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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253107, 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355911

RESUMEN

Abstract Life cycle assessment was carried out for a conventional wooden furniture set produced in Mardan division of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan during 2018-19. Primary data regarding inputs and outputs were collected through questionnaire surveys from 100 conventional wooden furniture set manufacturers, 50 in district Mardan and 50 in district Swabi. In the present study, cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment approach was applied for a functional unit of one conventional wooden furniture set. Production weighted average data were modelled in the environmental impacts modelling software i.e., SimaPro v.8.5. The results showed that textile used in sofa set, wood preservative for polishing and preventing insects attack and petrol used in generator had the highest contribution to all the environmental impact categories evaluated. Total cumulative energy demand for wooden furniture set manufactured was 30,005 MJ with most of the energy acquired from non-renewable fossil fuel resources.


Resumo A abordagem de avaliação do ciclo de vida foi realizada para um conjunto de móveis de madeira convencional produzido na divisão Mardan da província de Khyber Pakhtunkhwa do Paquistão durante 2018-19. Os dados primários sobre entradas e saídas foram coletados por meio de pesquisas por questionário de 100 fabricantes de conjuntos de móveis de madeira convencionais, 50 no distrito de Mardan e 50 no distrito de Swabi. No presente estudo, a abordagem de avaliação do ciclo de vida do berço ao portão foi aplicada para uma unidade funcional de um conjunto de móveis de madeira convencional. Os dados da média ponderada da produção foram modelados no software de modelagem de impactos ambientais, isto é, SimaPro v.8.5. Os resultados mostraram que os têxteis usados ​​no conjunto de sofás, o preservativo de madeira para polir e prevenir o ataque de insetos e a gasolina usada no gerador tiveram a maior contribuição em todas as categorias de impacto ambiental avaliadas. A demanda total acumulada de energia para o conjunto de móveis de madeira fabricado foi de 30.005 MJ, com a maior parte da energia adquirida de recursos de combustíveis fósseis não renováveis.


Asunto(s)
Ambiente , Diseño Interior y Mobiliario , Pakistán
2.
J Pharmacol Sci ; 149(2): 46-52, 2022 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35512854

RESUMEN

The surrounding environment affects the behavior of an animal. Therefore, long-term observation of an animal's behavior in its natural breeding environment is an effective approach to predict and understand animal behavior in greater detail. Spontaneous locomotor activity (SLA), the movement of animals in their breeding environment, is one of the most important behavioral indices for experimental animals. We here established an SLA measurement system using image analyses to obtain basic data from BALB/c mice. To record the movement of the mice, we used an infrared video camera. SLA of mice were calculated by detecting their geometric center in each frame. This system could detect the mouse correctly more than 99.999% in all frames. Further, we investigated the effects of habituation, age, and sex on the SLA of BALB/c mice. Three days of habituation were required to decrease the SLA of mice placed in novel cages. The 16- and 32-week-old mice were less active than 4-week-old mice. No significant differences were detected between males and females. We also found that BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice differed in their active and resting rhythms. In conclusion, we developed an SLA measurement system and obtained basic SLA data from BALB/c mice.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Animal , Locomoción , Animales , Ambiente , Femenino , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL
4.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 877, 2022 May 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501799

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study investigates nutritional quality, environmental impact and costs of foods and drinks and their consumption in daily diets according to the degree of processing across the Dutch population. DESIGN: The NOVA classification was used to classify the degree of processing (ultra-processed foods (UPF) and ultra-processed drinks (UPD)). Food consumption data were derived from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2012-2016. Indicators assessed were nutritional quality (saturated fatty acids (SFA), sodium, mono and disaccharides (sugar), fibre and protein), environmental impact (greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and blue water use) and food costs. SETTING: The Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: Four thousand three hundred thirteen Dutch participants aged 1 to 79 years. RESULTS: Per 100 g, UPF were more energy-dense and less healthy than unprocessed or minimally processed foods (MPF); UPF were associated with higher GHG emissions and lower blue water use, and were cheaper. The energy and sugar content of UPD were similar to those of unprocessed or minimally processed drinks (MPD); associated with similar GHG emissions but blue water use was less, and they were also more expensive. In the average Dutch diet, per 2000 kcal, ultra-processed foods and drinks (UPFD) covered 29% (456 g UPF and 437 g UPD) of daily consumption and 61% of energy intake. UPFD consumption was higher among children than adults, especially for UPD. UPFD consumption determined 45% of GHG emissions, 23% of blue water use and 39% of expenses for daily food consumption. UPFD consumption contributed 54% to 72% to daily sodium, sugar and SFA intake. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with unprocessed or minimally processed foods and drinks, UPF and UPD were found to be less healthy considering their high energy, SFA, sugar and sodium content. However, UPF were associated higher GHG emissions and with less blue water use and food costs. Therefore daily blue water use and food costs might increase if UPF are replaced by those unprocessed or minimally processed. As nutritional quality, environmental impacts and food costs relate differently to the NOVA classification, the classification is not directly applicable to identify win-win-wins of nutritional quality, environmental impact and costs of diets.


Asunto(s)
Dieta , Gases de Efecto Invernadero , Adulto , Niño , Ambiente , Humanos , Países Bajos , Valor Nutritivo , Sodio , Azúcares , Agua
5.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 22(1): 129, 2022 04 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501713

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The increased availability of data on health outcomes and risk factors collected at fine geographical resolution is one of the main reasons for the rising popularity of epidemiological analyses conducted at small-area level. However, this rich data setting poses important methodological issues related to modelling complexities and computational demands, as well as the linkage and harmonisation of data collected at different geographical levels. METHODS: This tutorial illustrated the extension of the case time series design, originally proposed for individual-level analyses on short-term associations with time-varying exposures, for applications using data aggregated over small geographical areas. The case time series design embeds the longitudinal structure of time series data within the self-matched framework of case-only methods, offering a flexible and highly adaptable analytical tool. The methodology is well suited for modelling complex temporal relationships, and it provides an efficient computational scheme for large datasets including longitudinal measurements collected at a fine geographical level. RESULTS: The application of the case time series for small-area analyses is demonstrated using a real-data case study to assess the mortality risks associated with high temperature in the summers of 2006 and 2013 in London, UK. The example makes use of information on individual deaths, temperature, and socio-economic characteristics collected at different geographical levels. The tutorial describes the various steps of the analysis, namely the definition of the case time series structure and the linkage of the data, as well as the estimation of the risk associations and the assessment of vulnerability differences. R code and data are made available to fully reproduce the results and the graphical descriptions. CONCLUSIONS: The extension of the case time series for small-area analysis offers a valuable analytical tool that combines modelling flexibility and computational efficiency. The increasing availability of data collected at fine geographical scales provides opportunities for its application to address a wide range of epidemiological questions.


Asunto(s)
Ambiente , Humanos , Londres , Análisis de Área Pequeña , Factores de Tiempo
6.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(3): 181, 2022 May 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35523908

RESUMEN

Laying hens on the free-range systems are susceptible to challenging situations in relation to the rearing environment. Therefore, this work evaluated how solar radiation influences the behavior of laying hens raised in a free-range system, in the Brazilian Savanna. The activities included data collection of meteorological variables and behavioral analysis of 300 commercial laying hens in relation to the frequency of use of indoor and outdoor areas of rearing housing. The solar radiation is the main factor that directly affects the heat gain of production animals, in this experiment had a high amplitude during all day, going from 33.42 to 756.98 W m-2. It was observed that the highest frequency of 79% and 91% use of the barn areas by the hens was at 8 am and 4 pm, respectively. The internal area of the housing was more used by hens 87% and 68% at 12 h and 14 h, respectively. Hens were not observed in the paddocks at noon and 2 pm. Hens spend more than 6 h of the day inside the housing to provide shelter from solar radiation. Which the conclusion the solar radiation influences the behavior of laying hens, at times of the day of the higher incidence of radiation, and high air and global temperatures, it was not observed the presence of hens in the external areas of the housing, especially with the use of the paddocks; at these times the hens seek shelter inside the housing to get away from the incidence of direct solar radiation.


Asunto(s)
Pollos , Vivienda para Animales , Crianza de Animales Domésticos , Bienestar del Animal , Animales , Brasil , Recolección de Datos , Ambiente , Femenino
7.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 33(3): 613-622, 2022 Mar.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524511

RESUMEN

With the exacerbating disturbances of climate changes and human activities to terrestrial ecosystems, more and more studies realize that ecosystems are at the risk of shifts without warning in structural and functional states and recovery from perturbations require more time. Developing an early warning model to identify critical transition and understanding its ecological mechanism of typical ecosystems have become hotspot in ecological researches. At present, based on theoretical and experimental researches across multiple spatiotemporal scales, a variety of theoretical frameworks and indicators of early warning signals (EWSs) were proposed to signal terrestrial ecosystem critical transition. Here, in order to more thoroughly understand and construct theoretical frameworks and indicators of early warning signals, we reviewed advances in critical transitions from aspects of theoretical methods and processing mechanisms. Catastrophe theory and critical slowing down (CSD) are the two basic theories for early-warning ecosystem state transitions. Self-organization and feedback mechanisms are the primary ecological mechanisms to shape alternative stable state. Understanding cascade effects networks (CENet) among biological and environmental elements, and clarifying the equilibrium relationships between input and output of key ecosystem parameters are theoretical foundation of critical transition model. These theoretical cognitions could provide useful references to early warning of ecosystem disasters, ecological environment management and restoration.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Modelos Biológicos , Cambio Climático , Ambiente , Humanos
8.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 178: 113641, 2022 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35398687

RESUMEN

Marine debris is an environmental issue of increasing importance worldwide, with 80% of marine plastics estimated to originate from land-based sources. While much work has been conducted to quantify plastics in coastal environments, many of these approaches are site-specific and not amenable to rapid surveys. We surveyed beaches around Nova Scotia, Canada for plastic and other anthropogenic debris to: 1) quantify debris density on the high tide line; and 2) test a rapid survey technique using digital photos, with applications for community science and remote regions. Most (72%) beaches in Nova Scotia contained debris, but plastic densities along the daily high tide line were relatively low (mean 0.2 debris/m2) with little interannual variation. Despite small differences in plastic densities between observers, this rapid assessment technique appears viable for relative quantification and monitoring of plastic debris on beaches across large geographic scales to assess trends and sources.


Asunto(s)
Plásticos , Residuos , Ambiente , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Nueva Escocia , Residuos/análisis
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(18): e2021860119, 2022 May 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35486689

RESUMEN

SignificanceHow do we characterize animal behavior? Psychophysics started with human behavior in the laboratory, and focused on simple contexts, such as the decision among just a few alternative actions in response to sensory inputs. In contrast, ethology focused on animal behavior in the natural environment, emphasizing that evolution selects potentially complex behaviors that are useful in specific contexts. New experimental methods now make it possible to monitor animal and human behaviors in vastly greater detail. This "physics of behavior" holds the promise of combining the psychophysicist's quantitative approach with the ethologist's appreciation of natural context. One question surrounding this growing body of data concerns the dimensionality of behavior. Here I try to give this concept a precise definition.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Animal , Etología , Animales , Conducta Animal/fisiología , Ambiente
10.
Br Dent J ; 232(7): 437-440, 2022 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35396418

RESUMEN

Dentistry is a highly energy- and resource-intensive field and consequently has a significant environmental impact. In 2013-2014, total greenhouse gas emissions of NHS dental services in England measured 675 kilotonnes of carbon dioxide equivalents, with 64.5% related to travel, 19% from procurement and 15.3% from energy use. There is currently an absence of comprehensive standards or guidelines for sustainable dentistry. Instead, sustainable initiatives have been at a small scale and are adopted voluntarily by groups or professionals as an ethical duty or practical requirement. However, a recent study showed that there seems to be increasing interest from dental teams in how to become more sustainable. This opinion article focuses on how the dental profession can ensure a sustainable recovery as England emerges from the COVID-19 crisis, with an emphasis on improving environmental sustainability related to travel within the dental healthcare system. Reducing dental-associated travel can include changing mode of transport, combining family appointments, appropriate scheduling of dental examinations, preventive dentistry and the use of information technology.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevención & control , Atención a la Salud , Ambiente , Humanos , Odontología Preventiva , Viaje
11.
Nature ; 604(7907): 732-739, 2022 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35418674

RESUMEN

The gut microbiome is associated with diverse diseases1-3, but a universal signature of a healthy or unhealthy microbiome has not been identified, and there is a need to understand how genetics, exposome, lifestyle and diet shape the microbiome in health and disease. Here we profiled bacterial composition, function, antibiotic resistance and virulence factors in the gut microbiomes of 8,208 Dutch individuals from a three-generational cohort comprising 2,756 families. We correlated these to 241 host and environmental factors, including physical and mental health, use of medication, diet, socioeconomic factors and childhood and current exposome. We identify that the microbiome is shaped primarily by the environment and cohabitation. Only around 6.6% of taxa are heritable, whereas the variance of around 48.6% of taxa is significantly explained by cohabitation. By identifying 2,856 associations between the microbiome and health, we find that seemingly unrelated diseases share a common microbiome signature that is independent of comorbidities. Furthermore, we identify 7,519 associations between microbiome features and diet, socioeconomics and early life and current exposome, with numerous early-life and current factors being significantly associated with microbiome function and composition. Overall, this study provides a comprehensive overview of gut microbiome and the underlying impact of heritability and exposures that will facilitate future development of microbiome-targeted therapies.


Asunto(s)
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Bacterias/genética , Dieta , Ambiente , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Países Bajos , Factores Socioeconómicos
12.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266230, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35381044

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The FTC, in 2008, rescinded its 1966 guidance regarding use of the Cambridge Filter Method, noting the yields from the method are relatively poor indicators of tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide exposure. This article proposes a set of puffing conditions for cigarette emissions testing, with the goal of developing product-specific emissions characterizations which can subsequently be used to realistically model the yield of particulate matter and constituents to the mouth of a smoker, while accounting for the actual puffing behavior of the smoker. METHODS: Synthesis of data was conducted on data collected from a prior one-week observation of 26 adult cigarette smokers, using their usual brand cigarette in each smokers' natural environment including the puff flow rate, duration, volume and time of day of each puff taken were recorded with a cigarette topography monitor. Data was analyzed to determine the empirical joint probability function and cumulative distribution function of mean puff flow rate and puff duration. The joint CDF was used to define an emissions topography protocol using concepts common to computational grid generation. RESULTS: Analysis of 8,250 cigarette puffs indicated the middle 95% of mean puff flow rates varied between 15 and 121 [mL/s] while the middle 95% of puff duration varied from 0.55 to 3.42 [s]. CONCLUSIONS: Thirteen conditions of varying mean puff flow rate and puff duration are proposed for a comprehensive cigarette emissions topography protocol. The proposed protocol addresses inadequacies associated with common machine-puffing profiles used for generating cigarette emissions.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Productos de Tabaco , Adulto , Ambiente , Humanos , Nicotina , Fumadores
13.
Sante Publique ; Vol. 33(6): 829-833, 2022 Mar 11.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35485013

RESUMEN

From the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, the upheavals caused by digital technology on the diffusion and use of information have raised major issues for public health. In parallel to the pandemic, the world is facing a real "infodemic" where misinformation mingles with scientific "evidence". Given this challenging situation, what role should scholars play? They are invited to adopt a posture of engagement in the public space to contribute to the democratization of knowledge.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Comunicación , Ambiente , Humanos , Pandemias , Salud Pública
15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35457590

RESUMEN

Focusing on the exploration of the important role of fiscal ecological compensation in green development, this paper incorporates fiscal ecological compensation into the analytical framework of green development. Based on samples of data from county areas in China in 2017 and 2018, this paper empirically examines the shape of the green development routes in county areas in China. On this basis, this paper explores the impact and mechanism of fiscal ecological compensation on the green development path in China. The empirical results show that there is a nonlinear, N-shaped relationship between economic development and the ecological environment in China within the range of the sample examined. Fiscal ecological compensation has a direct governance effect on the ecological environment of deterring ecological damage and providing financial compensation. Fiscal ecological compensation has an indirect impact on the ecological management of different regions by influencing economic development. Therefore, while focusing on transforming the economic development model, local governments should adopt policy instruments such as expanding the coverage of financial ecological compensation, deepening the design of the financial ecological compensation system, and systematically evaluating the effects of financial ecological compensation policies. The government should further improve and optimize the fiscal eco-compensation system in order to help China's green and high-quality development.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Económico , Ambiente , China , Ecosistema , Políticas
16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35409590

RESUMEN

The importance of natural environments in supporting health and wellbeing has been well evidenced in supporting positive mental and physical health outcomes, including during periods of crisis and stress. Given the disproportionate impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic have been greatest for those who are most vulnerable, understanding the role of natural environment and alternative forms of nature engagement in supporting health and wellbeing for vulnerable groups is important. This study explored how nature engagement supported health and wellbeing in those with a pre-existing health condition during the first UK lockdown. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 adults with a pre-existing health condition and analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). Four themes were identified: COVID-19 versus nature; Nature as an extension and replacement; Nature connectedness; and Therapeutic nature. The findings show the importance of nature in supporting health and wellbeing in those with a pre-existing health condition through engagement with private and public natural environments, micro-restorative opportunities, nature connection as an important pathway, and the therapeutic benefits of nature engagement. The present research extends the evidence-base beyond patterns of nature engagement to a deeper understanding of how those with existing health conditions perceived and interacted with nature in relation to their health and wellbeing during the first UK lockdown. Findings are discussed in relation to health supporting environments, micro-restorative opportunities, and policy implications.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Ambiente , Humanos , Pandemias
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35409647

RESUMEN

The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a legal and administrative tool aimed to identify, predict, and interpret the impact of a project or activity on the environment and human health. The EIA also evaluates the accuracy of the predictions and audits the effectiveness of the established preventive measures. Regarding the sanitation sector, efficiency of wastewater treatments and sanitation networks determine the pollutant level of the discharged liquid effluents and the subsequent impact on the environment and human health. This problematic makes necessary to assess how proper the regulatory follow-ups of sanitation projects is. This paper evaluates the performance of the Chilean EIA System concerning to sanitation projects. Taking into account that the more restrictive Environmental Impact Study (EIS) and more permissive Environmental Impact Declaration (EID) are the ways for projects' entry to the EIA System in Chile, 5336 sanitation projects submitted to EIA between 1994 and 2019 were complied. A representative sample of 76 projects (15 entered as EIS and 61 as EID) was analyzed by using a principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) through 14 selected performance indicators. Observed weaknesses have led to propose improvement opportunities of the EIA focused on the follow-ups after the environmental license is obtained, such as creation of a simplified sanctioning procedure, decentralization of decision-making, deadline establishment in each stage, and unified direct link for each project. These proposals seek to improve the effectiveness of monitoring and possible sanctions to early identify impacts of sanitation projects on the environment and human health. This paper introduces a robust methodology for evaluation criteria focused on the follow-ups analysis, which can be used in other countries that consider respectful sanitation projects have direct social and environmental benefits leading to long-term indirect cultural and economic values.


Asunto(s)
Ambiente , Saneamiento , Chile , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Concesión de Licencias
18.
Oecologia ; 198(4): 1085-1096, 2022 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35391556

RESUMEN

The interplay between organisms with their abiotic environment may have profound effects within ecological networks, but are still poorly understood. Soil physical ecosystem engineers (EEs) modify the abiotic environment, thereby potentially affecting the distribution of other species, such as microarthropods. We focus on three co-occurring physical EEs (i.e. cattle, vegetation, macrodetritivore) known for their profound effect on soil properties (e.g. pore volume, microclimate, litter thickness). We determined their effects on Collembola community composition and life-form strategy (a proxy for vertical distribution in soil) in a European salt marsh. Soil cores were collected in grazed (compacted soil, under short and tall vegetation) and non-grazed areas (decompacted soil, under short and tall vegetation), their pore structure analysed using X-ray computed tomography, after which Collembola were extracted. Collembola species richness was lower in grazed sites, but abundances were not affected by soil compaction or vegetation height. Community composition differed between ungrazed sites with short vegetation and the other treatments, due to a greater dominance of epigeic Collembola and lower abundance of euedaphic species in this treatment. We found that the three co-occurring EEs and their interactions modify the physical environment of soil fauna, particularly through changes in soil porosity and availability of litter. This alters the relative abundance of Collembola life-forms, and thus the community composition within the soil. As Collembola are known to play a crucial role in decomposition processes, these compositional changes in litter and soil layers are expected to affect ecosystem processes and functioning.


Asunto(s)
Artrópodos , Suelo , Animales , Bovinos , Ecosistema , Ambiente
19.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(9): 5874-5885, 2022 May 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35413184

RESUMEN

In recent years many Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies have been conducted to quantify the environmental performance of products and services. Some of these studies propagated numerical uncertainties in underlying data to LCA results, and several applied Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) to some parts of the LCA model to determine its main uncertainty drivers. However, only a few studies have tackled the GSA of complete LCA models due to the high computational cost of such analysis and the lack of appropriate methods for very high-dimensional models. This study proposes a new GSA protocol suitable for large LCA problems that, unlike existing approaches, does not make assumptions on model linearity and complexity and includes extensive validation of GSA results. We illustrate the benefits of our protocol by comparing it with an existing method in terms of filtering of noninfluential and ranking of influential uncertainty drivers and include an application example of Swiss household food consumption. We note that our protocol obtains more accurate GSA results, which leads to better understanding of LCA models, and less data collection efforts to achieve more robust estimation of environmental impacts. Implementations supporting this work are available as free and open source Python packages.


Asunto(s)
Ambiente , Estadios del Ciclo de Vida , Animales , Incertidumbre
20.
Nature ; 605(7908): 113-118, 2022 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35444278

RESUMEN

Intragenic regions that are removed during maturation of the RNA transcript-introns-are universally present in the nuclear genomes of eukaryotes1. The budding yeast, an otherwise intron-poor species, preserves two sets of ribosomal protein genes that differ primarily in their introns2,3. Although studies have shed light on the role of ribosomal protein introns under stress and starvation4-6, understanding the contribution of introns to ribosome regulation remains challenging. Here, by combining isogrowth profiling7 with single-cell protein measurements8, we show that introns can mediate inducible phenotypic heterogeneity that confers a clear fitness advantage. Osmotic stress leads to bimodal expression of the small ribosomal subunit protein Rps22B, which is mediated by an intron in the 5' untranslated region of its transcript. The two resulting yeast subpopulations differ in their ability to cope with starvation. Low levels of Rps22B protein result in prolonged survival under sustained starvation, whereas high levels of Rps22B enable cells to grow faster after transient starvation. Furthermore, yeasts growing at high concentrations of sugar, similar to those in ripe grapes, exhibit bimodal expression of Rps22B when approaching the stationary phase. Differential intron-mediated regulation of ribosomal protein genes thus provides a way to diversify the population when starvation threatens in natural environments. Our findings reveal a role for introns in inducing phenotypic heterogeneity in changing environments, and suggest that duplicated ribosomal protein genes in yeast contribute to resolving the evolutionary conflict between precise expression control and environmental responsiveness9.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas Ribosómicas , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Regiones no Traducidas 5' , Evolución Biológica , Ambiente , Expresión Génica , Genoma , Intrones/genética , Fenotipo , Proteínas Ribosómicas/genética , Proteínas Ribosómicas/metabolismo , Ribosomas/genética , Ribosomas/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo
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