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1.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(3): e20190903, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533801

RESUMEN

The aims of this study were to determine the fatty acid profile of meat from lambs fed with different levels of safflower seed (0%, 7.5%, and 15%) and, also, to compare the characteristics of the meat patties prepared from this lamb meat (LMP) with beef meat patties (BMP). The safflower seed-supplemented diet did not change the contents of polyunsaturated and unsaturated fatty acids, except for C22:1. All meat patty formulations were considered safe for consumption. The values of cooking yield, shrinkage, water absorption index, luminosity (L*), and redness (a*) were similar for the LMP and BMP tested. While the safflower seed-supplemented diet did not alter the moisture, ash, and protein levels of LMP, the lipid content was lower than that in BMP. The incorporation of 15% safflower seed into lamb feed contributed to promoting better sensory attributes of the meat patties. Most of the physicochemical properties evaluated were similar among LMP and BMP. However, to improve the sensory properties of the product, dietary supplementation with 15% safflower seed is recommended.


Asunto(s)
Carthamus tinctorius , Carne Roja , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Bovinos , Dieta , Suplementos Dietéticos , Ácidos Grasos , Carne/análisis , Semillas , Ovinos
2.
J Anim Sci ; 99(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33521817

RESUMEN

We determined whether sheep discriminate among different mineral supplements containing P and Mg and if they modify their selection as a function of the basal diet received. Forty lambs were offered four-way choices among inorganic sources of P and Mg: magnesium oxide in its coarse 1) C-MgO and granular 2) MgO forms and magnesium phosphate: 3) Mag33 (33% Mg and 2.7% P), and 4) MGP (25% Mg and 15% P), and two-way choices between MGP and each of the other minerals, and between MgO and C-MgO (baseline). Subsequently, lambs were randomly assigned to four groups (10 lambs/group) and fed rations such that the levels of Mg and P were low (LMg_LP), adequate (NMg_NP), low in Mg and adequate in P (LMg_NP), or adequate in Mg and low in P (NMg_LP). After 29 d, choice tests (post-deficiency) were repeated. During baseline, lambs ate and preferred Mag33 > C-MgO = MGP > MgO (P < 0.05). This pattern remained during post-deficiency tests, but lambs in LMg_LP and LMg_NP increased their preference for MGP and C-MgO, respectively, whereas lambs in NMg_LP increased their preference for C-MgO and MGP relative to baseline (P < 0.05). The serum concentrations of P and Mg increased after preference tests, and preference for MgO and MGP in low-Mg groups increased as the serum concentration of Mg declined (P < 0.05). Thus, lambs discriminated among different minerals and some groups modified their preferences based on the basal diets received, which rectified mineral imbalances.


Asunto(s)
Magnesio , Fósforo , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Dieta/veterinaria , Ingestión de Alimentos , Ovinos
3.
J Anim Sci ; 99(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33521816

RESUMEN

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate dose-response and supplemental effects of whey permeate on growth performance and intestinal health of nursery pigs. In experiment (exp.) 1, 1,080 pigs weaned at 6.24 kg body weight (BW) were allotted to five treatments (eight pens/treatment) with increasing levels of whey permeate in three phases (from 10% to 30%, 3% to 23%, and 0% to 9% for phase 1, 2, and 3, respectively) fed until 11 kg BW and then fed a common phase 4 diet (0% whey permeate) until 25 kg BW in a 48-d feeding trial. Feed intake and BW were measured at the end of each phase. In exp. 2, 1,200 nursery pigs at 7.50 kg BW were allotted to six treatments (10 pens/treatment) with increasing levels of whey permeate from 0% to 18.75% fed until 11 kg BW. Feed intake and BW were measured during 11 d. Six pigs per treatment (1 per pens) were euthanized to collect the jejunum to evaluate tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-8 (IL-8), transforming growth factor-beta 1, mucin 2, histomorphology, digestive enzyme activity, crypt cell proliferation rate, and jejunal mucosa-associated microbiota. Data were analyzed using contrasts in the MIXED procedure and a broken-line analysis using the NLIN procedure of SAS. In exp. 1, increasing whey permeate had a quadratic effect (P < 0.05) on feed efficiency (G:F; maximum: 1.35 at 18.3%) in phase 1. Increasing whey permeate linearly increased (P < 0.05) average daily gain (ADG; 292 to 327 g/d) and G:F (0.96 to 1.04) of pigs in phase 2. In exp. 2, increasing whey permeate linearly increased (P < 0.05) ADG (349 to 414 g/d) and G:F (0.78 to 0.85) and linearly increased (P < 0.05) crypt cell proliferation rate (27.8% to 37.0%). The breakpoint from a broken-line analysis was obtained at 13.6% whey permeate for maximal G:F. Increasing whey permeate tended to change IL-8 (quadratic, P = 0.052; maximum: 223 pg/mg at 10.9%), to decrease Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes (P = 0.073, 1.59 to 1.13), to increase (P = 0.089) Bifidobacteriaceae (0.73% to 1.11%), and to decrease Enterobacteriaceae (P = 0.091, 1.04% to 0.52%) and Streptococcaceae (P = 0.094, 1.50% to 0.71%) in the jejunal mucosa. In conclusion, dietary inclusion of whey permeate increased the growth of nursery pigs from 7 to 11 kg BW. Pigs grew most efficiently with 13.6% whey permeate. Improvement in growth performance is partly attributed to stimulating intestinal immune response and enterocyte proliferation with positive changes in jejunal mucosa-associated microbiota in nursery pigs.


Asunto(s)
Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Lactosa , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Dieta/veterinaria , Leche , Porcinos , Suero Lácteo
4.
J Anim Sci ; 99(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523182

RESUMEN

Based on results of a recent meta-analysis, we hypothesized that increased dietary Val, Ile, or Trp could correct possible amino acid interactions because of excess Leu in diets containing high levels of corn protein, namely dried distiller's grains with solubles (DDGS). A total of 1,200 pigs (PIC TR4 × (Fast LW × PIC L02); initially 33.6 ± 0.6 kg) were used in a 103-d study. The 6 dietary treatments were corn-soybean meal (SBM)-DDGS-based as follows: (1) high SBM and low level of l-Lys HCl (HSBM), (2) high l-Lys HCl and moderate Ile, Val, Trp (AA above NRC 2012 estimates; NC), (3) moderate l-Lys HCl and high Ile, Val, and Trp (PC), and PC with either increased (4) L-Val (PC+Val), (5) L-Ile (PC+Ile), or (6) L-Trp (PC+Trp). Pigs fed the NC diet were predicted to have the poorest average daily gain (ADG), the PC diet to be intermediate, and pigs fed the HSBM, PC+Val, PC+Ile, and PC+Trp have the same and highest predicted ADG. In the grower period (34 to 90 kg), ADG was greater (Ρ < 0.05) for the pigs fed HSBM and PC+Val diets than the NC with pigs fed other diets intermediate. Pigs fed HSBM were more (Ρ < 0.05) efficient (G:F) than the NC and PC with pigs fed other diets intermediate. In the finisher period (90 to 136 kg), ADG was greater (Ρ < 0.05) for pigs fed PC+Ile than that of the NC with pigs fed other diets intermediate. Pigs fed PC+Val had greater (Ρ < 0.05) average daily feed intake (ADFI) than the NC with pigs fed other diets intermediate. However, PC+Ile pigs were more (Ρ < 0.05) efficient than PC+Val with pigs fed other diets intermediate. Overall, ADG was greater (Ρ < 0.05) for pigs fed HSBM, PC+Val, and PC+Ile diets than the NC with pigs fed other diets intermediate. Pigs fed the PC+Val diet had greater (Ρ < 0.05) ADFI than the NC with pigs fed other diets intermediate. No differences were detected between treatments for overall G:F or other carcass characteristics. In conclusion, increasing Val or Ile in high l-Lys-HCl-DDGS-based diets improved growth performance compared with pigs fed diets containing high levels of l-Lys HCl without added Val and Ile. These results present evidence that the recently developed meta-analysis can predict the relative differences in overall ADG for pigs fed the NC, PC, PC+Val, and PC+Ile diets; however, the predicted G:F was less accurate. The data demonstrate that the negative effects of high Leu concentrations in corn-DDGS-based diets can be reversed by increasing the ratios of Val and Ile relative to Lys.


Asunto(s)
Isoleucina/administración & dosificación , Metaanálisis como Asunto , Porcinos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Triptófano/administración & dosificación , Valina/administración & dosificación , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Animales , Dieta/veterinaria , Zea mays
5.
J Anim Sci ; 99(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523183

RESUMEN

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of processing index (PI) of barley grain and dietary undigested neutral detergent fiber (uNDF) concentration on dry matter (DM) intake, chewing activity, ruminal pH and fermentation characteristics, total tract digestibility, gastrointestinal barrier function, and blood metabolites of finishing beef heifers. The PI was measured as the density after processing expressed as a percentage of the density before processing, and a smaller PI equates to a more extensively processed. Six ruminally cannulated heifers (average body weight, 715 ± 29 kg) were used in a 6 × 6 Latin square design with three PI (65%, 75%, and 85%) × 2 uNDF concentration (low and high; 4.6% vs. 5.6% of DM) factorial arrangement. The heifers were fed ad libitum a total mixed ration consisting of 10% barley silage (low uNDF), or 5% silage and 5% straw (high uNDF), 87% dry-rolled barley grain, and 3% mineral and vitamin supplements. Interactions (P < 0.01) of PI × uNDF were observed for DM intake, ruminating and total chewing time, and DM digestibility in the total digestive tract. Intake of DM, organic matter (OM), starch, and crude protein (CP) did not differ (P > 0.14) between low and high uNDF diets, but intakes of NDF and acid detergent fiber were greater (P = 0.01) for high uNDF diets regardless of barley PI. Heifers fed high uNDF diets had longer (P = 0.05) eating times (min/d or min/kg DM) and tended (P = 0.10) to have longer total chewing times (min/kg DM) than those fed low uNDF diets. Additionally, heifers sorted (P = 0.01) against long particles (>19 mm) for high uNDF diets but not for low uNDF diets. Altering PI of barley grain did not affect (P > 0.12) total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration, molar percentages of individual VFA, or duration of ruminal pH < 5.8 and <5.6. Total VFA concentration was less (P = 0.01), acetate percentage was greater (P = 0.01), and duration of ruminal pH < 5.8 and <5.6 was less (P = 0.05) for high compared with low uNDF diets. Digestibility of DM, OM, and CP was greater (P = 0.02) for low vs. high uNDF diets with PI of 65% and 75%, with no difference between low and high uNDF diets at PI of 85%. Blood metabolites and gastrointestinal tract barrier function were not affected (P ≥ 0.10) by the treatments. These results suggest that increasing dietary uNDF concentration is an effective strategy to improve ruminal pH status in finishing cattle, regardless of the extent of grain processing, whereas manipulating the extent of barley processing did not reduce the risk of ruminal acidosis.


Asunto(s)
Bovinos/metabolismo , Fibras de la Dieta/metabolismo , Digestión/fisiología , Hordeum , Rumen , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Animales , Bovinos/fisiología , Dieta/veterinaria , Fibras de la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Femenino , Fermentación , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Masticación , Nutrientes , Rumen/química , Rumen/metabolismo
6.
J Anim Sci ; 99(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528019

RESUMEN

Trehalose, a nonreducing disaccharide consisting of d-glucose with α,α-1,1 linkage, was evaluated as a functional material to improve the gut environment in preweaned calves. In experiment 1, 173 calves were divided into two groups; the trehalose group was fed trehalose at 30 g/animal/d with milk replacer during the suckling period, and the control group was fed nonsupplemented milk replacer. Medication frequency was lower in the trehalose group (P < 0.05). In experiment 2, calves (n = 20) were divided into two groups (control group [n = 10] and trehalose group [n = 10]) based on their body weight and reared under the same feeding regimens as in experiment 1. Fresh feces were collected from individual animals at the beginning of the trial (average age 11 d), 3 wk after trehalose feeding (experimental day 22), and 1 d before weaning, and the fecal score was recorded daily. Fecal samples were analyzed for fermentation parameters and microbiota. The fecal score was significantly lower in the trehalose group than in the control group in the early stage (at an age of 14 to 18 d; P < 0.05) of the suckling period. Calves fed trehalose tended to have a higher proportion of fecal butyrate on day 22 than calves in the control group (P = 0.08). Population sizes of Clostridium spp. were significantly lower (P = 0.036), whereas those of Dialister spp. and Eubacterium spp. tended to be higher in the feces of calves in the trehalose group on day 22 (P = 0.060 and P = 0.083). These observations indicate that trehalose feeding modulated the gut environment and partially contributed to the reduction in medication frequency observed in experiment 1.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Bovinos/epidemiología , Diarrea/veterinaria , Heces/microbiología , Microbiota , Leche , Trehalosa/administración & dosificación , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Peso Corporal , Bovinos , Diarrea/epidemiología , Dieta/veterinaria , Suplementos Dietéticos , Incidencia , Destete
7.
J Anim Sci ; 99(2)2021 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33529342

RESUMEN

High dietary protein may increase susceptibility of weaned pigs to enteric pathogens. Dietary supplementation with functional amino acids (FAA) may improve growth performance of pigs during disease challenge. The objective of this study was to evaluate the interactive effects of dietary protein content and FAA supplementation above requirements for growth on performance and immune response of weaned pigs challenged with Salmonella. Sixty-four mixed-sex weanling pigs (13.9 ± 0.82 kg) were randomly assigned to dietary treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with low (LP) or high protein (HP) content and basal (AA-) or FAA profile (AA+; Thr, Met, and Trp at 120% of requirements) as factors. After a 7-d adaptation period, pigs were inoculated with either a sterile saline solution (CT) or saline solution containing Salmonella Typhimurium (ST; 3.3 × 109 CFU/mL). Growth performance, body temperature, fecal score, acute-phase proteins, oxidant/antioxidant balance, ST shedding score in feces and intestinal colonization, fecal and digesta myeloperoxidase (MPO), and plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) were measured pre- and postinoculation. There were no dietary effects on any measures pre-inoculation or post-CT inoculation (P > 0.05). Inoculation with ST increased body temperature and fecal score (P < 0.05), serum haptoglobin, plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), PUN, and fecal MPO, and decreased serum albumin and plasma reduced glutathione (GSH):oxidized glutathione (GSSG) compared with CT pigs (P < 0.05). ST-inoculation reduced average daily gain (ADG) and feed intake (ADFI) vs. CT pigs (P < 0.05) but was increased by AA+ vs. AA- in ST pigs (P < 0.05). Serum albumin and GSH:GSSG were increased while haptoglobin and SOD were decreased in ST-inoculated pigs fed AA+ vs. AA- (P < 0.05). PUN was higher in HP vs. LP-fed pigs postinoculation (P < 0.05). Fecal ST score was increased in ST-inoculated pigs on days 1 and 2 postinoculation and declined by day 6 (P < 0.05) in all pigs while the overall score was reduced in AA+ vs. AA- pigs (P < 0.05). Cecal digesta ST score was higher in HP vs. LP-fed pigs and were lower in AA+ compared with AA- fed pigs in the colon (P < 0.05). Fecal and digesta MPO were reduced in ST pigs fed AA+ vs. AA- (P < 0.05). These results demonstrate a positive effect of FAA supplementation, with minimal effects of dietary protein, on performance and immune status in weaned pigs challenged with Salmonella.


Asunto(s)
Aminoácidos/administración & dosificación , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Salmonella typhimurium , Enfermedades de los Porcinos , Porcinos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Animales , Dieta/veterinaria , Proteínas en la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Suplementos Dietéticos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/microbiología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/prevención & control , Destete
8.
J Anim Sci ; 99(2)2021 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33527135

RESUMEN

The physiology of the sow mammary gland is qualitatively well described and understood. However, the quantitative effect of various biological mechanisms contributing to the synthesis of colostrum and milk is lacking and more complicated to obtain. The objective of this study was to integrate physiological and empirical knowledge of the production of colostrum and milk in a dynamic model of a single sow mammary gland to understand and quantify parameters controlling mammary gland output. In 1983, Heather Neal and John Thornley published a model of the mammary gland in cattle, which was used as a starting point for the development of this model. The original cattle model was reparameterized, modified, and extended to describe the production of milk by the sow mammary gland during lactation and the prepartum production of colostrum as the combined output of immunoglobulins (Ig) and milk. Initially, the model was reparameterized to simulate milk synthesis potential of a single gland by considering biological characteristics and empirical estimations of sows and piglets. Secondly, the model was modified to simulate more accurately the responses to changes in milk removal rates. This was done by linking the ejectable milk storage capacity to the number of secretory cells rather than being constant throughout lactation. Finally, the model was extended to include the prepartum synthesis of milk and the kinetics of Ig into and out of the mammary gland. A progressive capacity of secretory cells to synthesize milk was used to differentiate the time between the onset of milk synthesis and Ig transfer. Changes in maximum milk removal rate, duration of milk ejection, and nursing interval exerted a great impact on the modeled milk output. Changes by ±60% in one of these parameters were capable of increasing milk output by 28% to 39% during the first 4 wk in lactation compared with the reference parameterization. This suggests that the ability of the piglet to remove milk from the gland exerts a key control on milk synthesis during lactation. Modeling colostrum as the combined output of Ig and milk allowed to represent the rapid decline in Ig concentration observed during the first hours after farrowing. In conclusion, biological and empirical knowledge was integrated into a model of the sow mammary gland and constitutes a simple approach to explore in which conditions and to what extent individual parameters influence Ig kinetics and milk production.


Asunto(s)
Calostro , Lactancia , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Bovinos , Femenino , Inmunoglobulinas , Leche , Embarazo , Porcinos
9.
J Anim Sci ; 99(2)2021 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530108

RESUMEN

The objective of this study was to examine the conservation process and feed value of total mixed ration (TMR) silages. In exp. 1, we evaluated the fermentation pattern and aerobic stability of TMR silages containing different protein and lipid supplementations. In exp. 2, we compared the performance of finishing beef heifers fed those TMR silages. In both experiments, treatments were as follows: ensiled TMR with urea (U); ensiled TMR without a protein supplement at ensiling, but soybean meal supplemented at feeding to balance diet crude protein (CP) in exp. 2 (SMnf; where the acronym nf indicates nonfermented); ensiled TMR with soybean meal (SM); and ensiled TMR with rolled soybean grain (SG). Thirty-two Nellore heifers (313 ± 8.8 kg shrunk body weight [SBW]) were blocked by initial SBW, housed in individual pens, and enrolled in exp. 2 for 82 d. In exp. 1, treatment without a protein supplement (SMnf) had a lower content of CP, soluble CP, NH3-N, pH, and Clostridium count compared with U (P ≤ 0.03). Lactic acid concentrations tended to be reduced for SMnf compared with U (P = 0.09). Ethanol concentration was reduced in SG compared with SM (P < 0.01). 1,2-Propanediol concentration was increased in SMnf compared with U (P < 0.01), reduced in SM compared with SMnf (P = 0.02), and increased in SG compared with SM (P = 0.02). Dry matter (DM) loss during fermentation was low and similar among treatments (~3.7%). All silages remained stable during 10 d of aerobic exposure after feed out. Considering fermentation traits, such as pH (≤4.72), NH3-N (<10% of N, except for U treatment), butyric acid (<0.05 % DM), and DM losses (<3.70% DM), all silages can be considered well conserved. In exp. 2, diets were isonitrogenous because soybean meal was added to SMnf before feeding. Compared with SM, cattle fed SG made more meals per day (P = 0.04) and tended to have a decreased intermeal interval (P = 0.09). DM intake, average daily gain, final SBW, hot carcass weight, Biceps femoris fat thickness, and serum levels of triglycerides and cholesterol were increased for SG compared with SM (P ≤ 0.05). In brief, TMR silages exhibited an adequate fermentation pattern and high aerobic stability. The supplementation of true protein did not improve animal performance, whereas the addition of soybean grain as a lipid source improved the performance of finishing cattle fed TMR silages.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal , Ensilaje , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinaria , Suplementos Dietéticos , Femenino , Fermentación , Lípidos , Rumen/metabolismo , Ensilaje/análisis , Zea mays
10.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111724, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396055

RESUMEN

In recent years, in order to promote animal growth and reduce the risk of disease, a variety of antibiotics are frequently added to the animal feed of livestock and poultry. However, these antibiotics can not be fully digested by animals and most of them are excreted with feces, consequently causing the enrichment of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and huge environmental risks. Nowadays, composting is a better option to solve these problems. Accordingly, this study explored the effects of co-composting swine manure with different inoculants dominated by Phanerochaete chrysosporium (p), Aspergillus niger (a), and Bacillus licheniformis (b) on the simultaneous removal of multiple antibiotics and resistance genes and evolution of the bacterial community. The results showed that the highest removal extent of tetracycline and oxytetracycline occurred in pile D (p:b:a=1:5:5, biomass) reaching 89.2% and 87.8%, respectively, while the highest removal extent of doxycycline and enrofloxacin occurred in pile A (p:b:a=1:0:0, biomass) reaching 98.6% and 89%, respectively. Compared with the levels in pile B (control check), in pile D, ARGs, except those for sulfonamides, decreased by 1.059 × 10-3-6.68 × 10-2 gene copies/16S rRNA copies. Inoculation with p alone effectively reduced intI1 and intI2. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) that microbial community structure evolution had a greater influence on ARGs than environmental factors. In summary, this study provided a feasible way to efficiently remove the antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes in pig manure.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/análisis , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana/genética , Estiércol/microbiología , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Compostaje/métodos , Genes Bacterianos , Ganado , Microbiota/efectos de los fármacos , Oxitetraciclina/farmacología , ARN Ribosómico 16S , Porcinos , Tetraciclina/farmacología
11.
J Anim Sci ; 99(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33394016

RESUMEN

Although pork producers typically aim to optimize growth rates, occasionally it is necessary to slow growth, such as when harvest facility capacity is limited. In finishing pigs, numerous dietary strategies can be used to slow growth so pigs are at optimal slaughter body weights when harvest facility capacity and/or access is restored. However, the impact of these diets on pork carcass quality is largely unknown. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of dietary strategies to slow growth in late finishing pigs and evaluate their effects on carcass composition and pork quality. Mixed-sex pigs (n = 897; 125 ± 2 kg BW) were randomly allotted across 48 pens and assigned to 1 of 6 dietary treatments (n = 8 pens/treatment): (1) Control diet representative of a typical finisher diet (CON); (2) diet containing 3% calcium chloride (CaCl2); (3) diet containing 97% corn and no soybean meal (Corn); (4) diet deficient in isoleucine (LowIle); (5) diet containing 15% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) from soybean hulls (15% NDF); and (6) diet containing 20% NDF from soybean hulls (20% NDF). Over 42 d, pen body weights and feed disappearance were collected. Pigs were harvested in 3 groups (14, 28, and 42 d on feed) and carcass data collected. From the harvest group, 1 loin was collected from 120 randomly selected carcasses (20 loins/treatment) to evaluate pork quality traits. Overall, ADG was reduced in CaCl2, Corn, and 20% NDF pigs compared with CON pigs (P < 0.001). However, ADFI was only reduced in CaCl2 and 20% NDF pigs compared with CON (P < 0.001). Feed efficiency was reduced in CaCl2 and Corn pigs compared with CON (P < 0.001). Hot carcass weights were reduced in CaCl2 pigs at all harvest dates (P < 0.001) and were reduced in Corn and 20% NDF pigs at days 28 and 42 compared with CON pigs (P < 0.001). In general, CaCl2 and 20% NDF diets resulted in leaner carcasses, whereas the Corn diet increased backfat by 42 d on test (P < 0.05). Loin pH was reduced and star probe increased in CaCl2 pigs compared with CON pigs (P < 0.05); no treatments differed from CON pigs regarding drip loss, cook loss, color, firmness, or marbling (P ≥ 0.117). Overall, these data indicate that several dietary strategies can slow finishing pig growth without evidence of behavioral vices. However, changes to carcass composition and quality were also observed, indicating quality should be taken into consideration when choosing diets to slow growth.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal/análisis , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Carne de Cerdo , Porcinos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Animales , Composición Corporal , Dieta/veterinaria
12.
Food Chem ; 346: 128898, 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33453579

RESUMEN

In 2016, the European Commission recommended the Member States to monitor the content of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids in food and feed derived from hemp and in food of animal origin for possible transfer from feed. Thus, the Italian Ministry of Health implemented a monitoring plan. To this aim, nine cannabinoids in beverages and food for human consumption and in feed were determined. The method applied, based on rapid clean-up and LC-MS/MS determination, was previously developed and in-house validated, evaluating the analytical performance in the concentration ranges 2-50 µg/L for beverages, 0.020-0.500 mg/kg for food and 0.100-10.0 mg/kg for feed. Then, it was applied to determine the cannabinoids in 78 food, 16 beverage and 6 feed samples, collected from the Italian market since 2017. The results are herein reported, for evaluation of both product characteristics and compliance to national maximum limits. Some study cases are also described.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal/análisis , Bebidas/análisis , Cromatografía Liquida , Dronabinol/análisis , Análisis de los Alimentos/métodos , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem , Animales , Cannabis/química , Humanos , Italia
13.
J Anim Sci ; 99(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507282

RESUMEN

Electronic sow feeding (ESF) systems are used to control feed delivery to individual sows that are group-housed. Feeding levels for gestating sows are typically restricted to prevent excessive body weight gain. Any alteration of intake from the allocated feeding curve or unusual feeding behavior could indicate potential health issues. The objective of this study was to use data recorded by ESF to establish and characterize novel feed intake and feeding behavior traits and to estimate their heritabilities. Raw data were available from two farms with in-house manufactured (Farm A) or commercial (Farm B) ESF. The traits derived included feed intake, time spent eating, and rate of feed consumption, averaged across or within specific time periods of gestation. Additional phenotypes included average daily number of feeding events (AFE), along with the cumulative numbers of days where sows spent longer than 30 min in the ESF (ABOVE30), missed their daily intake (MISSF), or consumed below 1 kg of feed (BELOW1). The appetite of sows was represented by averages of score (APPETITE), a binary value for allocation eaten or not (DA_bin), or the standard deviation of the difference between feed intake and allocation (SDA-I). Gilts took longer to eat than sows (15.5 ± 0.13 vs. 14.1 ± 0.11 min/d) despite a lower feed allocation (2.13 ± 0.00 vs. 2.36 ± 0.01 kg/d). The lowest heritability estimates (below 0.10) occurred for feed intake traits, due to the restriction in feed allocation, although heritabilities were slightly higher for Farm B, with restriction in the eating time. The low heritability for AFE (0.05 ± 0.02) may have reflected the lack of recording of nonfeeding visits, but repeatability was moderate (0.26 ± 0.03, Farm A). Time-related traits were moderately to highly heritable and repeatable, demonstrating genetic variation between individuals in their feeding behaviors. Heritabilities for BELOW1 (Farm A: 0.16 ± 0.04 and Farm B: 0.15 ± 0.09) and SDA-I (Farm A: 0.17 ± 0.04 and Farm B: 0.10 ± 0.08) were similar across farms. In contrast, MISSF was moderately heritable in Farm A (0.19 ± 0.04) but lowly heritable in Farm B (0.05 ± 0.07). Heritabilities for DA_bin were dissimilar between farms (Farm A: 0.02 ± 0.02 and Farm B: 0.23 ± 0.10) despite similar incidence. Individual phenotypes constructed from ESF data could be useful for genetic evaluation purposes, but equivalent capabilities to generate phenotypes were not available for both ESF systems.


Asunto(s)
Ingestión de Alimentos , Conducta Alimentaria , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Apetito , Electrónica , Femenino , Fenotipo , Porcinos
14.
J Anim Sci ; 99(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507284

RESUMEN

As a novel oilseed crop in Florida, Brassica carinata has the capacity of producing high-quality jet biofuel, with a protein-dense meal (~40% crude protein; CP) obtained as a by-product of oil extraction. Characterization of the meal protein is limited, yet necessary for formulation of beef cattle diets; therefore, the objective of this experiment was to determine ruminal and postruminal digestibility of protein from B. carinata. Eight ruminally cannulated Angus crossbred steers (473 ± 119 kg) were used in a duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square design, in which in situ ruminal and postruminal degradability of nutrients were evaluated. The three-step in vitro procedure was used to compare CP and amino acid (AA) degradation in B. carinata meal pellets (BCM) with that of cottonseed meal (CSM), dry distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), and soybean meal (SBM). In situ bags were incubated in the rumen for 0 to 96 hr, with the undegraded supplement remaining after 16 hr subjected to serial in vitro enzymatic solutions. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Ruminal rate of degradation of dry matter, organic matter, and CP was greatest (P ˂ 0.01; 10.9, 11.3, and 11.5 %/h, respectively) for SBM. Rumen degradable protein (RDP) content did not differ (P = 0.20; 47.8% and 55.1%, respectively) between CSM and DDGS, but was decreased (P ˂ 0.01) compared with SBM and BCM, which did not differ (P = 0.99; 72.3% and 71.8% RDP, respectively). Compared with DDGS, SBM had greater (P < 0.01) intestinal digestibility of rumen undegradable protein (RUP). Intestinally absorbable digestible protein (IADP) was greatest (P < 0.01) for CSM, with SBM and BCM having the least IADP. Total tract digestibility of CP (TTDP) was greater (P < 0.01) for SBM compared with CSM and DDGS. The contribution of RUP to intestinally absorbable AA was 7.2 and 3.1 g of lysine and methionine per kilogram of CP in BCM, respectively. The evaluation of B. carinata meal as protein supplemented for cattle consuming a forage-based diet resulted in 71.8% RDP and 97.1% TTDP, thus indicating its viability as a high-quality protein supplement for beef cattle.


Asunto(s)
Brassica , Rumen , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Brassica/metabolismo , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinaria , Proteínas en la Dieta/metabolismo , Digestión , Fermentación , Florida , Rumen/metabolismo
15.
J Anim Sci ; 99(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507290

RESUMEN

Objectives of this study were to evaluate apparent total tract nutrient digestibility and purine derivative (PD) excretion in dairy heifers limit-fed diets containing wet brewer's grains (WBG) treated with salt. A 12-wk replicated 4 × 4 Latin square was conducted using 8 Holstein heifers of 224.5 ± 19.4 d of age, and body weight (BW) of 219.2 ± 28.1 kg (mean ± SD). Fresh WBG were treated with 0%, 0.8%, 1.6%, and 2.4% salt and stored for 4 d before being fed. Salt was added either to the WBG or separately to equalize the amount of salt in the diet. The diet contained 9% grass silage, 47% corn silage, 19% corn meal, 17.6% WBG and salt, 2% soybean meal, and 3% mineral mix. Diets were formulated to be limit-fed at 2.15% of BW, provide 14% crude protein (CP) and 2.27 Mcal metabolizable energy (ME)/kg of dry matter (DM). Heifers were adapted to diets for 14 d followed by a 7-d collection period. Dry matter intake (DMI) was recorded daily during the collection week while BW was recorded once a week. Urine and fecal samples were collected during the last 4 d of the collection period. Acid insoluble ash was used as an internal marker to determine apparent nutrient digestibility. Weight loss of WBG during storage was determined from days 1 to 11 and initial and final yeast and mold counts were determined. Final yeast counts were similar among treatments while final mold counts tended to be lesser (P = 0.07) for the 0.8% and 1.6% salt treatments. Urinary volume was similar among treatments while allantoin (P = 0.14), and uric acid (P < 0.01) and total PD excretion tended to increase (P = 0.13) quadratically. DMI was varied by treatment (linear, quadratic, and cubic effects P < 0.01). Heifers fed the 0.8% treatment had the least DMI. Nonfiber carbohydrate (NFC) digestibility linearly decreased (P < 0.04) as salt increased. Digestibilities of DM, and organic matter (OM), tended to decrease (P < 0.10) with increasing levels of salt added to WBG. Fat digestibility was quadratic with the greatest value for the 1.6% treatment. Treating WBG with salt reduced its deterioration based on lesser mold counts for the 0.8% and 1.6% treatments. These treatments had resulted in greater fat digestibility and tended to have increased PD excretion suggesting improved microbial protein synthesis.


Asunto(s)
Digestión , Rumen , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinaria , Femenino , Nutrientes , Purinas , Ensilaje/análisis , Zea mays
16.
J Anim Sci ; 99(2)2021 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33511410

RESUMEN

Human-grade (HG) pet foods are commercially available, but they have not been well studied. Our objective was to determine the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of HG pet foods and evaluate their effects on fecal characteristics, microbiota, and metabolites, serum metabolites, and hematology of dogs. Twelve dogs (mean age = 5.5 ± 1.0; BW = 11.6 ± 1.6 kg) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design (n = 12/treatment). The diets included 1) Chicken and Brown Rice Recipe (extruded; Blue Buffalo); 2) Roasted Meals Tender Chicken Recipe (fresh; Freshpet); 3) Beef and Russet Potato Recipe (HG beef; JustFoodForDogs); and 4) Chicken and White Rice Recipe (HG chicken; JustFoodForDogs). Each period consisted of 28 d, with a 6-d diet transition phase, 16 d of consuming 100% of the diet, a 5-d phase for fecal collection, and 1 d for blood collection. All data were analyzed using the Mixed Models procedure of SAS 9.4. Dogs fed the extruded diet required a higher (P < 0.05) daily food intake (dry matter basis, DMB) to maintain BW. The ATTD of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), energy, and acid-hydrolyzed fat (AHF) were greater (P < 0.05) in dogs fed the HG diets than those fed the fresh diet, and greater (P < 0.05) in dogs fed the fresh diet than those fed the extruded diet. Crude protein ATTD was lower (P < 0.05) for dogs fed the extruded diet than those fed all other diets. Dogs fed the extruded diet had greater (P < 0.05) fecal output (as-is; DMB) than dogs fed fresh (1.5-1.7 times greater) or HG foods (2.0-2.9 times greater). There were no differences in fecal pH, scores, and metabolites, but microbiota were affected by diet. Dogs fed HG beef had higher (P < 0.05) relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and lower (P < 0.05) relative abundance of Firmicutes than dogs fed the fresh or HG chicken diets. The Actinobacteria, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Spirochaetes phyla were unchanged (P > 0.05), but diet modified the relative abundance of nearly 20 bacterial genera. Similar to previous reports, these data demonstrate that the fecal microbiota of dogs fed HG or fresh diets is markedly different than those consuming extruded diets, likely due to ingredient, nutrient, and processing differences. Serum metabolites and hematology were not greatly affected by diet. In conclusion, the HG pet foods tested resulted in significantly reduced fecal output, were highly digestible, maintained fecal characteristics, serum chemistry, and hematology, and modified the fecal microbiota of dogs.


Asunto(s)
Digestión , Microbiota , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Animales , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinaria , Perros , Heces , Tracto Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Nutrientes
17.
J Anim Sci ; 99(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33515465

RESUMEN

As a novel oilseed crop in Florida, Brassica carinata has the capacity of producing high-quality jet biofuel, with a protein-dense meal (~40% crude protein; CP) obtained as a by-product of oil extraction. Characterization of the meal protein is limited, yet necessary for formulation of beef cattle diets; therefore, the objective of this experiment was to determine ruminal and postruminal digestibility of protein from B. carinata. Eight ruminally cannulated Angus crossbred steers (473 ± 119 kg) were used in a duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square design, in which in situ ruminal and postruminal degradability of nutrients were evaluated. The three-step in vitro procedure was used to compare CP and amino acid (AA) degradation in B. carinata meal pellets (BCM) with that of cottonseed meal (CSM), dry distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), and soybean meal (SBM). In situ bags were incubated in the rumen for 0 to 96 hr, with the undegraded supplement remaining after 16 hr subjected to serial in vitro enzymatic solutions. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Ruminal rate of degradation of dry matter, organic matter, and CP was greatest (P ˂ 0.01; 10.9, 11.3, and 11.5 %/h, respectively) for SBM. Rumen degradable protein (RDP) content did not differ (P = 0.20; 47.8% and 55.1%, respectively) between CSM and DDGS, but was decreased (P ˂ 0.01) compared with SBM and BCM, which did not differ (P = 0.99; 72.3% and 71.8% RDP, respectively). Compared with DDGS, SBM had greater (P < 0.01) intestinal digestibility of rumen undegradable protein (RUP). Intestinally absorbable digestible protein (IADP) was greatest (P < 0.01) for CSM, with SBM and BCM having the least IADP. Total tract digestibility of CP (TTDP) was greater (P < 0.01) for SBM compared with CSM and DDGS. The contribution of RUP to intestinally absorbable AA was 7.2 and 3.1 g of lysine and methionine per kilogram of CP in BCM, respectively. The evaluation of B. carinata meal as protein supplemented for cattle consuming a forage-based diet resulted in 71.8% RDP and 97.1% TTDP, thus indicating its viability as a high-quality protein supplement for beef cattle.


Asunto(s)
Brassica , Rumen , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Brassica/metabolismo , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinaria , Proteínas en la Dieta/metabolismo , Digestión , Fermentación , Florida , Rumen/metabolismo
18.
J Anim Sci ; 99(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33515466

RESUMEN

Objectives of this study were to evaluate apparent total tract nutrient digestibility and purine derivative (PD) excretion in dairy heifers limit-fed diets containing wet brewer's grains (WBG) treated with salt. A 12-wk replicated 4 × 4 Latin square was conducted using 8 Holstein heifers of 224.5 ± 19.4 d of age, and body weight (BW) of 219.2 ± 28.1 kg (mean ± SD). Fresh WBG were treated with 0%, 0.8%, 1.6%, and 2.4% salt and stored for 4 d before being fed. Salt was added either to the WBG or separately to equalize the amount of salt in the diet. The diet contained 9% grass silage, 47% corn silage, 19% corn meal, 17.6% WBG and salt, 2% soybean meal, and 3% mineral mix. Diets were formulated to be limit-fed at 2.15% of BW, provide 14% crude protein (CP) and 2.27 Mcal metabolizable energy (ME)/kg of dry matter (DM). Heifers were adapted to diets for 14 d followed by a 7-d collection period. Dry matter intake (DMI) was recorded daily during the collection week while BW was recorded once a week. Urine and fecal samples were collected during the last 4 d of the collection period. Acid insoluble ash was used as an internal marker to determine apparent nutrient digestibility. Weight loss of WBG during storage was determined from days 1 to 11 and initial and final yeast and mold counts were determined. Final yeast counts were similar among treatments while final mold counts tended to be lesser (P = 0.07) for the 0.8% and 1.6% salt treatments. Urinary volume was similar among treatments while allantoin (P = 0.14), and uric acid (P < 0.01) and total PD excretion tended to increase (P = 0.13) quadratically. DMI was varied by treatment (linear, quadratic, and cubic effects P < 0.01). Heifers fed the 0.8% treatment had the least DMI. Nonfiber carbohydrate (NFC) digestibility linearly decreased (P < 0.04) as salt increased. Digestibilities of DM, and organic matter (OM), tended to decrease (P < 0.10) with increasing levels of salt added to WBG. Fat digestibility was quadratic with the greatest value for the 1.6% treatment. Treating WBG with salt reduced its deterioration based on lesser mold counts for the 0.8% and 1.6% treatments. These treatments had resulted in greater fat digestibility and tended to have increased PD excretion suggesting improved microbial protein synthesis.


Asunto(s)
Digestión , Rumen , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinaria , Femenino , Nutrientes , Purinas , Ensilaje/análisis , Zea mays
19.
J Anim Sci ; 99(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33515476

RESUMEN

The present study evaluated enteric CH4 production, dry matter (DM) intake (DMI), and rumen fermentation in feedlot cattle supplemented with increasing concentrations of 3-nitrooxypropanol (3-NOP). A total of 100 crossbred steers (body weight, 421 ± 11 kg) was randomly assigned to one of four treatments (n = 25/treatment): control (no 3-NOP) or low (100 mg/kg DM), medium (125 mg/kg DM), and high (150 mg/kg DM) doses of 3-NOP. The study was comprised of 28 d of adaptation followed by three 28-d periods, with CH4 measured for 7 d per period and cattle remaining on their respective diets throughout the 112-d study. Each treatment group was assigned to a pen, with the cattle and diets rotated among pens weekly to allow the animals to access the GreenFeed emission monitoring (GEM) system stationed in one of the pens for CH4 measurement. Measured concentration (mg/kg DM) of 3-NOP in the total diet consumed (basal diet + GEM pellet) was 85.6 for low, 107.6 for medium, and 124.5 for high doses of 3-NOP. There was a treatment × period interaction (P < 0.001) for DMI; compared with control, the DMI was less for the low and high doses in period 1, with no differences thereafter. Compared with control (10.78 g/kg DMI), CH4 yield (g/kg DMI) was decreased (P < 0.001) by 52%, 76%, and 63% for low, medium, and high doses of 3-NOP, respectively. A treatment × period effect (P = 0.048) for CH4 yield indicated that the low dose decreased in efficacy from 59% decrease in periods 1 and 2 to 37% decrease in period 3, while the efficacy of the medium and high doses remained consistent over time. Irrespective of dose, hydrogen emissions increased by 4.9-fold (P < 0.001), and acetate:propionate ratio in rumen fluid decreased (P = 0.045) with 3-NOP supplementation, confirming that other hydrogen-utilizing pathways become more important in the CH4-inhibited rumen. The study indicates that supplementation of corn-based finishing diets with 3-NOP using a medium dose is an effective CH4 mitigation strategy for commercial beef feedlots with a 76% decrease in CH4 yield. Further research is needed to determine the effects of 3-NOP dose on weight gain, feed conversion efficiency, and carcass characteristics of feedlot cattle at a commercial scale.


Asunto(s)
Metano , Zea mays , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinaria , Propanoles , Rumen
20.
J Anim Sci ; 99(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33515481

RESUMEN

Indicator traits associated with disease resiliency would be useful to improve the health and welfare of feedlot cattle. A post hoc analysis of data collected previously (Kayser et al., 2019a) was conducted to investigate differences in immunologic, physiologic, and behavioral responses of steers (N = 36, initial BW = 386 ± 24 kg) that had differential haptoglobin (HPT) responses to an experimentally induced challenge with Mannheimia haemolytica (MH). Rumen temperature, DMI, and feeding behavior data were collected continuously, and serial blood samples were collected following the MH challenge. Retrospectively, it was determined that 9 of the 18 MH-challenged steers mounted a minimal HPT response, despite having similar leukocyte and temperature responses to other MH-challenged steers with a greater HPT response. Our objective was to examine differences in behavioral and physiological responses between MH-challenged HPT responsive (RES; n = 9), MH-challenged HPT nonresponsive (NON; n = 9), and phosphate-buffered saline-inoculated controls (CON; n = 18). Additionally, 1H NMR analysis was conducted to determine whether the HPT-responsive phenotype affected serum metabolite profiles. The RES steers had lesser (P < 0.05) cortisol concentrations than NON and CON steers. The magnitude of the increases in neutrophil concentrations and rumen temperature, and the reduction in DMI following the MH challenge were greatest (P < 0.05) in RES steers. Univariate analysis of serum metabolites indicated differences between RES, NON, and CON steers following the MH challenge; however, multivariate analysis revealed no difference between HPT-responsive phenotypes. Prior to the MH challenge, RES steers had longer (P < 0.05) head down and bunk visit durations, slower eating rates (P < 0.01) and greater (P < 0.05) daily variances in bunk visit frequency and head down duration compared with NON steers, suggesting that feeding behavior patterns were associated with the HPT-responsive phenotype. During the 28-d postchallenge period, RES steers had decreased (P < 0.05) final BW, tended (P = 0.06) to have lesser DMI, and had greater (P < 0.05) daily variances in head down and bunk visit durations compared with NON steers, which may have been attributed to their greater acute-phase protein response to the MH challenge. These results indicate that the HPT-responsive phenotype affected feeding behavior patterns and may be associated with disease resiliency in beef cattle.


Asunto(s)
Mannheimia haemolytica , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Bovinos , Dieta , Conducta Alimentaria , Haptoglobinas/análisis , Estudios Retrospectivos , Rumen/química
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