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Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33946284


The COVID pandemic very quickly became the world's most serious social and economic problem. This paper's focus is on the spatial aspect of its spread, with the aims being to point to spatial conditioning underpinning development of the pandemic, and to identify and assess possible socio-economic features exerting an impact on that. Particular attention has been paid to the percentage of positive tests for the presence of the coronavirus, as well as mortality due to the disease it causes. The statistics used relate to 102 countries, with the research for each extending from the time first cases of COVID-19 were reported through to 18 November 2020. The focus of investigation has been the stochastic co-occurrence of both a morbidity index and a mortality index, with intentionally selected socio-economic variables. Results have then been summarized through the classification of countries in relation to the two indices. Highest values relate to Latin America. A significant co-occurrence of morbidity and mortality with GDP per capita has been identified, as values for the indices are found to be lower in wealthier countries. The basic conclusion is that the dependency of the pandemic on environmental and socio-economic conditioning became more complex and ambiguous, while also being displaced gradually as concrete political decisions came to be taken.

Pandemias , Humanos , América Latina , Factores Socioeconómicos
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 728, 2021 04 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33858373


BACKGROUND: The available evidence of the health effects of urban regeneration is scarce In Latin America, and there are no studies focused on formal housing that longitudinally evaluate the impact of housing and neighborhood interventions on health. The "Regeneración Urbana, Calidad de Vida y Salud" (Urban Regeneration, Quality of Life, and Health) or RUCAS project is a longitudinal, multi-method study that will evaluate the impact of an intervention focused on dwellings, built environment and community on the health and wellbeing of the population in two social housing neighborhoods in Chile. METHODS: RUCAS consists of a longitudinal study where inhabitants exposed and unexposed to the intervention will be compared over time within the study neighborhoods (cohorts), capitalizing on interventions as a natural experiment. Researchers have developed a specific conceptual framework and identified potential causal mechanisms. Proximal and more distal intervention effects will be measured with five instruments, implemented pre- and post-interventions between 2018 and 2021: a household survey, an observation tool to evaluate dwelling conditions, hygrochrons for measuring temperature and humidity inside dwellings, systematic observation of recreational areas, and qualitative interviews. Survey baseline data (956 households, 3130 individuals) is presented to describe sociodemographics, housing and health characteristics of both cohorts, noting that neighborhoods studied show worse conditions than the Chilean population. DISCUSSION: RUCAS' design allows for a comprehensive evaluation of the effects that the intervention could have on various dimensions of health and health determinants. RUCAS will face some challenges, like changes in the intervention process due to adjustments of the master plan, exogenous factors -including COVID-19 pandemic and associated lockdowns- and lost to follow-up. Given the stepped wedge design, that the study capitalizes on within household changes over time, the possibility of adjusting data collection process and complementarity of methods, RUCAS has the flexibility to adapt to these circumstances. Also, RUCAS' outreach and retention strategy has led to high retention rates. RUCAS will provide evidence to inform regeneration processes, highlighting the need to consider potential health effects of regeneration in designing such interventions and, more broadly, health as a key priority in urban and housing policies.

Vivienda Popular , Calidad de Vida , Características de la Residencia , Actividades Cotidianas , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Niño , Preescolar , Chile/epidemiología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Planificación Ambiental , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , América Latina , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Adulto Joven
Medicina (B Aires) ; 81(2): 154-158, 2021.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33906132


Chagas disease is endemic in Latin America and remains a regional problem despite improvements in environmental health conditions that have helped to control its transmission. To know more about its prevalence in heart disease patients, we carried out a survey in our national (El Salvador) reference hospital. We reviewed the Chagas Lab's records 2013-2015 to find out how many of the patients admitted to the Hospital's Heart Unit were serologically positives for Trypanosoma cruzi infection and which the associated diagnoses were. A total of 1472 patients were tested along the 36-month study period. Out of 557 (37.8%) patients with positive serology for Chagas infection, 97 (17.4%) were eventually admitted to the Heart Unit. Among these 97 Chagas infected patients with heart disease, 40 (41.2%) met the criteria for permanent pacemaker placement, while only 13 of 191 (6.8%) patients with non-chagasic heart disease met these criteria. The frequency of heart atrioventricular block associated with Trypanosoma cruzi infection was higher than frequencies reported in South American studies.

Bloqueo Atrioventricular , Enfermedad de Chagas , Trypanosoma cruzi , Bloqueo Atrioventricular/epidemiología , Bloqueo Atrioventricular/etiología , Enfermedad de Chagas/diagnóstico , Enfermedad de Chagas/epidemiología , El Salvador , Humanos , América Latina
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802095


AIM: To characterize physical exercise programs for older adults in Latin America. METHODS: This review was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA statement. A search for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published between the years 2015 and 2020 was performed in the Scopus, MedLine and SciELO databases. RESULTS: A total of 101 RCTs were included. A large percentage of the studies had an unclear risk of bias in the items: selection, performance, detection and attribution. Furthermore, a heterogeneous level of compliance was observed in the CERT items. A total sample of 5013 older adults (79% women) was included. 97% of the studies included older adults between 60-70 years, presenting an adherence to the interventions of 86%. The studies were mainly carried out in older adults with cardiometabolic diseases. Only 44% of the studies detailed information regarding the place of intervention; of these studies, 61% developed their interventions in university facilities. The interventions were mainly based on therapeutic physical exercise (89% of the articles), with a duration of 2-6 months (95% of the articles) and a frequency of 2-3 times a week (95% of the articles) with sessions of 30-60 min (94% of the articles) led by sports science professionals (51% of the articles). The components of physical fitness that were exercised the most were muscular strength (77% of the articles) and cardiorespiratory fitness (47% of the articles). Furthermore, only 48% of the studies included a warm-up stage and 34% of the studies included a cool-down stage. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review characterized the physical exercise programs in older adults in Latin America, as well the most frequently used outcome measures and instruments, by summarizing available evidence derived from RCTs. The results will be useful for prescribing future physical exercise programs in older adults.

Ejercicio Físico , Fuerza Muscular , Anciano , Terapia por Ejercicio , Femenino , Humanos , América Latina , Masculino , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
Glob Heart ; 16(1): 14, 2021 02 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33833938


Background: Infection caused by SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) exhibits a strong infectivity but less virulence compared to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). In terms of cardiovascular morbidity, susceptible population include elderly and patients with certain cardiovascular conditions. This infection has been associated with cardiac injury, cardiovascular complications and higher mortality. Objectives: The main objective of the CARDIO COVID 19-20 Registry is to determine the presence of cardiovascular comorbidities and cardiovascular complications in COVID-19 infected patients that required in-hospital treatment in different Latin American institutions. Methods: The CARDIO COVID 19-20 Registry is an observational, multicenter, ambispective, and hospital-based registry of patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection who required in-hospital treatment in Latin America. Enrollment of patients started on May 01, 2020 and was initially planned to last three months; based on the progression of pandemic in Latin America, enrollment was extended until December 2020, and could be extended once again based on the pandemic course in our continent at that moment. Conclusions: The CARDIO COVID 19-20 Registry will characterize the in-hospital population diagnosed with COVID-19 in Latin America in order to identify risk factors for worsening of cardiovascular comorbidities or for the appearance of cardiovascular complications during hospitalization and during the 30-day follow up period.

/epidemiología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Sistema de Registros , Arritmias Cardíacas/epidemiología , Arritmias Cardíacas/etiología , Arritmias Cardíacas/fisiopatología , /fisiopatología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/etiología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/fisiopatología , Comorbilidad , Enfermedad Coronaria/epidemiología , Enfermedad Coronaria/etiología , Enfermedad Coronaria/fisiopatología , Insuficiencia Cardíaca/epidemiología , Insuficiencia Cardíaca/etiología , Insuficiencia Cardíaca/fisiopatología , Humanos , América Latina , Miocarditis/epidemiología , Miocarditis/etiología , Miocarditis/fisiopatología , Trombosis/epidemiología , Trombosis/etiología , Trombosis/fisiopatología
Glob Heart ; 16(1): 15, 2021 02 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33833939


Background: SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has modified the cardiovascular care of ambulatory patients. The aim of this survey was to study changes in lifestyle habits, treatment adherence, and mental health status in patients with cardiometabolic disease, but no clinical evidence of COVID-19. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in ambulatory patients with cardiometabolic disease using paper/digital surveys. Variables investigated included socioeconomic status, physical activity, diet, tobacco use, alcohol intake, treatment discontinuation, and psychological symptoms. Results: A total of 4,216 patients (50.9% males, mean age 60.3 ± 15.3 years old) from 13 Spanish-speaking Latin American countries were enrolled. Among the study population, 46.4% of patients did not have contact with a healthcare provider, 31.5% reported access barriers to treatments and 17% discontinued some medication. Multivariate analysis showed that non-adherence to treatment was more prevalent in the secondary prevention group: peripheral vascular disease (OR 1.55, CI 1.08-2.24; p = 0.018), heart failure (OR 1.36, CI 1.05-1.75; p = 0.017), and coronary artery disease (OR 1.29 CI 1.04-1.60; p = 0.018). No physical activity was reported by 38% of patients. Only 15% of patients met minimum recommendations of physical activity (more than 150 minutes/week) and vegetable and fruit intake. Low/very low income (45.5%) was associated with a lower level of physical activity (p < 0.0001), less fruit and vegetables intake (p < 0.0001), more tobacco use (p < 0.001) and perception of depression (p < 0.001). Low educational level was also associated with the perception of depression (OR 1.46, CI 1.26-1.70; p < 0.01). Conclusions: Patients with cardiometabolic disease but without clinical evidence of COVID-19 showed significant medication non-adherence, especially in secondary prevention patients. Deterioration in lifestyle habits and appearance of depressive symptoms during the pandemic were frequent and related to socioeconomic status.

Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/terapia , Depresión/psicología , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Dieta , Dislipidemias/terapia , Ejercicio Físico , Cumplimiento y Adherencia al Tratamiento/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Anciano , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Arritmias Cardíacas/terapia , Fumar Cigarrillos/epidemiología , Enfermedad de la Arteria Coronaria/terapia , Escolaridad , Femenino , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Insuficiencia Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Hipertensión/terapia , América Latina/epidemiología , Masculino , Salud Mental , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pacientes Ambulatorios , Enfermedades Vasculares Periféricas/terapia , Prevención Secundaria , Clase Social , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
Artículo en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53773


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Determinar y caracterizar áreas de riesgo potencial de la ocurrencia de leishmaniasis cutánea (LC) en América Latina (AL). Método. Estudio observacional ecológico con unidades de observación definidas por municipios con transmisión de LC entre 2014-2018. Se utilizaron variables medioambientales y socioeconómicas disponibles para al menos 85% de los municipios, combinados en una sola base de datos, a través del software R. Se combinó la metodología de análisis de componentes principales con un análisis de conglomerados jerárquicos para la formación de conglomerados de municipios en función de su similitud. Se estimó el V-test para definir la asociación positiva o negativa de las variables con los conglomerados y separación por divisiones naturales para determinar cuáles contribuyeron más a cada conglomerado. Se incorporaron los casos para atribuir el riesgo de LC para cada conglomerado. Resultados. Se incluyeron en el estudio 4 951 municipios con transmisión de LC (36,5% del total en AL) y se definieron siete conglomerados por su asociación con 18 variables medioambientales y socioeconómicas. El riesgo histórico de LC se asocia de manera positiva y en forma decreciente con los conglomerados Amazónico, Andino y Sabana; y de manera negativa con los conglomerados Boscoso/perenne, Boscoso/cultivo y Boscoso/poblado. El conglomerado Agrícola no reveló ninguna asociación con los casos de LC. Conclusiones. El estudio permitió identificar y caracterizar el riesgo de LC por conglomerados de municipios y conocer el patrón propio epidemiológico de distribución de la transmisión, lo que proporciona a los gestores una mejor información para las intervenciones intersectoriales para el control de la LC.

[ABSTRACT]. Objective. Determine and characterize areas at potential risk for the occurrence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Latin America. Method. Ecological observational study with observation units defined by municipalities with CL transmission during 2014-2018. Environmental and socioeconomic variables available for at least 85% of municipalities were combined in a single database, using R software. Principal component analysis was combined with hierarchical cluster analysis for the formation of clusters of municipalities according to their similarity. The V-test was used to define positive or negative association of variables with clusters and separation by natural divisions to determine which contributed more to each cluster. Cases were included to attribute CL risk for each cluster. Results. The study included 4 951 municipalities with CL transmission (36.5% of municipalities in Latin America); seven clusters were defined by their association with 18 environmental and socioeconomic variables. Historical risk of CL is associated positively and in descending order with the Amazonian, Andean, and Savanna clusters; and negatively with the Forest/perennial, Forest/cultivated, and Forest/populated clusters. The Agricultural cluster showed no association with CL cases. Conclusions. The study made it possible to identify and characterize CL risk by clusters of municipalities and to understand the characteristic epidemiological distribution patterns of transmission, providing program managers with better information for intersectoral interventions to control CL.

[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Determinar e caracterizar as áreas de risco de ocorrência de leishmaniose cutânea na América Latina. Método. Estudo observacional ecológico com unidades de observação definidas por municípios com transmissão de leishmaniose cutânea entre 2014 e 2018. Foram usadas as variáveis ambientais e socioeconômicas disponíveis em 85% ou mais dos municípios, reunidas em uma única base de dados com o uso do software R. A metodologia de análise de componentes principais foi combinada a uma análise de conglomerados com agrupamento hierárquico para formar conglomerados de municípios por semelhança. O teste V foi usado para estabelecer a associação (positiva ou negativa) das variáveis com os conglomerados e uma separação por divisões naturais foi usada para determinar as variáveis que mais contribuíram em cada conglomerado. Os casos foram incluídos para avaliar o risco de leishmaniose cutânea em cada conglomerado. Resultados. A amostra do estudo compreendeu 4.951 municípios com transmissão de leishmaniose cutânea (36,5% do total na América Latina). Foram definidos sete conglomerados por apresentarem associação com 18 variáveis ambientais e socioeconômicas. Foi observada associação positiva e decrescente do risco histórico de leishmaniose cutânea com os conglomerados Amazônico, Andino e Savana e negativa com os conglomerados Mata/perene, Mata/cultivo e Mata/povoado. O conglomerado Agrícola não demonstrou associação com casos de leishmaniose cutânea. Conclusões. Este estudo permitiu identificar e caracterizar o risco de leishmaniose cutânea por conglomerados de municípios e conhecer o padrão epidemiológico de distribuição da transmissão da doença, oferecendo às autoridades dados melhores para subsidiar as intervenções intersetoriais para o controle da leishmaniose cutânea.

Leishmaniasis Cutánea , Análisis por Conglomerados , América Latina , Leishmaniasis Cutánea , Análisis por Conglomerados , América Latina , Leishmaniasis Cutánea , Análisis por Conglomerados
Artículo en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53563


[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To describe the current status of regulatory reliance in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) by assessing the countries’ regulatory frameworks to approve new medicines, and to ascertain, for each country, which foreign regulators are considered as trusted regulatory authorities to rely on. Methods. Websites from LAC regulators were searched to identify the official regulations to approve new drugs. Data collection was carried out in December 2019 and completed in June 2020 for the Caribbean countries. Two independent teams collected information regarding direct recognition or abbreviated processes to approve new drugs and the reference (trusted) regulators defined as such by the corresponding national legislation. Results. Regulatory documents regarding marketing authorization were found in 20 LAC regulators’ websites, covering 34 countries. Seven countries do not accept reliance on foreign regulators. Thirteen regulatory authorities (Argentina, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, and the unique Caribbean Regulatory System for 15 Caribbean States) explicitly accept relying on marketing authorizations issued by the European Medicines Agency, United States Food and Drug Administration, and Health Canada. Ten countries rely also on marketing authorizations from Australia, Japan, and Switzerland. Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Mexico are reference authorities for eight LAC regulators. Conclusions. Regulatory reliance has become a common practice in the LAC region. Thirteen out of 20 regulators directly recognize or abbreviate the marketing authorization process in case of earlier approval by a regulator from another jurisdiction. The regulators most relied upon are the European Medicines Agency, United States Food and Drug Administration, and Health Canada.

[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Describir el estado actual de la utilización de las decisiones de autoridades regulatorias de otras jurisdicciones en América Latina y el Caribe mediante la evaluación de los marcos regulatorios nacionales para la aprobación de nuevos medicamentos y establecer los organismos regulatorios extranjeros que se consideran autoridades regulatorias confiables para cada país. Métodos. Se realizaron búsquedas en los sitios web de las autoridades regulatorias de América Latina y el Caribe para identificar las regulaciones oficiales para la aprobación de nuevos medicamentos. La recopilación de datos se llevó a cabo en diciembre del 2019 y se completó en junio del 2020 para los países del Caribe. Dos equipos independientes recopilaron información sobre el reconocimiento directo o los procedimientos abreviados para la aprobación de nuevos medicamentos y los autoridades regulatorias de referencia (confiables) así definidos en la legislación nacional correspondiente. Resultados. Se encontraron documentos regulatorios sobre la aprobación de nuevos productos en los sitios web de veinte organismos regulatorios de América Latina y el Caribe, que abarcaban 34 países. Siete países no aceptan la utilización de decisiones de autoridades regulatorias extranjeras. Trece autoridades regulatorias (Argentina, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, México, Panamá, Paraguay, Perú, República Dominicana, Uruguay y el sistema regulador único para quince Estados del Caribe) aceptan de manera explícita confiar las decisiones para aprobación de nuevos medicamentos emitidas por la Agencia Europea de Medicamentos, la Administración de Alimentos y Medicamentos de Estados Unidos y Salud Canadá. Diez países aceptan también utilizar las autorizaciones para la comercialización de Australia, Japón y Suiza. Argentina, Brasil, Chile y México son autoridades de referencia para ocho autoridades regulatorias en la región. Conclusiones. La utilización de las decisiones de autoridades regulatorias de otras jurisdicciones se han convertido en una práctica común en América Latina y el Caribe. Trece de veinte autoridades regulatorias reconocen directamente o abrevian el proceso de aprobación de nuevos medicamentos en caso de que hayan recibido previamente la aprobación por parte de un organismo regulatorio de otra jurisdicción. La Agencia Europea de Medicamentos, la Administración de Alimentos y Medicamentos de Estados Unidos y Salud Canadá son las autoridades regulatorias de otras jurisdicciones en las cuales los reguladores de América Latina y el Caribe confían más.

[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Descrever a prática atual de uso de decisões regulatórias de outras jurisdições na América Latina e no Caribe (ALC) mediante avaliação os marcos regulatórios dos países para aprovação de novos medicamentos e verificar, para cada país, quais entidades reguladoras estrangeiras são consideradas autoridades reguladoras de confiança por cada país. Métodos. Foi realizada uma pesquisa nos sites das autoridades reguladoras da ALC para identificar as regulamentações oficiais para aprovação de novos medicamentos. A coleta de dados foi feita em dezembro de 2019 e concluída em junho de 2020 para os países do Caribe. Dois grupos independentes coletaram informações sobre o reconhecimento direto ou o procedimento abreviado para aprovação de novos medicamentos e as autoridades reguladoras de referência (de confiança) definidas como tal pela respectiva legislação nacional. Resultados. Documentos regulatórios relacionados à aprovação de novos produtos foram obtidos de 20 sites de órgãos reguladores da ALC, abrangendo 34 países. Sete países não admitem o uso de decisões regulatórias de entidades reguladoras externas. Treze autoridades reguladoras (na Argentina, Colômbia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Equador, Guatemala, México, Panamá, Paraguai, Peru, República Dominicana, Uruguai e o Sistema Regulador do Caribe unificado para 15 Estados caribenhos) admitem explicitamente a admissibilidade de decisões regulatórias para aprovação de novos medicamentos de outras jurisdições, quais sejam: Agência Europeia de Medicamentos (EMA), Agência Reguladora de Alimentos e Medicamentos (FDA) dos EUA e Health Canada. Dez países também aceitam decisões para autorização de comercialização da Austrália, Japão e Suíça. Argentina, Brasil, Chile e México são autoridades de referência para oito agências reguladoras. Conclusões. O uso de decisões regulatórias de outras jurisdições tornou-se prática comum na América Latina e Caribe. Treze das 20 agências reguladoras reconhecem diretamente ou abreviam o procedimento de aprovação de novos medicamentos no caso de tal aprovação já haver sido concedida por uma autoridade reguladora de outra jurisdição. A EMA, a FDA e a Health Canada são as autoridades estrangeiras nas quais as agências reguladoras da América Latina e Caribe mais confiam.

Preparaciones Farmacéuticas , Agencias Gubernamentales , Aprobación de Drogas , United States Food and Drug Administration , Organización Panamericana de la Salud , América Latina , Región del Caribe , Preparaciones Farmacéuticas , Agencias Gubernamentales , Aprobación de Drogas , Organización Panamericana de la Salud , América Latina , Región del Caribe , Preparaciones Farmacéuticas , Agencias Gubernamentales , Aprobación de Drogas , Organización Panamericana de la Salud , Región del Caribe
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 8562, 2021 04 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33879826


Several comorbidities have been shown to be associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) related severity and mortality. However, considerable variation in the prevalence estimates of comorbidities and their effects on COVID-19 morbidity and mortality have been observed in prior studies. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine geographical, age, and gender related differences in the prevalence of comorbidities and associated severity and mortality rates among COVID-19 patients. We conducted a search using PubMed, Scopus, and EMBASE to include all COVID-19 studies published between January 1st, 2020 to July 24th, 2020 reporting comorbidities with severity or mortality. We included studies reporting the confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 on human patients that also provided information on comorbidities or disease outcomes. We used DerSimonian and Laird random effects method for calculating estimates. Of 120 studies with 125,446 patients, the most prevalent comorbidity was hypertension (32%), obesity (25%), diabetes (18%), and cardiovascular disease (16%) while chronic kidney or other renal diseases (51%, 44%), cerebrovascular accident (43%, 44%), and cardiovascular disease (44%, 40%) patients had more COVID-19 severity and mortality respectively. Considerable variation in the prevalence of comorbidities and associated disease severity and mortality in different geographic regions was observed. The highest mortality was observed in studies with Latin American and European patients with any medical condition, mostly older adults (≥ 65 years), and predominantly male patients. Although the US studies observed the highest prevalence of comorbidities in COVID-19 patients, the severity of COVID-19 among each comorbid condition was highest in Asian studies whereas the mortality was highest in the European and Latin American countries. Risk stratification and effective control strategies for the COVID-19 should be done according to comorbidities, age, and gender differences specific to geographical location.

/mortalidad , Comorbilidad , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Asia/epidemiología , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiología , Masculino , Prevalencia , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Factores Sexuales
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(4): e25728, 2021 04 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852413


BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has placed unprecedented stress on economies, food systems, and health care resources in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Existing surveillance provides a proxy of the COVID-19 caseload and mortalities; however, these measures make it difficult to identify the dynamics of the pandemic and places where outbreaks are likely to occur. Moreover, existing surveillance techniques have failed to measure the dynamics of the pandemic. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to provide additional surveillance metrics for COVID-19 transmission to track changes in the speed, acceleration, jerk, and persistence in the transmission of the pandemic more accurately than existing metrics. METHODS: Through a longitudinal trend analysis, we extracted COVID-19 data over 45 days from public health registries. We used an empirical difference equation to monitor the daily number of cases in the LAC as a function of the prior number of cases, the level of testing, and weekly shift variables based on a dynamic panel model that was estimated using the generalized method of moments approach by implementing the Arellano-Bond estimator in R. COVID-19 transmission rates were tracked for the LAC between September 30 and October 6, 2020, and between October 7 and 13, 2020. RESULTS: The LAC saw a reduction in the speed, acceleration, and jerk for the week of October 13, 2020, compared to the week of October 6, 2020, accompanied by reductions in new cases and the 7-day moving average. For the week of October 6, 2020, Belize reported the highest acceleration and jerk, at 1.7 and 1.8, respectively, which is particularly concerning, given its high mortality rate. The Bahamas also had a high acceleration at 1.5. In total, 11 countries had a positive acceleration during the week of October 6, 2020, whereas only 6 countries had a positive acceleration for the week of October 13, 2020. The TAC displayed an overall positive trend, with a speed of 10.40, acceleration of 0.27, and jerk of -0.31, all of which decreased in the subsequent week to 9.04, -0.81, and -0.03, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Metrics such as new cases, cumulative cases, deaths, and 7-day moving averages provide a static view of the pandemic but fail to identify where and the speed at which SARS-CoV-2 infects new individuals, the rate of acceleration or deceleration of the pandemic, and weekly comparison of the rate of acceleration of the pandemic indicate impending explosive growth or control of the pandemic. Enhanced surveillance will inform policymakers and leaders in the LAC about COVID-19 outbreaks.

/epidemiología , Vigilancia en Salud Pública , Región del Caribe/epidemiología , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiología , Estudios Longitudinales
Rev Saude Publica ; 55: 16, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33909870


OBJECTIVE: To assess the determinants of embedded implementation research (EIR) conduct in seven Latin American and Caribbean countries. METHODS: This qualitative interpretative study conducted and analyzed 14 semi-structured interviews based on a grounded theory approach using Atlas-ti© 7.5.7. We grouped the conditions appointed by interviewees as determinants of EIR conduct into six domains. RESULTS: The participation of high-level engaged decision makers as research co-producers is an important EIR determinant that fosters research use. Nevertheless, EIR faces challenges such as dealing with key personnel changes and fluctuating political contexts. CONCLUSIONS: Despite its limitations, EIR is effective in creating a sense of ownership of research results among implementers, which helps bridge the gap between research and decision-making in health systems.

Programas de Gobierno , Brasil , Humanos , América Latina , Investigación Cualitativa
Rev Saude Publica ; 55: 17, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33909871


OBJECTIVE: Analyze the incorporation of climate change and environmental health courses in the curriculum grids of Medicine, Nursing, Nutrition and Clinical Psychology undergraduate courses in Latin American universities. METHODS: Descriptive and cross-sectional document review. Curriculum grids of the top ten Latin American universities were analyzed according to the rankings of QS Latin American University 2020, Times Higher Education World University 2020 and Academic Ranking of World Universities 2019. The presence of courses related to climate change and environmental health was sought in each curriculum grid. RESULTS: 104 of the 161 universities included in the study offered Medicine courses, 93 Nursing courses, 77 Nutrition courses and 118 Clinical Psychology courses. Most of the curriculum grids incorporated courses in public health and/or epidemiology (more than 70%); however, between 22% and 41% included courses on environmental health, and only one curriculum grid had a course on climate change in Medicine and Nursing (1%). CONCLUSIONS: Courses on climate change and environmental health have been scarcely introduced in the curriculum grids of the health field in Latin American universities. This could weaken the important role that health professionals play in providing health care to the population.

Cambio Climático , Universidades , Brasil , Estudios Transversales , Salud Ambiental , Humanos , América Latina
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801342


Background: Although public bodies need to know drivers' perception of road safety, in Latin America there are no valid and reliable instruments that propose an integral dimensionality. The objective of this study was to design and validate a Road Safety Perception Questionnaire (RSPQ). Methodology: The design included a review of the available evidence and expert knowledge to select the dimensional items for the instrument. A pilot test was carried out to determine possible corrections and adjustments to the questionnaire, after which a Confirmatory Factor Analysis was performed on a stratified sample of 736 Ecuadorian drivers to determine its reliability and construct validity. Results: The results suggest that the RSPQ has a clear factorial structure with high factorial weight items and good internal consistency. The results of the 41-item model grouped into six dimensions (human, vehicle, road infrastructure, regulatory framework and intervention measures, socioeconomic and driving precautions) obtained the best adjustment indexes at the absolute, incremental and parsimonious levels. Conclusions: The preliminary RSPQ evidence can be considered a valid and reliable instrument to assess drivers' perception of road safety.

Accidentes de Tránsito , Conducción de Automóvil , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas , Humanos , América Latina , Percepción , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Seguridad
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668716


Total Worker Health® (TWH) is a framework for integrating worker and workplace safety, health, and well-being, which has achieved success in European and US settings. However, the framework has not been implemented in Latin America or in agricultural sectors, leaving large and vulnerable populations underrepresented in the implementation and evaluation of these strategies to improve safety and promote health and well-being. This study presents a case study of how a TWH approach can be applied to a multinational Latin American agribusiness. We describe the process and adaptation strategy for conducting a TWH assessment at multiple organizational levels and in multiple countries. We follow this with a description of a TWH leadership training that was conducted based on the results of the assessment. Finally, we describe our methods to make corporate recommendations for TWH policies and programs that were informed by the TWH assessment and leadership trainings. With this case study we aim to demonstrate the importance and feasibility of conducting TWH in Latin America.

Salud Laboral , Promoción de la Salud , América Latina , Liderazgo , Lugar de Trabajo
Nat Med ; 27(3): 373-375, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33664489
J Int Bioethique Ethique Sci ; 31(4): 15-31, 2021 02.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33728875


In this work, the aggressions of the “First Peoples” An analysis of the place of “Mother Nature” in human thought suggests the importance of respecting it. This respect is an important foundation for respect for human rights, as is the awareness of, constantly, fighting poverty and considering all human beings as totally equal.

Bioética/historia , Derechos Humanos/historia , Comparación Transcultural , Europa (Continente) , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Humanos , América Latina
Injury ; 52(4): 673-678, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33743982


OBJECTIVE: To assess the quality of life of Latin American orthopedic trauma surgeons during the beginning of COVID-19 pandemic in Latin America. METHODS: A total of 400 orthopedic trauma surgeons from 14 Latin American countries were invited to complete an electronic survey aiming to understand the general situation of COVID-19 in each country and how COVID-19 had impacted life's participant financially and psychosocially. The relationship between the occurrence of the disease and the existence of legal regulations on the medical activity in the respondent's country, protocols for tracking the disease among patients hospitalized in an emergency basis due to skeletal trauma, and personal protective equipment to deal with patients diagnosed with COVID-19 who need orthopedic trauma surgery was investigated, as well as the financial and psychosocial impact caused by the disease. Data was statistically analyzed with significance p < 0.05. RESULTS: 220 respondents completed the survey. 21 respondents were diagnosed with COVID-19. Local regulation was decisive in terms of increasing the risk for COVID-19 disease (p = 0.001). 91.8% of the respondents reported being concerned about their financial health and 57.7% described a state of feeling emotionally overextended. 75.0% believe that pandemic can change their professional activity. CONCLUSION: The rapid spread of the COVID-19 pandemic in Latin America has negatively impacted the professional, financial, and psychosocial health of orthopedic trauma surgeons. It seems reasonable to state that the combination of psychosocial distress and deprivation together with financial uncertainty and decreased revenue can be straightly related to development of burnout symptoms among doctors.

/psicología , Cirujanos Ortopédicos/psicología , Calidad de Vida , Adulto , Agotamiento Profesional/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiología , Masculino , Salud Mental , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 45, mar. 2021
Artículo en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53334


[ABSTRACT]. This article describes the main models for embedding research and the successful experiences and challenges faced in joint work by researchers and decisionmakers who participated in the Embedding Research for the Sustainable Development Goals (ER-SDG) initiative, and the experience of the Technical Support Center. In June 2018, funding was granted to 13 pre-selected research projects from 11 middle- and low-income countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Paraguay, and Peru). The projects focused on the system-, policy-, or programlevel changes required to improve health and build on the joint work of researchers and decisionmakers, with a view to bringing together evidence production and decision-making in health systems and services. The Technical Support Center supported and guided the production of quality results useful for decision-making. This experience confirmed the value of initiatives such as ER-SDG in consolidating bridges between research on the implementation of health policies, programs, and systems, and the officials responsible for operating health-related programs, services, and interventions. It highlighted the importance of both respecting and taking advantage of each context—and the specific arrangements and patterns in the relationships between researchers and decisionmakers—through incentives for embedded research.

[RESUMEN]. En este artículo se describen los principales modelos de integración, las experiencias de éxito y los retos del trabajo conjunto de los investigadores y los tomadores de decisiones participantes en la iniciativa Incorporación de la Investigación para Avanzar en el Cumplimiento de los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible (ER-SDG), y la experiencia del Centro de Apoyo Técnico (CAT). En junio de 2018 se otorgó financiamiento, previa selección, a 13 proyectos de investigación de 11 países de ingresos medios y bajos de América Latina y el Caribe (Argentina, Bolivia, Brasil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Guyana, Haití, Paraguay, Perú y República Dominicana). Los proyectos debían estar centrados en los cambios que se requieren a nivel de sistema, políticas o programas para mejorar la salud y basarse en el trabajo conjunto de investigadores y tomadores de decisiones, a fin de acercar la generación de evidencias a la toma de decisiones en los sistemas y servicios de salud. El CAT apoyó y orientó la producción de resultados de calidad y de utilidad para la toma de decisiones. La experiencia confirmó el valor de iniciativas como ER-SDG en la consolidación de puentes entre el mundo de la investigación sobre implementación de políticas, programas y sistemas de salud, y el mundo de los funcionarios encargados de operar esos programas, servicios e intervenciones relacionadas con la salud. Se resalta la necesidad de respetar y aprovechar cada contexto, y los arreglos y patrones específicos de relación entre investigadores y tomadores de decisiones, mediante incentivos para la integración.

[RESUMO]. Neste artigo são descritos os principais modelos de integração, as experiências de êxito e os desafios do trabalho conjunto de pesquisadores e responsáveis por tomar decisões que participam da iniciativa Incorporação da Pesquisa para Avançar no Cumprimento dos Objetivos de Desenvolvimento Sustentável (Embedding Research for the Sustainable Development Goals, ER-SDG) e da experiência do Centro de Apoio Técnico (CAT). Em junho de 2018, realizou-se a concessão de financiamento e pré-seleção de 13 projetos de pesquisa provenientes de 11 países de baixa e média renda da América Latina e Caribe (Argentina, Bolívia, Brasil, Colômbia, Equador, Guatemala, Guiana, Haiti, Paraguai, Peru e República Dominicana). Os projetos deveriam enfocar as mudanças necessárias no sistema, políticas ou programas para melhorar a saúde e fundar-se no trabalho conjunto de pesquisadores e responsáveis por tomar decisões visando aproximar a produção de evidências à tomada de decisão nos sistemas e serviços de saúde. O CAT forneceu suporte e orientação à produção de resultados úteis e de qualidade para a tomada de decisão. A experiência confirmou o valor de iniciativas como a ER-SDG para consolidar pontes entre o mundo da pesquisa voltada à implementação de políticas, programas e sistemas de saúde e o mundo dos encarregados de gerir estes programas, serviços e intervenções de saúde. Deve-se enfatizar a necessidade de respeitar e aproveitar cada contexto e os arranjos e padrões próprios da relação entre pesquisadores e responsáveis por tomar decisões criando incentivos à integração.

Ciencia de la Implementación , Política Informada por la Evidencia , Investigación sobre Servicios de Salud , América Latina , Región del Caribe , Ciencia de la Implementación , Política Informada por la Evidencia , Investigación sobre Servicios de Salud , América Latina , Región del Caribe , Ciencia de la Implementación , Política Informada por la Evidencia , Investigación sobre Servicios de Salud , Región del Caribe