Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 10.091
Filtrar
1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(6): 1525-1535, 2020 Feb 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31942799

RESUMEN

Enrichment of food crops with iodine is an option to alleviate dietary deficiencies. Therefore, foliar iodine fertilizer was applied on wheat and rice, in the presence and absence of the other micronutrients zinc and selenium. This treatment increased the concentration of iodine, as well as zinc and selenium, in the staple grains. Subsequently, potential iodine losses during preparation of foodstuffs with the enriched grains were studied. Oven-heating did not affect the iodine content in bread. Extraction of bran from flour lowered the iodine in white bread compared to wholegrain bread, but it was still markedly higher compared to the control. During subsequent in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, a higher percentage of iodine was released from foods based on extracted flour (82-92%) compared to wholegrain foods (50-76%). The foliar fertilization of wheat was found to be adequate to alleviate iodine deficiency in a population with a moderate to high intake of bread.


Asunto(s)
Yodo/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Selenio/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo , Zinc/metabolismo , Biofortificación , Pan/análisis , Culinaria , Fertilizantes/análisis , Harina/análisis , Alimentos Fortificados/análisis , Calor , Humanos , Yodo/análisis , Oryza/química , Semillas/química , Semillas/metabolismo , Selenio/análisis , Triticum/química , Zinc/análisis
2.
Br J Sports Med ; 54(2): 74-78, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30054340

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether antioxidant supplements and antioxidant-enriched foods can prevent or reduce delayed-onset muscle soreness after exercise. METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, Embase, SPORTDiscus, trial registers, reference lists of articles and conference proceedings up to February 2017. RESULTS: In total, 50 studies were included in this review which included a total of 1089 participants (961 were male and 128 were female) with an age range of 16-55 years. All studies used an antioxidant dosage higher than the recommended daily amount. The majority of trials (47) had design features that carried a high risk of bias due to selective reporting and poorly described allocation concealment, potentially limiting the reliability of their findings. We rescaled to a 0-10 cm scale in order to quantify the actual difference between groups and we found that the 95% CIs for all five follow-up times were all well below the minimal important difference of 1.4 cm: up to 6 hours (MD -0.52, 95% CI -0.95 to -0.08); at 24 hours (MD -0.17, 95% CI -0.42 to 0.07); at 48 hours (mean difference (MD) -0.41, 95% CI -0.69 to -0.12); at 72 hours (MD -0.29, 95% CI -0.59 to 0.02); and at 96 hours (MD -0.03, 95% CI -0.43 to 0.37). Thus, the effect sizes suggesting less muscle soreness with antioxidant supplementation were very unlikely to equate to meaningful or important differences in practice. CONCLUSIONS: There is moderate to low-quality evidence that high-dose antioxidant supplementation does not result in a clinically relevant reduction of muscle soreness after exercise of up to 6 hours or at 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours after exercise. There is no evidence available on subjective recovery and only limited evidence on the adverse effects of taking antioxidant supplements.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/uso terapéutico , Suplementos Dietéticos , Ejercicio/fisiología , Alimentos Fortificados , Mialgia/prevención & control , Antioxidantes/efectos adversos , Humanos
3.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(2): 695-704, 2020 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602647

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCn3PUFA) nanoemulsion enriched foods offer the potential to address habitually low oily fish intakes. Nanoemulsions increase LCn3PUFA bioavailability, although they may cause lipid oxidation. The present study examined the oxidative stability of LCn3PUFA algal oil-in-water nanoemulsions created by ultrasound using natural and synthetic emulsifiers during 5 weeks of storage at 4, 20 and 40 °C. Fatty acid composition, droplet size ranges and volatile compounds were analysed. RESULTS: No significant differences were found for fatty acid composition at various temperatures and storage times. Lecithin nanoemulsions had significantly larger droplet size ranges at baseline and during storage, regardless of temperatures. Although combined Tween 40 and lecithin nanoemulsions had low initial droplet size ranges, there were significant increases at 40 °C after 5 weeks of storage. Gas chromatograms identified hexanal and propanal as predominant volatile compounds, along with 2-ethylfuran, propan-3-ol and valeraldehyde. The Tween 40 only nanoemulsion sample showed the formation of lower concentrations of volatiles compared to lecithin samples. The formation of hexanal and propanal remained stable at lower temperatures, although higher concentrations were found in nanoemulsions than in bulk oil. The lecithin only sample had formation of higher concentrations of volatiles at increased temperatures, despite having significantly larger droplet size ranges than the other samples. CONCLUSION: Propanal and hexanal were the most prevalent of five volatile compounds detected in bulk oil and lecithin and/or Tween 40 nanoemulsions. Oxidation compounds remained more stable at lower temperatures, indicating suitability for the enrichment of refrigerated foods. Further research aiming to evaluate the oxidation stability of these systems within food matrices is warranted. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Asunto(s)
Ácidos Grasos Omega-3/química , Alimentos Funcionales/análisis , Aceites Vegetales/química , Emulsionantes/química , Emulsiones/química , Alimentos Fortificados/análisis , Lecitinas/química , Oxidación-Reducción , Tamaño de la Partícula , Temperatura Ambiental , Vegetarianos
4.
Food Chem ; 308: 125443, 2020 Mar 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654979

RESUMEN

Amongst green leafy vegetables, new varieties of lettuce enriched in lutein and ß-carotene are being developed to provide increased supply of dietary carotenoids. We investigated the effect of lettuce genotypes (varieties) and thermal treatments on lutein and ß-carotene bioaccessibility to the micellar fraction (and also carotenoid bioavailability) using a human Caco-2 cell model system. Carotenoid absorption by mammalian cells is not correlated with initial carotenoid concentration in fresh lettuce leaves. While thermal treatment of lettuce leaves increases carotenoid availability, resulting in higher lutein and ß-carotene absorption, disruption of the food matrix by prior cooking results in reduced carotenoid levels and transfer to the micellar fraction. Unless the food matrix is disrupted through breeding or post-harvest treatments, absorption of carotenoids from biofortified lettuce remains similar to lettuce cultivars with low carotenoid levels. Genetic improvement programs for biofortified lettuce varieties need to focus on increasing the carotenoid bioavailability from the food matrix.


Asunto(s)
Alimentos Fortificados , Lechuga/metabolismo , Luteína/metabolismo , beta Caroteno/metabolismo , Disponibilidad Biológica , Células CACO-2 , Culinaria/métodos , Humanos , Verduras/metabolismo
5.
Food Chem ; 302: 125339, 2020 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419771

RESUMEN

Intake of red and processed meat has been suspected to increase colorectal cancer risk potentially via endogenous formation of carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds or increased lipid and protein oxidation. Here we investigated the effect of inulin fortification of a pork sausage on these parameters. For four weeks, healthy Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 30) were fed one of three diets: inulin-fortified pork sausage, control pork sausage or a standard chow diet. Fecal content of apparent total N-nitroso compounds (ATNC), nitrosothiols and nitrosyl iron compounds (FeNO) were analyzed in addition to liver metabolism and oxidation products formed in liver, plasma and diets. Intriguingly, inulin fortification reduced fecal ATNC (p = 0.03) and FeNO (p = 0.04) concentrations. The study revealed that inulin fortification of processed meat could be a strategy to reduce nitroso compounds formed endogenously after consumption.


Asunto(s)
Alimentos Fortificados , Inulina/farmacología , Productos de la Carne , Compuestos Nitrosos/metabolismo , Alimentación Animal , Animales , Carcinógenos/análisis , Carcinógenos/metabolismo , Heces/química , Metabolismo de los Lípidos/efectos de los fármacos , Hígado/efectos de los fármacos , Hígado/metabolismo , Espectroscopía de Resonancia Magnética , Compuestos Nitrosos/análisis , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Carne Roja , Porcinos
6.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 75(1): 96-102, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31853903

RESUMEN

Agave bagasse is a fibrous-like material obtained during aguamiel extraction, which is also in contact with indigenous microbiota of agave plant during aguamiel fermentation. This plant is a well-known carrier of the prebiotic fructan-type carbohydrates, which have multiple ascribable health benefits. In the present work, the potential of ashen and green agave bagasse as functional ingredients in supplemented cookies was studied. For its application, the chemical, functional, properties of agave bagasses and formulated cookies were evaluated, as well as the physical properties of cookies. Chemical characterization was carried out by the proximate analysis of both bagasses and cookies, besides, the analysis of oligosaccharides was made by thin-layer chromatography and high-performance anion-exchange chromatography. In the same way, functional properties such as oil holding capacity, organic molecule absorption capacity, swelling capacity, and water holding capacity were analyzed in both agave bagasses and supplemented cookies. Finally, modifications in color and texture due to bagasse addition was studied through an analysis of total color difference and a penetrometric test, respectively. In this sense, ashen and green agave bagasses demonstrated chemical and functional properties for use in the food industry, since they increased oil holding capacity of cookies and transferred prebiotic fructooligosaccharides to both agave bagasse formulations, which remain active as a prebiotic ingredient in cookies after in vitro digestion and cookie manufacture, including thermal treatment. Hence, agave bagasse could be considered a valuable alternative for the addition of the nutritionally-relevant dietary fiber in healthier foods.


Asunto(s)
Agave , Celulosa , Alimentos Fortificados , Fructanos , Prebióticos
7.
Food Microbiol ; 86: 103349, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703858

RESUMEN

Pistachio powder was added to flour or semolina to evaluate its contribution to increase the amount of lysine in bread. Bread production was carried out by sourdough technology using a selected 3-species (Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis/Leuconostoc citreum/Weissella cibaria) lactic acid bacterial (LAB) starter culture. All sourdoughs were subjected to a long-time fermentation (21 h) and showed levels of LAB around 109 CFU/g, indicating the suitability of pistachio powder for lactic fermentation. Yeasts were also detected, in particular in semolina trials. MiSeq Illumina technology was applied to investigate the bacterial composition of sourdoughs evidencing a different distribution of LAB species among the trials with Lactobacillus as major LAB group in almost all sourdoughs. Physicochemical parameters were comparable among the trials. After baking, pistachio powder was found not to influence the height of the breads, but pistachio breads were more firm than control breads. Color of the breads, void fraction and cell density, were influenced by pistachio powder. The amount of lysine increased consistently thanks to pistachio supplementation which also determined a higher presence of o-xylene, p-cymene and limonene and the appearance of α-pinene and 1-octen-3-ol in breads. Sensory tests showed the best appreciation scores for the breads produced with flour and pistachio powder.


Asunto(s)
Pan/análisis , Aditivos Alimentarios/análisis , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Leuconostoc/metabolismo , Lisina/análisis , Pistacia/química , Weissella/metabolismo , Pan/microbiología , Fermentación , Harina/análisis , Aditivos Alimentarios/metabolismo , Alimentos Fortificados/análisis , Alimentos Fortificados/microbiología , Humanos , Lisina/metabolismo , Gusto
8.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 24(1): 73, 2019 Dec 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810448

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Before iodination of Swedish table salt in 1936, iodine deficiency resulting in goitre and hypothyroidism was common. Sweden has become iodine sufficient, as shown in a national survey in 2007, proving its iodination fortification programme effective for the general population. The objective of this study was to collect drinking water from water treatment plants nationally and test if water iodine concentration (WIC) correlated to urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of school-aged children in a national survey 2007 to former goitre frequency in 1929 and to thyroid volume data in 2007. METHODS: In 2012, 166 treatment plants, located in 57% (166 of 290) of all Swedish municipalities, were asked to collect drinking water samples of approximately 10 ml. In 2007, tap water samples of the same volume were collected from 30 randomly selected schools for the national survey. Analysis of WIC was done in both treatment plants in 2012 (n = 166) and tap water in 2007 (n = 30). The correlation of WIC to the children's UIC and thyroid volume after iodination was tested based on data from the national survey in 2007. The association of WIC to former goitre frequency was tested based on pre-iodination data, derived from a map of goitre frequency drawn in 1929. RESULTS: The median WIC from water treatment plants was 4.0 µg/L (range 0-27 µg/L). WIC was similar in coastal and inland areas, for both ground and surface water. WIC correlated with historical goitre areas and was lower in the goitre areas than in non-goitre areas (p < 0.001). WIC in the same municipalities as the schools correlated with the UIC of children (p < 0.01), but not with their thyroid volume. CONCLUSIONS: WIC still contributes to iodine nutrition in Sweden, but iodination overrides the goitre effect.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable/química , Alimentos Fortificados/análisis , Bocio/epidemiología , Yodo/análisis , Cloruro de Sodio Dietético/análisis , Adolescente , Niño , Femenino , Bocio/historia , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Yodo/orina , Masculino , Suecia/epidemiología , Glándula Tiroides/anatomía & histología
10.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 2019(10)2019 10 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684687

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Rice fortification with vitamins and minerals has the potential to increase the nutrition in rice-consuming countries where micronutrient deficiencies exist. Globally, 490 million metric tonnes of rice are consumed annually. It is the dominant staple food crop of around three billion people. OBJECTIVES: To determine the benefits and harms of rice fortification with vitamins and minerals (iron, vitamin A, zinc or folic acid) on micronutrient status and health-related outcomes in the general population. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and 16 other databases all up to 10 December 2018. We searched ClinicalTrials.gov, and World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) on 10 December 2018. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised and quasi-randomised trials (with either individual or cluster randomisation) and controlled before-and-after studies. Participants were populations older than two years of age (including pregnant women) from any country. The intervention was rice fortified with at least one micronutrient or a combination of several micronutrients (iron, folic acid, zinc, vitamin A or other vitamins and minerals) compared with unfortified rice or no intervention. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Two review authors independently screened studies and extracted data. MAIN RESULTS: We included 17 studies (10,483 participants) and identified two ongoing studies. Twelve included studies were randomised-controlled trials (RCTs), with 2238 participants after adjusting for clustering in two cluster-RCTs, and five were non-randomised studies (NRS) with four controlled before-and-after studies and one cross-sectional study with a control (8245 participants). Four studies were conducted in India, three in Thailand, two in the Philippines, two in Brazil, one each in Bangladesh, Burundi, Cambodia, Indonesia, Mexico and the USA. Two studies involved non-pregnant, non-lactating women and 10 involved pre-school or school-age children. All 17 studies reported fortification with iron. Of these, six studies fortified rice with iron only; 11 studies had other micronutrients added (iron, zinc and vitamin A, and folic acid). One study had one arm each with vitamin A alone and carotenoid alone. Elemental iron content ranged from 0.2 to 112.8 mg/100 g uncooked rice given for a period varying from two weeks to 48 months. Thirteen studies did not clearly describe either sequence generation or allocation concealment. Eleven studies had a low attrition rate. There was no indication of selective reporting in the studies. We considered two RCTs at low overall risk of bias and 10 at high overall risk of bias. One RCT was at high or unclear risk of bias for most of the domains. All controlled before-and-after studies had a high risk or unclear risk of bias in most domains. The included studies were funded by Government, private and non-governmental organisations, along with other academic institutions. The source of funding does not appear to have altered the results. We used the NRS in the qualitative synthesis but we excluded them from the quantitative analysis and review conclusions since they provided mostly contextual information and limited quantitative information. Rice fortified with iron alone or in combination with other micronutrients versus unfortified rice (no micronutrients added) Fortification of rice with iron (alone or in combination with other micronutrients) may make little or no difference in the risk of having anaemia (risk ratio (RR) 0.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.54 to 0.97; I2 = 74%; 7 studies, 1634 participants; low-certainty evidence) and may reduce the risk of iron deficiency (RR 0.66, 95% CI 0.51 to 0.84; 8 studies, 1733 participants; low-certainty evidence). Rice fortification may increase mean haemoglobin (mean difference (MD) 1.83, 95% CI 0.66 to 3.00; I2 = 54%; 11 studies, 2163 participants; low-certainty evidence) and it may make little or no difference to vitamin A deficiency (with vitamin A as one of the micronutrients in the fortification arm) (RR 0.68, 95% CI 0.36 to 1.29; I2 = 37%; 4 studies, 927 participants; low-certainty evidence). One study reported that fortification of rice (with folic acid as one of the micronutrients) may improve serum or plasma folate (nmol/L) (MD 4.30, 95% CI 2.00 to 6.60; 215 participants; low-certainty evidence). One study reported that fortification of rice with iron alone or with other micronutrients may slightly increase hookworm infection (RR 1.78, 95% CI 1.18 to 2.70; 785 participants; low-certainty evidence). We are uncertain about the effect of fortified rice on diarrhoea (RR 3.52, 95% CI 0.18 to 67.39; 1 study, 258 participants; very low-certainty evidence). Rice fortified with vitamin A alone or in combination with other micronutrients versus unfortified rice (no micronutrients added) One study had one arm providing fortified rice with vitamin A only versus unfortified rice. Fortification of rice with vitamin A (in combination with other micronutrients) may increase mean haemoglobin (MD 10.00, 95% CI 8.79 to 11.21; 1 study, 74 participants; low-certainty evidence). Rice fortified with vitamin A may slightly improve serum retinol concentration (MD 0.17, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.21; 1 study, 74 participants; low-certainty evidence). No studies contributed data to the comparisons of rice fortification versus no intervention. The studies involving folic acid and zinc also involved iron in the fortification arms and hence we reported them as part of the first comparison. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Fortification of rice with iron alone or in combination with other micronutrients may make little or no difference in the risk of having anaemia or presenting iron deficiency and we are uncertain about an increase in mean haemoglobin concentrations in the general population older than 2 years of age. Fortification of rice with iron and other micronutrients such as vitamin A or folic acid may make little or no difference in the risk of having vitamin A deficiency or on the serum folate concentration. There is limited evidence on any adverse effects of rice fortification.


Asunto(s)
Avitaminosis/prevención & control , Alimentos Fortificados , Micronutrientes , Minerales/administración & dosificación , Vitaminas/administración & dosificación , Adolescente , Adulto , Anemia Ferropénica/prevención & control , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Desnutrición/prevención & control , Micronutrientes/administración & dosificación , Micronutrientes/deficiencia , Oryza , Embarazo , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Adulto Joven
11.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 2019(11)2019 11 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697857

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Preterm infants who are fed breast milk in comparison to infant formula have decreased morbidity such as necrotizing enterocolitis. Multi-nutrient fortifiers used to increase the nutritional content of the breast milk are commonly derived from bovine milk. Human milk-derived multi-nutrient fortifier is now available, but it is not clear if it improves outcomes in preterm infants fed with breast milk. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the fortification of breast milk feeds with human milk-derived fortifier in preterm infants reduces mortality, morbidity, and promotes growth and development compared to bovine milk-derived fortifier. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases for relevant trials in September 2018. Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library, Issue 9), electronic journal reference databases including MEDLINE (1980 to 20 September 2018), PREMEDLINE, Embase (1974 to 20 September 2018), CINAHL (1982 to 20 September 2018), biological abstracts in the database BIOSIS and conference abstracts from 'Proceedings First' (from 1992 to 2011). We also included the following clinical trials registries for ongoing or recently completed trials: ClinicalTrials.gov (ClinicalTrials.gov), the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP; www.whoint/ictrp/search/en/) and the ISRCTN Registry (www.isrctn.com/), and abstracts of conferences: proceedings of Pediatric Academic Societies (American Pediatric Society, Society for Pediatric Research and European Society for Paediatric Research) from 1990 in the 'Pediatric Research' journal and 'Abstracts online' (2000 to 2017). SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials that compared preterm infants fed breast milk fortified with human milk-derived fortifier versus those fed with breast milk fortified with bovine milk-derived fortifier. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: The data were collected using the standard methods of Cochrane Neonatal. Two authors evaluated trial quality of the studies and extracted data. We reported dichotomous data using risk ratios (RRs), risk differences (RDs), number needed to treat (NNT) where applicable, and continuous data using mean differences (MDs). We assessed the quality of evidence using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. MAIN RESULTS: One randomized trial with 127 infants met the eligibility criteria and had low risk of bias. Human milk-based fortifier did not decrease the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis in exclusively breast milk-fed preterm infants (RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.2 to 4.54; 1 study, 125 infants, low certainty of evidence). Human milk-derived fortifiers did not improve growth, decrease feeding intolerance, late-onset sepsis, or death. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is insufficient evidence evaluating human milk-derived fortifier with bovine milk-derived fortifier in exclusively breast milk-fed preterm infants. Low-certainty evidence from one study suggests that in exclusively breast milk-fed preterm infants human milk-derived fortifiers in comparison with bovine milk-derived fortifier may not change the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis, mortality, feeding intolerance, infection, or improve growth. Well-designed randomized controlled trials are needed to evaluate short-term and long-term outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Enterocolitis Necrotizante/prevención & control , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales del Lactante , Recien Nacido Prematuro/crecimiento & desarrollo , Animales , Bovinos , Alimentos Fortificados , Humanos , Lactante , Fórmulas Infantiles , Recién Nacido , Leche , Leche Humana , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Sepsis/prevención & control
12.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(5): 1515-1524, sept./oct. 2019. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049041

RESUMEN

This paper aimed to evaluate the metabolizability, performance and economic viability of purified glycerin inclusion in balanced diets fed to chicken broilers from 8 to 21 days old. Two experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, 100 broilers (14 days old) were distributed in a completely randomized design into two treatments, with five replications of 10 broilers. Treatments consisted of a control diet and a test diet, in which purified glycerin replaced 10% of the control diet. In the second experiment, 200 broilers (8 days old) were distributed in a completely randomized design into four treatments (0, 2, 4 and 6% of purified glycerin inclusion), with five replications of 10 broilers. The weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion, final weight, apparent metabolizable energy (AME), nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn), metabolizability coefficients of dry matter (DMMC), crude protein (CPMC) and gross energy (GEMC), and the cost of feed per kg of broiler produced were evaluated. The AME, AMEn, DMMC, CPMC and GEMC from the purified glycerin were 3790 and 3560 kcal/kg, and 83.72, 71.52 and 86.27%, respectively. The glycerin levels did not affect (p>0.05) any of the performance characteristics (weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion and final weight). The lowest feeding cost and the highest gross margin were obtained for broilers fed with 6% purified glycerin. The inclusion of 6% purified glycerin in balanced diets for broilers from 8 to 21 days old was technically and economically feasible.


Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar a metabolizabilidade, o desempenho zootécnico e a viabilidade econômica da inclusão de glicerina purificada, em dietas balanceadas para frangos de corte dos 8 aos 21 dias de idade. Foram realizados dois experimentos, sendo que, no primeiro experimento, foram utilizados 100 pintos de 14 dias de idade, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado (DIC), com dois tratamentos, cinco repetições de 10 aves. Os tratamentos consistiram de uma dieta referência e uma dieta teste, na qual a glicerina purificada substituiu 10% da dieta referência. No segundo experimento, foram utilizados 200 pintos de 8 dias de idade, distribuídos em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado (DIC), com quatro tratamentos (0, 2, 4 e 6% de inclusão de glicerina purificada) e cinco repetições de 10 aves. Foram determinados o ganho de peso, consumo de ração, conversão alimentar, peso final, energia metabolizável aparente (EMA), energia metabolizável aparente corrigida pelo balanço de nitrogênio (EMAn), os coeficientes de metabolizabilidade da matéria seca (CMMS), proteína bruta (CMPB), energia bruta (CMEB) e o custo da alimentação por kg de frango produzido. A EMA, EMAn e os CMMS, CMPB, CMEB da glicerina purificada obtida foram de 3790, 3560 Kcal/kg e 83,72, 71,52, 86,27%, respectivamente. Observou-se que a inclusão de glicerina purificada não afetou (p>0,05) o desempenho (ganho de peso, consumo de ração, conversão alimentar e peso final). O menor custo com a alimentação e a maior margem bruta foi obtido com os frangos alimentados com 6% de inclusão de glicerina purificada. A inclusão de 6% de glicerina purificada em dietas balanceadas para frangos de corte dos 8 aos 21 dias de idade, mostrou-se técnica e economicamente viável.


Asunto(s)
Alimentos Fortificados , Pollos , Biocombustibles , Glicerol
13.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 74(4): 449-460, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522406

RESUMEN

Selenium supplementation in humans has been suggested for the prevention of chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases. Selenium biofortification of plants has been explored as a method for increasing selenium content of food and dietary selenium intake in humans. However, the effects of selenium biofortification on other dietary nutrients is often a secondary discussion. These effects are especially important to explore considering selenium-biofortified foods contain many other nutrients important to human health, such as other minerals and antioxidant compounds, which can make these foods superior to selenium supplementation alone. Investigation of selenium biofortification's effect on these nutrients is necessary for a comprehensive human nutrition perspective on biofortification strategies. This review considers the effects of selenium biofortification on selenium content, other minerals, and antioxidant compounds as they pertain to human health in order to suggest optimal strategies for biofortification. Pre-clinical and clinical studies assessing the effects of consumption of selenium biofortified foods are also discussed.


Asunto(s)
Biofortificación , Selenio , Antioxidantes , Productos Agrícolas , Alimentos Fortificados , Humanos , Nutrientes
14.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 195: 105479, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541726

RESUMEN

We previously identified 7 low/lower-middle income countries (LMICs; Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Mongolia, Yemen, Nigeria, Tunisia) which have excess burden of vitamin D deficiency and could benefit enormously from food fortification with vitamin D. A key challenge is finding a suitable industrially-manufactured food vehicle that is consumed in sufficient amounts by the population at-risk. We used FAO Food Balance Sheet data (from 2003-2013) to model the potential impact of four different food vehicles (edible plant-based oil, wheat flour, maize flour, and milk), and at different addition levels, on the average per capita vitamin D supply in all 7 LMICs. Daily per capita supply for ˜95 foods was calculated and vitamin D supply determined using dietary analysis software with no addition and following stepwise additions of vitamin D to the four food vehicles. The daily per capita vitamin D supply without fortification ranged from 0.4 to 3.3 µg (≤2 µg/d in six LMICs). We applied a vitamin D intake of 5 µg/d as a benchmark because it maintains serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D ≥ 25 nmol/L in ˜90% of individuals. Modelling showed that fortifying edible oil with vitamin D at the 7.5 µg/100 g (guideline) and 15 µg/100 g levels allowed vitamin D supply in 1 and 3 of the 7 LMICs, respectively, to attain ≥5 µg/d (range: 5.8-11.0 µg/d). Fortifying milk at the 1.0 µg/100 g and 2.0 µg/100 g guideline levels, allowed 2 and 3 LMICs, respectively, to attain ≥5 µg/d (range: 5.2-9.8 µg/d). Fortifying wheat flour at the 1.4 µg/100 g (guideline) and 2.8 µg/100 g allowed 5 and 6 LMICs, respectively, to attain ≥5 µg/d (range: 5.3-18.6 µg/d). Maize flour had low impact due to consumption levels. In conclusion, using these levels of addition, at least one food vehicle was able to increase per capita vitamin D supply to ≥5 µg/d in each of the LMICs.


Asunto(s)
Países en Desarrollo , Alimentos Fortificados , Vitamina D , Animales , Harina , Humanos , Leche , Modelos Teóricos , Aceites Vegetales , Triticum , Zea mays
15.
J Food Sci ; 84(10): 2995-3008, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546280

RESUMEN

An olive pomace (pâté) obtained from virgin olive oil production, was used for the fortification of pasta, bread, and granola bar. For each food, a control (without pâté) and a fortified sample (with pâté, 7% in pasta and 5% in bread and granola bar) were manufactured. Descriptive analysis showed that pâté strongly affected the appearance of pasta and bread and increased the bitterness of bread and granola bar but not pasta. Granola bar was less affected in general, likely because of its higher ingredient complexity. In a central location test with 175 Californian consumers, both the control and the fortified samples of all three foods were well accepted overall, with only the mean liking of the appearance of the fortified pasta falling below the "neither like nor dislike" mark. Approximately 30% of consumers preferred the fortified sample over the control for each food and 50% were willing to pay more for the fortified products. The percentage of phenols from pâté recovered in the prepared samples was such that 63 g of pasta, 18 g of bread, and 12 g of granola bar would be sufficient to meet the EFSA health claim for olive oil phenols. This study demonstrates that pâté can be used for fortification of foods for human consumption, thus adding potential economic value to the virgin olive oil production chain and allowing for a higher daily intake of phenols from Olea europaea L., whose beneficial health properties are well recognized. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The dried olive oil pomace (pâté) that we developed and tested in this research can be used to fortify pasta, bread, and granola bars with health-beneficial phenols with only slight alterations of their sensory profiles and slight reduction in consumer acceptance. Virgin olive oil producers can use this byproduct and gain further economic value from olive oil production.


Asunto(s)
Comportamiento del Consumidor , Alimentos Fortificados/análisis , Gusto , Adulto , Pan/análisis , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Olea/química , Aceite de Oliva/análisis , Fenoles/análisis , Bocadillos/psicología , Triticum/química , Residuos/análisis , Adulto Joven
17.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Sep 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484377

RESUMEN

The study assessed the potential for use of millets in mid-day school meal programs for better nutritional outcomes of children in a peri-urban region of Karnataka, India, where children conventionally consumed a fortified rice-based mid-day meal. For a three-month period, millet-based mid-day meals were fed to 1500 adolescent children at two schools, of which 136 were studied as the intervention group and were compared with 107 other children in two other schools that did not receive the intervention. The intervention design was equivalent to the parallel group, two-arm, superiority trial with a 1:1 allocation ratio. The end line allocation ratio was 1.27:1 due to attrition. It was found that there was statistically significant improvement in stunting (p = 0.000) and the body mass index (p = 0.003) in the intervention group and not in the control group (p = 0.351 and p = 0.511, respectively). The sensory evaluation revealed that all the millet-based menu items had high acceptability, with the highest scores for the following three items: finger millet idli, a steam cooked fermented savory cake; little and pearl millet bisi belle bath, a millet-lentil hot meal; and upma, a pearl and little millet-vegetable meal. These results suggest significant potential for millets to replace or supplement rice in school feeding programs for improved nutritional outcomes of children.


Asunto(s)
Comidas , Mijos , Estado Nutricional , Adolescente , Niño , Composición Familiar , Conducta Alimentaria , Femenino , Servicios de Alimentación , Alimentos Fortificados , Humanos , India , Masculino , Desnutrición , Micronutrientes , Instituciones Académicas , Factores Socioeconómicos
18.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Sep 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510086

RESUMEN

The paper investigated whether information about the health benefit produced by lycopene could influence consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) for canned crushed tomatoes enriched with lycopene. An additional aim was to determine whether the main socio-demographic variables, such as sex, age, income and selected attitudinal factors, affect WTP. To this end, a non-hypothetical experimental auction was carried on with five repeated rounds. Results show a relevant impact of information on WTP in the case of lycopene-enriched products, whereas no difference in bids emerges for the conventional product, either on average or at the quantiles. Previous knowledge seems to have a modest influence upon WTP, but it shows a significant interaction with the information shock provided during the experiment, so that the effect of the latter is more pronounced when previous knowledge is low. In addition, age, sex, food technology neophobia, trust in science and implicit attitudes towards food technology significantly affect participants' WTP.


Asunto(s)
Conducta de Elección , Comportamiento del Consumidor , Etiquetado de Alimentos , Alimentos Fortificados/análisis , Alimentos en Conserva/análisis , Frutas/química , Licopeno/análisis , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Valor Nutritivo , Femenino , Manipulación de Alimentos , Preferencias Alimentarias , Conservación de Alimentos , Alimentos Fortificados/economía , Alimentos en Conserva/economía , Frutas/economía , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Licopeno/economía , Lycopersicon esculentum/economía , Masculino , Ingesta Diaria Recomendada
19.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390801

RESUMEN

Around a quarter of the global adult population have metabolic syndrome (MetS) and therefore increased risk of cardiovascular mortality and diabetes. Docosahexaenoic acid, oat beta-glucan and grape anthocyanins have been shown to be effective in reducing MetS risk factors when administered as isolated compounds, but their effect when administered as bioactive-enriched foods has not been evaluated. OBJECTIVE: The overall aim of the PATHWAY-27 project was to evaluate the effectiveness of bioactive-enriched food consumption on improving risk factors of MetS. A pilot study was conducted to assess which of five bioactive combinations provided within three different food matrices (bakery, dairy or egg) were the most effective in adult volunteers. The trial also evaluated the feasibility of production, consumer acceptability and gastrointestinal tolerance of the bioactive-enriched food. METHOD: The study included three monocentric, parallel-arm, double-blind, randomised, dietary intervention trials without a placebo. Each recruiting centre tested the five bioactive combinations within a single food matrix. RESULTS: The study was completed by 167 participants (74 male, 93 female). The results indicated that specific bioactive/matrix combinations have effects on serum triglyceride or HDL-cholesterol level without adverse effects. CONCLUSION: The study evidenced that bioactive-enriched food offers a promising food-based strategy for MetS prevention, and highlighted the importance of conducting pilot studies.


Asunto(s)
Dieta , Alimentos Fortificados , Síndrome Metabólico/dietoterapia , Síndrome Metabólico/prevención & control , Adulto , Anciano , Método Doble Ciego , Ácidos Grasos/sangre , Ácidos Grasos/clasificación , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Proyectos Piloto
20.
J Food Sci ; 84(9): 2499-2506, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393020

RESUMEN

As many of the maternal and child health complications result from folic acid, iron, and iodine deficiencies; it makes sense to combat these simultaneously. We have developed cost-effective technology to deliver these three micronutrients simultaneously through salt. Our goal was to retain at least 70% of the micronutrients during 6 months of storage. The fortified salt was formulated by spraying a solution that contained 2% iodine and 0.5% or 1% folic acid onto salt and adding encapsulated ferrous fumarate. The formulated triple fortified salt contained 1,000 ppm iron, 50 ppm iodine, and 12.5 or 25 ppm folic acid. The spray solution and the salt were stored for 2 and 6 months respectively at 25, 35, and 45 °C 60 to 70% relative humidity. Even at 45 °C, over 70% of both iodine and folic acid were retained in the salt. The best formulation based on the color of the salt and stability of iodine and folic acid contained 12.5 ppm folic acid, 50 ppm iodine, and 1,000 ppm iron. These results indicate that iron, iodine, and folic acid can be simultaneously delivered to a vulnerable population through salt using the technology described. Also, the quality control of the process can be developed around pteroic acid that was detected as a primary degradation product of folic acid. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The technology developed is already transferred to India for industrial scale up. When fully operational, the technology will simultaneously solve iron, iodine, and folic acid deficiencies in vulnerable populations at a very low cost.


Asunto(s)
Composición de Medicamentos/métodos , Compuestos Ferrosos/química , Ácido Fólico/química , Yodo/química , Cloruro de Sodio/química , Composición de Medicamentos/economía , Estabilidad de Medicamentos , Alimentos Fortificados/análisis , Alimentos Fortificados/economía , India , Micronutrientes/química
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA