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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(7)2021 Mar 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810296

RESUMEN

Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a devastating neonatal brain condition caused by lack of oxygen and limited blood flow. Environmental enrichment (EE) is a classic paradigm with a complex stimulation of physical, cognitive, and social components. EE can exert neuroplasticity and neuroprotective effects in immature brains. However, the exact mechanism of EE on the chronic condition of HIE remains unclear. HIE was induced by a permanent ligation of the right carotid artery, followed by an 8% O2 hypoxic condition for 1 h. At 6 weeks of age, HIE mice were randomly assigned to either standard cages or EE cages. In the behavioral assessments, EE mice showed significantly improved motor performances in rotarod tests, ladder walking tests, and hanging wire tests, compared with HIE control mice. EE mice also significantly enhanced cognitive performances in Y-maze tests. Particularly, EE mice showed a significant increase in Cav 2.1 (P/Q type) and presynaptic proteins by molecular assessments, and a significant increase of Cav 2.1 in histological assessments of the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. These results indicate that EE can upregulate the expression of the Cav 2.1 channel and presynaptic proteins related to the synaptic vesicle cycle and neurotransmitter release, which may be responsible for motor and cognitive improvements in HIE.


Asunto(s)
Canales de Calcio Tipo N/metabolismo , Ambiente , Hipoxia-Isquemia Encefálica/metabolismo , Plasticidad Neuronal , Percepción , Animales , Corteza Cerebral/metabolismo , Cognición , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipoxia-Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatología , Hipoxia-Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Locomoción , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos ICR , Aprendizaje Espacial
2.
Science ; 372(6537): 84-87, 2021 04 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795456

RESUMEN

Human activities and climate change threaten marine biodiversity worldwide, though sensitivity to these stressors varies considerably by species and taxonomic group. Mapping the spatial distribution of 14 anthropogenic stressors from 2003 to 2013 onto the ranges of 1271 at-risk marine species sensitive to them, we found that, on average, species faced potential impacts across 57% of their ranges, that this footprint expanded over time, and that the impacts intensified across 37% of their ranges. Although fishing activity dominated the footprint of impacts in national waters, climate stressors drove the expansion and intensification of impacts. Mitigating impacts on at-risk biodiversity is critical to supporting resilient marine ecosystems, and identifying the co-occurrence of impacts across multiple taxonomic groups highlights opportunities to amplify the benefits of conservation management.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Actividades Humanas , Océanos y Mares , Animales , Organismos Acuáticos , Cambio Climático , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema , Especies en Peligro de Extinción , Ambiente , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Peces , Humanos , Estrés Fisiológico
3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800416

RESUMEN

The purpose of the research is to explore how to reach a consensus on the development of cultural tourism and the sustainability of the entire rural environment from the perspective of different rights holders. Using Beigang Township in Taiwan as a case study, we first conducted a questionnaire survey and analyzed 600 respondents by statistical verifications method, then used an interview method to compile suggestions from experts and scholars, and finally conducted a field survey to collect actual information. After summarizing, organizing, and analyzing all the data, the study was examined in a multivariate manner. This study concludes that creating parking spaces, providing a comfortable resting place, facilitating the exchange of ideas, and improving the environmental literacy of the public will increase the public attention to issues such as village visibility, people interaction, ancient architecture, culture and totems, public health and transportation, and entrepreneurial development, as well as address the concerns of local residents and some men and people over 31-40 years old. By doing so, we can improve community building and security, enrich cultural resources, build and develop sufficient industries, stabilize prices, obtain a safe and hygienic village environment, increase the desire to revisit, become a recommendation for family travel, and achieve the goal of sustainable development of rural environment and health.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Sostenible , Turismo , Adulto , Ambiente , Humanos , Masculino , Taiwán , Viaje
4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807696

RESUMEN

Facing worldwide environmental and social concerns, manufacturing firms are trying to adopt effective environmentally friendly actions to mitigate their environmental impacts. Although the existent literature has provided many insights about the drivers of sustainable product innovation, little is known about the impact of firm growth. Thus, we intend to contribute to this gap in the literature by examining the impact that firm growth can have on sustainable product innovation. To achieve this goal, the partial least square (PLS) modeling technique was used to analyze a dataset of 3250 manufacturing firms from 39 different countries. The results reveal that firm growth exerts a positive effect on sustainable product innovation and that the relationship is partially mediated by the adoption of environmental practices. The findings also indicate that managerial barriers lessen the effectiveness of the adoption of environmental practices in facilitating the development of sustainable product innovation, while improving labor conditions increases it. However, operational barriers do not exert a significant moderating effect between the adoption of environmental practices and sustainable product innovation. These results prompt interesting insights related to theory development in environmental management and sustainable product innovation research.


Asunto(s)
Comercio , Ambiente , Creatividad
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808792

RESUMEN

Adaptation and response to environmental changes require dynamic and fast information distribution within the plant body. If one part of a plant is exposed to stress, attacked by other organisms or exposed to any other kind of threat, the information travels to neighboring organs and even neighboring plants and activates appropriate responses. The information flow is mediated by fast-traveling small metabolites, hormones, proteins/peptides, RNAs or volatiles. Electric and hydraulic waves also participate in signal propagation. The signaling molecules move from one cell to the neighboring cell, via the plasmodesmata, through the apoplast, within the vascular tissue or-as volatiles-through the air. A threat-specific response in a systemic tissue probably requires a combination of different traveling compounds. The propagating signals must travel over long distances and multiple barriers, and the signal intensity declines with increasing distance. This requires permanent amplification processes, feedback loops and cross-talks among the different traveling molecules and probably a short-term memory, to refresh the propagation process. Recent studies show that volatiles activate defense responses in systemic tissues but also play important roles in the maintenance of the propagation of traveling signals within the plant. The distal organs can respond immediately to the systemic signals or memorize the threat information and respond faster and stronger when they are exposed again to the same or even another threat. Transmission and storage of information is accompanied by loss of specificity about the threat that activated the process. I summarize our knowledge about the proposed long-distance traveling compounds and discuss their possible connections.


Asunto(s)
Ambiente , Fenómenos Fisiológicos de las Plantas , Plantas/genética , Plantas/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Biomarcadores , Calcio/metabolismo , Resistencia a la Enfermedad , Fenómenos Electrofisiológicos , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno , Luz , Especificidad de Órganos , Fotosíntesis , Fitocromo/metabolismo , Enfermedades de las Plantas , Plantas/microbiología , Plantas/efectos de la radiación , ARN de Planta , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno/metabolismo , Transducción de Señal , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles/metabolismo
6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805046

RESUMEN

Children spend a large amount of time each day in early childhood education and care (ECEC) institutions, and the ECEC play environments are important for children's play opportunities. This includes children's opportunities to engage in risky play. This study examined the relationship between the outdoor play environment and the occurrence of children's risky play in ECEC institutions. Children (n = 80) were observed in two-minute sequences during periods of the day when they were free to choose what to do. The data consists of 935 randomly recorded two-minute videos, which were coded second by second for several categories of risky play as well as where and with what materials the play occurred. Results revealed that risky play (all categories in total) was positively associated with fixed equipment for functional play, nature and other fixed structures, while analysis of play materials showed that risky play was positively associated with wheeled toys. The results can support practitioners in developing their outdoor areas to provide varied and exciting play opportunities.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico , Juego e Implementos de Juego , Niño , Cuidado del Niño , Preescolar , Ambiente , Humanos
7.
Water Sci Technol ; 83(8): 1958-1972, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33905365

RESUMEN

An analysis of failures in a capital city's wastewater collection system was carried out and recommendations were made for sustainable preventive measures based on a risk of failure assessment. Most failures in sewer lines were associated with blockage caused by sediment accumulation and clogging from fats, oils and/or grease dumped by restaurants along several streets, combined with poor or nonexistent maintenance of the lines. Sewer lines in streets with higher risk levels due to multiple food establishments along those streets experienced most of the failures. Sustainability of the proposed maintenance was evidenced since it reduces costs and exposure to harmful substances and hazardous conditions as well as minimizing environmental impacts.


Asunto(s)
Aceites , Aguas Residuales , Ciudades , Ambiente , Grasas
8.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 24(suppl 1): e210002, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886875

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to validate the estimates of adult smokers determined by Vigitel for small areas, defined by the Health Vulnerability Index (IVS). METHODS: The database of the Health Survey of the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte (RMBH) carried out in 2010 and the data from Vigitel in the period from 2010 to 2013 were used to obtain estimates of adult smokers by IVS. With Vigitel, the estimate of smokers by IVS was obtained by the indirect estimation method in small areas. The prevalence of adult smokers was compared, considering RMBH as the gold standard. The t test was used to evaluate the difference between the means and the Pearson correlation, with a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: When stratifying by IVS in the household survey, the prevalence of adult smokers ranged from 13.39% (95%CI 11.88 - 14.91) for residents in a low-risk area to 22.9% (95%CI 12.33 - 33.48) among residents in a very high-risk area. With Vigitel, according to IVS, the prevalence of adult smokers ranged from 11.98% (95%CI 10.75 - 13.21) for residents in the low-risk area to 22.31% (95%CI 18.25 - 26.1) in very high-risk areas. The prevalence was similar between the two surveys, showing good Pearson correlation (r = 0.93). CONCLUSION: The study points out that the estimates of smokers were similar in both surveys, showing the external validity of Vigitel. There was a gradient in prevalence, with progressive increase, identifying a higher proportion of smokers in high-risk areas.


Asunto(s)
Ambiente , Fumadores , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiología , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Prevalencia
9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802522

RESUMEN

Blue spaces have been found to have significant salutogenic effects. However, little is known about the mechanisms and pathways that link blue spaces and health. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to summarise the evidence and quantify the effect of blue spaces on four hypothesised mediating pathways: physical activity, restoration, social interaction and environmental factors. Following the PRISMA guidelines, a literature search was conducted using six databases (PubMed, Scopus, PsycInfo, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, EBSCOHOST/CINAHL). Fifty studies were included in our systematic review. The overall quality of the included articles, evaluated with the Qualsyst tool, was judged to be very good, as no mediating pathway had an average article quality lower than 70%. Random-effects meta-analyses were conducted for physical activity, restoration and social interaction. Living closer to blue space was associated with statistically significantly higher physical activity levels (Cohen's d = 0.122, 95% CI: 0.065, 0.179). Shorter distance to blue space was not associated with restoration (Cohen's d = 0.123, 95% CI: -0.037, 0.284) or social interaction (Cohen's d = -0.214, 95% CI: -0.55, 0.122). Larger amounts of blue space within a geographical area were significantly associated with higher physical activity levels (Cohen's d = 0.144, 95% CI: 0.024, 0.264) and higher levels of restoration (Cohen's d = 0.339, 95% CI: 0.072, 0.606). Being in more contact with blue space was significantly associated with higher levels of restoration (Cohen's d = 0.191, 95% CI: 0.084, 0.298). There is also evidence that blue spaces improve environmental factors, but more studies are necessary for meta-analyses to be conducted. Evidence is conflicting on the mediating effects of social interaction and further research is required on this hypothesised pathway. Blue spaces may offer part of a solution to public health concerns faced by growing global urban populations.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico , Salud Pública , Ambiente , Humanos
10.
Science ; 372(6538): 128-129, 2021 04 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33833110
11.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33794608

RESUMEN

Objective:To compare the effectiveness of canalith repositioning procedure between BPPV secondary to sudden sensorineural hearing loss(SSNHL) group and idiopathic BPPV(i-BPPV) group. Methods:A retrospective study of patients with evidence of idiopathic BPPV or SSNHL with BPPV. All participants were identified and categorized by using the Dix-Hallpike test and roll test, and then followed by canalith repositioning procedures (CRPs). The assessment of outcome was conducted at one-week post-CRPs. Results:Sixty-four BPPV patients secondary to sudden sensorineural hearing loss and 328 patients with idiopathic BPPV were included. The posterior canal is the most affected in both group. At one-week post-treatment, the effectiveness of CRPs in the BPPV with SSNHL group was significantly lower than that of the i-BPPV group (P<0.001). Conclusion:The clinical characteristics of BPPV secondary to SSNHL were like those of i-BPPV, while BPPV secondary to SSNHL was associated with poorer outcomes than i-BPPV when treated by CRPs.


Asunto(s)
Pérdida Auditiva Sensorineural , Pérdida Auditiva Súbita , Vértigo Posicional Paroxístico Benigno/complicaciones , Ambiente , Pérdida Auditiva Sensorineural/complicaciones , Pérdida Auditiva Súbita/complicaciones , Humanos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Canales Semicirculares
12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673177

RESUMEN

The main research objective is to develop a conceptual accounting model to reflect the environmental impact generated by the economic activity of Romania's entities. In order to identify the current stage of the use of environmental accounting by the Romanian economic entities, the questionnaire used was based on a random sample of 377 entities whose economic activity has a significant impact on the environment. The results suggest the need to develop a model for integrating environmental impact into accounting. The model is based on the description of the technological process and determination of the environmental impact on each activity, stage, or procedure of the technological process, which enterprise will integrate its monetary value in the cost of production and will reflect it in the management accounting system, using specific environmental accounting instruments. The model involves five stages, and by combining internal and external information provided by environmental management accounting is a relevant source for substantiating decisions to promote environmental responsibility in Romanian companies.


Asunto(s)
Contabilidad , Ambiente , Sistemas de Información , Modelos Teóricos
13.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669237

RESUMEN

Yeast plays a key role in the production of fermented foods and beverages, such as bread, wine, and other alcoholic beverages. They are able to produce and release from the fermentation environment large numbers of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This is the reason for the great interest in the possibility of adapting these microorganisms to fermentation at reduced temperatures. By doing this, it would be possible to obtain better sensory profiles of the final products. It can reduce the addition of artificial flavors and enhancements to food products and influence other important factors of fermented food production. Here, we reviewed the genetic and physiological mechanisms by which yeasts adapt to low temperatures. Next, we discussed the importance of VOCs for the food industry, their biosynthesis, and the most common volatiles in fermented foods and described the beneficial impact of decreased temperature as a factor that contributes to improving the composition of the sensory profiles of fermented foods.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Fisiológica , Frío , Ambiente , Fermentación , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles/metabolismo , Adaptación Fisiológica/genética , Fermentación/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética
14.
Water Sci Technol ; 83(5): 993-1004, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33724931

RESUMEN

Three photocatalysts (CdS, ZnFe2O4, and NiFe2O4) were synthesized and their ability to photodegrade methylene blue (MB) was evaluated. MB was degraded by both spinel photocatalysts under visible light at room temperature, although their efficacy was less than that for CdS. The photocatalytic efficacies of NiFe2O4 were observed to be much greater than that for ZnFe2O4. All the synthesized nanoparticles absorbed visible light, while CdS had a larger absorption range within the visible light spectra and the most porous surface. Photo-deactivation was observed during the study, which could be due to the chemical adsorption of the degraded products on the catalyst surface. The factors that affected MB removal efficacy include the absorption range of photocatalysts, initial MB concentrations, amount of photocatalysts added, and photoreactor conditions. Life cycle analysis was used to compare the preparation methods of the photocatalysts in terms of energy consumption and environmental impact. The results showed that the hydrothermal method for NiFe2O4 preparation was less energy-intensive than the sol-gel method for CdS and ZnFe2O4 as the hydrothermal method is effective over a wider range of temperatures in aqueous media. Also, as ZnFe2O4, and NiFe2O4 have lower environmental impacts than CdS both show promise as photocatalysts.


Asunto(s)
Luz , Nanopartículas , Catálisis , Ambiente , Azul de Metileno
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 776: 145915, 2021 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647653

RESUMEN

In mountainous areas, bare slopes represent often dangerous forms of land degradation that need to be rehabilitated. However, revegetation is usually performed with non-native plants, negatively impacting the natural landscape value. Comprehensive studies, especially on poorly investigated long-term revegetation effects, are therefore essential for the improvement of rehabilitation practices. In this study, four landslides or disused quarries surrounded by well-preserved (semi-) natural vegetation that were revegetated between 1988 and 2002 with non-native only herbaceous or both herbaceous and woody plants were studied 1-9 and 16-31 years after rehabilitation. A total of 111 sampling areas were surveyed for introduced and volunteer species and other important ground cover soil and topography traits. Climatic traits and species' ecological indicators were retrieved from the available databases. The time patterns and ecological spectra of the plant covers were analysed and correlated to the site traits. In the first decade, introduced plants were initially abundant but decreased rapidly. In the long-term, the more stress-tolerant among them still had a considerable cover, especially in fine-textured soils. Native species were established slowly but, due to their higher stress tolerance, dominated in the long-term, especially at more stressful sites. In areas with predominantly herbaceous cover, soil factors, such as gravel content, were more related to the plant cover. In areas with predominantly woody plant cover, the high plant cover was dependent on microclimatic factors, especially aspect. At sites like those studied here, woody species should be always used, but in the form of native plants, as they tend to persist. If herbaceous species are unavailable in native forms, their introduction should be avoided in areas not exposed to erosion, whereas poorly stress-tolerant non-native plants should be used in steep areas as they create a fast but short-lasting cover compensated in the long term by the establishment of native species.


Asunto(s)
Plantas , Suelo , Ambiente , Humanos , Madera
16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669669

RESUMEN

As the impact factors of the waste Not-In-My-Back Yard (NIMBY) crisis are complex, and the scenario evolution path of it is diverse. Once the crisis is not handled properly, it will bring adverse effects on the construction of waste NIMBY facilities, economic development and social stability. Consequently, based on ground theory, this paper takes the waste NIMBY crisis in China from 2006 to 2019 as typical cases, through coding analysis, scenario evolution factors of waste NIMBY crisis are established. Furtherly, three key scenarios were obtained, namely, external situation (E), situation state (S), emergency management (M), what is more, scenario evolution law of waste NIMBY crisis is revealed. Then, the dynamic Bayesian network theory is used to construct the dynamic scenario evolution network of waste NIMBY crisis. Finally, based on the above models, Xiantao waste NIMBY crisis is taken as a case study, and the dynamic process of scenario evolution network is visually displayed by using Netica. The simulation results show that the scenario evolution network of Xiantao waste NIMBY crisis is basically consistent with the actual incident development process, which confirms the effectiveness and feasibility of the model.


Asunto(s)
Eliminación de Residuos , Administración de Residuos , Teorema de Bayes , China , Simulación por Computador , Ambiente , Vivienda
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669840

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: According to previous studies, the natural environment positively influences well-being, including that of adolescent girls. However, knowledge is lacking on what motivates adolescent girls to spend time in nature. A secondary analysis of qualitative data was conducted employing three preexisting sets of interview data that had formed the basis of previously published research reports. A novel perspective on what motivates adolescent girls in the Arctic to spend time in nature was uncovered-a finding that previous articles have not reported. AIM: The aim was to describe what motivates adolescent girls in the Arctic to spend time in nature. METHODS: The participants were adolescent girls aged 13 to 16 living in the province of Finnish Lapland. The girls wrote about well-being (n = 117) and were interviewed (n = 19) about the meaning of seasonal changes, nature and animals' influence on well-being. Also, five focus group interviews (n = 17) were held. The materials were analyzed by inductive content analysis. RESULTS: After the secondary analysis, three generic categories were found: (1) wanting to have pleasant emotions, (2) the possibility of participating in activities and (3) a desire to feel better. The main category of "need to experience positive sensations" was formed. CONCLUSION: Based on these results, through personalized guidance and advice, it is possible to strengthen adolescent girls' willingness to spend time in nature.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Salud del Adolescente , Adolescente , Animales , Emociones , Ambiente , Femenino , Finlandia , Grupos Focales , Humanos , Investigación Cualitativa
18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670167

RESUMEN

Population change and environmental degradation have become two of the most pressing issues for sustainable development in the contemporary world, while the effect of population aging on pro-environmental behavior remains controversial. In this paper, we examine the effects of individual and population aging on pro-environmental behavior through multilevel analyses of cross-national data from 31 countries. Hierarchical linear models with random intercepts are employed to analyze the data. The findings reveal a positive relationship between aging and pro-environmental behavior. At the individual level, older people are more likely to participate in environmental behavior (b = 0.052, p < 0.001), and at the national level, living in a country with a greater share of older persons encourages individuals to behave sustainably (b = 0.023, p < 0.01). We also found that the elderly are more environmentally active in an aging society. The findings imply that the longevity of human beings may offer opportunities for the improvement of the natural environment.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento , Longevidad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Ambiente , Humanos
19.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(8): 4324-4331, 2021 04 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33760596

RESUMEN

Criticality and supply risk models seek to address concerns of potential disruption to global metal supply. These models need to incorporate disruption events that arise from within the mining industry's market structure. In this paper, we review what we refer to as events of "mine life cycle disruption". These include project abandonments, premature closures, care and maintenance, and ownership changes. Life cycle disruptions not only cause production disruptions but also embed social and environmental risks in global metal markets. They arise from the highly variable business environment in which the resources sector operates. Changing commodity prices directly influence mining revenues and drive decisions on whether to halt or push forward a project. While some disruptions are involuntary and induced by external economic conditions, others are purposefully triggered by certain mining companies that use them to their advantage. We examine the frequency of these disruptions based on a contemporary global inventory of 35,000 mining projects and present the findings against recent developments in the research literature. We conclude that life cycle disruption events are an important consideration in balancing the demand for metals and the social and environmental impacts of mining and propose pathways for managing these events and their effects.


Asunto(s)
Minería , Propiedad , Animales , Ambiente , Estadios del Ciclo de Vida , Metales
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