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1.
Artículo en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52154

RESUMEN

[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To compare inequalities in full infant vaccination coverage at two different time points between 1992 and 2016 in Latin American and Caribbean countries. Methods. Analysis is based on recent available data from Demographic and Health Surveys, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, and Reproductive Health Surveys conducted in 18 countries between 1992 and 2016. Full immunization data from children 12–23 months of age were disaggregated by wealth quintile. Absolute and relative inequalities between the richest and the poorest quintile were measured. Differences were measured for 14 countries with data available for two time points. Significance was determined using 95% confidence intervals. Results. The overall median full immunization coverage was 69.9%. Approximately one-third of the countries have a high-income inequality gap, with a median difference of 5.6 percentage points in 8 of 18 countries. Bolivia, Colombia, El Salvador, and Peru have achieved the greatest progress in improving coverage among the poorest quintiles of their population in recent years. Conclusion. Full immunization coverage in the countries in the study shows higher-income inequality gaps that are not seen by observing national coverage only, but these differences appear to be reduced over time. Actions monitoring immunization coverage based on income inequalities should be considered for inclusion in the assessment of public health policies to appropriately reduce the gaps in immunization for infants in the lowest-income quintile.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Comparar las desigualdades en cuanto a la cobertura de la inmunización completa en los lactantes en países de América Latina y el Caribe. en dos puntos diferentes en el tiempo: 1992 y el 2016. Métodos. El análisis se basa en datos obtenidos recientemente a partir de las encuestas demográficas y de salud, las encuestas de grupos de indicadores múltiples y las encuestas de salud reproductiva realizadas en 18 países entre 1992 y el 2016. Los datos de la cobertura de la inmunización completa en lactantes (de 12 a 23 meses de edad) fueron desglosados por quintil de riqueza. Se midieron las desigualdades absolutas y relativas entre el quintil de ingresos más altos y el quintil de ingresos más bajos. Se midieron las diferencias en 14 países a partir de los datos disponibles para dos puntos en el tiempo. Se determinó la significación mediante intervalos de confianza del 95%. Resultados. La mediana general de los niveles de cobertura de inmunización total fue de 69,9%. Aproximadamente un tercio de los países presentan una brecha de desigualdad con respecto al quintil de ingresos más altos, con una diferencia entre medianas de 5,6 puntos porcentuales en 8 de 18 países. En los últimos años, Bolivia, Colombia, Perú y El Salvador han logrado el mayor avance en cuanto a la mejora de la cobertura en términos de la población correspondiente al quintil de ingresos más bajos. Conclusiones. En este estudio, la cobertura de inmunización completa en los países muestra brechas de desigualdad con respecto al quintil de ingresos más altos que no se evidencian con tan solo observar el nivel de cobertura a nivel nacional. Sin embargo, estas desigualdades parecen disminuir con el transcurso del tiempo. Debería considerarse la posibilidad de que las medidas de seguimiento de la cobertura de inmunización con base en las desigualdades de los ingresos sean incluidas en la evaluación de las políticas de salud pública. Esto permitiría reducir de manera apropiada las brechas en cuanto a la inmunización en los lactantes en el quintil de ingresos más bajos.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Comparar as desigualdades na cobertura vacinal completa infantil em dois momentos distintos entre 1992 e 2016 em países da América Latina e Caribe. Métodos. A análise se baseou em dados recentes provenientes de Pesquisas Nacionais de Demografia e Saúde, Inquéritos por Conglomerados de Múltiplos Indicadores e Pesquisas de Saúde Reprodutiva realizados em 18 países entre 1992 e 2016. Os dados de cobertura vacinal completa em crianças entre 12 e 23 meses de idade foram desagregados por quintis de renda. Foi mensurada a desigualdade absoluta e relativa entre os quintis de maior e menor renda. A magnitude destas diferenças foi avaliada em 14 países com dados disponíveis nos dois momentos considerados. O nível de significância foi determinado com o uso de intervalos de confiança de 95%. Resultados. A mediana global de cobertura vacinal completa foi de 69,9%. Cerca de um terço dos países apresenta alto nível de desigualdade de renda, com uma diferença mediana de 5,6 pontos percentuais em 8 dos 18 países. Bolívia, Colômbia, El Salvador e Peru obtiveram maior avanço nos últimos anos com o aumento do nível de cobertura na população nos quintis de menor renda destes países. Conclusões. A análise da cobertura vacinal completa infantil nos países estudados indica altos níveis de desigualdade de renda que não são evidentes quando se observa somente a cobertura nacional. No entanto, estas diferenças parecem que vêm diminuindo. Deve-se considerar incluir ações de monitoramento da cobertura vacinal com base nas desigualdades de renda ao se avaliar as políticas de saúde pública a fim de reduzir apropriadamente a disparidade na cobertura vacinal de lactentes pertencentes ao quintil de menor renda.


Asunto(s)
Inmunización , Inequidad Social , Lactante , América Latina , Región del Caribe , Inmunización , Inequidad Social , Lactante , América Latina , Región del Caribe
2.
Artículo en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52085

RESUMEN

[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To inform about the most recent epidemiological trends and integrated programmatic response to tuberculosis (TB) and HIV coinfection in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Methods. A descriptive review analyzed the most relevant indicators on TB/HIV coinfection in 33 countries in LAC with a cross-sectional and time-trend approach. Data were obtained from publicly available databases and analyzed through simple proportions, weighted means, and risk ratios. Results. In LAC, during 2017, 80.8% of TB patients were actively screened for HIV, with a 25.6% increase between 2011 and 2017. In the same year, the proportion of TB patients with HIV-positive status was 11.2%, with a small but progressive reduction of 5% since 2011. The provision of antiretroviral therapy and anti-TB medication among TB/HIV coinfected patients for 2017 was at 60%. Only one-third of people living with HIV had access to isoniazid preventive therapy. Overall, the mortality in the TB/HIV cohort has not changed since 2012, hovering at around 20%. Conclusions. TB/HIV collaborative activities, as the backbone to address TB/HIV coinfection, are being scaled up in LAC and some indicators show a tendency toward improvement; nevertheless, our review shed light on the need to keep strengthening integration of service delivery, joint monitoring and evaluation, and data quality.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Informar sobre las tendencias epidemiológicas más recientes y la respuesta programática integrada frente a la coinfección por tuberculosis (TB) y VIH en América Latina y el Caribe. Métodos. En una revisión descriptiva se analizaron los indicadores más pertinentes sobre la coinfección por TB y VIH en 33 países de América Latina y el Caribe, por medio de un enfoque transversal y de tendencias en el tiempo. Los datos se obtuvieron de bases de datos disponibles públicamente y se analizaron mediante proporciones sencillas, medias ponderadas y cociente de riesgos. Resultados. En el 2017, en América Latina y el Caribe se sometió a 80,8% de los pacientes con TB a un tamizaje activo del VIH, lo que representó un aumento de 25,6% entre el 2011 y el 2017. En ese mismo año, la proporción de pacientes con TB e infección por el VIH fue de 11,2%, lo cual demuestra una pequeña reducción, aunque progresiva, de 5% desde el 2011. El suministro de tratamiento antirretroviral y de fármacos contra la TB a los pacientes con la coinfección en el 2017 fue del 60%. Solo un tercio de las personas con VIH tuvieron acceso al tratamiento preventivo con isoniacida. En términos generales, la tasa de mortalidad de las personas con coinfección por TB y VIH no ha cambiado desde el 2012, y ha permanecido en torno al 20%. Conclusiones. Se está aumentando la escala de las actividades de colaboración entre los servicios de TB y VIH en América Latina y el Caribe, como el tratamiento de base para abordar los casos de coinfección, y algunos indicadores muestran una tendencia positiva. No obstante, nuestra revisión muestra la necesidad de seguir fortaleciendo la integración de la prestación de servicios, las actividades conjuntas de seguimiento y evaluación, y la comprobación de la calidad de los datos.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Informar sobre as últimas tendências epidemiológicas e a resposta programática integrada à coinfecção por tuberculose (TB) e HIV na América Latina e Caribe (ALC). Métodos. Uma revisão descritiva analisou os indicadores mais relevantes sobre a coinfecção por TB/HIV em 33 países da ALC, usando uma abordagem transversal e de tendências temporais. Os dados foram obtidos em bases de dados disponíveis publicamente e analisados através de proporções simples, médias ponderadas e razões de risco. Resultados. Na ALC, em 2017, 80,8% dos pacientes com TB realizaram o rastreamento ativo para HIV, o que representou um aumento de 25,6% entre 2011 e 2017. No mesmo ano, a proporção de pacientes com TB com status HIV positivo foi de 11,2%, demonstrando uma pequena redução progressiva de 5% desde 2011. Em 2017, a oferta de terapia antirretroviral e medicação anti-TB aos pacientes coinfectados por TB/HIV foi de 60%. Somente um terço das pessoas que vivem com HIV teve acesso à terapia preventiva com isoniazida. A mortalidade geral na coorte coinfectada por TB/HIV não mudou desde 2012, oscilando em torno de 20%. Conclusões. As atividades colaborativas para TB/HIV, que são a espinha dorsal para combater esta coinfecção, estão sendo ampliadas na ALC, e alguns indicadores mostram uma tendência positiva; no entanto, a nossa revisão destaca a necessidade de continuar fortalecendo a integração da prestação de serviços, as atividades conjuntas de monitoramento e avaliação e a qualidade dos dados.


Asunto(s)
VIH , Tuberculosis , Coinfección , Política de Salud , América Latina , VIH , Coinfección , Política de Salud , América Latina , Tuberculosis , Coinfección , Política de Salud
3.
Int J Equity Health ; 19(1): 63, 2020 05 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32381022

RESUMEN

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-2019) pandemic struck Latin America in late February and is now beginning to spread across the rural indigenous communities in the region, home to 42 million people. Eighty percent of this highly marginalized population is concentrated in Bolivia, Guatemala, Mexico and Peru. Health care services for these ethnic groups face distinct challenges in view of their high levels of marginalization and cultural differences from the majority. Drawing on 30 years of work on the responses of health systems in the indigenous communities of Latin America, our group of researchers believes that countries in the region must be prepared to combat the epidemic in indigenous settings marked by deprivation and social disparity. We discuss four main challenges that need to be addressed by governments to guarantee the health and lives of those at the bottom of the social structure: the indigenous peoples in the region. More than an analysis, our work provides a practical guide for designing and implementing a response to COVID-19 in indigenous communities.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Coronavirus , Servicios de Salud del Indígena/organización & administración , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Grupos de Población , Población Rural , Betacoronavirus , Grupos Étnicos , Humanos , América Latina
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(18): e19542, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358343

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Data of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) in current management of atrial fibrillation (AF) are predominantly derived from North American and European regions. However, the effects of NOACs for stroke prevention in Latin America remain unclear. Therefore, we aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of NOACs with warfarin in Latin American patients with AF. METHODS: The PubMed and Embase databases were systematically searched until July 12, 2019 for applicable randomized clinical trials. The risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled using a random-effects model. RESULTS: Four trials involving 8943 Latin American patients were included in this meta-analysis. In anticoagulated patients with AF, Latin American patients had higher rates of stroke or systemic embolism and all-cause death compared with non-Latin American subjects. Compared with warfarin use, the use of NOACs was significantly associated with reduced risks of stroke or systemic embolism, major bleeding, intracranial bleeding, and any bleeding in Latin American patients. There were no significant differences in the risks of ischemic stroke, all-cause death, and gastrointestinal bleeding between Latin and non-Latin American groups. All the interactions between Latin and non-Latin American groups about efficacy and safety outcomes of NOACs compared with warfarin were non-significant (all Pinteraction > .05). CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analysis suggested that the use of NOACs was at least non-inferior to warfarin use for stroke prevention in Latin American patients with AF.


Asunto(s)
Anticoagulantes/uso terapéutico , Fibrilación Atrial/tratamiento farmacológico , Hispanoamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Accidente Cerebrovascular/prevención & control , Warfarina/uso terapéutico , Administración Oral , Adulto , Fibrilación Atrial/complicaciones , Fibrilación Atrial/etnología , Embolia/etnología , Embolia/prevención & control , Femenino , Hemorragia/inducido químicamente , Hemorragia/etnología , Humanos , América Latina , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Accidente Cerebrovascular/etnología , Resultado del Tratamiento
6.
Recurso de Internet en Inglés, Español, Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-47240

RESUMEN

A diretora da Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde (OPAS), Carissa F. Etienne, disse que as medidas de distanciamento social estão dando às sociedades a oportunidade de se preparar e responder a pandemia da COVID-19 e que qualquer tentativa posterior de fazer a transição para medidas mais flexíveis deve ser tomada com extrema cautela.


Asunto(s)
Aislamiento de Pacientes/métodos , Aislamiento de Pacientes/normas , Betacoronavirus , América Latina/epidemiología
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32325718

RESUMEN

Healthcare workers exposed to coronavirus (COVID-19) may not have adequate access to personal protective equipment (PPE), safety procedures, and diagnostic protocols. Our objective was to evaluate the reality and perceptions about personal safety among healthcare workers in Latin America. This is a cross-sectional, online survey-based study administered to 936 healthcare professionals in Latin America from 31 March 2020 to 4 April 2020. A 12-item structured questionnaire was developed. A total of 936 healthcare workers completed the online survey. Of them, 899 (95.1%) were physicians, 28 (2.9%) were nurses, and 18 (1.9%) were allied health professionals. Access to protective equipment was as follows: gel hand sanitizer (n = 889; 95%), disposable gloves (n = 853; 91.1%), disposable gowns (n = 630; 67.3%), disposable surgical masks (785; 83.9%), N95 masks (n = 516; 56.1%), and facial protective shields (n = 305; 32.6%). The vast majority (n = 707; 75.5%) had access to personal safety policies and procedures, and 699 (74.7%) participants had access to diagnostic algorithms. On a 1-to-10 Likert scale, the participants expressed limited human resources support (4.92 ± 0.2; mean ± SD), physical integrity protection in the workplace (5.5 ± 0.1; mean ± SD), and support from public health authorities (5.01 ± 0.12; mean ± SD). Healthcare workers in Latin America had limited access to essential PPE and support from healthcare authorities during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Personal de Salud/psicología , Máscaras , Pandemias/prevención & control , Equipo de Protección Personal/provisión & distribución , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Ropa de Protección/provisión & distribución , Administración de la Seguridad , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Guantes Protectores , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Equipo de Protección Personal/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Ropa de Protección/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
8.
Braz Oral Res ; 34(supp1 1): e022, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294675

RESUMEN

The art of diagnosis is of great importance in the management of any disease. This includes preventive and therapeutic strategies. To make an accurate and effective diagnosis, knowledge about the health-disease process is fundamental. This paper reviews the important aspects for periodontal diagnosis in a contemporary approach, and endeavors to establish challenges for improving periodontal diagnosis, especially in Latin America. Considering that contemporary periodontal diagnosis should be based on knowledge of the etiopathogenesis of periodontal diseases, this paper highlights that the recently proposed classification system for periodontal diseases and conditions was based on the best available evidence. This system was conceived for individual diagnosis, therefore, its use in research and epidemiological settings might be limited. The system leads to a practical implication that stresses the importance of interviewing the patient, thorough periodontal charting, and requesting any imaging and other complementary tests necessary. An important observation is that partial periodontal data recordings usable for screening are not diagnostic methods and might underestimate disease. The goals of utmost importance for Latin America are to increase the awareness of both the population and the profession and to prioritize correct periodontal diagnosis. In addition, learning how to use the new classification system will help with diagnosing periodontal diseases.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Periodontales/diagnóstico , Humanos , América Latina , Enfermedades Periodontales/clasificación , Índice Periodontal , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto
9.
Braz Oral Res ; 34(supp1 1): e023, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294676

RESUMEN

The epidemiological data on gingivitis and periodontitis in Latin America are scarce, as the majority of the Latin American studies have analyzed probing depth instead of clinical attachment loss. Reported data have shown high variations in results between different Latin American countries, with the main causes of these differences being the clinical case definition and methodological strategies used. In general, data have revealed that the prevalence of periodontal disease is higher in Latin Americans than in populations in the USA or Europe. Regarding its relations with other diseases and conditions, some Latin American studies have focused on the association between periodontitis and adverse pregnancy outcomes, or poor glycemic control in diabetic patients; however, these studies have reported controversial results. In Chile, reports have indicated that periodontal treatment significantly reduced the preterm birth rate; however, no association between periodontitis and perinatal outcome was found in Brazil. For diabetes mellitus, Brazilian studies have reported controversial findings; however, a Chilean interventional study reported significant reductions in the glycosylated hemoglobin levels after periodontal treatment. Although epidemiological data for Latin America are scarce, the information available at present is useful for establishing national policies on health promotion, prevention, and treatment of periodontal disease. Therefore, dental schools must play a key role in educating professionals who are highly trained in the promotion, prevention, early diagnosis and treatment of periodontal disease, with an approach to risk, and strong biopsychosocial and ethical components. Thus, future Latin American dentists would be able to face the challenge of decreasing the prevalence of periodontal diseases by leading interdisciplinary health teamwork.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Periodontales/epidemiología , Enfermedades Periodontales/etiología , Factores de Edad , Femenino , Gingivitis/epidemiología , Gingivitis/etiología , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiología , Masculino , Pérdida de la Inserción Periodontal , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo
10.
Braz Oral Res ; 34(supp1 1): e024, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294677

RESUMEN

A high level of general and oral health are invaluable assets, a factor not always considered a basic human right for their better life quality. The mouth is a critical point of contact with the external environment, which is established when we talk, chew, swallow and when food digestion begins. From a perspective of the human condition, the mouth is crucial for the integration of sound, social appearance of the individual, and is one of the fundamental components of overall health. Therefore, not having an adequate level of oral health affects self-esteem, quality of life and people's general well-being.


Asunto(s)
Carga Global de Enfermedades/tendencias , Enfermedades Periodontales/epidemiología , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiología , Salud Bucal/tendencias , Enfermedades Periodontales/terapia , Calidad de Vida
11.
Braz Oral Res ; 34(supp1 1): e025, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294678

RESUMEN

Dental plaque removal and the understanding of risk factors, risk indicators and social determinants are important components in the prevention of periodontal disease. Periodontal diseases and dental caries are largely preventable conditions, but require a "common risk factor approach" with non-communicable diseases with the purpose of improving their prevention and control, and positive impact on health. The aim of this consensus was to identify the evidence and gaps in periodontal prevention in Latin American, and to propose individual and collective recommendations for the population, health professionals, dental practice and government. The prevention of periodontal diseases in Latin America has mainly been focused on oral hygiene instruction, use of toothbrushes and interproximal devices, but in some patients, it is necessary to use adjuncts to these measures, such as antimicrobial and/or probiotic products that are backed by broad scientific evidence. Some evidence has shown that there are inadequate knowledge, attitudes and practices among patients, dentist and other health professionals. The prevention of periodontal diseases and caries should be adopted as a healthy lifestyle routine, because of their local and systemic effects. Recently, new empowerment strategies have been proposed in order to generate behavioral changes. Periodontal diseases can often be prevented, or controlled by joined efforts between government health systems, scientific associations, universities, health professionals, private companies and communities. In conclusion, the relations between periodontal diseases, caries, healthy lifestyles and NCD's offer an ideal opportunity to change Latin American prevention strategies at both the individual level and population levels.


Asunto(s)
Personal de Salud/normas , Enfermedades Periodontales/prevención & control , Humanos , América Latina , Salud Bucal , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Pautas de la Práctica en Odontología , Factores de Riesgo
12.
Braz Oral Res ; 34(supp1 1): e026, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294679

RESUMEN

Gingivitis and periodontitis are associated with a negative impact on Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL), exerting a significant influence on aspects related to the patients' function and esthetics. Periodontitis has been associated with several systemic conditions, including adverse pregnancy outcomes, cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), respiratory disorders, fatal pneumonia in hemodialysis patients, chronic renal disease and metabolic syndrome. The aim of this paper was to review the results of different periodontal treatments and their impacts on patients' OHRQoL and systemic health. Non-surgical and surgical periodontal treatments are predictable procedures in terms of controlling infection, reducing probing pocket depth and gaining clinical attachment. In addition, the treatment of periodontitis may significantly improve OHRQoL and promote a reduction in the levels of systemic markers of inflammation, including some cytokines associated with cardiovascular diseases. Studies have also suggested that periodontal treatment may improve glycemic control in patients with DM. Strategies and actions for preventing the onset and recurrence of periodontitis, and the challenges facing the field of periodontology in the XXI century are presented in this review.


Asunto(s)
Periodontitis/fisiopatología , Periodontitis/terapia , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/fisiopatología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/prevención & control , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatología , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevención & control , Humanos , América Latina , Salud Bucal , Periodoncia/tendencias , Calidad de Vida
13.
Braz Oral Res ; 34(supp1 1): e027, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294680

RESUMEN

Periodontal diseases are considered a worldwide public health problem, owing to their high prevalence in developed and developing countries. Periodontitis may lead to tooth loss, which can impact oral health-related quality of life. Gingivitis and periodontitis have been extensively studied regarding their etiopathogenesis, epidemiology, prevention and treatment outcomes. However, most of these aspects are studied and discussed globally, which may hamper a clear interpretation of the findings and the design of effective plans of action for specific regions or populations. For example, in Latin America, epidemiological data about the distribution of periodontal diseases is still scarce, mainly when it comes to nationwide representative samples. This Consensus aimed to address the following topics related to periodontal diseases in Latin America: a) The impact of the global burden of periodontal diseases on health: a global reality; b) Periodontal diseases in Latin America; c) Strategies for the prevention of periodontal diseases in Latin America; d) Problems associated with diagnosis of periodontal conditions and possible solutions for Latin America; e) Treatment of Periodontitis. This consensus will help to increase awareness about diagnosis, prevention and treatment of periodontal diseases, in the context of Latin American countries.


Asunto(s)
Conferencias de Consenso como Asunto , Enfermedades Periodontales/terapia , Femenino , Gingivitis/diagnóstico , Gingivitis/epidemiología , Gingivitis/terapia , Carga Global de Enfermedades , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiología , Masculino , Salud Bucal , Enfermedades Periodontales/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Periodontales/epidemiología , Periodontitis/diagnóstico , Periodontitis/epidemiología , Periodontitis/terapia , Calidad de Vida
16.
Gac Med Mex ; 156(2): 171-178, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32285851

RESUMEN

The World Health Organization estimates that bacterial resistance will cause 10 million deaths by 2050. As part of the Global Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance, it proposed networks of specialized laboratories in order to preserve strains and optimize the use of antimicrobials. That is the case of the Latin American Surveillance Network of Antimicrobials Resistance. In a 2019 study, the main bacteria of the ESKAPE group (which are highly resistant to the most widely used antibiotics) that cause infections in Mexican Hospitals were identified to be multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella spp., ESBL-producing Enterobacter spp., Acinetobacter baumannii, MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. With information on drug resistance, regimens are recommended to treat infection caused by Helicobacter pylori, a pathogen related to the development of cancer and whose prevalence in the adult population of Latin America is estimated to range between 60 and 70 %.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Infecciones Bacterianas/epidemiología , Resistencia a Múltiples Medicamentos , Infecciones Bacterianas/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones Bacterianas/prevención & control , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiología
18.
Zootaxa ; 4741(1): zootaxa.4741.1.1, 2020 Feb 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230226

RESUMEN

This paper presents an updated catalog of all taxa of Leiodidae (s.lat.) reported from the Neotropical Region. Keys are presented for the identification of all subfamilies, tribes, and 62 described genera. Three undescribed genera are included in the keys. A total of 600 valid named species are listed, with type localities, type depositories, synonyms, distributions, and biologies where known, and some unnamed species as recorded in the literature. Many species remain to be described. In this work we formally establish no new synonyms and no new combinations although we may indicate the existence of these; but we add new records for described species, and we make spelling corrections of scientific names, when appropriate. A brief review of distribution patterns is given. The fauna has been derived partly from some Nearctic elements that have penetrated as far south as Bolivia. A few genera in the Neotropical element have penetrated the Nearctic Region as far north as the northern U.S.A. or southeastern Canada. Most of the Neotropical genera are autochthonous. In southern South America there is a diverse Neo-Austral fauna with clear "Transantarctic" relationships to Australia and New Zealand and weakly to southern Africa. Some genera variously occur on other continents.


Asunto(s)
Escarabajos , Animales , América Latina , México , América del Sur , Indias Occidentales
19.
Artículo en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-51863

RESUMEN

[ABSTRACT]. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a companion of choice during labor and birth, to improve maternal and perinatal outcomes and women’s satisfaction with health services. To better understand the status of companion of choice in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), an online survey was conducted with members of a midwifery virtual community of practice and with key informants, aiming to identify: 1) existing regulatory instruments related to companion of choice in the countries where the members are practicing; and, 2) key characteristics of implementation of companion of choice, where regulation exists. Responses (n = 112) were received from representatives of 20 of the 43 countries of LAC. Respondents reported existence of a national policy or legislation in seven countries, ministerial norms or institutional protocols in five countries, and no existing policy/protocol in eight countries. Respondents from the same country often provided contradictory responses. Responses differed from information provided by ministries of health in a WHO-led global policy survey in 11 instances. These variations may reflect that midwives were not always aware of the national policy/guideline in their country. We propose that a more robust effort should be undertaken to understand the status of companion of choice for labor and birth in LAC countries, at national, regional, and local level, in public and private facilities. It is important to know if policies exist, at what level of the system, and if key stakeholders, maternity-care health providers, and women are aware of their existence. Efforts should also be made to understand barriers to implementing companion of choice.


[RESUMEN]. La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) recomienda la presencia de un acompañante durante el trabajo de parto y el parto debido a que mejora los resultados maternos y perinatales y la satisfacción de las mujeres con los servicios de salud. Para comprender mejor la situación acerca de los acompañantes en América Latinay el Caribe (ALC) se llevó a cabo una encuesta en línea dirigida a miembros de una comunidad de práctica de partería e informantes clave con el objetivo de identificar: 1) los instrumentos regulatorios existentes relacionados con la presencia de acompañante en los países en los que ejercen las personas encuestadas y 2) las características clave relacionadas con la implementación del acompañante, en los lugares donde existe un marco regulatorio. Se recibieron 112 respuestas de 20 de los 43 países de ALC. Las personas encuestadas informaron la existencia de una política o legislación nacional en siete países, de normas ministeriales o protocolos institucionales en cinco países, y de la inexistencia de una política o un protocolo en ocho países. Las respuestas provenientes del mismo país a menudo fueron contradictorias, y en 11 casos estas difirieron de la información proporcionada por los ministerios de salud en una encuesta mundial sobre políticas dirigida por la OMS. Estas variaciones pueden reflejar que los profesionales de la partería no siempre conocían la política o el protocolo de su país. Debe emprenderse un esfuerzo más firme para comprender la situación relacionada con el acompañante durante el trabajo de parto y el parto en los países de ALC a nivel nacional, regional y local, tanto en instituciones públicas como privadas. Es importante conocer si existen políticas y en qué nivel del sistema y si los principales interesados, los prestadores de servicios de salud materna y las mujeres conocen su existencia. Se deben realizar esfuerzos para comprender los obstáculos que impiden la implementación de la presencia de un acompañante durante el parto.


[RESUMO]. A Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) recomenda a presença de um acompanhante durante o trabalho de parto e parto, já que essa medida melhora os resultados maternos e perinatais e a satisfação da mulher com os serviços de saúde. Para caracterizar a situação dos acompanhantes na América Latina e Caribe (ALC), realizou-se uma pesquisa on-line com membros de uma comunidade de prática de profissionais de obstetrícia e com informantes chaves para identificar: 1) a existência de instrumentos regulatórios relacionados com a presença de acompanhante nos países onde os respondentes atuam e 2) características chaves relacionadas com a implementação das políticas de acompanhantes nos locais onde existe regulamentação. Foram recebidas 112 respostas de 20 dos 43 países da ALC. Os respondentes relataram a existência de uma política ou legislação nacional em sete países, normas ministeriais ou protocolos institucionais em cinco países e nenhuma política ou protocolo em oito países. Respondentes de um mesmo país deram muitas vezes respostas contraditórias. Em 11 casos, as respostas diferiram das informações fornecidas pelos ministérios da saúde em uma pesquisa de políticas globais realizada pela OMS. Essas variações podem indicar que os profissionais nem sempre conheciam a política ou protocolo em vigor no seu país. Propõe-se a necessidade de iniciativas mais robustas para compreender a situação do acompanhante no trabalho de parto em países da ALC, em nível nacional, regional e local, tanto em instituições públicas como privadas. É importante saber se as políticas existem, em que nível do sistema existem e se as principais partes interessadas, os provedores de cuidados de saúde materna e as mulheres estão cientes de sua existência. São necessários esforços para compreender os obstáculos à implementação do sistema de acompanhante de parto.


Asunto(s)
Satisfacción del Paciente , Partería , Servicios de Salud Materna , América Latina , Región del Caribe , Satisfacción del Paciente , Partería , Servicios de Salud Materna , América Latina , Región del Caribe , Satisfacción del Paciente , Partería , Servicios de Salud Materna , Región del Caribe
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