Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 11.549
Filtrar
1.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e94, 2021 04 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845928

RESUMEN

The global outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is greatly threatening the public health in the world. We reconstructed global transmissions and potential demographic expansions of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 based on genomic information. We found that intercontinental transmissions were rare in January and early February but drastically increased since late February. After world-wide implements of travel restrictions, the transmission frequencies decreased to a low level in April. We identified a total of 88 potential demographic expansions over the world based on the star-radiative networks and 75 of them were found in Europe and North America. The expansion numbers peaked in March and quickly dropped since April. These findings are highly concordant with epidemic reports and modelling results and highlight the significance of quarantine validity on the global spread of COVID-19. Our analyses indicate that the travel restrictions and social distancing measures are effective in containing the spread of COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Genoma Viral , Política Pública , Viaje , África/epidemiología , Asia/epidemiología , Australia/epidemiología , /virología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Genómica , Humanos , Internacionalidad , América del Norte/epidemiología , Filogenia , América del Sur/epidemiología
2.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805472

RESUMEN

The 2019-2020 summer wildfire event on the east coast of Australia was a series of major wildfires occurring from November 2019 to end of January 2020 across the states of Queensland, New South Wales (NSW), Victoria and South Australia. The wildfires were unprecedent in scope and the extensive character of the wildfires caused smoke pollutants to be transported not only to New Zealand, but also across the Pacific Ocean to South America. At the peak of the wildfires, smoke plumes were injected into the stratosphere at a height of up to 25 km and hence transported across the globe. The meteorological and air quality Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model is used together with the air quality monitoring data collected during the bushfire period and remote sensing data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellites to determine the extent of the wildfires, the pollutant transport and their impacts on air quality and health of the exposed population in NSW. The results showed that the WRF-Chem model using Fire Emission Inventory (FINN) from National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) to simulate the dispersion and transport of pollutants from wildfires predicted the daily concentration of PM2.5 having the correlation (R2) and index of agreement (IOA) from 0.6 to 0.75 and 0.61 to 0.86, respectively, when compared with the ground-based data. The impact on health endpoints such as mortality and respiratory and cardiovascular diseases hospitalizations across the modelling domain was then estimated. The estimated health impact on each of the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) census districts (SA4) of New South Wales was calculated based on epidemiological assumptions of the impact function and incidence rate data from the 2016 ABS and NSW Department of Health statistical health records. Summing up all SA4 census district results over NSW, we estimated that there were 247 (CI: 89, 409) premature deaths, 437 (CI: 81, 984) cardiovascular diseases hospitalizations and 1535 (CI: 493, 2087) respiratory diseases hospitalizations in NSW over the period from 1 November 2019 to 8 January 2020. The results are comparable with a previous study based only on observation data, but the results in this study provide much more spatially and temporally detailed data with regard to the health impact from the summer 2019-2020 wildfires.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Incendios Forestales , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Humanos , Nueva Gales del Sur/epidemiología , Nueva Zelanda , Océano Pacífico , Material Particulado/análisis , Queensland , Humo/análisis , América del Sur , Australia del Sur , Victoria
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2175, 2021 04 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33846353

RESUMEN

In the 1970s, Paul Martin proposed that big game hunters armed with fluted projectile points colonized the Americas and drove the extinction of megafauna. Around fifty years later, the central role of humans in the extinctions is still strongly debated in North American archaeology, but little considered in South America. Here we analyze the temporal dynamic and spatial distribution of South American megafauna and fluted (Fishtail) projectile points to evaluate the role of humans in Pleistocene extinctions. We observe a strong relationship between the temporal density and spatial distribution of megafaunal species stratigraphically associated with humans and Fishtail projectile points, as well as with the fluctuations in human demography. On this basis we propose that the direct effect of human predation was the main factor driving the megafaunal decline, with other secondary, but necessary, co-occurring factors for the collapse of the megafaunal community.


Asunto(s)
Extinción Biológica , Paleontología , Dinámica Poblacional , Animales , Arqueología , Humanos , Mamíferos/fisiología , Probabilidad , América del Sur , Especificidad de la Especie , Factores de Tiempo
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2138, 2021 04 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837222

RESUMEN

It is largely unknown how South America's Andean forests affect the global carbon cycle, and thus regulate climate change. Here, we measure aboveground carbon dynamics over the past two decades in 119 monitoring plots spanning a range of >3000 m elevation across the subtropical and tropical Andes. Our results show that Andean forests act as strong sinks for aboveground carbon (0.67 ± 0.08 Mg C ha-1 y-1) and have a high potential to serve as future carbon refuges. Aboveground carbon dynamics of Andean forests are driven by abiotic and biotic factors, such as climate and size-dependent mortality of trees. The increasing aboveground carbon stocks offset the estimated C emissions due to deforestation between 2003 and 2014, resulting in a net total uptake of 0.027 Pg C y-1. Reducing deforestation will increase Andean aboveground carbon stocks, facilitate upward species migrations, and allow for recovery of biomass losses due to climate change.


Asunto(s)
Secuestro de Carbono/fisiología , Carbono/metabolismo , Cambio Climático , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Árboles/metabolismo , Biomasa , Bosques , América del Sur , Clima Tropical
5.
Waste Manag ; 124: 314-324, 2021 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647557

RESUMEN

Municipal solid waste (MSW) management is an important challenge in developing and emerging countries, where two realities co-exist. On the one hand, their metropolitan cities exhibit an integrated MSW system with a specialized fleet for the collection and landfills for the final disposal, concentrating on environmental initiatives such as municipal recycling programs. On the other hand, their regional cities show an MSW system based on adapted transports for collection and open dumps for final disposal. Besides, they face other environmental problems due to local conditions. This research proposes a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach to close the gap between these two realities. In particular, we study the city of Valdivia (Chile), one of the main regional capitals of South America, which shares similarities with other southern regional cities in the Global South. This city disposes 95% of its MSW in open dumps and presents one of the highest environmental pollution rates in Latin America. We analyze the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy performance of six scenarios, seeking a solution for these problems. The results obtained show that a waste-to-energy scenario would generate savings of GHG emission and particulate matter, reaching 11.3% and 21.8%, respectively. Using our LCA approach, we can provide environmental evidence to highlight the importance of improving MSW management in regional cities, closing the gap with MSW management in metropolitan cities, and contributing to national targets such as United Nations Sustainable Development Goals and Nationally-Determined Contributions.


Asunto(s)
Eliminación de Residuos , Administración de Residuos , Animales , Ciudades , Países en Desarrollo , Estadios del Ciclo de Vida , Residuos Sólidos/análisis , América del Sur
6.
Evid Based Dent ; 22(1): 34-35, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33772132

RESUMEN

Introduction Pi and colleagues reviewed eight case-control studies comparing the oral health (decayed, missing and filled teeth [DMFT], Plaque Index [PI], Gingival Index [GI] and salivary pH) of children with autism (n = 475) to children without autism (n = 565).Method The search strategy involved the use of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang and Chinese Scientific and Technological Journal (VIP) to find case-control studies which met pre-defined inclusion criteria and were published before September 2018. The quality of each study was evaluated using the Newcastle-Ottowa Scale and only high-quality studies were included. Means and standard deviations for outcomes measured by each included study were presented. Data were pooled using the random-effects model via Review Manager 5.3, and presented as mean differences and 95% confidence intervals. Consistency was measured using I2. Sensitivity analysis was performed by removing one study with a large sample to explore effects on heterogeneity.Results The authors found eight eligible case-control studies conducted in Asia (n = 7) or South America (n = 1). Six of the eight compared DMFT of children with autism to those without and three of the eight compared PI, GI and/or salivary pH. While a meta-analysis is presented for each of the oral health outcome areas, there are discrepancies in the reporting. The included studies in each of the meta-analysis do not correspond with the characteristics of the studies provided.Conclusions The authors suggest from their meta-analyses that children with autism experience a higher prevalence of dental disease than children without autism. However, as currently presented, the study lacks internal validity and findings are not reliable.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Autístico , Caries Dental , Asia , Trastorno Autístico/complicaciones , Niño , China , Humanos , Salud Bucal , América del Sur
7.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670262

RESUMEN

Stingless bee-collected pollen (bee bread) is a mixture of bee pollen, bee salivary enzymes, and regurgitated honey, fermented by indigenous microbes during storage in the cerumen pot. Current literature data for bee bread is overshadowed by bee pollen, particularly of honeybee Apis. In regions such as South America, Australia, and Southeast Asia, information on stingless bee bee bread is mainly sought to promote the meliponiculture industry for socioeconomic development. This review aims to highlight the physicochemical properties and health benefits of bee bread from the stingless bee. In addition, it describes the current progress on identification of beneficial microbes associated with bee bread and its relation to the bee gut. This review provides the basis for promoting research on stingless bee bee bread, its nutrients, and microbes for application in the food and pharmaceutical industries.


Asunto(s)
Abejas/química , Miel , Própolis/química , Glándulas Salivales/química , Animales , Australia , Abejas/metabolismo , Fermentación , Polen/química , Própolis/uso terapéutico , Glándulas Salivales/metabolismo , América del Sur
8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(3): e0009259, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705409

RESUMEN

Dengue, Zika and chikungunya are diseases of global health significance caused by arboviruses and transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti, which is of worldwide circulation. The arrival of the Zika and chikungunya viruses to South America increased the complexity of transmission and morbidity caused by these viruses co-circulating in the same vector mosquito species. Here we present an integrated analysis of the reported arbovirus cases between 2007 and 2017 and local climate and socio-economic profiles of three distinct Colombian municipalities (Bello, Cúcuta and Moniquirá). These locations were confirmed as three different ecosystems given their contrasted geographic, climatic and socio-economic profiles. Correlational analyses were conducted with both generalised linear models and generalised additive models for the geographical data. Average temperature, minimum temperature and wind speed were strongly correlated with disease incidence. The transmission of Zika during the 2016 epidemic appeared to decrease circulation of dengue in Cúcuta, an area of sustained high incidence of dengue. Socio-economic factors such as barriers to health and childhood services, inadequate sanitation and poor water supply suggested an unfavourable impact on the transmission of dengue, Zika and chikungunya in all three ecosystems. Socio-demographic influencers were also discussed including the influx of people to Cúcuta, fleeing political and economic instability from neighbouring Venezuela. Aedes aegypti is expanding its range and increasing the global threat of these diseases. It is therefore vital that we learn from the epidemiology of these arboviruses and translate it into an actionable local knowledge base. This is even more acute given the recent historical high of dengue cases in the Americas in 2019, preceding the COVID-19 pandemic, which is itself hampering mosquito control efforts.


Asunto(s)
Fiebre Chikungunya/epidemiología , Dengue/epidemiología , Infección por el Virus Zika/epidemiología , Aedes/fisiología , Aedes/virología , Animales , Fiebre Chikungunya/economía , Fiebre Chikungunya/virología , Virus Chikungunya/fisiología , Clima , Colombia/epidemiología , Dengue/economía , Dengue/virología , Virus del Dengue/fisiología , Ecosistema , Humanos , Mosquitos Vectores/fisiología , Mosquitos Vectores/virología , América del Sur , Temperatura , Virus Zika/fisiología , Infección por el Virus Zika/economía , Infección por el Virus Zika/virología
9.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 166: 112224, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714037

RESUMEN

Soil metal pollution in two Sarcocornia salt marshes within the Bahía Blanca estuary (Argentina, South America) was evaluated through pseudo-total and bioavailable metal levels and pollution indexes. Soil conditions were also studied. The pseudo-total metal concentrations were similar in both salt marshes and followed the same decreasing order: Fe > Zn > Cu > Cr > Ni > Pb > Cd. Bioavailable metals presented different patterns between salt marshes. The percentages of the bioavailable fraction varied between 28 and 80%, being higher than 60% for Cu, Zn and Pb. Organic matter ruled the distribution of all metals, except Pb. Using shale average concentration as background level, indexes did not show pollution nor enrichment, whereas using as background levels local values, anthropogenic enrichment was found for all metals and most metals showed moderate metal pollution. Our results showed that bioavailable metals levels and indexes using local background values provide an adequate assessment of metal pollution in salt marsh soils.


Asunto(s)
Metales Pesados , Contaminantes del Suelo , Argentina , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Estuarios , Metales Pesados/análisis , Medición de Riesgo , Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , América del Sur , Humedales
10.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0237294, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33780470

RESUMEN

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in North, Central, and South America has become the epicenter of the current pandemic. We have suggested previously that the infection rate of this virus might be lower in people living at high altitude (over 2,500 m) compared to that in the lowlands. Based on data from official sources, we performed a new epidemiological analysis of the development of the pandemic in 23 countries on the American continent as of May 23, 2020. Our results confirm our previous finding, further showing that the incidence of COVID-19 on the American continent decreases significantly starting at 1,000 m above sea level (masl). Moreover, epidemiological modeling indicates that the virus transmission rate is lower in the highlands (>1,000 masl) than in the lowlands (<1,000 masl). Finally, evaluating the differences in the recovery percentage of patients, the death-to-case ratio, and the theoretical fraction of undiagnosed cases, we found that the severity of COVID-19 is also decreased above 1,000 m. We conclude that the impact of the COVID-19 decreases significantly with altitude.


Asunto(s)
Altitud , /patología , /epidemiología , /virología , América Central/epidemiología , Humanos , Incidencia , América del Norte/epidemiología , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , América del Sur/epidemiología
11.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(4): 170, 2021 Mar 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33686536

RESUMEN

Subtropical coastal shallow lakes (SCSL) are sensitive ecosystems. The lake-skin-water temperature (LSWT) is an average lake temperature proxy and responds to changes in surroundings, affecting biological and physical lake processes. In this study, M*D11A1 products are used to develop daytime and nighttime LSWT time series for 20 SCSL in South America. The influence of climatic (air temperature, surface net solar radiation, wind speed, and wind direction) and non-climatic (latitude, lake area, perimeter, width, length, and morphology) factors are evaluated from 2001 to 2017. Pearson's coefficients (ρ) and auto- and cross-correlations are used to establish the relation between LWST and the selected factors. We identify that the dynamic of LSWT is sensitive to geomorphological factors (latitude and lake width) throughout the year, especially in summer. In winter, the LSTW regime is mainly affected by wind direction (ρ = -0.66, p value < 0.01). Linear models are fitted to the temperature series to check the trend changes in the inflection points and the warming or cooling trend for LSWT. Considering the complete series, the maximum warming rate of LSWT is 0.25 °C per decade (°C/dec). The analysis of the identified sub-periods reveals that warming and cooling can occur (significantly) in shorter periods. The average trends within sub-periods for skin temperature-daytime (± 0.0105 °C/dec), skin temperature-nighttime (0.0041 °C/dec), and air temperature (- s0.006 °C/dec; 0.007 °C/dec) are estimated. Our approach has the potential to be applied in future studies due to the expansion of knowledge about the behavior of SCSL and the understanding of the current and potential effects of climate change in association with physical and geomorphological traits.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Lagos , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Temperatura Cutánea , América del Sur , Temperatura
12.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(4): 221, 2021 Mar 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33763714

RESUMEN

Intensive land use favors eutrophication processes and algae bloom proliferation in freshwaters, which is considered to be one of the main environmental issues worldwide. In general, and particularly in South America, inland water monitoring only covers the main water bodies due to the high costs and efforts involved. In order to improve the coverage of spatial and temporal of algae bloom monitoring, remote sensing serves as an alternative tool. Thereby, the analysis of significant spatial clusters of high values (hotspots) and low values (coldspots) of chlorophyll-a has been applied in coastal studies; however, at present, there are no studies in freshwaters. In this study, Getis-Ord Gi* hotspot analysis was applied to detect spatial distribution patterns of algae bloom dynamics in small- and medium-sized freshwater bodies. Four in situ samplings were carried out in five suburban lakes of Uruguay, in agreement with the satellite capture. Total and cyanobacterial chlorophyll-a concentration, and suspended solids were evaluated. Linear models were developed by combining pre-established indexes with additional Sentinel-2 spectral bands and in situ data. The relationship between red and red edge regions allowed mapping the chlorophyll-a in the study lakes with an adjustment of R2 = 0.83. Hotspot analysis was performed with the selected linear model, and significant chlorophyll-a variability within each lake was successfully detected. The novel application of hotspots analyses presented in this work represents a contribution to advance knowledge in the remote detection of algae bloom dynamics and improve monitoring capabilities of inland water bodies.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Eutrofización , Lagos , América del Sur , Uruguay , Agua
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 769: 145080, 2021 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736256

RESUMEN

Eugenia uniflora L. is an important fruit tree native to tropical South America that adapts to different habitats, thanks to its metabolic diversity and ability to adjust the leaf antioxidant metabolism. We hypothesized that this metabolic diversity would also enable E. uniflora to avoid oxidative damage and tolerate the enhanced ozone (O3) concentrations that have been registered in the (sub)tropics. We investigated whether carbohydrates, polyphenols and antioxidants are altered and markers of oxidative damage (ROS accumulation, alterations in leaf gas exchange, growth and biomass production) are detected in plants exposed to two levels of O3 (ambient air and twice elevated ozone level in a O3-FACE system for 75 days). Phytotoxic O3 dose above a threshold of 0 nmol m-2 s-1 (POD0) and accumulated exposure above 40 ppb (AOT40) were 3.6 mmol m-2 and 14.898 ppb h at ambient, and 4.7 mmol m-2 and 43.881 ppb h at elevated O3. Twenty-seven primary metabolites and 16 phenolic compounds were detected in the leaves. Contrary to the proposed hypothesis that tropical broadleaf trees are relatively O3 tolerant, we concluded that E. uniflora plants are sensitive to elevated O3 concentrations. Experimental POD0 values were lower than the critical levels for visible foliar O3, because of low stomatal conductance. In spite of this low stomatal O3 uptake, we found classic O3 injury, e.g. reduction in carbohydrates and fatty acids concentrations; non-significant changes in the polyphenol profile; inefficient antioxidant responses; increased contents of ROS and indicators of lipid peroxidation; reductions in stomatal conductance, net photosynthesis, root/shoot ratio and height growth. However, we also found some compensation mechanisms, e.g. increased leaf concentration of polyols for protecting the membranes, and increased leaf number for compensating the decline of photosynthetic rate. These results help filling the knowledge gap about tropical tree responses to O3.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Eugenia , Ozono , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Ozono/análisis , Fotosíntesis , Hojas de la Planta/química , América del Sur , Árboles
15.
Zootaxa ; 4941(1): zootaxa.4941.1.8, 2021 Mar 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756953

RESUMEN

Pic has contributed most of the descriptions of species and varieties of the genus Astylus Laporte, 1836. However, in some cases, he defined the distinction between taxa on the basis of variable characters. The study of the external morphology and genitalia of the type material of Astylus alboscutellatus Pic,1919a; A. banghaasi Pic, 1902; A. banghaasi var. reichei Pic, 1919a; A. binotatus Pic, 1940; A. elongatior Pic, 1902; A. elongatior var. disjunctus Pic, 1902; A. scalaris Pic, 1919b and A. tucumanensis Pic, 1902, as well collections material, allows to establish new diagnoses and new nomenclatural changes. Following new synonymies are proposed: A. banghaasi Pic, 1902 (= A. banghaasi var. reichei Pic, 1919a n.syn. = A. elongatior Pic, 1902 n.syn. = A. elongatior var. disjunctus Pic, 1902 n.syn.) and A. scalaris Pic, 1919b (= A. binotatus Pic, 1940 n.syn.). The valid species are redescribed.


Asunto(s)
Escarabajos , Animales , Masculino , América del Sur
16.
Zootaxa ; 4948(3): zootaxa.4948.3.5, 2021 Mar 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33757018

RESUMEN

To date, 9 species of Schistosomatidae have been found parasitizing the nasal tissues of mammal and bird hosts in the Eastern Hemisphere, 5 species in Rwanda (Africa), 2 in Australia (Oceania) and 2 in Eurasia. During a parasitological survey of black necked swans, Cygnus melancoryphus, an anatid endemic to South America, schistosome worms in the nasal tissue were found; the first in the Americas. Morphological results based on male worms and in isolated eggs. The worms have a spiny tegument, filiform body with rounded posterior end, two muscular suckers, a robust gynaecophoric channel with thickened cross bands, and around 130 testes. The eggs are elongate with an asymmetrical bulge, with a slender process at one end and a longer curved process at the other. Diagnostic morphological characteristics do not match with any schistosome genus. Part of the mitochondrial cox1 and nuclear DNA 28S partial genes were sequenced and compared to Schistosomatidae in GenBank. The genetic results confirm the distinctiveness of the specimens since they do not group with any described genus or undescribed lineage other than cercariae of "Chilina lineage 1" that emerge from the Patagonian Chilina gibbosa, a freshwater snail endemic to South America. Based on morphological and genetic characterization of these schistosomes, these specimens represent a new genus and species that parasitizes black necked swans as adults in the nasal tissue, and C. gibbosa is the first intermediate host, both hosts being endemic to South America.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de las Aves , Schistosomatidae , Afroamericanos , Animales , Humanos , Masculino , Filogenia , Schistosomatidae/genética , Caracoles , América del Sur
17.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(2): 108, 2021 Feb 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33532946

RESUMEN

Particulate matter (PM) is one of the existing air pollutants, which can cause damages to human health, public property, and the environment. The chemical composition of this pollutant greatly varies, mainly its organic fraction. Thus, our objective was to carry out a literature review based on articles, considering studies conducted in South America, whose authors address the characterization of the polar organic fraction of PM. We performed the review using the Scopus, SciELO, and Web of Science databases, considering publications dated from the years 2010 to 2019. A total of 14,575 articles were found, of which only 12 met the predefined selection criteria. According to our research, the most studied compound is levoglucosan, a biomass burning marker belonging to the group of anhydrous sugars. Besides, nitro-PAHs, which usually originate from vehicular sources and are compounds with mutagenic and carcinogenic characteristics, have also been found. Moreover, we concluded that, currently, there are few studies on the subject in South America, requiring more research on polar organic compounds present in PM in countries of this region. These studies are of great importance because some compounds can cause great damage to human health, such as the nitro-PAHs; furthermore, PM may still have unknown compounds that need identification and elucidation of their toxicity.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Material Particulado/análisis , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análisis , América del Sur
18.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 5(4): 245-255, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545071

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Tobacco use is a leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Little is known about recent prevalence and trends in tobacco use among adolescents globally. We aimed to assess the recent global prevalence of tobacco use in young adolescents and the secular trends in prevalence between 1999 and 2018. METHODS: We used the most recent Global Youth Tobacco Surveys data on adolescents aged 13-15 years from 143 countries or territories that had done at least one survey between Jan 1, 2010, and Dec 31, 2018, to assess the recent prevalence of tobacco use; and data from 140 countries that had done two or more surveys between Jan 1, 1999, and Dec 31, 2018, to assess the trends in the prevalence of tobacco use. FINDINGS: 530 234 adolescents were included from the 143 countries that had done at least one survey between 2010 and 2018. 1 192 312 adolescents were included from the 140 countries that had done two or more surveys between 1999 and 2018. The most recent global prevalence of cigarette smoking was 11·3% (95% CI 10·3-12·3) in boys and 6·1% (5·6-6·6) in girls, based on cigarette smoking on at least 1 day during the past 30 days, 6·0% (5·5-6·6) and 2·6% (2·4-2·9) based on smoking on at least 3 days, and 4·2% (3·8-4·6) and 1·6% (1·4-1·8) based on smoking on at least 6 days. The most recent prevalence of the use of tobacco products other than cigarettes (eg, chewing tobacco, snuff, dip, cigars, cigarillos, pipe, electronic cigarettes) on at least 1 day during the past 30 days was 11·2% (9·9-12·6) in boys and 7·0% (6·4-7·7) in girls. The most recent prevalence of any tobacco use on at least 1 day during the past 30 days was 17·9% (16·1-19·6) in boys and 11·5% (10·5-12·4) in girls. The prevalence of cigarette smoking on at least 1 day during the past 30 days decreased between the first and last surveys in 80 (57·1%) of 140 countries, was unchanged in 39 countries (27·9%), and increased in 21 countries (15·0%). However, the prevalence of the use of tobacco products other than cigarettes was unchanged or increased in 81 (59·1%) of 137 countries. INTERPRETATION: The global prevalence of tobacco use among adolescents aged 13-15 years was substantial. Although the prevalence of cigarette smoking decreased over time in the majority of countries, the prevalence of the use of other tobacco products increased or did not change in the majority of countries during the past two decades. These findings re-emphasise the need to strengthen tobacco control efforts among young adolescents globally. FUNDING: Shandong University.


Asunto(s)
Fumar Cigarrillos/epidemiología , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiología , Tabaco sin Humo , Adolescente , África/epidemiología , Asia/epidemiología , América Central/epidemiología , Fumar Cigarrillos/tendencias , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , América del Norte/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Distribución por Sexo , América del Sur/epidemiología , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiología , Fumar Tabaco/tendencias , Uso de Tabaco/tendencias
19.
Epilepsy Behav ; 117: 107835, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33611098

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To investigate the opinions of physicians on the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in patients with epilepsy (PWE) worldwide. METHODS: Online survey addressed to neurologists and psychiatrists from different countries. RESULTS: Totally, 1112 physicians from 25 countries (different world region: Europe, North America, South America, Middle-East, Africa, Former Soviet Union Republics) participated; 804 (72.3%) believed that CAM might be helpful in PWE. The most commonly endorsed CAM included meditation (41%) and yoga (39%). Female sex, psychiatry specialization, and working in North and South America were associated with the belief that CAM is helpful in PWE. Two-hundred and forty five out of 1098 participants (22.3%) used/prescribed CAM to PWE; among them, 174 (71%) people perceived CAM to be less effective and 114 (46.5%) people found CAM to be safer than conventional antiseizure medications (ASMs). The most common reasons to prescribe CAM for PWE were: to satisfy the patient (49.9%), dissatisfaction with the efficacy (35.6%), and dissatisfaction with the adverse effects (31.2%) of conventional therapies. CONCLUSION: Although the evidence supporting the use of CAM for the treatment of epilepsy is extremely sparse, most physicians worldwide believe that it could be integrated with the use of conventional ASMs, at least in some patients. High-quality controlled trials are warranted to provide robust evidence on the usefulness of CAM options in PWE.


Asunto(s)
Terapias Complementarias , Epilepsia , Médicos , África , Epilepsia/terapia , Europa (Continente) , Femenino , Humanos , Medio Oriente , América del Norte , América del Sur , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
20.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 165: 112174, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33621900

RESUMEN

Here we provide a global review on nutrient accumulation rates in mangroves which were derived from sixty-nine dated sediment cores, addressing environmental and anthropogenic influences. Conserved mangroves presented nitrogen and phosphorous accumulation rates near to 5.8 ± 2.1 and 0.8 ± 0.5 g m-2 yr-1, respectively. These values were significantly lower than those observed for mangroves impacted by coastal eutrophication, which were found to bury 21.5 ± 8.6 and 17.9 ± 2.4 g m-2 yr-1, of nitrogen and phosphorous respectively. Moreover, higher nutrient accumulation rates were found in mixed mangroves as compared to monospecific forests, and higher values were noted within vegetated areas as compared to mudflats. For South America and Asia, mangroves impacted by anthropogenic activities may result in up to seventeen-fold higher nitrogen and phosphorous accumulation rates in comparison with values under conserved conditions. For Oceania, these differences may be up to fivefold higher in impacted as compared to the conserved ecosystems in this region.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Humedales , Asia , Nutrientes , América del Sur
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...