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5.
Psychol Aging ; 36(1): 1-9, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705181

RESUMEN

Prosociality refers to a broad set of behavioral, motivational, cognitive, affective, and social processes that contribute to, and/or are focused on, the welfare of others. This overview summarizes 10 articles included in the special issue on this topic. In discussing this research relative to existing theories, we situate this work within Penner et al.'s (Annual Review of Psychology, 56, 2005, 365-392) multilevel framework that recognizes distinct yet integrated levels of analysis to characterize micro- (i.e., intraindividual), meso- (i.e., interpersonal), and macro- (i.e., sociocultural and organizational contexts) level effects. While there is some evidence for lifespan continuity in prosocial dispositions at the micro level, the influences of long-term learning and socialization processes at the meso and macro levels are likely to be maximized in older age. Aside from formal voluteering, the adult lifespan development of prosociality has only recently received attention, especially with respect to influences beyond the micro level. This special issue encompasses research examining developmental change and stability in prosociality that collectively cuts across levels of analysis to inform theories in both adult development and aging and prosociality more generally. We propose future directions that take an integrative approach to understanding the development of prosociality by considering interactions among micro, meso, and macro levels. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Altruismo , Adulto , Anciano , Envejecimiento , Humanos
6.
Psychol Aging ; 36(1): 22-35, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705183

RESUMEN

Why do people contribute to the well-being of others? What promotes or hinders their contribution? Framed by expectancy-value theory and the motivational theory of life span development, we use data from the Midlife in the United States National longitudinal study (MIDUS I, II, and III) to examine how individuals' perceived contributions to the well-being of others develop across adulthood, in the related but distinct forms of overall prosociality (more other-focused) and generativity (more self-focused). Our findings show that prosociality and generativity display similar, yet distinct trajectories, peaking in midlife a decade apart from each other, when expectancy and value for prosocial behavior are highest. Moreover, expectancy as reflected in perceived control and control strivings, and value as indicated by agreeableness, predict individuals' prosociality and generativity. Trajectories of prosocial contributions further differ according to individual differences in perceived control, control striving, education, income, and number of children, whereas trajectories of generativity only differ across levels of perceived control and income. By applying motivational and life span developmental perspectives, our study offers insight into how prosociality and generativity develop throughout adulthood. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Altruismo , Adulto , Envejecimiento , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Motivación
7.
Psychol Aging ; 36(1): 49-56, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705185

RESUMEN

Life span theories postulate that altruistic tendencies increase in adult development, but the mechanisms and moderators of age-related differences in altruism are poorly understood. In particular, it is unclear to what extent age differences in altruism reflect age differences in altruistic motivation, in resources such as education and income, or in socially desirable responding. This meta-analysis combined 16 studies assessing altruism in younger and older adults (N = 1,581). As expected, results revealed an age-related difference in altruism (Mg = 0.61, p < .001), with older adults showing greater altruism than younger adults. Demographic moderators (income, education, sex distribution) did not significantly moderate this effect, nor did aspects of the study methodology that may drive socially desirable responding. However, the age effect was moderated by the average age of the older sample, such that studies with young-old samples showed a larger age effect than studies with old-old samples. These findings are consistent with the theoretical prediction of age-related increases in altruistic motivation, but they also suggest a role for resources (e.g., physical, cognitive, social) that may decline in advanced old age. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/psicología , Altruismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Motivación , Adulto Joven
8.
Psychol Aging ; 36(1): 83-95, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705187

RESUMEN

Prosocial activities, such as volunteering, predict better mental and physical health in late adulthood, but their proximal links to well-being in daily life are largely unknown. The current study examined day-to-day associations of prosocial activities with emotional and physical well-being, and whether these associations differ with age. We used daily diary data from the National Study of Daily Experiences (NSDE) II (n = 2,016; ages 33-84) and NSDE Refresher Study (n = 774; ages 25-75). Participants completed telephone interviews on 8 consecutive evenings regarding their prosocial activities (formal volunteering, providing unpaid assistance, providing emotional support), well-being (negative affect, stressors, positive events), and physical symptoms. On days when individuals participated in more formal volunteering or provided more unpaid assistance than usual, they experienced more stressors and positive events but no difference in the number of physical symptoms. Negative affect was reduced on volunteering days for older adults but increased for younger adults (NSDE Refresher). Providing emotional support was associated with higher same-day negative affect, more stressors, more positive events, and elevated physical symptoms. Compared to younger and middle-aged adults, older adults experienced less of an increase in stressors and positive events (NSDE II) and negative affect (NSDE Refresher) on days when they provided more emotional support than usual. These findings demonstrate that prosocial activities are associated with both costs (negative affect, stressors, physical symptoms) and benefits (positive events) for same-day well-being. Older age may protect against negative ramifications associated with prosocial activities. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Altruismo , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
9.
Psychol Aging ; 36(1): 96-107, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705188

RESUMEN

Empirical evidence suggests that self-reported prosociality and donations increase with age. The majority of this research was conducted using monetary donations as outcome measures. However, on average older adults hold a significant advantage in financial and material assets compared to younger adults, effectively lowering the subjective cost of small monetary donations. Are older adults also more prosocial when donating a nonmonetary resource that is of equal or even higher value for them compared to younger age groups? A first study (N = 160, 20-74 years) combined data from self-report measures, affective responses, and hypothetical donation decisions to compute a single prosociality factor. Conceptually replicating findings from Hubbard, Harbaugh, Srivastava, Degras, and Mayr (2016) on monetary donations, results suggest that nonmonetary prosociality also increases with age. However, these differences depended on the domain of the donation. Data from two further behavioral studies (Study 2: N = 156, 18-89 years; Study 3: N = 342, 19-88 years) that were analyzed using Bayesian statistics provided evidence that older adults are not more prosocial than younger and middle-aged adults when donating a small amount of their time (in service of a donation to charity). In summary, the three studies suggest that older adults are not consistently more likely to behave prosocially than younger or middle-aged adults in nonmonetary domains. These findings point to the importance of moving research on prosociality and aging beyond financial donations and further explore the role of resources and perceived costs of prosociality. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Altruismo , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
12.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248234, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690679

RESUMEN

In the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, public health experts have produced guidelines to limit the spread of the coronavirus, but individuals do not always comply with experts' recommendations. Here, we tested whether a specific psychological belief-identification with all humanity-predicts cooperation with public health guidelines as well as helpful behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic. We hypothesized that peoples' endorsement of this belief-their relative perception of a connection and moral commitment to other humans-would predict their tendencies to adopt World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines and to help others. To assess this, we conducted a global online study (N = 2537 participants) of four WHO-recommended health behaviors and four pandemic-related moral dilemmas that we constructed to be relevant to helping others at a potential cost to oneself. We used generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) that included 10 predictor variables (demographic, contextual, and psychological) for each of five outcome measures (a WHO cooperative health behavior score, plus responses to each of our four moral, helping dilemmas). Identification with all humanity was the most consistent and consequential predictor of individuals' cooperative health behavior and helpful responding. Analyses showed that the identification with all humanity significantly predicted each of the five outcomes while controlling for the other variables (Prange < 10-22 to < 0.009). The mean effect size of the identification with all humanity predictor on these outcomes was more than twice as large as the effect sizes of other predictors. Identification with all humanity is a psychological construct that, through targeted interventions, may help scientists and policymakers to better understand and promote cooperative health behavior and help-oriented concern for others during the current pandemic as well as in future humanitarian crises.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Conducta Cooperativa , Salud Pública/tendencias , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Altruismo , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Femenino , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud/ética , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
13.
Br Dent J ; 230(5): 271-272, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712756
14.
Span J Psychol ; 24: e16, 2021 Mar 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33745483

RESUMEN

A sample of 641 participants were presented with four decision-making tasks during the first stages of the COVID-19 lockdown in Spain: The dictator game, framing problems, utilitarian/deontological and altruistic/egoistic moral dilemmas. Participants also completed questionnaires on mental health status and experiences related to the COVID-19 pandemic. We used boosted regression trees (an advanced form of regression analysis based on machine learning) to model relationships between responses to the questionnaires and decision-making tasks. Results showed that the psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic predicted participants' responses to the framing problems and utilitarian/deontological and altruistic/egoistic moral dilemmas (but not to the dictator game). More concretely, the more psychological impact participants suffered, the more they were willing to choose the safest response in the framing problems, and the more deontological/altruistic were their responses to moral dilemmas. These results suggest that the psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic might prompt automatic processes.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/psicología , Toma de Decisiones , Depresión/psicología , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Altruismo , Teoría Ética , Ética , Femenino , Humanos , Aprendizaje Automático , Masculino , Salud Mental , Persona de Mediana Edad , Principios Morales , Análisis de Regresión , España , Adulto Joven
15.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 5(4): 468-479, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33589803

RESUMEN

Altruism between close relatives can be easily explained. However, paradoxes arise when organisms divert altruism towards more distantly related recipients. In some social insects, workers drift extensively between colonies and help raise less related foreign brood, seemingly reducing inclusive fitness. Since being highlighted by W. D. Hamilton, three hypotheses (bet hedging, indirect reciprocity and diminishing returns to cooperation) have been proposed for this surprising behaviour. Here, using inclusive fitness theory, we show that bet hedging and indirect reciprocity could only drive cooperative drifting under improbable conditions. However, diminishing returns to cooperation create a simple context in which sharing workers is adaptive. Using a longitudinal dataset comprising over a quarter of a million nest cell observations, we quantify cooperative payoffs in the Neotropical wasp Polistes canadensis, for which drifting occurs at high levels. As the worker-to-brood ratio rises in a worker's home colony, the predicted marginal benefit of a worker for expected colony productivity diminishes. Helping related colonies can allow effort to be focused on related brood that are more in need of care. Finally, we use simulations to show that cooperative drifting evolves under diminishing returns when dispersal is local, allowing altruists to focus their efforts on related recipients. Our results indicate the power of nonlinear fitness effects to shape social organization, and suggest that models of eusocial evolution should be extended to include neglected social interactions within colony networks.


Asunto(s)
Altruismo , Avispas , Animales , Familia , Humanos
16.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 43(1): 29, 2021 Feb 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33620583

RESUMEN

During the COVID-19 pandemic, blood and convalescent plasma donors are dearly needed. There is a need to modify donor recruitment strategies in order to stimulate these donors. Financial stimulants though, cannot be possibly used. This paper will analyze, from an ethical perspective, the possible consequences regarding the blood and plasma donor system by a simple shift of attention from the voluntary unpaid donor to the paid one or the blood seller.


Asunto(s)
/terapia , Altruismo , Donantes de Sangre , /economía , Mercantilización , Humanos , Inmunización Pasiva/economía , Plasma
17.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(2): e2037880, 2021 02 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33616665

RESUMEN

Importance: Ten percent of the Medicare Part B budget is spent on aflibercept, used to treat a myriad of ocular neovascular diseases. A substantial portion of these costs can be attributed to a few hundred ophthalmologists, raising concerns regarding the influence of pharmaceutical companies on the choice of medication by a relatively small group of clinicians. One approach to protect patients' health care interests is to include them in deliberations on the choice of therapy for their eye disease. Objective: To examine factors associated with patients' choice between an effective and less expensive off-label drug or a more effective, but also more expensive, US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drug. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort analysis used data from the satellite office of a tertiary referral center from August 2, 2013, to April 9, 2018. Insured patients initiating treatment with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor were included in the analysis. Data were analyzed from March 26, 2018, to June 10, 2020. Interventions: Patients were asked to choose between bevacizumab (approximately $100 per dose), a chemotherapy that is effective, but not FDA approved, for the treatment of ocular vascular disease, or aflibercept (approximately $2000 per dose), an FDA-approved drug for ocular vascular disease that may be more effective than bevacizumab in some patients. Independent of this choice, patients were separately asked by a study coordinator to participate in an invasive clinical study for which they would not be compensated, there was a small risk for an adverse event, and they would not personally benefit from participating (a surrogate marker for altruism). Main Outcomes and Measures: Factors associated with patients' choice of medication, including age, sex, ocular disease, race, and participation in an invasive clinical study. Results: A total of 189 patients were included in the analysis (106 women [56%]; mean [SEM] age, 74.6 [0.8] years). Despite being told that it may not be as effective as aflibercept, 100 patients (53%) selected bevacizumab for their own eye care. An act of altruism (ie, participation in an invasive clinical study) when the patient was making a choice between the 2 drugs was associated with a patient's choice of bevacizumab (odds ratio [OR], 7.03; 95% CI, 2.27-21.80; P < .001); the OR for selecting bevacizumab for patients who never agreed to participate in the clinical study was 0.45 (95% CI, 0.25-0.83; P = .001). Age (OR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.97-1.03; P = .86), race (OR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.41-1.22; P = .21), sex (OR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.39-1.35; P = .31), presence of diabetes (OR, 1.52; 95% CI, 0.59-3.93; P = .39), and type of eye disease (OR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.30-1.04; P = .07) were not associated with choice of therapy. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that clinicians must consider the ethical implications of the influence of altruism when patients participate in the decision between cost-effective vs the most effective medicines for their own health care.


Asunto(s)
Altruismo , Inhibidores de la Angiogénesis/economía , Bevacizumab/economía , Conducta de Elección , Toma de Decisiones , Oftalmopatías/tratamiento farmacológico , Participación del Paciente , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusión/economía , Afroamericanos , Anciano , Inhibidores de la Angiogénesis/uso terapéutico , Americanos Asiáticos , Bevacizumab/uso terapéutico , Estudios de Cohortes , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Retinopatía Diabética/tratamiento farmacológico , Costos de los Medicamentos , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea , Femenino , Humanos , Degeneración Macular/tratamiento farmacológico , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neovascularización Patológica/tratamiento farmacológico , Oportunidad Relativa , Uso Fuera de lo Indicado , Receptores de Factores de Crecimiento Endotelial Vascular/uso terapéutico , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusión/uso terapéutico , Oclusión de la Vena Retiniana/tratamiento farmacológico , Estudios Retrospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento , Agudeza Visual
18.
J Am Board Fam Med ; 34(Suppl): S103-S112, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622825

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Health care workers treating Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients face significant stressors such as caring for critically ill and dying patients, physically demanding care requiring new degrees of personal protective equipment use, risk of contracting the disease, and putting loved ones at risk. This study investigates the stress impact from COVID-19 exposure and how nurses and medical providers (eg, physicians, nurse practitioners, physician assistants) experience these challenges differently. METHODS: An electronic, self-administered questionnaire was sent to all hospital staff over 6 weeks surveying exposure to COVID-19 patients and degree of stress caused by this exposure. Responses from medical providers and nurses were analyzed for significant contributors to stress levels, as well as comparing responses from medical providers versus nurses. RESULTS: Stress levels from increased risk of disease contraction while on the job, fear of transmitting it to family or friends, and the resulting social stigma were highest in medical staff during the COVID-19 pandemic. Compared with medical providers, nurses had nearly 4 times the odds of considering job resignation due to COVID-19. However, most health care workers (77.4% of medical providers and 52.9% of nurses) strongly agreed or agreed with the statements indicating high levels of altruism in their desire to treat COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSION: The significant stress burden placed on nurses likely contributes to increased thoughts of job resignation. However, health care providers displayed high levels of altruism during this time of extreme crisis, despite their personal risks of caring for COVID-19 patients.


Asunto(s)
Actitud del Personal de Salud , Cuerpo Médico de Hospitales/psicología , Personal de Enfermería en Hospital/psicología , Estrés Laboral/psicología , Adulto , Altruismo , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Percepción , Medición de Riesgo , Estigma Social , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
20.
Nature ; 590(7846): 392-394, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33526901
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