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1.
J Anim Sci ; 99(2)2021 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33527135

RESUMEN

The physiology of the sow mammary gland is qualitatively well described and understood. However, the quantitative effect of various biological mechanisms contributing to the synthesis of colostrum and milk is lacking and more complicated to obtain. The objective of this study was to integrate physiological and empirical knowledge of the production of colostrum and milk in a dynamic model of a single sow mammary gland to understand and quantify parameters controlling mammary gland output. In 1983, Heather Neal and John Thornley published a model of the mammary gland in cattle, which was used as a starting point for the development of this model. The original cattle model was reparameterized, modified, and extended to describe the production of milk by the sow mammary gland during lactation and the prepartum production of colostrum as the combined output of immunoglobulins (Ig) and milk. Initially, the model was reparameterized to simulate milk synthesis potential of a single gland by considering biological characteristics and empirical estimations of sows and piglets. Secondly, the model was modified to simulate more accurately the responses to changes in milk removal rates. This was done by linking the ejectable milk storage capacity to the number of secretory cells rather than being constant throughout lactation. Finally, the model was extended to include the prepartum synthesis of milk and the kinetics of Ig into and out of the mammary gland. A progressive capacity of secretory cells to synthesize milk was used to differentiate the time between the onset of milk synthesis and Ig transfer. Changes in maximum milk removal rate, duration of milk ejection, and nursing interval exerted a great impact on the modeled milk output. Changes by ±60% in one of these parameters were capable of increasing milk output by 28% to 39% during the first 4 wk in lactation compared with the reference parameterization. This suggests that the ability of the piglet to remove milk from the gland exerts a key control on milk synthesis during lactation. Modeling colostrum as the combined output of Ig and milk allowed to represent the rapid decline in Ig concentration observed during the first hours after farrowing. In conclusion, biological and empirical knowledge was integrated into a model of the sow mammary gland and constitutes a simple approach to explore in which conditions and to what extent individual parameters influence Ig kinetics and milk production.


Asunto(s)
Calostro , Lactancia , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Bovinos , Femenino , Inmunoglobulinas , Leche , Embarazo , Porcinos
2.
J Anim Sci ; 99(2)2021 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530108

RESUMEN

The objective of this study was to examine the conservation process and feed value of total mixed ration (TMR) silages. In exp. 1, we evaluated the fermentation pattern and aerobic stability of TMR silages containing different protein and lipid supplementations. In exp. 2, we compared the performance of finishing beef heifers fed those TMR silages. In both experiments, treatments were as follows: ensiled TMR with urea (U); ensiled TMR without a protein supplement at ensiling, but soybean meal supplemented at feeding to balance diet crude protein (CP) in exp. 2 (SMnf; where the acronym nf indicates nonfermented); ensiled TMR with soybean meal (SM); and ensiled TMR with rolled soybean grain (SG). Thirty-two Nellore heifers (313 ± 8.8 kg shrunk body weight [SBW]) were blocked by initial SBW, housed in individual pens, and enrolled in exp. 2 for 82 d. In exp. 1, treatment without a protein supplement (SMnf) had a lower content of CP, soluble CP, NH3-N, pH, and Clostridium count compared with U (P ≤ 0.03). Lactic acid concentrations tended to be reduced for SMnf compared with U (P = 0.09). Ethanol concentration was reduced in SG compared with SM (P < 0.01). 1,2-Propanediol concentration was increased in SMnf compared with U (P < 0.01), reduced in SM compared with SMnf (P = 0.02), and increased in SG compared with SM (P = 0.02). Dry matter (DM) loss during fermentation was low and similar among treatments (~3.7%). All silages remained stable during 10 d of aerobic exposure after feed out. Considering fermentation traits, such as pH (≤4.72), NH3-N (<10% of N, except for U treatment), butyric acid (<0.05 % DM), and DM losses (<3.70% DM), all silages can be considered well conserved. In exp. 2, diets were isonitrogenous because soybean meal was added to SMnf before feeding. Compared with SM, cattle fed SG made more meals per day (P = 0.04) and tended to have a decreased intermeal interval (P = 0.09). DM intake, average daily gain, final SBW, hot carcass weight, Biceps femoris fat thickness, and serum levels of triglycerides and cholesterol were increased for SG compared with SM (P ≤ 0.05). In brief, TMR silages exhibited an adequate fermentation pattern and high aerobic stability. The supplementation of true protein did not improve animal performance, whereas the addition of soybean grain as a lipid source improved the performance of finishing cattle fed TMR silages.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal , Ensilaje , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinaria , Suplementos Dietéticos , Femenino , Fermentación , Lípidos , Rumen/metabolismo , Ensilaje/análisis , Zea mays
3.
J Insect Sci ; 21(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33560355

RESUMEN

In order to investigate a low-cost and sustainable food source, the present study evaluated the use of poultry litter for rearing Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). The experiment was performed with five diets containing increasing levels of poultry litter (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%) replacing the control diet and five replicates with 50 larvae per sample unit. Larval growth and development were evaluated and the chemical compositions of diet and T. molitor larvae were determined. Larval development and reproduction efficiency of T. molitor were similar in all treatments. The sole use of poultry litter to feed T. molitor reduced the crude protein of flour by only 8%. Including 50% or more poultry litter in the standard diet is the best-suited formulation for larvae production and incorporation of minerals in the larvae. Mealworm can be grown successfully on diets composed by poultry litter, the diet did not affect survival, growth, and development; however, studies spanning several insect generations should be performed to determine the effects of diet composition on adult fecundity. The knowledge acquired using poultry litter to feed T. molitor will be useful to carry out new research, in addition to evidencing the possibility of low-cost mass rearing of these larvae.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal/análisis , Tenebrio/química , Animales , Dieta , Larva/química , Larva/crecimiento & desarrollo , Aves de Corral , Tenebrio/crecimiento & desarrollo
4.
J Anim Sci ; 99(2)2021 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33564882

RESUMEN

Because of its high content of polyphenolic compounds, the dietary inclusion of grape pomace (GP) in ruminant diets can reduce reactive nitrogen (N) and methane emissions and enhance the shelf life and beneficial fatty acids (FAs) content of meat. However, the dietary inclusion of GP beyond a threshold that is still to be determined for feedlot cattle can also compromise nutrient supply and, thus, growth performance. This study investigated the optimum proportion of GP in finishing cattle diets. Nutrient intake and apparent total tract digestion, ruminal pH and fermentation, estimated microbial protein synthesis, route of N excretion, and blood metabolites were measured. Six ruminally fistulated crossbred beef heifers (mean initial body weight ± SD: 714 ± 50.7 kg) were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square with 21-d periods. Dietary treatments were 0%, 15%, and 30% of dietary dry matter (DM) as GP, with diets containing 84%, 69%, and 54% dry-rolled barley grain, respectively. There was a linear increase (P = 0.07) in DM intake and quadratic change (P ≤ 0.01) in neutral detergent fiber (NDF) intake. There was a quadratic change (P ≤ 0.04) in apparent total tract DM, NDF, and crude protein digestibility as dietary GP content increased. However, there were no treatment effects (P ≥ 0.18) on total ruminal short-chain FA concentration and duration and area pH < 6.2, 5.8, and 5.5. Although N intake did not differ (269, 262, 253 g/d; P = 0.33) across dietary treatments, feeding GP led to a tendency for a quadratic change (P ≤ 0.07) in ruminal ammonia-N and plasma urea-N concentrations. Total N excretion also changed (quadratic, P = 0.03) because of changes (quadratic, P = 0.02) in fecal N excretion as urinary excretion of N and urea-N did not differ (P ≥ 0.15) across treatments. Feeding GP led to quadratic changes (P ≤ 0.01) in fecal excretion of fiber-bound N. Microbial N flow and apparent N retention also changed (quadratic, P ≤ 0.04) as dietary GP proportion increased. In conclusion, responses to dietary GP proportion were mostly quadratic with indications that nutrient supply as reflected by changes in apparent total tract nutrient digestibility, microbial N supply, and apparent N retention could be compromised beyond a 15% dietary inclusion level.


Asunto(s)
Rumen , Vitis , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinaria , Digestión , Femenino , Fermentación , Hordeum , Nitrógeno/metabolismo , Nutrientes , Rumen/metabolismo
5.
J Anim Sci ; 99(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523182

RESUMEN

Based on results of a recent meta-analysis, we hypothesized that increased dietary Val, Ile, or Trp could correct possible amino acid interactions because of excess Leu in diets containing high levels of corn protein, namely dried distiller's grains with solubles (DDGS). A total of 1,200 pigs (PIC TR4 × (Fast LW × PIC L02); initially 33.6 ± 0.6 kg) were used in a 103-d study. The 6 dietary treatments were corn-soybean meal (SBM)-DDGS-based as follows: (1) high SBM and low level of l-Lys HCl (HSBM), (2) high l-Lys HCl and moderate Ile, Val, Trp (AA above NRC 2012 estimates; NC), (3) moderate l-Lys HCl and high Ile, Val, and Trp (PC), and PC with either increased (4) L-Val (PC+Val), (5) L-Ile (PC+Ile), or (6) L-Trp (PC+Trp). Pigs fed the NC diet were predicted to have the poorest average daily gain (ADG), the PC diet to be intermediate, and pigs fed the HSBM, PC+Val, PC+Ile, and PC+Trp have the same and highest predicted ADG. In the grower period (34 to 90 kg), ADG was greater (Ρ < 0.05) for the pigs fed HSBM and PC+Val diets than the NC with pigs fed other diets intermediate. Pigs fed HSBM were more (Ρ < 0.05) efficient (G:F) than the NC and PC with pigs fed other diets intermediate. In the finisher period (90 to 136 kg), ADG was greater (Ρ < 0.05) for pigs fed PC+Ile than that of the NC with pigs fed other diets intermediate. Pigs fed PC+Val had greater (Ρ < 0.05) average daily feed intake (ADFI) than the NC with pigs fed other diets intermediate. However, PC+Ile pigs were more (Ρ < 0.05) efficient than PC+Val with pigs fed other diets intermediate. Overall, ADG was greater (Ρ < 0.05) for pigs fed HSBM, PC+Val, and PC+Ile diets than the NC with pigs fed other diets intermediate. Pigs fed the PC+Val diet had greater (Ρ < 0.05) ADFI than the NC with pigs fed other diets intermediate. No differences were detected between treatments for overall G:F or other carcass characteristics. In conclusion, increasing Val or Ile in high l-Lys-HCl-DDGS-based diets improved growth performance compared with pigs fed diets containing high levels of l-Lys HCl without added Val and Ile. These results present evidence that the recently developed meta-analysis can predict the relative differences in overall ADG for pigs fed the NC, PC, PC+Val, and PC+Ile diets; however, the predicted G:F was less accurate. The data demonstrate that the negative effects of high Leu concentrations in corn-DDGS-based diets can be reversed by increasing the ratios of Val and Ile relative to Lys.


Asunto(s)
Isoleucina/administración & dosificación , Metaanálisis como Asunto , Porcinos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Triptófano/administración & dosificación , Valina/administración & dosificación , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Animales , Dieta/veterinaria , Zea mays
6.
J Anim Sci ; 99(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523183

RESUMEN

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of processing index (PI) of barley grain and dietary undigested neutral detergent fiber (uNDF) concentration on dry matter (DM) intake, chewing activity, ruminal pH and fermentation characteristics, total tract digestibility, gastrointestinal barrier function, and blood metabolites of finishing beef heifers. The PI was measured as the density after processing expressed as a percentage of the density before processing, and a smaller PI equates to a more extensively processed. Six ruminally cannulated heifers (average body weight, 715 ± 29 kg) were used in a 6 × 6 Latin square design with three PI (65%, 75%, and 85%) × 2 uNDF concentration (low and high; 4.6% vs. 5.6% of DM) factorial arrangement. The heifers were fed ad libitum a total mixed ration consisting of 10% barley silage (low uNDF), or 5% silage and 5% straw (high uNDF), 87% dry-rolled barley grain, and 3% mineral and vitamin supplements. Interactions (P < 0.01) of PI × uNDF were observed for DM intake, ruminating and total chewing time, and DM digestibility in the total digestive tract. Intake of DM, organic matter (OM), starch, and crude protein (CP) did not differ (P > 0.14) between low and high uNDF diets, but intakes of NDF and acid detergent fiber were greater (P = 0.01) for high uNDF diets regardless of barley PI. Heifers fed high uNDF diets had longer (P = 0.05) eating times (min/d or min/kg DM) and tended (P = 0.10) to have longer total chewing times (min/kg DM) than those fed low uNDF diets. Additionally, heifers sorted (P = 0.01) against long particles (>19 mm) for high uNDF diets but not for low uNDF diets. Altering PI of barley grain did not affect (P > 0.12) total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration, molar percentages of individual VFA, or duration of ruminal pH < 5.8 and <5.6. Total VFA concentration was less (P = 0.01), acetate percentage was greater (P = 0.01), and duration of ruminal pH < 5.8 and <5.6 was less (P = 0.05) for high compared with low uNDF diets. Digestibility of DM, OM, and CP was greater (P = 0.02) for low vs. high uNDF diets with PI of 65% and 75%, with no difference between low and high uNDF diets at PI of 85%. Blood metabolites and gastrointestinal tract barrier function were not affected (P ≥ 0.10) by the treatments. These results suggest that increasing dietary uNDF concentration is an effective strategy to improve ruminal pH status in finishing cattle, regardless of the extent of grain processing, whereas manipulating the extent of barley processing did not reduce the risk of ruminal acidosis.


Asunto(s)
Bovinos/metabolismo , Fibras de la Dieta/metabolismo , Digestión/fisiología , Hordeum , Rumen , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Animales , Bovinos/fisiología , Dieta/veterinaria , Fibras de la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Femenino , Fermentación , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Masticación , Nutrientes , Rumen/química , Rumen/metabolismo
7.
J Anim Sci ; 99(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528019

RESUMEN

Trehalose, a nonreducing disaccharide consisting of d-glucose with α,α-1,1 linkage, was evaluated as a functional material to improve the gut environment in preweaned calves. In experiment 1, 173 calves were divided into two groups; the trehalose group was fed trehalose at 30 g/animal/d with milk replacer during the suckling period, and the control group was fed nonsupplemented milk replacer. Medication frequency was lower in the trehalose group (P < 0.05). In experiment 2, calves (n = 20) were divided into two groups (control group [n = 10] and trehalose group [n = 10]) based on their body weight and reared under the same feeding regimens as in experiment 1. Fresh feces were collected from individual animals at the beginning of the trial (average age 11 d), 3 wk after trehalose feeding (experimental day 22), and 1 d before weaning, and the fecal score was recorded daily. Fecal samples were analyzed for fermentation parameters and microbiota. The fecal score was significantly lower in the trehalose group than in the control group in the early stage (at an age of 14 to 18 d; P < 0.05) of the suckling period. Calves fed trehalose tended to have a higher proportion of fecal butyrate on day 22 than calves in the control group (P = 0.08). Population sizes of Clostridium spp. were significantly lower (P = 0.036), whereas those of Dialister spp. and Eubacterium spp. tended to be higher in the feces of calves in the trehalose group on day 22 (P = 0.060 and P = 0.083). These observations indicate that trehalose feeding modulated the gut environment and partially contributed to the reduction in medication frequency observed in experiment 1.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Bovinos/epidemiología , Diarrea/veterinaria , Heces/microbiología , Microbiota , Leche , Trehalosa/administración & dosificación , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Peso Corporal , Bovinos , Diarrea/epidemiología , Dieta/veterinaria , Suplementos Dietéticos , Incidencia , Destete
8.
J Anim Sci ; 99(2)2021 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33529342

RESUMEN

High dietary protein may increase susceptibility of weaned pigs to enteric pathogens. Dietary supplementation with functional amino acids (FAA) may improve growth performance of pigs during disease challenge. The objective of this study was to evaluate the interactive effects of dietary protein content and FAA supplementation above requirements for growth on performance and immune response of weaned pigs challenged with Salmonella. Sixty-four mixed-sex weanling pigs (13.9 ± 0.82 kg) were randomly assigned to dietary treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with low (LP) or high protein (HP) content and basal (AA-) or FAA profile (AA+; Thr, Met, and Trp at 120% of requirements) as factors. After a 7-d adaptation period, pigs were inoculated with either a sterile saline solution (CT) or saline solution containing Salmonella Typhimurium (ST; 3.3 × 109 CFU/mL). Growth performance, body temperature, fecal score, acute-phase proteins, oxidant/antioxidant balance, ST shedding score in feces and intestinal colonization, fecal and digesta myeloperoxidase (MPO), and plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) were measured pre- and postinoculation. There were no dietary effects on any measures pre-inoculation or post-CT inoculation (P > 0.05). Inoculation with ST increased body temperature and fecal score (P < 0.05), serum haptoglobin, plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), PUN, and fecal MPO, and decreased serum albumin and plasma reduced glutathione (GSH):oxidized glutathione (GSSG) compared with CT pigs (P < 0.05). ST-inoculation reduced average daily gain (ADG) and feed intake (ADFI) vs. CT pigs (P < 0.05) but was increased by AA+ vs. AA- in ST pigs (P < 0.05). Serum albumin and GSH:GSSG were increased while haptoglobin and SOD were decreased in ST-inoculated pigs fed AA+ vs. AA- (P < 0.05). PUN was higher in HP vs. LP-fed pigs postinoculation (P < 0.05). Fecal ST score was increased in ST-inoculated pigs on days 1 and 2 postinoculation and declined by day 6 (P < 0.05) in all pigs while the overall score was reduced in AA+ vs. AA- pigs (P < 0.05). Cecal digesta ST score was higher in HP vs. LP-fed pigs and were lower in AA+ compared with AA- fed pigs in the colon (P < 0.05). Fecal and digesta MPO were reduced in ST pigs fed AA+ vs. AA- (P < 0.05). These results demonstrate a positive effect of FAA supplementation, with minimal effects of dietary protein, on performance and immune status in weaned pigs challenged with Salmonella.


Asunto(s)
Aminoácidos/administración & dosificación , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Salmonella typhimurium , Enfermedades de los Porcinos , Porcinos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Animales , Dieta/veterinaria , Proteínas en la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Suplementos Dietéticos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/microbiología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/prevención & control , Destete
9.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(3): e20190487, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533800

RESUMEN

Effects of protein supplementation, with and without starch supplementation, on nutritional performance and metabolic characteristics of cattle fed low- and medium-quality tropical forages were evaluated using 4 cannulated steers distributed according to a 4 × 4 Latin square. Experimental periods were divided into two subperiods. In the first subperiod, two animals received low-quality hay and two animals received medium-quality. Supplementation schemes were evaluated in the second subperiod: low-quality hay with protein (300 g of crude protein - CP/d); low-quality hay with protein (300 g CP/d) and starch (225 g/d); medium-quality hay with protein (300 g CP/d); and medium-quality hay with protein (300 g CP/d) and starch (225 g/d) supplementation. Without supplementation, medium-quality forage provided higher intake, digestibility, nitrogen balance (NB) and efficiency of nitrogen utilization (EFNU). Comparing subperiods, supply of supplements depressed medium-quality forage intake, but did not affect low-quality forage intake. Supplementation increased NB, EFNU and serum concentration of IGF1 in animals fed low-quality forage. Protein supplementation increases nitrogen retention in animals, an effect attributed mainly to anabolic stimuli. However, this effect is more prominent when animals are fed low-quality forages. No positive impact on animal metabolism was obtained with combination of supplemental protein and starch.


Asunto(s)
Digestión , Rumen , Alimentación Animal , Animales , Bovinos , Suplementos Dietéticos , Almidón
10.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(3): e20190903, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533801

RESUMEN

The aims of this study were to determine the fatty acid profile of meat from lambs fed with different levels of safflower seed (0%, 7.5%, and 15%) and, also, to compare the characteristics of the meat patties prepared from this lamb meat (LMP) with beef meat patties (BMP). The safflower seed-supplemented diet did not change the contents of polyunsaturated and unsaturated fatty acids, except for C22:1. All meat patty formulations were considered safe for consumption. The values of cooking yield, shrinkage, water absorption index, luminosity (L*), and redness (a*) were similar for the LMP and BMP tested. While the safflower seed-supplemented diet did not alter the moisture, ash, and protein levels of LMP, the lipid content was lower than that in BMP. The incorporation of 15% safflower seed into lamb feed contributed to promoting better sensory attributes of the meat patties. Most of the physicochemical properties evaluated were similar among LMP and BMP. However, to improve the sensory properties of the product, dietary supplementation with 15% safflower seed is recommended.


Asunto(s)
Carthamus tinctorius , Carne Roja , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Bovinos , Dieta , Suplementos Dietéticos , Ácidos Grasos , Carne/análisis , Semillas , Ovinos
11.
J Anim Sci ; 99(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33521817

RESUMEN

We determined whether sheep discriminate among different mineral supplements containing P and Mg and if they modify their selection as a function of the basal diet received. Forty lambs were offered four-way choices among inorganic sources of P and Mg: magnesium oxide in its coarse 1) C-MgO and granular 2) MgO forms and magnesium phosphate: 3) Mag33 (33% Mg and 2.7% P), and 4) MGP (25% Mg and 15% P), and two-way choices between MGP and each of the other minerals, and between MgO and C-MgO (baseline). Subsequently, lambs were randomly assigned to four groups (10 lambs/group) and fed rations such that the levels of Mg and P were low (LMg_LP), adequate (NMg_NP), low in Mg and adequate in P (LMg_NP), or adequate in Mg and low in P (NMg_LP). After 29 d, choice tests (post-deficiency) were repeated. During baseline, lambs ate and preferred Mag33 > C-MgO = MGP > MgO (P < 0.05). This pattern remained during post-deficiency tests, but lambs in LMg_LP and LMg_NP increased their preference for MGP and C-MgO, respectively, whereas lambs in NMg_LP increased their preference for C-MgO and MGP relative to baseline (P < 0.05). The serum concentrations of P and Mg increased after preference tests, and preference for MgO and MGP in low-Mg groups increased as the serum concentration of Mg declined (P < 0.05). Thus, lambs discriminated among different minerals and some groups modified their preferences based on the basal diets received, which rectified mineral imbalances.


Asunto(s)
Magnesio , Fósforo , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Dieta/veterinaria , Ingestión de Alimentos , Ovinos
12.
J Anim Sci ; 99(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33521816

RESUMEN

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate dose-response and supplemental effects of whey permeate on growth performance and intestinal health of nursery pigs. In experiment (exp.) 1, 1,080 pigs weaned at 6.24 kg body weight (BW) were allotted to five treatments (eight pens/treatment) with increasing levels of whey permeate in three phases (from 10% to 30%, 3% to 23%, and 0% to 9% for phase 1, 2, and 3, respectively) fed until 11 kg BW and then fed a common phase 4 diet (0% whey permeate) until 25 kg BW in a 48-d feeding trial. Feed intake and BW were measured at the end of each phase. In exp. 2, 1,200 nursery pigs at 7.50 kg BW were allotted to six treatments (10 pens/treatment) with increasing levels of whey permeate from 0% to 18.75% fed until 11 kg BW. Feed intake and BW were measured during 11 d. Six pigs per treatment (1 per pens) were euthanized to collect the jejunum to evaluate tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-8 (IL-8), transforming growth factor-beta 1, mucin 2, histomorphology, digestive enzyme activity, crypt cell proliferation rate, and jejunal mucosa-associated microbiota. Data were analyzed using contrasts in the MIXED procedure and a broken-line analysis using the NLIN procedure of SAS. In exp. 1, increasing whey permeate had a quadratic effect (P < 0.05) on feed efficiency (G:F; maximum: 1.35 at 18.3%) in phase 1. Increasing whey permeate linearly increased (P < 0.05) average daily gain (ADG; 292 to 327 g/d) and G:F (0.96 to 1.04) of pigs in phase 2. In exp. 2, increasing whey permeate linearly increased (P < 0.05) ADG (349 to 414 g/d) and G:F (0.78 to 0.85) and linearly increased (P < 0.05) crypt cell proliferation rate (27.8% to 37.0%). The breakpoint from a broken-line analysis was obtained at 13.6% whey permeate for maximal G:F. Increasing whey permeate tended to change IL-8 (quadratic, P = 0.052; maximum: 223 pg/mg at 10.9%), to decrease Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes (P = 0.073, 1.59 to 1.13), to increase (P = 0.089) Bifidobacteriaceae (0.73% to 1.11%), and to decrease Enterobacteriaceae (P = 0.091, 1.04% to 0.52%) and Streptococcaceae (P = 0.094, 1.50% to 0.71%) in the jejunal mucosa. In conclusion, dietary inclusion of whey permeate increased the growth of nursery pigs from 7 to 11 kg BW. Pigs grew most efficiently with 13.6% whey permeate. Improvement in growth performance is partly attributed to stimulating intestinal immune response and enterocyte proliferation with positive changes in jejunal mucosa-associated microbiota in nursery pigs.


Asunto(s)
Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Lactosa , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Dieta/veterinaria , Leche , Porcinos , Suero Lácteo
13.
J Anim Sci ; 99(2)2021 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476384

RESUMEN

Genetic strategies aimed at improving general immune competence (IC) have the potential to reduce the incidence and severity of disease in beef production systems, with resulting benefits of improved animal health and welfare and reduced reliance on antibiotics to prevent and treat disease. Implementation of such strategies first requires that methodologies be developed to phenotype animals for IC and demonstration that these phenotypes are associated with health outcomes. We have developed a methodology to identify IC phenotypes in beef steers during the yard weaning period, which is both practical to apply on-farm and does not restrict the future sale of tested animals. In the current study, a total of 838 Angus steers, previously IC phenotyped at weaning, were categorized as low (n = 98), average (n = 653), or high (n = 88) for the IC phenotype. Detailed health and productivity data were collected on all steers during feedlot finishing, and associations between IC phenotype, health outcomes, and productivity were investigated. A favorable association between IC phenotype and number of mortalities during feedlot finishing was observed with higher mortalities recorded in low IC steers (6.1%) as compared with average (1.2%, P < 0.001) or high (0%, P = 0.018) IC steers. Disease incidence was numerically highest in low IC steers (15.3 cases/100 animals) and similar in average IC steers (10.1 cases/100 animals) and high IC steers (10.2 cases/100 animals); however, differences between groups were not significant. No significant influence of IC phenotype on average daily gain was observed, suggesting that selection for improved IC is unlikely to incur a significant penalty to production. The potential economic benefits of selecting for IC in the feedlot production environment were calculated. Health-associated costs were calculated as the sum of lost production costs, lost capital investment costs, and disease treatment costs. Based on these calculations, health-associated costs were estimated at AUS$103/head in low IC steers, AUS$25/head in average IC steers, and AUS$4/head in high IC steers, respectively. These findings suggest that selection for IC has the potential to reduce mortalities during feedlot finishing and, as a consequence, improve the health and welfare of cattle in the feedlot production environment and reduce health-associated costs incurred by feedlot operators.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal , Dieta , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Bovinos , Fenotipo , Destete
14.
J Anim Sci ; 99(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476395

RESUMEN

Folate is increasingly thought to promote gastrointestinal health and regulate the diversity of gut microbiota to alleviate weaning stress in piglets. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of folate on organ weight, digesta pH, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) concentration, and intestinal microbiota in weaned piglets. A total of 28 piglets (6.73 ± 0.62 kg) were allocated to four dietary treatments consisting of a control group, 3, 9, and 18 mg/kg of folate supplementation in a 14-d feeding trial. The results showed that piglets fed with 9 and 18 mg/kg of folate supplementation had greater (P < 0.05) average liver and spleen weight than the control group. Folate supplementation (9 and 18 mg/kg) can significantly increase (P < 0.05) the stomach pH and tend (P < 0.10) to decrease the cecum pH. Folate treatment (9 and 18 mg/kg) had a positive effect on the metabolism of SCFAs in piglets, in particular, compared with the control group, and the content of acetic acid (AA) and valeric acid was markedly increased (P < 0.05) in the cecum and colon, respectively. Moreover, isobutyric acid, butyric acid, and isovaleric acid were tended (P < 0.10) to increase in the colon. Cecum contents samples were used to determine bacterial community diversity by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. At the genus level, in the cecum, there was a higher (P < 0.05) relative abundance of Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus salivarius, and Lactobacillus mucosae in the 9 mg/kg folate supplementation group. The functional pathways analysis predicted that folate may modify nutrient metabolism by changing the gut microbiota function of weaned piglets. Furthermore, the data showed that Lactobacillus was positively correlated with AA in the cecum. Overall, these findings suggested that folate treatment could increase the organ weight and the stomach pH of weaned piglets and had beneficial effects on gut health, which might be attributed to the alteration in intestinal microbiota induced by folate and the interaction of the intestinal microbiota with SCFAs.


Asunto(s)
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Suplementos Dietéticos/análisis , Ácidos Grasos Volátiles , Ácido Fólico , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Lactobacillus , Tamaño de los Órganos , ARN Ribosómico 16S , Porcinos , Destete
15.
J Anim Sci ; 99(2)2021 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33511415

RESUMEN

Rendered products from the meat industry provide quality proteins in diets for companion animals. These proteins are exposed to extreme temperatures during processing leading to the potential for decreased diet digestibility and subsequent growth performance. While this would impact production efficiency in livestock species, oxidized ingredients in companion animal diets may impact health and longevity. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which a feedstuff containing oxidized protein and lipid affect diet digestibility, growth performance, and oxidative stress in nursery pigs. A total of 56 male pigs (21 d of age, initial body weight 5.51 ± 0.65 kg) were randomly assigned to one of the four dietary treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with two levels of heat and two levels of antioxidant (AOX). Diets were fed for 35 d and growth performance was measured, while total tract digestibility and nitrogen (N) balance was determined during the trial on day 18-20. Blood plasma was collected on day 34 and jejunum, colon, and liver tissues were collected on day 35 to analyze for markers of oxidative stress. Average daily feed intake (ADFI) was reduced in pigs fed diets without AOXs (P = 0.02). Additionally, pigs consuming diets containing heated chicken byproduct (CBP) meal had decreased gain:feed (GF; P = 0.02). There was an interaction between heat and AOX (P = 0.02) where heating CBP reduced N digestibility in the presence of an AOX but did not have an impact when AOX was not present. The removal of AOX resulted in reduced GE digestibility (P < 0.01). Dry matter (P < 0.01), ash (P < 0.01), and protein (P < 0.01) digestibility were reduced (P < 0.01) as a result of heating. Furthermore, heating (P =0.01) as well as absence of AOX (P =0.01) resulted in reduced digestible energy. No difference was detected in N retention suggesting that oxidation reduces digestibility but has no impact on N utilization. This is supported by the fact that systemic oxidative stress was not consistently affected by heating or AOX inclusion. These results suggest that feeding pigs CBP containing oxidized proteins and lipids did not induce oxidative stress. However, feeding young pigs CBP containing oxidized proteins and lipids did result in reduced energy and nutrient digestibility as well as negatively affected feed efficiency. Because CBP is commonly used in companion animal diets, it is reasonable to revisit their impacts on those species.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal , Pollos , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Dieta/veterinaria , Digestión , Masculino , Estrés Oxidativo , Porcinos
16.
J Anim Sci ; 99(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33454733

RESUMEN

Plant extracts have been widely used in animal production systems due to the benefits promoted by their bioactive components, mainly through their antioxidant effects and positive effects on animal growth, health, and meat quality. We determined whether bioactive compounds (BC) from grape (Vitis vinifera), olive (Olea europaea), and pomegranate (Punica granatum) have beneficial effects on lamb growth while controlling gastrointestinal parasitism and reducing skeletal lipid peroxidation in muscle. Fourteen lambs (4 to 5 mo of age) were housed in individual pens and assigned to two treatment groups (seven animals/group), where they received: 1) a basal diet of beet pulp:soybean meal (90:10) (CONTROL) and 2) the same diet, but containing 0.3% of BC extracted from grape, olive, and pomegranate (BNP). After 21 d of consuming their respective rations (period 1), all lambs were dosed with 10,000 L3 stage larvae of Haemonchus contortus. Intake, production, and physiological parameters were determined before infection (period 1), after oral dosage with L3 (period 2), and during early (period 3) and later (period 4) developmental stages of infection. Groups of animals did not differ in their ration intake or average daily gain, either before or after the infection, or in their parasitic burdens estimated through fecal egg counts (P > 0.05). Lambs under BNP showed greater feed efficiency before infection (P < 0.001), but the pattern reversed after infection. In addition, the inclusion of plant bioactives to the diet did not have an effect (P > 0.05) on blood or lipid peroxidation in muscle or on hemogram, serum concentration of haptoglobin, and immunoglobulin E. These results could be explained by low dietary doses and constrained absorption or ruminal inactivation of these compounds. Changes in feed efficiencies suggest a negative interaction between BC in the diet and parasitism, which warrants further research.


Asunto(s)
Parásitos , Enfermedades de las Ovejas , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Dieta/veterinaria , Peroxidación de Lípido , Músculos , Recuento de Huevos de Parásitos/veterinaria , Fitoquímicos , Ovinos , Enfermedades de las Ovejas/tratamiento farmacológico
17.
J Anim Sci ; 99(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33454743

RESUMEN

Milk oligosaccharides (MO) are bioactive compounds in mammalian milk that provide health benefits to neonates beyond essential nutrients. GNU100, a novel animal MO biosimilar, was recently tested in vitro, with results showing beneficial shifts in microbiota and increased short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production, but other effects of GNU100 were unknown. Three studies were conducted to evaluate the safety, palatability, and gastrointestinal (GI) tolerance of GNU100. In study 1, the mutagenic potential of GNU100 was tested using a bacterial reverse mutation assay and a mammalian cell micronucleus test. In study 2, palatability was assessed by comparing diets containing 0% vs. 1% GNU100 in 20 adult dogs. In study 3, 32 adult dogs were used in a completely randomized design to assess the safety and GI tolerance of GNU100 and explore utility. Following a 2-wk baseline, dogs were assigned to one of four treatments and fed for 26 wk: 0%, 0.5%, 1%, and 1.5% GNU100. On weeks 2, 4, and 26, fresh fecal samples were collected to measure stool quality, immunoglobulin A, and calprotectin, and blood samples were collected to measure serum chemistry, inflammatory markers, and hematology. On weeks 2 and 4, fresh fecal samples were collected to measure metabolites and microbiota. On week 4, total feces were collected to assess apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility. Although revertant numbers were greater compared with the solvent control in tester strain WP2uvrA(pKM101) in the presence of metabolic activation (S9) in the initial experiment, they remained below the threshold for a positive mutagenic response in follow-up confirmatory tests, supporting that GNU100 is not mutagenic. Similarly, no cytotoxicity or chromosome damage was observed in the cell micronucleus test. The palatability test showed that 1% GNU100 was strongly preferred (P < 0.05; 3.6:1 consumption ratio) over the control. In study 3, all dogs were healthy and had no signs of GI intolerance or illness. All diets were well accepted, and food intake, fecal characteristics, metabolite concentrations, and macronutrient digestibilities were not altered. GNU100 modulated fecal microbiota, increasing evenness and Catenibacterium, Megamonas, and Prevotella (SCFA producers) and reducing Collinsella. Overall, the results suggest that GNU100 is palatable and well-tolerated, causes no genotoxicity or adverse effects on health, and beneficially shifts the fecal microbiota, supporting the safety of GNU100 for the inclusion in canine diets.


Asunto(s)
Biosimilares Farmacéuticos , Microbiota , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Dieta/veterinaria , Digestión , Perros , Heces , Leche , Nutrientes , Oligosacáridos
18.
J Environ Radioact ; 229-230: 106543, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33515923

RESUMEN

Data, despite being crucial for internal dose assessment, is lacking on the transfer of artificial radionuclides from the environment to the food supply. Expanding the available information on these factors is important for the improvement of dose models for specific scenarios. This paper describes the results of a 70 day field experiment with broiler chickens on the dynamics of excretion of 137Cs and 241Am from the muscle, liver and bone of broilers after a 30 day application of contaminated feed. The radionuclide concentrations in the feed and the thigh muscle, thigh bone and liver of 54 chickens divided between grass meal and soil contaminated feed groups were evaluated by gamma spectrometry for 241Am and 137Cs. The obtained results confirm previous data on the dynamics of the excretion of cesium from organs, which can be described with a fast and a slow exponential curve of excretion. On the 70th day, following the 30-days application, 2-8% of the first-day activity concentrations of 137Cs in organs (muscle, liver, bone) were detected. In the first two days, activity concentration of 241Am decreases twofold in both liver and bone. 35% of the maximum activity concentration of 241Am remained in bone and 15% in liver on the last day of the experiment.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo de Radiación , Contaminantes Radiactivos del Suelo , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Radioisótopos de Cesio/análisis , Pollos , Contaminantes Radiactivos del Suelo/análisis
19.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(4): 814-824, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480561

RESUMEN

The black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) is an endangered mustelid native to North America. Gastroenteritis is a documented cause of morbidity and mortality in managed individuals, particularly by infectious agents. Fecal cytology is an inexpensive and rapid test that can help guide clinical management strategies for animals with enteritis; however, normal parameters have not been established in black-footed ferrets. The objective of this study was to characterize fecal cytological findings of 50 fecal samples from 18 black-footed ferrets that received two different diet types (ground meat versus whole prey) and that were visibly judged to be normal or abnormal. This study also tested for the presence of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in all abnormal and a subset of normal fecal samples. Significantly higher spore-forming bacteria and yeast prevalence were present in normal feces from individuals following the meat-based compared with the whole-prey diet. Samples from individuals with abnormal feces had significantly more spore-forming bacteria than normal feces, regardless of diet. Normal feces had higher diplococci and spore-forming bacteria compared with domestic canine and feline standards. A single abnormal fecal sample was positive for enterotoxin and originated from the only animal requiring treatment. Results indicate that low numbers of spore-forming bacteria can be found in fecal samples from clinically normal black-footed ferrets. Fecal cytology shows significantly increased spore-formers in clinically abnormal ferrets and in clinically normal ferrets following a ground meat-based diet.


Asunto(s)
Clostridium perfringens , Enterotoxinas/química , Heces/microbiología , Hurones/microbiología , Alimentación Animal , Animales , Dieta/veterinaria , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática/veterinaria , Heces/química , Femenino , Masculino
20.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 10(1): 21, 2021 01 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33514424

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a growing global problem to which the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic may further contribute. With resources deployed away from antimicrobial stewardship, evidence of substantial pre-emptive antibiotic use in COVID-19 patients and indirectly, with deteriorating economic conditions fuelling poverty potentially impacting on levels of resistance, AMR threat remains significant. MAIN BODY: In this paper, main AMR countermeasures are revisited and priorities to tackle the issue are re-iterated. The need for collaboration is stressed, acknowledging the relationship between human health, animal health and environment ("One Health" approach). Among the stated priorities, the initiative by the European Medicines Regulatory Network to further strengthen the measures in combatting AMR is highlighted. Likewise, it is asserted that other emerging health threats require global collaboration with the One Health approach offering a valuable blueprint for action. CONCLUSION: The authors stress the importance of an integrated preparedness strategy to tackle this public health peril.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana/genética , Salud Única/legislación & jurisprudencia , Pandemias , /patogenicidad , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Bienestar del Animal/legislación & jurisprudencia , Animales , Programas de Optimización del Uso de los Antimicrobianos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Bacterias/genética , Bacterias/patogenicidad , Infecciones Bacterianas/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones Bacterianas/microbiología , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Humanos , Cooperación Internacional , Ganado/microbiología
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