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2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(5): e18441, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000357

RESUMEN

Various methods of assessing the depth of anesthesia (DoA) and reducing intraoperative awareness during general anesthesia have been extensively studied in anesthesiology. However, most of the DoA monitors do not include brain activity signal modeling. Here, we propose a new algorithm termed the cortical activity index (CAI) based on the brain activity signals. In this study, we enrolled 32 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Raw electroencephalography (EEG) signals were acquired at a sampling rate of 128 Hz using BIS-VISTA with standard bispectral index (BIS) sensors. All data were stored on a computer for further analysis. The similarities and difference among spectral entropy, the BIS, and CAI were analyzed. Pearson correlation coefficient between the BIS and CAI was 0.825. The result of fitting the semiparametric regression models is the method CAI estimate (-0.00995; P = .0341). It is the estimated difference in the mean of the dependent variable between method BIS and CAI. The CAI algorithm, a simple and intuitive algorithm based on brain activity signal modeling, suggests an intrinsic relationship between the DoA and the EEG waveform. We suggest that the CAI algorithm might be used to quantify the DoA.


Asunto(s)
Algoritmos , Anestesia , Anestésicos/farmacología , Corteza Cerebral/efectos de los fármacos , Electroencefalografía , Adulto , Colecistectomía Laparoscópica , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
3.
Br J Radiol ; 93(1106): 20190757, 2020 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31899654

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the usefulness of histogram analysis of stretched exponential model (SEM) on diffusion-weighted imaging in evaluating clinically significant prostate cancer (CSC). METHODS: A total of 85 patients with prostate cancer underwent 3 T multiparametric MRI, followed by radical prostatectomy. Histogram parameters of the tumor from the SEM [distributed diffusion coefficient (DDC) and α] and the monoexponential model [MEM; apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC)] were evaluated. The associations between parameters and Gleason score or Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System v. 2 were evaluated. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve was calculated to evaluate diagnostic performance of parameters in predicting CSC. RESULTS: The values of histogram parameters of DDC and ADC were significantly lower in patients with CSC than in patients without CSC (p < 0.05), except for skewness and kurtosis. The value of the 25th percentile of α was significantly lower in patients with CSC than in patients without CSC (p = 0.014). Histogram parameters of ADC and DDC had significant weak to moderate negative associations with Gleason score or Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System v. 2 (p < 0.001), except for skewness and kurtosis. For predicting CSC, the area under the curves of mean ADC (0.856), 50th percentile DDC (0.852), and 25th percentile α (0.707) yielded the highest values compared to other histogram parameters from each group. CONCLUSION: Histogram analysis of the SEM on diffusion-weighted imaging may be a useful quantitative tool for evaluating CSC. However, the SEM did not outperform the MEM. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: Histogram parameters of SEM may be useful for evaluating CSC.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Próstata/patología , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Algoritmos , Imagen de Difusión por Resonancia Magnética/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Invasividad Neoplásica , Variaciones Dependientes del Observador , Prostatectomía/métodos , Neoplasias de la Próstata/cirugía , Curva ROC , Estudios Retrospectivos
4.
Waste Manag ; 104: 183-191, 2020 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981819

RESUMEN

CFD modelling and simulation is an effective means of optimizing the design and operation of moving grate waste incinerators. Conventional approach models the grate combustion and the furnace combustion separately by using an in-bed/over-bed coupling procedure. In this paper, a comprehensive two-fluid reacting model that integrates the gas-solid grate incineration and the gas turbulent combustion in one scheme is developed for industrial incinerators. Realistic grate geometry and direct simultaneous coupling of the fuel bed and the freeboard gas phase are realized. According to different treatments of the solid phase, the whole incinerator is divided into three regions, namely the packed bed region, the fall region and the furnace region. The kinetic theory of granular flow (KTGF) is introduced to describe the rheological properties of waste particles, and the Ergun model is used for the gas-solid drag. Thermal conversion of wastes is characterized by the heterogeneous reactions of moisture evaporation, devolatilization, char-O2 combustion and the homogeneous reactions of hydrocarbons combustion. Distributions of temperatures and gas species are predicted and validated by measurements. Particle properties are calculated to reveal the grate incineration characteristics. Effects of waste throughput on the incineration are also investigated. Overall, the present model provides a new methodology of in-bed and over-bed integration for the moving grate incinerator simulation.


Asunto(s)
Incineración , Residuos Industriales , Algoritmos , Modelos Teóricos , Residuos Sólidos , Temperatura Ambiental
5.
Genome Biol ; 21(1): 11, 2020 01 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937349

RESUMEN

Hi-C is a popular technique to map three-dimensional chromosome conformation. In principle, Hi-C's resolution is only limited by the size of restriction fragments. However, insufficient sequencing depth forces researchers to artificially reduce the resolution of Hi-C matrices at a loss of biological interpretability. We present the Hi-C Interaction Frequency Inference (HIFI) algorithms that accurately estimate restriction-fragment resolution Hi-C matrices by exploiting dependencies between neighboring fragments. Cross-validation experiments and comparisons to 5C data and known regulatory interactions demonstrate HIFI's superiority to existing approaches. In addition, HIFI's restriction-fragment resolution reveals a new role for active regulatory regions in structuring topologically associating domains.


Asunto(s)
Algoritmos , Cromosomas , ADN/metabolismo , Genoma , Mapeo Restrictivo , Animales , Humanos , Ratones
7.
BMJ ; 368: m134, 2020 01 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937593
8.
J Comput Assist Tomogr ; 44(1): 13-19, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31939876

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate image quality and radiation dose exposure of low-kV setting and low-volume contrast medium (CM) computed tomography angiography (CTA) protocol for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) planning in comparison with standard CTA protocol. METHODS: Sixty-patients were examined with 256-row MDCT for TAVI planning: 32 patients (study group) were evaluated using 80-kV electrocardiogram-gated protocol with 60 mL of CM and IMR reconstruction; 28 patients underwent a standard electrocardiogram-gated CTA study (100 kV; 80 mL of CM; iDose4 reconstruction). Subjective and objective image quality was evaluated in each patient at different aortic levels. Finally, we collected radiation dose exposure data (CT dose index and dose-length product) of both groups. RESULTS: In study protocol, significant higher mean attenuation values were achieved in all measurements compared with the standard protocol. There were no significant differences in the subjective image quality evaluation in both groups. Mean dose-length product of study group was 56% lower than in the control one (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Low-kV and low-CM volume CTA, combined with IMR, allows to correctly performing TAVI planning with high-quality images and significant radiation dose reduction compared with standard CTA protocol.


Asunto(s)
Estenosis de la Válvula Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagen , Angiografía por Tomografía Computarizada/métodos , Medios de Contraste/administración & dosificación , Interpretación de Imagen Radiográfica Asistida por Computador/métodos , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Algoritmos , Estenosis de la Válvula Aórtica/cirugía , Femenino , Humanos , Bases del Conocimiento , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Tomografía Computarizada Multidetector , Periodo Preoperatorio , Dosis de Radiación , Reemplazo de la Válvula Aórtica Transcatéter
9.
J Comput Assist Tomogr ; 44(1): 26-31, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31939878

RESUMEN

Coronary computed tomography angiography is widely used in clinical practice. Although 3-dimensional (D) volume rendering is useful for interpretation of coronary path and territory, 2D output is common for image interpretation. Most picture archiving and communication system is incapable of manipulating 3D due to insufficient graphic specification. Thus, 2D bull's eye map display is frequently used in cardiac imaging. We developed a bull's eye map which emulated the anatomical information of individual coronary path and dominancy.


Asunto(s)
Vasos Coronarios/diagnóstico por imagen , Ventrículos Cardíacos/diagnóstico por imagen , Interpretación de Imagen Radiográfica Asistida por Computador/métodos , Anciano , Algoritmos , Angiografía por Tomografía Computarizada , Femenino , Humanos , Imagen Tridimensional , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos
10.
J Comput Assist Tomogr ; 44(1): 32-36, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31939879

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of ultra high-resolution computed tomography (UHRCT) and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) on the detectability of simulated submillimeter artery. METHODS: A small vessel phantom ranging from 0.4 to 2.0 mm in diameter and edge phantoms of low to high attenuation values were scanned by UHRCT (super-high-resolution mode and normal-resolution-mode) and conventional CT, and data were reconstructed by MBIR and filtered back projection (FBP). Vessel detectability was assessed subjectively and the effective size at which 50% of response was achieved (ES50 [mm]) was calculated. Modulation transfer function (MTF) was calculated by an edge spread function method. RESULTS: ES50 of super high-resolution mode (0.36 mm for MBIR and 0.50 mm for FBP) was significantly smaller than those of normal-resolution mode (P < 0.01). In the MTF analysis, the MTF of MBIR improved as the edge phantom attenuation increased, whereas that of FBP was stable. CONCLUSIONS: Both UHRCT and MBIR are effective for the detectability of simulated submillimeter artery.


Asunto(s)
Angiografía por Tomografía Computarizada/métodos , Vasos Coronarios/diagnóstico por imagen , Algoritmos , Humanos , Fantasmas de Imagen , Dosis de Radiación , Interpretación de Imagen Radiográfica Asistida por Computador
11.
J Comput Assist Tomogr ; 44(1): 83-89, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31939887

RESUMEN

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: This novel study aims to investigate texture parameters in distinguishing malignant and benign breast lesions classified as Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System 4 in dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study included 203 patients with 136 breast cancer and 67 benign lesions who underwent breast MRI between November 23, 2016, and August 27, 2018. Co-occurrence matrix-based texture features were extracted from each lesion on T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MRI using MatLab software. The association between texture parameters and breast lesions was analyzed, and the diagnostic model for breast cancer was created. Classification performance was evaluated by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, sensitivity, and specificity. RESULTS: Significant differences were seen between malignant and benign lesions for a number of textural features, including contrast, correlation, autocorrelation, dissimilarity, cluster shade, and cluster performance (P < 0.05). After the analysis of the multicollinearity, 5 texture features (contrast, correlation, dissimilarity, cluster shade, and cluster performance) were included for the next principal component analysis. The differentiation accuracy of breast cancer based on the diagnostic model was 0.948 (95% confidence interval, 0.908-0.974). CONCLUSIONS: Texture features that measure randomness, heterogeneity, or homogeneity may reflect underlying growth patterns of breast lesions and show great difference in malignant and benign lesions. Therefore, texture analysis may be a valuable assisted tool for diagnostic analysis on breast.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama/diagnóstico por imagen , Interpretación de Imagen Radiográfica Asistida por Computador/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Algoritmos , Área Bajo la Curva , Femenino , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Adulto Joven
12.
J Comput Assist Tomogr ; 44(1): 95-101, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31939889

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate image quality of ultra-low dose chest computed tomography using 6 iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithms. METHOD: A lung phantom was scanned on 4 computed tomography scanners using fixed tube voltages and the lowest mAs available on each scanner, resulting in dose levels of 0.1 to 0.2 mGy (80 kVp) and 0.3 to 1 mGy (140 kVp) volume CT dose index (CTDIvol). Images were reconstructed with IR available on the scanners. Image noise, signal-to-noise ratios, contrast-to-noise ratios, uniformity, and noise power spectrum (NPS) were assessed for evaluation of image quality. RESULTS: Image quality parameters increased with increasing dose for all algorithms. At constant dose levels, model-based techniques improved the contrast-to-noise ratio of lesions more than the statistical algorithms. All algorithms tested at 0.1 mGy showed lower NPS peak frequencies compared with 0.39 mGy. In contrast to the statistical techniques, model-based algorithms showed lower NPS peak frequencies at the lowest doses, indicating a coarser and blotchier noise texture. CONCLUSION: This study shows the importance of evaluating IR when introduced clinically.


Asunto(s)
Pulmón/diagnóstico por imagen , Interpretación de Imagen Radiográfica Asistida por Computador/métodos , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X/instrumentación , Algoritmos , Medios de Contraste , Humanos , Fantasmas de Imagen , Dosis de Radiación , Relación Señal-Ruido
13.
J Comput Assist Tomogr ; 44(1): 138-144, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31939895

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the influence of virtual monoenergetic images (vMEIs) on renal cortex volumetry (RCV) and estimation of split-renal function. METHODS: Twenty-five patients (mean ± SD, 64.7 ± 9.9 years) underwent a contrast-enhanced dual-layer spectral detector computed tomography. Images were reconstructed with a reference standard (iterative model reconstruction, IMRRef), a newly spectral detector computed tomography algorithm (SPcon) and vMEI at 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120 keV. Two blinded independent readers performed RCV on all data sets with a semiautomated tool. RESULTS: Total kidney volume was up to 15% higher in vMEI at 40/60 keV compared with IMRRef (P < 0.001). Total kidney volume with vMEI at 80/100 keV was similar to IMRRef (P < 0.001). Split-renal function was similar in all reconstructions at approximately 50% ± 3%. Bland-Altman analysis showed no significant differences (P > 0.05), except for 40 keV versus SPcon (P < 0.05). The time required to perform RCV was reasonable, approximately 4 minutes, and showed no significant differences among reconstructions. Interreader agreement was greatest with vMEI at 80 keV (r = 0.68; 95% confidence interval, 0.39-0.85; P < 0.0002) followed by IMRRef images (r = 0.67; 95% confidence interval, 0.37-0.84; P < 0.0003). IMRRef showed the highest mean Hounsfield unit for cortex/medulla of 223.4 ± 73.7/62.5 ± 19.7 and a ratio of 3.7. CONCLUSIONS: Semiautomated RCV performed with vMEI and IMRRef/SPcon is feasible and showed no clinically relevant differences with regard to split-renal function. Low-kiloelectron volt vMEI showed greater tissue contrast and total kidney volume but no benefit for RCV. Moderate-kiloelectron volt vMEI (80 keV) results were similar to IMRRef with a faster postprocessing time.


Asunto(s)
Corteza Renal/diagnóstico por imagen , Interpretación de Imagen Radiográfica Asistida por Computador/métodos , Imagen Radiográfica por Emisión de Doble Fotón/métodos , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X/métodos , Anciano , Algoritmos , Femenino , Humanos , Corteza Renal/patología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Variaciones Dependientes del Observador , Estudios Retrospectivos , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Relación Señal-Ruido
14.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(3): 63-66, 2020 Jan 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971928

RESUMEN

Since 2014, the recommended laboratory testing algorithm for diagnosing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has included a supplemental HIV-1/HIV-2 differentiation test to confirm infection type on the basis of the presence of type-specific antibodies (1). Correctly identifying HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections is vital because their epidemiology and clinical management differ. To describe the percentage of diagnoses for which an HIV-1/HIV-2 differentiation test result was reported and to categorize HIV type based on laboratory test results, 2010-2017 data from CDC's National HIV Surveillance System (NHSS) were analyzed. During 2010-2017, a substantial increase in the number of HIV-1/HIV-2 differentiation test results were reported to NHSS, consistent with implementation of the HIV laboratory-based testing algorithm recommended in 2014. However, >99.9% of all HIV infections identified in the United States were categorized as HIV-1, and the number of HIV-2 diagnoses (mono-infection or dual-infection) remained extremely low (<0.03% of all HIV infections). In addition, the overall number of false positive HIV-2 test results produced by the HIV-1/HIV-2 differentiation increased. The diagnostic value of a confirmatory antibody differentiation test in a setting with sensitive and specific screening tests and few HIV-2 infections might be limited. Evaluation and consideration of other HIV tests approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that might increase efficiencies in the CDC and Association of Public Health Laboratories-recommended HIV testing algorithm are warranted.


Asunto(s)
Pruebas Diagnósticas de Rutina/métodos , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Infecciones por VIH/virología , VIH-2/aislamiento & purificación , Adolescente , Adulto , Algoritmos , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Laboratorios , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
15.
Anticancer Res ; 40(1): 271-280, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892576

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND/AIM: To investigate whether a radiomic machine learning (ML) approach employing texture-analysis (TA) features extracted from primary tumor lesions (PTLs) is able to predict tumor grade (TG) and nodal status (NS) in patients with oropharyngeal (OP) and oral cavity (OC) squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Contrast-enhanced CT images of 40 patients with OP and OC SCC were post-processed to extract TA features from PTLs. A feature selection method and different ML algorithms were applied to find the most accurate subset of features to predict TG and NS. RESULTS: For the prediction of TG, the best accuracy (92.9%) was achieved by Naïve Bayes (NB), bagging of NB and K Nearest Neighbor (KNN). For the prediction of NS, J48, NB, bagging of NB and boosting of J48 overcame the accuracy of 90%. CONCLUSION: A radiomic ML approach applied to PTLs is able to predict TG and NS in patients with OC and OP SCC.


Asunto(s)
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico por imagen , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patología , Ganglios Linfáticos/patología , Neoplasias de la Boca/diagnóstico por imagen , Neoplasias de la Boca/patología , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/diagnóstico por imagen , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/patología , Anciano , Algoritmos , Humanos , Aprendizaje Automático , Clasificación del Tumor , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X
16.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1232: 307-313, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893425

RESUMEN

Near infrared optical tomography (NIROT) is a non-invasive imaging technique to provide physiological information e.g. the oxygenation of tissue. For image reconstruction in clinical and preclinical scenarios, models to accurately describe light propagation are needed. This work aims to assess the accuracy and efficiency of different models, which paves the way for an optimal design of model-based image reconstruction algorithms in NIROT for realistic tissue geometries and heterogeneities. Two popular simulators were evaluated: the Monte Carlo (MC) method based MCX and the finite element method (FEM) based Toast++. We compared simulated results with experimental data measured on a homogeneous silicone phantom with well-calibrated parameters. The laser light was focused on the center of the phantom surface and images were captured by a CCD camera in both reflection and transmission modes. For transmittance measurements, the two models showed good agreement. Both achieve a cosine similarity of ~99%. In contrast, for reflectance measurements, FEM results deviated more from the measured values than MC, yielding similarity values of 86% and 94%, respectively. This study recommends the use of MC for NIROT in reflection mode and both MC and FEM yield excellent results for transmission mode.


Asunto(s)
Análisis de Elementos Finitos , Modelos Teóricos , Método de Montecarlo , Tomografía Óptica , Algoritmos , Simulación por Computador , Análisis de Elementos Finitos/normas , Luz , Fantasmas de Imagen
17.
Radiologe ; 60(1): 15-23, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31897503

RESUMEN

CLINICAL/METHODOLOGICAL PROBLEM: In the reconstruction of three-dimensional image data, artifacts that interfere with the appraisal often occur as a result of trying to minimize the dose or due to missing data. Used iterative reconstruction methods are time-consuming and have disadvantages. STANDARD RADIOLOGICAL METHODS: These problems are known to occur in computed tomography (CT), cone beam CT, interventional imaging, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and nuclear medicine imaging (PET and SPECT). METHODOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS: Using techniques based on the use of artificial intelligence (AI) in data analysis and data supplementation, a number of problems can be solved up to a certain extent. PERFORMANCE: The performance of the methods varies greatly. Since the generated image data usually look very good using the AI-based methods presented here while their results depend strongly on the study design, reliable comparable quantitative statements on the performance are not yet available in broad terms. EVALUATION: In principle, the methods of image reconstruction based on AI algorithms offer many possibilities for improving and optimizing three-dimensional image datasets. However, the validity strongly depends on the design of the respective study in the structure of the individual procedure. It is therefore essential to have a suitable test prior to use in clinical practice. PRACTICAL RECOMMENDATIONS: Before the widespread use of AI-based reconstruction methods can be recommended, it is necessary to establish meaningful test procedures that can characterize the actual performance and applicability in terms of information content and a meaningful study design during the learning phase of the algorithms.


Asunto(s)
Inteligencia Artificial , Fantasmas de Imagen , Algoritmos , Artefactos , Humanos
18.
Radiologe ; 60(1): 6-14, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915840

RESUMEN

METHODICAL ISSUE: Machine learning (ML) algorithms have an increasingly relevant role in radiology tackling tasks such as the automatic detection and segmentation of diagnosis-relevant markers, the quantification of progression and response, and their prediction in individual patients. STANDARD RADIOLOGICAL METHODS: ML algorithms are relevant for all image acquisition techniques from computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to ultrasound. However, different modalities result in different challenges with respect to standardization and variability. METHODICAL INNOVATIONS: ML algorithms are increasingly able to analyze longitudinal data for the training of prediction models. This is relevant since it enables the use of comprehensive information for predicting individual progression and response, and the associated support of treatment decisions by ML models. PERFORMANCE: The quality of detection and segmentation algorithms of lesions has reached an acceptable level in several areas. The accuracy of prediction models is still increasing, but is dependent on the availability of representative training data. ACHIEVEMENTS: The development of ML algorithms in radiology is progressing although many solutions are still at a validation stage. It is accompanied by a parallel and increasingly interlinked development of basic methods and techniques which will gradually be put into practice in radiology. PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS: Two factors will impact the relevance of ML in radiological practice: the thorough validation of algorithms and solutions, and the creation of representative diverse data for the training and validation in a realistic context.


Asunto(s)
Aprendizaje Automático , Radiología , Algoritmos , Humanos , Terminología como Asunto
19.
J Parasitol ; 106(1): 56-70, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995719

RESUMEN

Rhadinorhynchus hiansi Soota and Bhattacharya, 1981 , has remained unknown since its original incomplete description from 2 male specimens collected from the flat needlefish Ablennes hians Valenciennes (Belonidae) off Trivandrum, Kerala, India. Recent collections of fishes along the Pacific coast of Vietnam in 2016 and 2017 produced many specimens of the same species from the striped bonito Sarda orientalis Temminck and Schlegel (Scombridae) off the southern Pacific coast of Vietnam at Nha Trang. We describe females for the first time, assign a female allotype status, and provide an expanded description of males from a larger collection completing missing information on hooks and hook roots, receptacle, lemnisci, cement glands, Saefftigen's pouch, and trunk spines. Specimens of R. hiansi characteristically have no dorsal spines in the posterior field of trunk spines and a long proboscis with 36-48 dorso-ventrally differentiated proboscis hooks per row becoming progressively smaller posteriorly then increasing in size near the posterior end to a maximum at the posterior-most ring. Trunk, testes, and lemnisci in our specimens were considerably larger than those reported in the original description, but the proboscis was relatively smaller. The females had long reproductive system and corrugated elliptic eggs without polar prolongation of fertilization membrane. Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDXA) demonstrates high levels of calcium and phosphorus in large gallium cut hooks and high levels of sulfur in tip cuts of large and small hooks and in spines. This EDXA pattern is a characteristic fingerprint of R. hiansi. The molecular profile of R. hiansi is described from 18S rDNA and COI genes, and phylogenetic relationships with most closely related species are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Acantocéfalos/anatomía & histología , Acantocéfalos/genética , Beloniformes/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Peces/parasitología , Helmintiasis Animal/parasitología , Acantocéfalos/clasificación , Acantocéfalos/ultraestructura , Algoritmos , Animales , Teorema de Bayes , Femenino , Peces , Galio , Funciones de Verosimilitud , Masculino , Microscopía Electrónica de Rastreo/veterinaria , Océano Pacífico , Filogenia , Espectrometría por Rayos X/veterinaria , Vietnam
20.
Nursing ; 50(2): 41-44, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31904618

RESUMEN

This article discusses an evidence- and consensus-based support-surface algorithm designed to help clinicians choose the most appropriate support surface for preventing or treating pressure injuries based on patient, nurse, and institutional considerations.


Asunto(s)
Algoritmos , Lechos , Toma de Decisiones Clínicas/métodos , Enfermeras Clínicas/psicología , Úlcera por Presión/enfermería , Consenso , Práctica Clínica Basada en la Evidencia , Humanos , Factores de Riesgo
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