijiki material showed good agreement within the measurement uncertainties for total and water-soluble arsenic compounds.


Asunto(s)
Arsenicales/análisis , Estándares de Referencia , Algas Marinas/química , Azúcares/química , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión/métodos , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Espectrometría de Masas/métodos , Solubilidad
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