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1.
Oecologia ; 192(4): 979-988, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236689

RESUMEN

Animals have evolved different cognitive processes to localize crucial resources that are difficult to find. Relevant cognitive processes such as associative learning and spatial memory have commonly been studied in a foraging related context under controlled laboratory conditions. However, in natural environments, animals can use multiple cognitive processes to localize resources. In this field study, we used a pairwise choice experiment and automatic roost monitoring to assess how individually marked, free-ranging Bechstein's bats belonging to two different colonies use associative learning, spatial memory and social information when localizing suitable day roosts. To our knowledge, this study tests for the first time how associative learning, spatial memory and social information are used in the process of roost localization in bats under the natural conditions. We show that, when searching for new roosts, bats used associative learning to discriminate between suitable and unsuitable roosts. For re-localizing previously occupied roosts, bats used spatial memory rather than associative learning. Moreover, bats significantly improved the localization of suitable unfamiliar roosts and tended to increase their accuracy to re-localize previously occupied day roosts using social information. Our field experiments suggest that Bechstein's bats make hierarchical use of different cognitive processes when localizing day roosts. More generally, our study underlines that evaluating different cues under natural conditions is fundamental to understanding how natural selection has shaped the cognitive processes used for localizing resources.


Asunto(s)
Quirópteros , Animales , Cognición , Señales (Psicología) , Ambiente , Tiempo
2.
Br J Nurs ; 29(7): 388, 2020 Apr 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32279551
3.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(1): e20181253, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267307

RESUMEN

Some researchers point out the decline in contemporary cities of the use of public spaces, whether free or restricted access. In this sense, the present essay proposes a reflection on a "public sphere of organized presence", according to Habermas classification, as a rescue of the importance of this space for the exercise of citizenship and social-environmental responsibility. The reflection was based on the results obtained from a study in the district of Riacho Grande, São Bernardo do Campo, São Paulo, Brazil, in which the environmental perception of the participants of the meetings about the region was known by documentary analysis, direct observation and interviews with questionnaires. It was possible to verify that this public space can facilitate a greater integration between the public administrators and citizens, helping even in the defense to the environment.


Asunto(s)
Ambiente , Parques Recreativos , Conducta Social , Responsabilidad Social , Adulto , Brasil , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Población Urbana
4.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1236: 189-223, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32304074

RESUMEN

Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are among the most common human birth defects. However, the etiology of a large proportion of CHDs remains undefined. Studies identifying the molecular and cellular mechanisms that underlie cardiac development have been critical to elucidating the origin of CHDs. Building upon this knowledge to understand the pathogenesis of CHDs requires examining how genetic or environmental stress changes normal cardiac development. Due to strong molecular conservation to humans and unique technical advantages, studies using zebrafish have elucidated both fundamental principles of cardiac development and have been used to create cardiac disease models. In this chapter we examine the unique toolset available to zebrafish researchers and how those tools are used to interrogate the genetic and environmental contributions to CHDs.


Asunto(s)
Ambiente , Cardiopatías Congénitas/etiología , Cardiopatías Congénitas/genética , Pez Cebra/genética , Animales , Interacción Gen-Ambiente , Corazón/embriología , Cardiopatías Congénitas/embriología , Cardiopatías Congénitas/patología , Humanos , Pez Cebra/embriología
5.
Zootaxa ; 4743(1): zootaxa.4743.1.10, 2020 Feb 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230357

RESUMEN

A new species of the genus Anaptygus Mistshenko, 1951, Anaptygus shishodiai Kumar Chandra sp. nov., from Valley of Flowers National Park, India is described in this paper. The new species is similar to A. qinghaiensis Yin, 1984, but differs from latter by length of fastigial foveolae 5.5 times its width in male and 3.2 times in female; apex of elytra reaching posterior margin of third abdominal tergite in male and reaching posterior margin of first abdominal tergite in female. A key to all the known species of Anaptygus Mistshenko, 1951 is also provided.


Asunto(s)
Saltamontes , Ortópteros , Distribución Animal , Estructuras Animales , Animales , Tamaño Corporal , Ambiente , Femenino , India , Masculino , Tamaño de los Órganos , Parques Recreativos
6.
J Environ Manage ; 264: 110494, 2020 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32250914

RESUMEN

Coastal urban infrastructure and water management programs are vulnerable to the impacts of long-term hydroclimatic changes and to the flooding and physical destruction of disruptive hurricanes and storm surge. Water resilience or, inversely, vulnerability depends on design specifications of the storm and inundation, against which water infrastructure and environmental assets are planned and operated. These design attributes are commonly derived from statistical modeling of historical measurements. Here we argue for the need to carefully examine the approach and associated design vulnerability in coastal areas because of the future hydroclimatic changes and large variability at local coastal watersheds. This study first shows significant spatiotemporal variations of design storm in the Chesapeake Bay of the eastern U.S. Atlantic coast, where the low-frequency high-intensity precipitations vary differently to the tropical cyclones and local orographic effects. Average and gust wind speed exhibited much greater spatial but far less temporal variability than the precipitation. It is noteworthy that these local variabilities are not fully described by the regional gridded precipitation used in CMIP5 climate downscaling and by NOAA's regional design guide Atlas-14. Up to 46.4% error in the gridded precipitation for the calibration period 1950-1999 is further exacerbated in the future design values by the ensemble of 132 CMIP5 projections. The total model projection error (δM) up to -61.8% primarily comes from the precipitation regionalization (δ1), climate downscaling (δ2), and a fraction from empirical data modeling (δE). Thus, a post-bias correction technique is necessary. The bias-corrected design wind speed for 10-yr to 30-yr storms has small changes <20% by the year 2100, but contains large spatial variations even for stations of close proximity. Bias-corrected design precipitations are characteristic of large spatial variability and a notable increase of 2-5 year precipitation in the future along western shores of the Lower and Middle Chesapeake Bay. All these accounts point to the potential vulnerability of water infrastructure and water program in coastal areas, when the hydrological design basis using regional values fails to account for significant spatiotemporal precipitation variations in local coastal watersheds.


Asunto(s)
Tormentas Ciclónicas , Inundaciones , Cambio Climático , Ambiente , Incertidumbre
7.
Am J Bot ; 107(4): 676-688, 2020 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32270876

RESUMEN

PREMISE: The size and shape (physiognomy) of woody, dicotyledonous angiosperm leaves are correlated with climate. These relationships are the basis for multiple paleoclimate proxies. Here we test whether Vitis exhibits phenotypic plasticity and whether physiognomy varies along the vine. METHODS: We used Digital Leaf Physiognomy (DiLP) to measure leaf characters of four Vitis species from the USDA Germplasm Repository (Geneva, New York) from the 2012-2013 and 2014-2015 leaf-growing seasons, which had different environmental conditions. RESULTS: Leaf shape changed allometrically through developmental stages; early stages were more linear than later stages. There were significant differences in physiognomy in the same developmental stage between the growing seasons, and species had significant differences in mean physiognomy between growing seasons. Phenotypic plasticity was defined as changes between growing seasons after controlling for developmental stage or after averaging all developmental stages. Vitis amurensis and V. riparia had the greatest phenotypic plasticity. North American species exhibited significant differences in tooth area:blade area. Intermediate developmental stages were most likely to exhibit phenotypic plasticity, and only V. amurensis exhibited phenotypic plasticity in later developmental stages. CONCLUSIONS: Leaves have variable phenotypic plasticity along the vine. Environmental signal was strongest in intermediate developmental stages. This is significant for leaf physiognomic-paleoclimate proxies because these leaves are likely the most common in leaf litter and reflect leaves primarily included in paleoclimate reconstructions. Early season and early developmental stages have the potential to be confounding factors but are unlikely to exert significant influence because of differential preservation potential.


Asunto(s)
Vitis , Clima , Ambiente , New York , Hojas de la Planta
9.
J Environ Manage ; 262: 110253, 2020 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32250776

RESUMEN

Life-cycle assessment (LCA) emphasizes obtaining primary data from an on-site process to reduce uncertainties. However, data of the upstream process from secondary sources also yield significant uncertainties, which have not been drawn enough attention. This study aims to explore the importance of primary data of the upstream process in LCAs. Here, we choose lithium, a key component of lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery, as a case to present a cradle-to-gate LCA for its production by rock-based technology (LRT). Then, we compare the environmental impacts of lithium by LRT with that by brine-based technology (LBT) and the Li-ion battery using lithium by the two methods. The result shows that the impacts of rock-based lithium production are dominated by the leaching process, which has the highest levels of impacts for 8 of 10 environmental categories. Besides, all 10 impact categories of lithium produced by LRT are much larger than that by LBT, with differences up to 60.4 -fold. We also find that the Li-ion battery pack by rock-based lithium offers a 17-32% increase in acidification and global warming potential relative to that by brine-based lithium. Our results contribute by providing the first mass-produced life-cycle inventory of rock-based lithium and showing the importance of primary data of the upstream process in LCAs.


Asunto(s)
Suministros de Energía Eléctrica , Litio , Ambiente , Iones
10.
J Environ Manage ; 262: 110325, 2020 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32250806

RESUMEN

Environmental studies into wine from different protected designations of origin (PDO) highlight farming and packaging stages as those contributing the most to the total environmental impacts of this product. However, farming impact, not only depends on the agricultural practices but also on data quality and modelling complexity. By using the life cycle assessment methodology, a twofold goal is aimed. Firstly, to analyse the environmental profile of the most widespread viticultural practices in the Utiel-Requena PDO (Spain). The second aim is to evaluate the differences between the environmental impacts estimated by means of modelling approaches using generic information (Baseline modelling) versus those using site-specific information (Alternative modelling). As regards the agricultural practices and grape cultivars, eight systems were defined and assessed per kg of grape at the farm gate. The differences between farming systems and modelling approaches were statistically assessed. The results show that, regardless of the grape cultivar, organic systems are more environmentally friendly than the conventional ones (on average, the greatest differences occur in the ionizing radiation, marine eutrophication and land use, being the values for organic vineyards 1678%, 648% and 171% lower than those of the conventional ones, respectively), the results for the Bobal cultivar being better than those for the Tempranillo because of the higher yield (differences in yield around 1.500 kg ha-1). The use of site-specific modelling approaches guarantees the precision of the analysis; however, for some impact categories, namely climate change, fine particulate matter formation, marine eutrophication and terrestrial acidification, the possibility of using general methodologies is open; in this way, the modelling efforts can be minimised, and the results would be consistent with those of more specific methodologies. The results also underline the need for a consensus within LCA practitioners on which methodologies to use in order to estimate on-field emissions taking into account both complexity reduction and accuracy improvement.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura , Ambiente , Eutrofización , Granjas , España
11.
J Environ Manage ; 265: 110471, 2020 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32292177

RESUMEN

Food production and consumption are major drivers of global environmental change, endangering the safe operating space of many environmental areas. Globally, there has been a growing trend of dining out, termed food away from home (FAFH) here, but its environmental sustainability has received insufficient attention. In this review, we examine studies quantifying the life-cycle environmental impacts of FAFH and identify mitigation strategies across the food supply chain. Overall, previous life cycle assessment (LCA) studies focused on the composition of FAFH meals and pre-use life cycle stages, especially food production. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of FAFH meals range from 0.134 kg CO2 e/meal to 13.2 kg CO2 e/meal for school canteen meals, and from 0.60 kg CO2 e/meal to 9.6 kg CO2 e/meal for other catering services. Meat ingredients are the dominant source in a variety of environmental impact categories, and the food production stage usually accounts for over half of the total GHG emissions in the FAFH life cycle. Supply side mitigation strategies include advancing farming practices, updating cold transportation technology, and improving building energy efficiency. Demand side mitigation focuses on dietary change towards meals with less meat ingredients, with nudging and sustainable menu-designing as the two primary groups of strategies. Areas of focus for LCA include improving modeling of building energy consumption related to food consumption, advancing uncertainty characterization of life cycle results, and capturing geographical variations in food production.


Asunto(s)
Ambiente , Abastecimiento de Alimentos , Agricultura , Efecto Invernadero , Instituciones Académicas , Transportes
12.
J Environ Manage ; 262: 110324, 2020 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32250805

RESUMEN

We present a case of environmental transformation, in the Romanian Danube Delta, driven by the interplay of state power, technological intervention, geomorphological processes, and local practices. Through the presentation of a cartographic archive (1856-2017), together with participant observation and historical research, we detail the various stages of transformation in the deltaic environment and show the relative interplay of driving forces. We show that each transformation of the Delta is at the same time an imposition from without and an adaptation from within, a move of consolidation of state power and a resistance to being fully incorporated. We show how in the history of this particular environment, the main drivers of change pass from being of a geomorphological nature to being related to the use of state power. We detail three stages in the transformation of the delta, through which the conceptualization of, and interventions in, the environment, go from a borderland to be secured, to a rich exploitation ground, to an ecological marvel to be protected. We argue that this kind of analysis can be particularly relevant for the governance of protected areas.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecología , Ambiente , Humanos , Política , Rumanía
14.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(2): e20180656, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321031

RESUMEN

The pichi (Zaedyus pichiy; Cingulata: Chlamyphoridae) is an armadillo whose ectoparasite fauna is composed of ticks and fleas. Fleas were collected from 218 pichis in southern Mendoza, Argentina, in summer and winter of 2015 and 2016. Prevalences were analyzed and differences in the intensities of the total number of fleas related to host (age, sex, weight, size and physical condition) and environment-related (seasonality and year) factors evaluated. Phthiropsylla agenoris was the only species found. Intensities of fleas were higher in 2015, in juveniles, and in males. Individuals with poor physical condition were more parasitized than those with good or normal body condition. The main explanatory variable was sampling year. This factor was directly associated with precipitation. The extreme conditions and heavy rains during the El Niño event in 2015/2016 led to environmental changes that seem to have severely affected the life cycle of fleas.


Asunto(s)
Armadillos/parasitología , Ambiente , Infestaciones por Pulgas , Interacciones Huésped-Parásitos , Siphonaptera/fisiología , Animales , Argentina , Cambio Climático , Femenino , Modelos Lineales , Masculino , Estaciones del Año
15.
J Environ Manage ; 261: 110198, 2020 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32148271

RESUMEN

Globally, buildings are recognized as one of the highest users of freshwater resources. Consuming enormous amounts of constructional and operational water deplete water resources and ultimately generates a high environmental impact. This is mainly due to the energy required for the water cycle of built environments, which involves raw water treatment and distribution, use within buildings, and wastewater treatment. Moreover, the impact of water use varies significantly among countries/regions, due to different water use cycles. For example, many countries use conventional water treatments, while others rely on advanced desalination. Unlike building energy use, the impact of water use in buildings has not been captured fully in research. Given the significant impact of water use in buildings and global environmental degradation, we aimed to review studies concentrating on constructional and operational water use and associated environmental impacts, as well as studies that employed life cycle assessment (LCA) on this topic. The review indicated that a limited number of studies have focused on this serious issue in recent years, and their aims differed greatly. Therefore, there is a notable research gap in comprehensive environmental impact assessment including the total human water use cycle. Complete environmental assessment through LCA enables building professionals to understand the wide-ranging impact of water use in a building's life cycle from the environmental perspective in a given region. Additionally, this approach can benefit policymakers setting guidelines for new sustainable water strategies aimed at reducing environmental impacts.


Asunto(s)
Purificación del Agua , Agua , Ambiente , Agua Dulce , Humanos , Aguas Residuales
16.
J Environ Manage ; 261: 110216, 2020 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32148286

RESUMEN

In Europe, 23% of the generated municipal solid waste (MSW) was landfilled in 2017. Despite the landfill targets which define waste and landfill requirements, there is still high variability in the waste management performance between EU Member States. Aim of the study was to give an overview of the variability of environmental impacts of MSW sanitary landfills in Europe in relation to the different levels of implementation of the requirements. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was adopted as tool to define the impacts of the different landfill conditions over a 100-year period. Based on previous studies, consistent methodological choices were made to allow comparability of the results. Four reference cases were defined based on average bulk MSW compositions to represent the European conditions, with L0 values of 18, 61, 90 and 138 [m3 CH4/t waste]. Furthermore, multiple scenario analysis was used to increase the relevance of the assessment and address the variability of site-specific factors, such as waste composition, climatic conditions and landfill management, which influence the impacts of landfills. Results of the study showed the range of potential impacts in Europe in relation to the variation of influencing factors, with values for climate change ranging from 124 to 841 kg CO2 eq., and with environmental savings obtained for categories such as ecotoxicity and human toxicity for scenarios with landfill gas - to - energy (LFGTE) solutions. The results emphasized the dependence of landfill impacts on waste composition, but also on the LFG treatment and climatic conditions. The outcome of the study also highlight how low amounts of biodegradable fractions reduce the impacts of landfills, as well as their variability in relation to leachate production rates or LFG treatment solutions. Therefore the overall results support the current targets and requirements reported in the Waste Directive 2008/98/EC, Circular Economy package and Landfill Directive 1999/31/EC.


Asunto(s)
Eliminación de Residuos , Residuos Sólidos , Toma de Decisiones , Ambiente , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Instalaciones de Eliminación de Residuos
17.
J Environ Manage ; 264: 110440, 2020 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217320

RESUMEN

For decades, there has been a strong interest in mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Numerous models were developed to measure the emissions and propose the quantification. Existing studies looked at the relationship between GHG emissions and operational cost (OCI), which is one of the most important indicators for decision-makers. Other parameters that can influence the control strategies include the effluent quality (EQI) and total environmental impacts. Plant-wide models are reliable methods to examine the OCI, EQI and GHG emissions while Life cycle assessment (LCA) works to assess the potential environmental impacts. A combined LCA and plant-wide model proved to be a valuable tool evaluating and comparing strategies for the best performance of WWTPs. For this study involving a WWTP, the benchmark model is used while LCA is the decision tool to find the most suitable treatment strategy. LCA adds extra criteria that complement the existing criteria provided by such models. Complementing the cost/performance criteria is proposed for plant-wide models, including environmental evaluation, based on LCA, which provides an overall better assessment of WWTPs. It can capture both the dynamic effects and potential environmental impacts. This study provides an overview of the integration between plant-wide models and LCA.


Asunto(s)
Gases de Efecto Invernadero , Aguas Residuales , Ambiente , Efecto Invernadero
18.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(3): e0008132, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150578

RESUMEN

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Nepal is found in 61 out of 75 districts including areas previously listed as non- endemic. This study focused on the role of housing conditions and its immediate environment in VL transmission, to limit future transmissions, ensure sustainable vector control and support the VL elimination program. The objective was to explore the risk factors in rural housing-and land lot typologies contributing to clinical VL occurrence and transmission. Housing structures and land lots were examined based on characteristics as risk factors of VL transmission in a case-control analysis. VL cases from 2013-2017 were identified based on the existing database from the Epidemiology and Disease Control Division and District Public Health Office from the plain Terai area (Morang, and Saptari districts) and hilly area (Palpa district) of Nepal. Two hundred and three built environments were analyzed (66 cases and 137 controls). Inferential statistics and logistic regression analysis were performed to determine the association of risk factors with VL. The risk factors with the highest odds of VL were: bamboo walls (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)- 8.1, 95% CI 2.40-27.63, p = 0.001), walls made of leaves/branches (AOR- 3.0, 95% CI 0.84-10.93, p = 0.090), cracks in bedroom walls (AOR- 2.9, 95% CI 0.93-9.19, p = 0.065), and placing sacks near sleeping areas (AOR- 19.2, 95% CI 4.06-90.46, p <0.001). Significant outdoor factors were: lots with Kadam trees (AOR- 12.7, 95% CI 3.28-49.09, p <0.001), open ground-outdoor toilets (AOR- 9.3, 95% CI 2.14-369.85, p = 0.003), moisture in outdoor toilet sheds (AOR- 18.09, 95% CI 7.25-451.01, p = 0.002), nearby- open land (AOR- 36.8, 95% CI 3.14-430.98, p = 0.004), moisture inside animal sheds (AOR- 6.9, 95% CI 1.82-26.66, p = 0.005), and surrounding animals/animals wastes particularly goats (AOR- 3.5, 95% CI 1.09-10.94, p = 0.036). Certain housing and surrounding environmental conditions and characteristics are risk factors for VL. Hence, elimination and educational programs should include the focus on housing improvement and avoidance of risk factors. Longitudinal interventional studies are required to document temporal relationships and whether interventions on these factors will have an impact on Leishmania transmission or burden.


Asunto(s)
Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa , Ambiente , Vivienda , Leishmaniasis Visceral/epidemiología , Leishmaniasis Visceral/transmisión , Adulto , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Nepal/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo
19.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 80 Suppl 2: 53-57, 2020.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150714

RESUMEN

Recent research demystifies and redefines high intellectual ability (HIA) against the traditional monolithic and static concept which was based on heritability and identification through an intelligence quotient. This concept is replaced by another in which the HIA is understood as a complex phenomenon of a genetic and environmental nature This is the result of a covariation along the life path between endogenous and exogenous forces, modulators of the high potential (predictor factor) towards the optimal expression, or not, of its eminence in adulthood. Then, HIA implies the conjunction of a starting biological diversity (the high potential), a psychological diversity related to the exploitation of biological resources in useful functions and knowledge, and a contextual diversity configured by different family conditions, as well as socio-cultural and economic contexts. The aim of this work is to present from a neuroconstructivist perspective a review of the current HIA research on the predictive and modulating factors. In the conclusions, we discuss the incidence of the modulating variables in the various trajectories of potential development towards possible adult eminence and the diagnostic and educational implications that are derived.


Asunto(s)
Inteligencia/fisiología , Encéfalo/fisiología , Ambiente , Humanos , Motivación/fisiología , Neurociencias , Factores Socioeconómicos
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