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1.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 52(1): 50-56, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33474889

RESUMEN

Historically, the Cambrian explosion was a major life evolution event caused by changes of natural environmental oxygen concentration. The use of oxygen was part of the basic survival instinct of higher life, which evolved a complex regulation system in response to variant levels of oxygen concentration. Hypoxia is one of the typical environmental characteristics in plateau areas. After long-term natural selection in hypoxic conditions, numerous species living in plateau areas have evolved unique mechanisms adapted to hypoxia. Recent studies have found that there are some similarities in adaptation to hypoxia between the animals in highland and different types of human solid tumor cells. Herein, we will summarize recent findings about the hypoxia adaptation evolution in high-altitude animals and the characteristics of hypoxic solid tumors, especially the reactive oxygen species responses in hypoxic solid tumors. We believe that deciphering the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in hypoxia adaptation in highland will facilitate the identification of new genes or biomarkers critical for research on hypoxic solid tumors in the future.


Asunto(s)
Mal de Altura , Altitud , Aclimatación , Animales , Humanos , Hipoxia , Oxígeno , Selección Genética
2.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 55(1): 84-88, 2021 Jan 06.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33455137

RESUMEN

Objective: To explore the changes of serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and myelin basic protein (MBP) in children with cerebral palsy at high altitude during comprehensive rehabilitation and their clinical significance. Methods: A clinical randomized controlled study design was used to select 144 children with cerebral palsy who were diagnosed and treated in the Rehabilitation Center of Xining Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital of Qinghai Province from June 2018 to October 2019, including 83 males and 61 females, aged 3-5 years old. According to the order of admission, the random number table was used to divide into a conventional treatment group (n=72, 40 males and 32 females) and a comprehensive treatment group (n=72, 43 males and 29 females). The conventional treatment group was treated with conventional rehabilitation. The comprehensive treatment group was treated with monosialotetrahexose ganglioside sodium on the basis of conventional rehabilitation. In addition, 30 healthy children aged 3-5 years, 16 males and 14 females, were selected as the control group during the physical examination of the Pediatrics Department of Xining Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Qinghai Province. The serum levels of NSE and MBP in each group were detected, and the children's GMFM-88 scores were evaluated before and after treatment. The SPSS19.0 software was used for statistical analysis, the count data was tested by χ2. Results: The serum NSE and MBP levels of the control group were (5.96±0.80), (0.71±0.15) µg/L. Before treatment, the serum NSE and MBP levels of children with severe, moderate, and mild cerebral palsy were [(21.63±1.92), (3.63±0.49) µg/L], [(17.86±1.43) µg/L, (2.21±0.07) µg/L] and [(15.14±0.95), (1.76±0.30) µg/L], respectively. After treatment, the serum NSE and MBP levels of the conventional treatment group and the comprehensive treatment group were [(13.54±2.41), (2.07±0.85) µg/L] and [(12.09±2.37), (1.81±0.69) µg/L], respectively, and the GMFM-88 score was (116.75±27.41) points and (125.94±24.93) points. The levels of NSE and MBP in the serum of children with cerebral palsy were significantly higher than those of normal children in the control group, and their levels increased with the degree of disease, and the corresponding gross motor function scores were lower. After treatment, the GMFM-88 scale assessment scores of the two groups of children were significantly improved (t values were 310.97 and 70.86, P values were both<0.05), and serum NSE and MBP levels decreased to varying degrees compared with before treatment. The decline in the comprehensive treatment group was greater than that in the conventional treatment group. Conclusions: Serum NSE and MBP levels in children with cerebral palsy at high altitude are significantly higher than those in healthy children, and their levels are closely related to the degree of impairment and GMFM-88 scores in children with cerebral palsy. Dynamic monitoring of changes in NSE and MBP levels may be responsible for the condition and treatment effects of children with cerebral palsy judgments based.


Asunto(s)
Altitud , Parálisis Cerebral , Parálisis Cerebral/metabolismo , Parálisis Cerebral/terapia , Niño , Preescolar , Pruebas Diagnósticas de Rutina , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Proteína Básica de Mielina , Fosfopiruvato Hidratasa
3.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 80(1): 277-293, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33392776

RESUMEN

The main focus of the present research was to examine the appropriateness of groundwater resources for drinking purposes in the Bilate River Basin of Southern Main Ethiopian Rift, Ethiopia. The groundwater quality index (GWQI), fluoride pollution index (FPI), and human health risk were used to examine the human health risk factors associated with the intake of high fluoride groundwater. For this purpose, 29 groundwater samples were collected from the existing wells and were analyzed for various physicochemical parameters. The dominant cation was Na+, followed by Ca2+, Mg2+, and K+. The dominant anion was HCO3-, followed by Cl-, SO42-, and F-. The Gibbs plot shows that rock-water interactions are the dominant factor controlling the groundwater chemistry. By using the GWQI, the quality of groundwater samples was 31% excellent, 21% good, 31% poor, and 17% very poor. The fluoride concentration in groundwater ranges from 0.2 to 5.60 mg/L (mean, 2.10 mg/L). 59% (i.e., 17 wells) of the groundwater samples were not suitable for drinking, because they surpassed the drinking water quality limit of 1.5 mg/L. The remaining 41% (i.e., 12 wells) of the samples were suitable for drinking. The FPI indicates that 51.72% of the wells were highly polluted by fluoride. The noncarcinogenic health risk varies from 0.75 to 8.44 for children (83%), 0.34-3.84 for women (62%), and 0.27-3.01 for men (52%), which indicates that children are at higher health risk than women and men due to the physiological condition and the rates of ingestion.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Fluoruros/análisis , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Agua Subterránea/química , Ríos/química , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Adulto , Altitud , Niño , Agua Potable/análisis , Agua Potable/normas , Etiopía , Femenino , Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Humanos , Masculino , Medición de Riesgo , Calidad del Agua/normas
4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33430024

RESUMEN

Early known cases of COVID-19 emerged in late 2019 in the city of Wuhan (China) and in a relatively short time, it has reached more than 200 countries up to July 2020. In Italy, from 21 February 2020, (first official Italian positive case of COVID-19) until 27 July 2020, 246,286 confirmed cases were observed of which over 68,150 (28%) needed hospitalization and 35,112 died. In recent scientific research, it has been shown that the severity of symptoms and mortality rates were different not only among the various countries of the world but also in different regions of the same country. This research investigates whether and by how much air environmental conditions (such as exposure to fine particulate matter-PM2.5, sea air masses and altitude) influences the risk of hospitalization due to COVID-19 in Italy, once the spreading of the virus and the percentage of the elderly in the population have been accounted for. A log-linear multiple regression model was estimated where the log of the ratio of hospitalized patients per inhabitant, since the beginning of the epidemic up to July 27, has been considered as a dependent variable. Among the independent variables, the ones that have been taken into account are the spreading of the virus, the rate of people over 50 years of age, the concentration of PM2.5, the rate of population living by the sea, the rate of green public space for each resident and the ratio of population living at a high altitude. The results showed an increase in the hospitalization rate in terms of the percentage of people over 50 and the average concentration of PM2.5. If average limits of PM2.5 concentration allowed by the current European regulations (25 µg/m3) were respected in all Italian provinces, that would have led to 7339 less hospitalizations for COVID-19 (-11%). On the contrary, near the coast there were lower hospitalized cases in the referred period. In the hypothetical case that no Italians lived near the sea, about 1363 (+2%) more hospitalizations would have been recorded in the analysis period in addition to the effect of a lower PM concentration. This paper wanted to investigate which are the areas with a higher risk of hospitalization in Italy, so as to help the Italian Government to strengthen Health System measures, predicting the most suffering areas and health care systems. According to the results, this is directly related to the severity of symptoms which decreased with the long-time exposure to the sea.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire/efectos adversos , Altitud , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Océanos y Mares , China , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/efectos adversos , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Material Particulado/efectos adversos
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 91, 2021 Jan 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33478414

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Informed decision making is underlined by all tiers in the health system. Poor data record system coupled with under- (over)-reporting of malaria cases affects the country's malaria elimination activities. Thus, malaria data at health facilities and health offices are important particularly to monitor and evaluate the elimination progresses. This study was intended to assess overall reported malaria cases, reporting quality, spatiotemporal trends and factors associated in Gedeo zone, South Ethiopia. METHODS: Past 8 years retrospective data stored in 17 health centers and 5 district health offices in Gedeo Zone, South Ethiopia were extracted. Malaria cases data at each health center with sociodemographic information, between January 2012 and December 2019, were included. Meteorological data were obtained from the national meteorology agency of Ethiopia. The data were analyzed using Stata 13. RESULTS: A total of 485,414 suspected cases were examined for malaria during the previous 8 years at health centers. Of these suspects, 57,228 (11.79%) were confirmed malaria cases with an overall decline during the 8-year period. We noted that 3758 suspected cases and 467 confirmed malaria cases were not captured at the health offices. Based on the health centers records, the proportions of Plasmodium falciparum (49.74%) and P. vivax (47.59%) infection were nearly equivalent (p = 0.795). The former was higher at low altitudes while the latter was higher at higher altitudes. The over 15 years of age group accounted for 11.47% of confirmed malaria cases (p < 0.001). There was high spatiotemporal variation: the highest case record was during Belg (12.52%) and in Dilla town (18,150, 13.17%, p < 0.001) which is located at low altitude. Monthly rainfall and minimum temperature exhibited strong associations with confirmed malaria cases. CONCLUSION: A notable overall decline in malaria cases was observed during the eight-year period. Both P. falciparum and P. vivax were found at equivalent endemicity level; hence control measures should continue targeting both species. The noticed under reporting, the high malaria burden in urban settings, low altitudes and Belg season need spatiotemporal consideration by the elimination program.


Asunto(s)
Malaria/epidemiología , Altitud , Demografía , Notificación de Enfermedades/normas , Notificación de Enfermedades/estadística & datos numéricos , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Malaria/diagnóstico , Malaria/parasitología , Malaria/prevención & control , Masculino , Meteorología , Análisis Multivariante , Plasmodium falciparum/aislamiento & purificación , Plasmodium vivax/aislamiento & purificación , Prevalencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estaciones del Año
6.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245055, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444357

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: COVID-19, the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, has caused a pandemic, sparing few regions. However, limited reports suggest differing infection and death rates across geographic areas including populations that reside at higher elevations (HE). We aimed to determine if COVID-19 infection, death, and case mortality rates differed in higher versus low elevation (LE) U.S. counties. METHODS: Using publicly available geographic and COVID-19 data, we calculated per capita infection and death rates and case mortality in population density matched HE and LE U.S. counties. We also performed population-scale regression analysis to investigate the association between county elevation and COVID-19 infection rates. FINDINGS: Population density matching of LA (< 914m, n = 58) and HE (>2133m, n = 58) counties yielded significantly lower COVID-19 cases at HE versus LE (615 versus 905, p = 0.034). HE per capita deaths were significantly lower than LE (9.4 versus 19.5, p = 0.017). However, case mortality did not differ between HE and LE (1.78% versus 1.46%, p = 0.27). Regression analysis, adjusted for relevant covariates, demonstrated decreased COVID-19 infection rates by 12.82%, 12.01%, and 11.72% per 495m of county centroid elevation, for cases recorded over the previous 30, 90, and 120 days, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This population-adjusted, controlled analysis suggests that higher elevation attenuates infection and death. Ongoing work from our group aims to identify the environmental, biological, and social factors of residence at HE that impact infection, transmission, and pathogenesis of COVID-19 in an effort to harness these mechanisms for future public health and/or treatment interventions.


Asunto(s)
Altitud , /epidemiología , /mortalidad , Humanos , Incidencia , Pandemias , Densidad de Población , Salud Pública , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111678, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396010

RESUMEN

Stable isotope technology has been widely used to trace sources and evolution of water bodies, relationships between different water bodies and pollution sources. Based on δ18O and δD data from the Yarlung Tsangpo River in 2017, this paper analyzes the composition characteristics of δ18O and δD in the river water during the low-flow, high-flow and normal-flow seasons of the entire Yarlung Tsangpo River and further reveals the spatial evolution and influencing factors. The results show that the values of δ18O, δD and d-excess were different in time and space. The δ18O, δD and d-excess values of the Yarlung Tsangpo River in the low-flow season were significantly higher than in the high-flow season. This was mainly due to weak evaporation enrichment and precipitation supply effects on the river water during the wet season. From the perspective of season change, the d-excess in the low-season is significantly higher than in the high-flow season and the normal-flow season; from the perspective of spatial change, the d-excess shows the same spatial variation trend as the δ18O, which first decreases and then increases. Based on the investigation of δ18O and δD in the main and Branch rivers of the Yarlung Tsangpo River Basin, it was found that the upper reaches of the basin were mainly supplied by snowmelt, the lower reaches were mainly supplied by rainfall.


Asunto(s)
Deuterio/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Isótopos de Oxígeno/análisis , Ríos/química , Altitud , China , Hidrología , Estaciones del Año , Análisis Espacio-Temporal , Temperatura
8.
Oecologia ; 195(1): 213-223, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33458802

RESUMEN

Plant and animal community composition changes at higher elevations on mountains. Plant and animal species richness generally declines with elevation, but the shape of the relationship differs between taxa. There are several proposed mechanisms, including the productivity hypotheses; that declines in available plant biomass confers fewer resources to consumers, thus supporting fewer species. We investigated resource availability as we ascended three aspects of Helvellyn mountain, UK, measuring several plant nutritive metrics, plant species richness and biomass. We observed a linear decline in plant species richness as we ascended the mountain but there was a unimodal relationship between plant biomass and elevation. Generally, the highest biomass values at mid-elevations were associated with the lowest nutritive values, except mineral contents which declined with elevation. Intra-specific and inter-specific increases in nutritive values nearer the top and bottom of the mountain indicated that physiological, phenological and compositional mechanisms may have played a role. The shape of the relationship between resource availability and elevation was different depending on the metric. Many consumers actively select or avoid plants based on their nutritive values and the abundances of consumer taxa vary in their relationships with elevation. Consideration of multiple nutritive metrics and of the nutritional requirements of the consumer may provide a greater understanding of changes to plant and animal communities at higher elevations. We propose a novel hypothesis for explaining elevational diversity gradients, which warrants further study; the 'nutritional complexity hypothesis', where consumer species coexist due to greater variation in the nutritional chemistry of plants.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Ecosistema , Altitud , Animales , Benchmarking , Biomasa
9.
Am Nat ; 197(1): 75-92, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417520

RESUMEN

AbstractAn extension of the climate variability hypothesis is that relatively stable climate, such as that of the tropics, induces distinct thermal bands across elevation that render dispersal over tropical mountains difficult compared with temperate mountains. Yet ecosystems are not thermally static in space-time, especially at small scales, which might render some mountains greater thermal isolators than others. Here we provide an extensive investigation of temperature drivers from fine to coarse scales, and we demonstrate that the degree of similarity in temperatures at high and low elevations on mountains is driven by more than just absolute mountain height and latitude. We compiled a database of 29 mountains spanning six continents to characterize thermal overlap by vertically stratified microhabitats and biomes and owing to seasonal changes in foliage, demonstrating via mixed effects modeling that micro- and mesogeography more strongly influence thermal overlap than macrogeography. Impressively, an increase of 1 m of vertical microhabitat height generates an increase in overlap equivalent to a 5.26° change in latitude. In addition, forested mountains have reduced thermal overlap-149% lower-relative to nonforested mountains. We provide evidence in support of a climate hypothesis that emphasizes microgeography as a determinant of dispersal, demographics, and behavior, thereby refining the classical theory of macroclimate variability as a prominent driver of biogeography.


Asunto(s)
Altitud , Clima , Ecosistema , Geografía , Microclima , Temperatura
11.
Physiol Rep ; 8(24): e14615, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340275

RESUMEN

Recent reports suggest that high-altitude residence may be beneficial in the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) implicating that traveling to high places or using hypoxic conditioning thus could be favorable as well. Physiological high-altitude characteristics and symptoms of altitude illnesses furthermore seem similar to several pathologies associated with COVID-19. As a consequence, high altitude and hypoxia research and related clinical practices are discussed for potential applications in COVID-19 prevention and treatment. We summarize the currently available evidence on the relationship between altitude/hypoxia conditions and COVID-19 epidemiology and pathophysiology. The potential for treatment strategies used for altitude illnesses is evaluated. Symptomatic overlaps in the pathophysiology of COVID-19 induced ARDS and high altitude illnesses (i.e., hypoxemia, dyspnea…) have been reported but are also common to other pathologies (i.e., heart failure, pulmonary embolism, COPD…). Most treatments of altitude illnesses have limited value and may even be detrimental in COVID-19. Some may be efficient, potentially the corticosteroid dexamethasone. Physiological adaptations to altitude/hypoxia can exert diverse effects, depending on the constitution of the target individual and the hypoxic dose. In healthy individuals, they may optimize oxygen supply and increase mitochondrial, antioxidant, and immune system function. It is highly debated if these physiological responses to hypoxia overlap in many instances with SARS-CoV-2 infection and may exert preventive effects under very specific conditions. The temporal overlap of SARS-CoV-2 infection and exposure to altitude/hypoxia may be detrimental. No evidence-based knowledge is presently available on whether and how altitude/hypoxia may prevent, treat or aggravate COVID-19. The reported lower incidence and mortality of COVID-19 in high-altitude places remain to be confirmed. High-altitude illnesses and COVID-19 pathologies exhibit clear pathophysiological differences. While potentially effective as a prophylactic measure, altitude/hypoxia is likely associated with elevated risks for patients with COVID-19. Altogether, the different points discussed in this review are of possibly some relevance for individuals who aim to reach high-altitude areas. However, due to the ever-changing state of understanding of COVID-19, all points discussed in this review may be out of date at the time of its publication.


Asunto(s)
Aclimatación , Mal de Altura/fisiopatología , Altitud , /fisiopatología , Mal de Altura/epidemiología , Mal de Altura/terapia , Animales , /terapia , Humanos , Prevalencia , Pronóstico , Factores Protectores , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo
12.
PLoS Genet ; 16(12): e1009270, 2020 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370292

RESUMEN

Skeletal muscle plays a central role in regulating glucose uptake and body metabolism; however, highland hypoxia is a severe challenge to aerobic metabolism in small endotherms. Therefore, understanding the physiological and genetic convergence of muscle hypoxia tolerance has a potential broad range of medical implications. Here we report and experimentally validate a common physiological mechanism across multiple high-altitude songbirds that improvement in insulin sensitivity contributes to glucose homeostasis, low oxygen consumption, and relative activity, and thus increases body weight. By contrast, low-altitude songbirds exhibit muscle loss, glucose intolerance, and increase energy expenditures under hypoxia. This adaptive mechanism is attributable to convergent missense mutations in the BNIP3L gene, and METTL8 gene that activates MEF2C expression in highlanders, which in turn increases hypoxia tolerance. Together, our findings from wild high-altitude songbirds suggest convergent physiological and genetic mechanisms of skeletal muscle in hypoxia resistance, which highlights the potentially medical implications of hypoxia-related metabolic diseases.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Fisiológica , Altitud , Evolución Molecular , Consumo de Oxígeno , Transcriptoma , Animales , Peso Corporal , Pinzones , Glucosa/metabolismo , Homeostasis , Insulina/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo
13.
Nature ; 588(7838): 436-441, 2020 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33328667

RESUMEN

Rivers support some of Earth's richest biodiversity1 and provide essential ecosystem services to society2, but they are often fragmented by barriers to free flow3. In Europe, attempts to quantify river connectivity have been hampered by the absence of a harmonized barrier database. Here we show that there are at least 1.2 million instream barriers in 36 European countries (with a mean density of 0.74 barriers per kilometre), 68 per cent of which are structures less than two metres in height that are often overlooked. Standardized walkover surveys along 2,715 kilometres of stream length for 147 rivers indicate that existing records underestimate barrier numbers by about 61 per cent. The highest barrier densities occur in the heavily modified rivers of central Europe and the lowest barrier densities occur in the most remote, sparsely populated alpine areas. Across Europe, the main predictors of barrier density are agricultural pressure, density of river-road crossings, extent of surface water and elevation. Relatively unfragmented rivers are still found in the Balkans, the Baltic states and parts of Scandinavia and southern Europe, but these require urgent protection from proposed dam developments. Our findings could inform the implementation of the EU Biodiversity Strategy, which aims to reconnect 25,000 kilometres of Europe's rivers by 2030, but achieving this will require a paradigm shift in river restoration that recognizes the widespread impacts caused by small barriers.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Ríos , Agricultura/estadística & datos numéricos , Altitud , Biodiversidad , Conjuntos de Datos como Asunto , Restauración y Remediación Ambiental/métodos , Restauración y Remediación Ambiental/tendencias , Europa (Continente) , Actividades Humanas , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Aprendizaje Automático , Densidad de Población , Centrales Eléctricas/provisión & distribución
14.
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi ; 37(6): 1031-1036, 2020 Dec 25.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33369342

RESUMEN

To investigate the computed tomography (CT) characteristics and differential diagnosis of high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) and COVID-19, CT findings of 52 cases of HAPE confirmed in Medical Station of Sanshili Barracks, PLA 950 Hospital from May 1, 2020 to May 30, 2020 were collected retrospectively. The size, number, location, distribution, density and morphology of the pulmonary lesions of these CT data were analyzed and compared with some already existed COVID-19 CT images which come from two files, "Radiological diagnosis of COVID-19: expert recommendation from the Chinese Society of Radiology (First edition)" and "A rapid advice guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of 2019 novel corona-virus (2019-nCoV) infected pneumonia (standard version)". The simple or multiple ground-glass opacity (GGO) lesions are located both in the HAPE and COVID-19 at the early stage, but only the thickening of interlobular septa, called "crazy paving pattern" belongs to COVID-19. At the next period, some increased cloudy shadows are located in HAPE, while lesions of COVID-19 are more likely to develop parallel to the direction of the pleura, and some of the lesions show the bronchial inflation. At the most serious stage, both the shadows in HAPE and COVID-19 become white, but the lesions of HAPE in the right lung are more serious than that of left lung. In summary, some cloudy shadows are the feature of HAPE CT image, and "crazy paving pattern" and "pleural parallel sign" belong to the COVID-19 CT, which can be used for differential diagnosis.


Asunto(s)
Altitud , Edema Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagen , China , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Pulmón/diagnóstico por imagen , Estudios Retrospectivos , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X
15.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 31(9): 2993-3004, 2020 Sep 15.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33345500

RESUMEN

The khulan (Equus hemionus hemionus) is a representative species in desert, semi-desert and desert steppe in Asia. The estimation of suitable habitat and population density of khulan can provide scientific decision-making basis for the conservation management. We investigated the distribution and population density of khulan in the Mt. Kalamaili Ungulate Nature Reserve in Xinjiang during May-August in 2018 and 2019, using the line transect method. The khulan population density, number and the encounter rate were estimated by the Distance 7.0 software, and through the MaxEnt model analysis and combining environmental variables, we assessed the most suitable habitats and main influencing factors. In total, we recorded 4782 individuals from 718 groups and 363 effective occurrences. Our results showed that the suitable summer habitat covered an area of 6737.5 km2, accounting for 45.4% of the total reserve area and located mainly in the central and eas-tern parts of the reserve. We estimated that the density of the summer khulan population was (0.5±0.1) individuals·km-2 and the total khulan population were (3246±575) individuals in the Mt. Kalamaili Ungulate Nature Reserve. The prediction accuracy of MaxEnt model was relatively high, with an average AUC of 0.890. The results of the Jackknife test showed that the distance to water sources, vegetation type, distance to human interference, distance to national highway G216, altitude, and precipitation of driest areas were the most important factors affecting the habitat suitability for khulan. For improving the protection of the khulan population in this reserve, we suggested strengthen the protection of water sources, adjust the core areas, monitor wildlife passages, and enhance traffic construction.


Asunto(s)
Altitud , Ecosistema , Animales , Animales Salvajes , Asia , Humanos , Densidad de Población
17.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(19): 4719-4724, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33164438

RESUMEN

To investigate the effect of salidroside on the proteomics of erythrocyte membrane in high altitude erythrocytosis(HAPC) rats, in order to explore the mechanism of salidroside in improving HAPC based on the proteomics analysis. First, HPAC rat models were established, and 16 rats were randomly divided into HAPC model group and salidroside(100 mg·kg~(-1)) treatment group(8 rats per group). Saline was administered to the HAPC model group, while salidroside treatment group was given 100 mg·kg~(-1) salidroside once a day. After continuous oral administration with salidroside for 40 days(once a day), blood was collected from the femoral artery to obtain total red blood cell membrane proteins. Two-dimensional electrophoresis was used to separate total proteins. The two-dimensional electrophoresis of erythrocyte membrane proteins was analyzed before and after salidroside intervention, and the proteins with significant differences were identified by mass spectrometry. Finally, biological functions were analyzed using bioinformatics. A two-dimensional electrophoresis method was used to establish a protein expression profile with a high resolution and reproducibility of erythrocyte membranes in HAPC rats. Salidroside treatment significantly changed 18 protein spots in the 2-DE map of erythrocyte membranes, of which 13 proteins were up-regulated and 5 proteins were down-regulated. Eight differential proteins were successfully identified by mass spectrometry. Moreover, bioinformatics analysis found that these differential proteins were involved in such biological processes as oxidative stress, redox, and peroxisome pathway, which are mainly associated with peroxisome and MAPK signaling pathways. Therefore, salidroside could significantly change the expressions of erythrocyte membrane proteins in HAPC rats. Eight differential proteins were identified by a proteomic-based approach. The differential proteins were involved in such biological processes as oxidative stress, redox, peroxisome pathway.


Asunto(s)
Policitemia , Altitud , Animales , Eritrocitos , Glucósidos , Fenoles , Proteómica , Ratas , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
18.
Malar J ; 19(1): 410, 2020 Nov 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198754

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In the past decade substantial reduction in malaria morbidity and mortality has been observed through well-implemented case management and vector control strategies. India has also achieved a significant reduction in malaria burden in 2018 and has committed to eliminate malaria by 2030. The Mandla Malaria Elimination Demonstration Project (MEDP) was started in 2017 in 1233 villages of District Mandla to demonstrate malaria elimination in a tribal district with hard-to-reach areas was possible using active and passive surveillance, case management, vector control, and targeted information, education and communication campaigns. An operational plan was developed to strengthen the existing surveillance and malaria elimination systems, through fortnightly active case detection to ensure that all cases including those that are introduced into the communities are rapidly identified and treated promptly. The plan also focused on the reduction of human-mosquito contact through the use of Long-Lasting Insecticial Nets (LLINs) and Indoor Residual Spray (IRS). The operational plan was modified in view of the present COVID-19 pandemic by creating systems of assistance for the local administration for COVID-related work while ensuring the operational integrity of malaria elimination efforts. RESULTS: The use of MEDP study design and operational plan, with its built-in management control systems, has yielded significant (91%) reduction of indigenous cases of malaria during the period from June 2017 to May 2020. The malaria positivity rate was 0.33% in 2017-18, 0.13% in 2018-19, and 0.06% in 2019-20. Mass screening revealed 0.18% malaria positivity in September-October 2018, followed by 0.06% in June 2019, and 0.03% in December 2019, and these were mostly asymptomatic cases in the community. The project has been able to sustain the gains of the past three years during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSION: This paper provides the study design and the operational plan for malaria elimination in a high-burden district of Central India, which presented difficulties of hard to reach areas, forest malaria, and complex epidemiology of urban and rural malaria. The lessons learned could be used for malaria elimination efforts in rest of the country and other parts of South Asia with comparable demography and epidemiology.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Prestación de Atención de Salud/métodos , Enfermedades Endémicas/prevención & control , Malaria/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Vigilancia de la Población/métodos , Altitud , Animales , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Prestación de Atención de Salud/organización & administración , Enfermedades Endémicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Bosques , Instituciones de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Mosquiteros Tratados con Insecticida , Malaria/epidemiología , Control de Mosquitos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Lluvia , Población Rural , Población Urbana
19.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(4): e20200012, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206789

RESUMEN

Professional athletes conduct high-intensitive hypoxic training often accompanied by the increase of many inflammatory-related cytokines and immunosuppression. Cucurbitacin E (CucE), as a triterpenoid isolated from Cucurbitaceae plants, exert potential anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory. However, it is unknown whether that the CucE could be used as dietary supplement for athletes to improve inflammatory response and immunosuppression. In this study, we established the simulative hypoxic training rat and monkey models and evaluated the effects of CucE on immune- and inflammation-related factors. Obvious improvement on pro-inflammatory factors and pro-lymphocyte proliferation activities were showed in CucE treated rats compared with the control. Further supplement of CucE in professional meals for cynomolgus monkeys with 4-weeks high-intensitive hypoxic training also exert effects on altitude-induced oxidative stress, inflammation and immunologic function. Furtherly, we explored the underlying mechanism of CucE in human Jurkat T cells and results showed that CucE may exhibit immunosuppressive effect by attenuating critical cytokine expression through down-regulating the NF-κB signaling pathway. In conclusion, CucE is expected to be a potential dietary supplement for athletes to ameliorate the inflammation and immunosuppression caused by high-intensitive exercise.


Asunto(s)
Altitud , Triterpenos , Animales , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamación/tratamiento farmacológico , Estrés Oxidativo , Ratas , Triterpenos/farmacología
20.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(suppl 2): e20190058, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146275

RESUMEN

Elevation creates a variety of physical conditions in a relatively short distance, which makes mountains suitable for studying the effects of climate change on biodiversity. We investigated the importance of climate and vegetation for the distribution of butterflies from 800 to 1400 m elevation. We sampled butterflies, and woody and rosette plants and measured air temperature and humidity, wind speed and gust, and solar radiation. We partitioned diversity to assess the processes underlying community shifts across altitudes - species loss versus replacement. We assessed the strength of the association among butterfly, vegetation, and climate. Butterfly richness and abundance decreased with altitude, and species composition changed along the elevation. Changes in butterfly composition with altitude were mainly through species replacement and by abundance increases in some species being compensated by decreases in others. Since the floristic diversity decreased with altitude due to soil conditions, and butterflies are closely related to their host plants, this could explain species replacement with altitude. Overall, we found a stronger association of butterfly community with vegetation than climate, but plant community and climate were also strongly associated between them. Butterfly richness was more strongly associated with plant richness than with temperature, while the reverse was true for butterfly abundance, which was more strongly associated with temperature than with plant richness. We must consider the complementary roles of resource and conditions in species distribution.


Asunto(s)
Mariposas Diurnas , Altitud , Animales , Biodiversidad , Cambio Climático , Ecosistema , Suelo
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