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2.
Copenaghen; Organizzazione Mondiale della Sanità. Ufficio Regionale per l’Europa; 2024-04-05. (WHO/EURO:2024-9549-49321-73860).
en Italiano | WHO IRIS | ID: who-376416

RESUMEN

Questo è il principale documento di base per l’iniziativa europea Finding Common Ground dell’OMS, che mira a sviluppare nuovi strumenti di modellazione ad uso delle banche centrali e dei ministeri delle finanze per modellare le politiche fiscali ed economiche al fine di migliorare l’equità e il benessere della salute, mostrando al contempo i co-benefici della salute e dell’equità in salute per la stabilità di bilancio e il benessere economico. Le priorità condivise sono state individuate nella salute mentale e nell’inclusione dei giovani, nell’invecchiamento, nello sviluppo squilibrato e nella parità di genere. Il documento dimostra il crescente interesse e le iniziativedelle banche centrali, della finanza, della sanità e della salute pubblica su questioni politiche comuni, inquadrando le opportunità di azione tra questi settori. Inoltre, definisce i ruoli chiave e le modalità di lavoro all’interno di questi settori per consentire il dialogo futuro.


Asunto(s)
Determinantes Sociales de la Salud , Ambiente , Desarrollo Económico , Calidad de Vida , Inequidades en Salud
3.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8618, 2024 04 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38616216

RESUMEN

The adaptability of cultured fish to complex flow conditions is crucial for their survival after being released into the wild. Running water in natural environments poses significant challenges for the proliferation and release of cultured fish. This study aimed to investigate the effects of flow stimulation on the adjustment capacity of cultured fish to cope with running water. The target fish were cultured grass carp. An annular flume was used to conduct tests on training and control groups. The results demonstrated an enhancement in the adjustment capacity of cultured fish following appropriate flow stimulation training. (1) The trained fish exhibited a heightened preference for low-velocity areas. (2) The trained fish displayed the ability to select a route characterized by low energy consumption, predominantly following the periphery of the low-velocity area. This suggested that an appropriate flow velocity could improve the sensitivity of training fish to water flow information, and their adjustment capacity to cope with running water improved to a certain extent. A higher adjustment capacity allowed them to process flow rate information rapidly and identify a migration strategy with lower energy consumption. This study provides a useful reference for enhancing the survival rate of grass carp through stock enhancement initiatives and contributes to the sustainability of freshwater ecosystems.


Asunto(s)
Carpas , Ecosistema , Animales , Ambiente , Agua Dulce , Agua
4.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 49(5): 1137-1143, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621960

RESUMEN

The protection, development, and utilization of medicinal plant resources are important cornerstones of maintaining human health. However, due to factors such as the reduction of high-quality land resources, deterioration of ecological environments, and excessive and disorderly resource development, medicinal plant resources are becoming scarce, and some of them are insufficiently supplied. With the proposal of "the Belt and Road" Initiative, the cooperation between China and "the Belt and Road" partners(the countries and regions involved in "the Belt and Road" Initiative)is increasingly close, which provides a new opportunity for carrying out trade of medicinal plant resources and alleviating the problem of imbalance and relative inadequacy of medicinal plant resources in countries. This study first determined the distribution and species information of plant resources in countries and regions involved in "the Belt and Road" Initiative by investigating the database of plant distribution and that of medicinal plant resources. Then, according to the published data from the International Union for Conservation of Nature(IUCN) and the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora(CITES), this study identified the rare and endangered medicinal plants and the medicinal plants under trade control in countries and regions involved in "the Belt and Road" Initiative and finally sorted out the list of potential medicinal plant resources in countries and regions involved in "the Belt and Road" Initiative that can be used by China. This data resource can not only be used for the overall protection of important endangered species but also scientifically guide the development and utilization of medicinal resources, providing guidance and a theoretical basis for the sustainable development of medicinal plant resources in countries and regions involved in "the Belt and Road" Initiative.


Asunto(s)
Plantas Medicinales , Humanos , Animales , Comercio , Internacionalidad , Ambiente , China , Especies en Peligro de Extinción
5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 24(7)2024 Apr 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38610576

RESUMEN

Direct observation is a ground-truth measure for physical behavior, but the high cost limits widespread use. The purpose of this study was to develop and test machine learning methods to recognize aspects of physical behavior and location from videos of human movement: Adults (N = 26, aged 18-59 y) were recorded in their natural environment for two, 2- to 3-h sessions. Trained research assistants annotated videos using commercially available software including the following taxonomies: (1) sedentary versus non-sedentary (two classes); (2) activity type (four classes: sedentary, walking, running, and mixed movement); and (3) activity intensity (four classes: sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous). Four machine learning approaches were trained and evaluated for each taxonomy. Models were trained on 80% of the videos, validated on 10%, and final accuracy is reported on the remaining 10% of the videos not used in training. Overall accuracy was as follows: 87.4% for Taxonomy 1, 63.1% for Taxonomy 2, and 68.6% for Taxonomy 3. This study shows it is possible to use computer vision to annotate aspects of physical behavior, speeding up the time and reducing labor required for direct observation. Future research should test these machine learning models on larger, independent datasets and take advantage of analysis of video fragments, rather than individual still images.


Asunto(s)
Computadores , Trabajo de Parto , Adulto , Humanos , Embarazo , Femenino , Programas Informáticos , Ambiente , Aprendizaje Automático
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(15): e2309636121, 2024 Apr 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573964

RESUMEN

Rates of microbial processes are fundamental to understanding the significance of microbial impacts on environmental chemical cycling. However, it is often difficult to quantify rates or to link processes to specific taxa or individual cells, especially in environments where there are few cultured representatives with known physiology. Here, we describe the use of the redox-enzyme-sensitive molecular probe RedoxSensor™ Green to measure rates of anaerobic electron transfer physiology (i.e., sulfate reduction and methanogenesis) in individual cells and link those measurements to genomic sequencing of the same single cells. We used this method to investigate microbial activity in hot, anoxic, low-biomass (~103 cells mL-1) groundwater of the Death Valley Regional Flow System, California. Combining this method with electron donor amendment experiments and metatranscriptomics confirmed that the abundant spore formers including Candidatus Desulforudis audaxviator were actively reducing sulfate in this environment, most likely with acetate and hydrogen as electron donors. Using this approach, we measured environmental sulfate reduction rates at 0.14 to 26.9 fmol cell-1 h-1. Scaled to volume, this equates to a bulk environmental rate of ~103 pmol sulfate L-1 d-1, similar to potential rates determined with radiotracer methods. Despite methane in the system, there was no evidence for active microbial methanogenesis at the time of sampling. Overall, this method is a powerful tool for estimating species-resolved, single-cell rates of anaerobic metabolism in low-biomass environments while simultaneously linking genomes to phenomes at the single-cell level. We reveal active elemental cycling conducted by several species, with a large portion attributable to Ca. Desulforudis audaxviator.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Ambiente , Transporte de Electrón , Sulfatos/química , Respiración de la Célula
7.
Environ Geochem Health ; 46(5): 169, 2024 Apr 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38592569

RESUMEN

Density functional theory (DFT) was employed to elucidate the mechanisms for ozonolysis reaction of p-nitrophenol (PNP) and its anion form aPNP. Thermodynamic data, coupled with Average Local Ionization Energies (ALIE) analysis, reveal that the ortho-positions of the OH/O- groups are the most favorable reaction sites. Moreover, rate constant calculations demonstrate that the O3 attack on the C2-C3 bond is the predominant process in the reaction between neutral PNP and O3. For the aPNP + O3 reaction, the most favorable pathways involve O3 attacking the C1-C2 and C6-C1 bonds. The rate constant for PNP ozonolysis positively correlates with pH, ranging from 5.47 × 108 to 2.86 × 109 M-1 s-1 in the natural aquatic environment. In addition, the formation of hydroxyl radicals in the ozonation process of PNP and the mechanisms of its synergistic reaction of PNP with ozone were investigated. Furthermore, the ozonation and hydroxylation processes involving the intermediate OH-derivatives were both thermodynamically and kinetic analyzed, which illustrate that OH radicals could promote the elimination of PNP. Finally, the toxic of PNP and the main products for fish, daphnia, green algae and rat were assessed. The findings reveal that certain intermediates possess greater toxicity than the original reactant. Consequently, the potential health risks these compounds pose to organisms warrant serious consideration.


Asunto(s)
Daphnia , Nitrofenoles , Ozono , Animales , Ratas , Ambiente , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno
8.
Arch Microbiol ; 206(5): 208, 2024 Apr 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38587620

RESUMEN

Cistanche deserticola is a precious Chinese medicinal material with extremely high health care and medicinal value. In recent years, the frequent occurrence of stem rot has led to reduced or even no harvests of C. deserticola. The unstandardized use of farm chemicals in the prevention and control processes has resulted in excessive chemical residues, threatening the fragile desert ecological environment. Therefore, it is urgent to explore safe and efficient prevention and control technologies. Biocontrol agents, with the advantages of safety and environment-friendliness, would be an important idea. The isolation, screening and identification of pathogens and antagonistic endophytic bacteria are always the primary basis. In this study, three novel pathogens causing C. deserticola stem rot were isolated, identified and pathogenicity tested, namely Fusarium solani CPF1, F. proliferatum CPF2, and F. oxysporum CPF3. For the first time, the endophytic bacteria in C. deserticola were isolated and identified, of which 37 strains were obtained. Through dual culture assay, evaluation experiment and tissue culture verification, a biocontrol candidate strain Bacillus atrophaeus CE6 with outstanding control effect on the stem rot was screened out. In the tissue culture system, CE6 showed excellent control effect against F. solani and F. oxysporum, with the control efficacies reaching 97.2% and 95.8%, respectively, indicating its great potential for application in the production. This study is of great significance for the biocontrol of plant stem rot and improvement of the yield and quality of C. deserticola.


Asunto(s)
Cistanche , Bacterias/genética , Ambiente , Granjas , Tallos de la Planta
9.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8091, 2024 04 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582954

RESUMEN

Safety incidents have always been a crucial risk in work spaces, especially industrial sites. In the last few decades, significant efforts have been dedicated to incident control measures to reduce the rate of safety incidents. Despite all these efforts, the rate of decline in serious injuries and fatalities (SIFs) has been considerably lower than the rate of decline for non-critical incidents. This observation has led to a change of risk reduction paradigm for safety incidents. Under the new paradigm, more focus has been allocated to reducing the rate of critical/SIF incidents, as opposed to reducing the count of all incidents. One of the challenges in reducing the number of SIF incidents is the proper identification of the risk prior to materialization. One of the reasons for risk identification being a challenge is that companies usually only focus on incidents where SIF did occur reactively, and incidents that did not cause SIF but had the potential to do so go unnoticed. Identifying these potentially significant incidents, referred to as potential serious injuries and fatalities (PSIF), would enable companies to work on identifying critical risk and taking steps to prevent them preemptively. However, flagging PSIF incidents requires all incident reports to be analyzed individually by experts and hence significant investment, which is often not affordable, especially for small and medium sized companies. This study is aimed at addressing this problem through machine learning powered automation. We propose a novel approach based on binary classification for the identification of such incidents involving PSIF (potential serious injuries and fatalities). This is the first work towards automatic risk identification from incident reports. Our approach combines a pre-trained transformer model with XGBoost. We utilize advanced natural language processing techniques to encode an incident record comprising heterogeneous fields into a vector representation fed to XGBoost for classification. Moreover, given the scarcity of manually labeled incident records available for training, we leverage weak labeling to augment the label coverage of the training data. We utilize the F2 metric for hyperparameter tuning using Tree-structured Parzen Estimator to prioritize the detection of PSIF records over the avoidance of non-PSIF records being mis-classified as PSIF. The proposed methods outperform several baselines from other studies on a significantly large test dataset.


Asunto(s)
Gestión de Riesgos , Lugar de Trabajo , Ambiente , Aprendizaje Automático , Procesamiento de Lenguaje Natural
10.
Environ Microbiol Rep ; 16(2): e13257, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38615691

RESUMEN

Fungi are present in a wide variety of natural environments, and in the last years, various studies have shown that they are quite abundant in aquatic ecosystems. In addition, a whole new highly diverse phylum, the Cryptomycota, was discovered. Nevertheless, research on aquatic fungi and a detailed evaluation of their functions and distribution are still sparse. One of the main reasons is a limitation in reliable identification and quantification methods. To bridge part of the research gap, this study aims to implement a quantitative PCR method to detect and quantify the newly discovered phylum. We developed and validated a Cryptomycota-specific qPCR primer pair targeting the 5.8S region that detects the majority of Cryptomycota, but Microsporidia. The resulting amplicon is 102 bp long. We used different environmental samples to evaluate the primer pair, various fungal sequences as negative control and positive control sequences. Obtained amplicons were sequenced using Illumina, and the obtained ASVs were all classified as Cryptomycota. The qPCR method works reliably and specifically for the quantification of Cryptomycota in environmental samples.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Microsporidios , Hongos/genética , Ambiente
11.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1351395, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605876

RESUMEN

An aging population is one of the main features of China's current population structure, and it is a key area that needs attention to achieve high-quality population development. Because of its unique geographical environment, economic conditions, and sociocultural background, the study of population aging in the karst region of southwest China is particularly important. However, there is a lack of research exploring the regional differentiation of population aging and its influencing factors in the karst regions of southwest China. In light of this, we chose Anshun City, located in Guizhou Province's southwest area, as the case study area. We used the Lorenz curve and spatial autocorrelation to study the differences in the spatial distribution pattern of population aging and introduced multi-scale geographical weighted regression to explore its influencing factors. The results show that Anshun City's older people population proportion (OPP) is generally high with more than 7% of the older people there, making it part of an aging society. The OPP appeared high in the east and low in the west in spatial distribution; the older people population density (OPD) revealed a gradually increasing trend from south to north. At the township scale, both the OPP and the OPD showed significant spatial positive correlation, and the spatial agglomeration characteristics were obvious. OPD and OPP have a positive spatial correlation at the global level, and townships with similar OPP or OPD were spatially adjacent. The spatial distribution characteristics of population aging are the consequence of complex contributions such as natural, social, economic, and karst factors. Further, the spatial distribution pattern of aging is determined by a variety of influencing factors, which have different directions and intensities. Therefore, it is necessary to formulate and implement corresponding policies and strategies to deal with the aging problem in the future.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento , Ambiente , Humanos , Anciano , China , Ciudades , Geografía
12.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1347586, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605881

RESUMEN

Introduction: With the increase of urban population density, urban sanitation becomes more severe; urban sanitation has important influence on public health. Therefore, in order to realize the detection of public health in smart cities, the research will use cutting-edge scientific and technological methods to improve urban environmental health, so as to promote the realization of public health achievements. This study introduces public health detection and optimizationtechnologies for smart cities. Methods: Firstly, a data detection system for urban public health environment was established using sensors and intelligent multi-objective technology to evaluate the water quality, air quality, and noise level of the city. Then, an intelligent garbage management system based on Tensor-flow was constructed to achieve efficient garbage collection and treatment. Finally, an intelligent traffic management system was developed to monitor and regulate urban traffic flow. Results: The results of the simulation experiment demonstrated that the life data detection system was operationally stable, with a high success rate of 98%. Furthermore, its accuracy in detecting residents' living environment data was above 95%, the maximum relative error was only 0.0465, making it a reliable and efficient tool. The waste recycling system achieved a minimum accuracy of 83.6%, the highest accuracy rate was 95.3%, making it capable of sorting and recycling urban waste effectively. Additionally, the smart traffic management system led to a 20% reduction in traffic congestion rates, 20 tonnes less tailpipe emissions and an improvement in public health and well-being. Discussion: In summary, the plan proposed in this study aims to create a more comfortable, safe, and healthy urban public health environment, while providing theoretical support for environmental health management in smart cities.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire , Salud Pública , Humanos , Ciudades , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Ambiente , Saneamiento
13.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 930, 2024 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38556871

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Latin American countries are often limited in the availability of food outlet data. There is a need to use online search engines that allow the identification of food outlets and assess their agreement with field observations. We aimed to assess the agreement in the density of food outlets provided by a web collaborative data (Google) against the density obtained from an administrative registry. We also determined whether the agreement differed by type of food outlet and by area-level socioeconomic deprivation. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed 1,693 census tracts from the municipalities of Hermosillo, Leon, Oaxaca de Juarez, and Tlalpan. The Google service was used to develop a tool for the automatic acquisition of food outlet data. To assess agreement, we compared food outlet densities obtained with Google against those registered in the National Statistical Directory of Economic Units (DENUE). Continuous densities were assessed using Bland-Altman plots and concordance correlation coefficient (CCC), while agreement across tertiles of density was estimated using weighted kappa. RESULTS: The CCC indicated a strong correlation between Google and DENUE in the overall sample (0.75); by food outlet, most of the correlations were from negligible (0.08) to moderate (0.58). The CCC showed a weaker correlation as deprivation increased. Weighted kappa indicated substantial agreement between Google and DENUE across all census tracts (0.64). By type of food outlet, the weighted kappa showed substantial agreement for restaurants (0.69) and specialty food stores (0.68); the agreement was moderate for convenience stores/small food retail stores (0.49) and fair for candy/ice cream stores (0.30). Weighted kappa indicated substantial agreement in low-deprivation areas (0.63); in very high-deprivation areas, the agreement was moderate (0.42). CONCLUSIONS: Google could be useful in assessing fixed food outlet densities as a categorical indicator, especially for some establishments, like specialty food stores and restaurants. The data could also be informative of the availability of fixed food outlets, particularly in less deprived areas.


Asunto(s)
Abastecimiento de Alimentos , Alimentos , Humanos , Estudios Transversales , México , Ambiente , Restaurantes , Comercio , Características de la Residencia
14.
PeerJ ; 12: e17175, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38560456

RESUMEN

Background: Geographic isolation caused by high-altitude valleys promotes the formation of geographic segregation of species, leading to species differentiation. The subgenus Oreosaura contains viviparous species from the Tibetan Plateau and the vicinity of the Tarim Basin, which can be divided into three species complexes according to their geographical distribution: Phrynocephalus vlangalii, Phrynocephalus theobaldi, and Phrynocephalus forsythii. However, molecular data for the P. forsythii complex are limited and the diversity of this species complex has been greatly underestimated. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the species diversity of Oreosaura and species differentiation within the P. forsythii complex. Methods: We analysed the species diversity of Oreosaura by combining previous data, constructed a phylogenetic tree of the subgenus based on cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and 16S sequences, and estimated the divergence time. Results: The results suggest significant genetic differences between the Tarim Basin populations and adjacent mountain valley populations of the P. forsythii complex and that the combination of deep valley landscapes in the high mountains and ice-age events have contributed to the differentiation of the viviparous toad-headed agama lizard, which is a key factor in the phylogenetics of the P. forsythii complex. Furthermore, we identified a population collected from Wuqia County, Xinjiang, as a new species, Phrynocephalus kangsuensis sp. nov. The results will provide data for phylogenetic studies following the P. forsythii complex and help demonstrate that valleys promote the formation of Phrynocephalus species.


Asunto(s)
Ambiente , Lagartos , Animales , Filogenia , Lagartos/genética
15.
PeerJ ; 12: e16746, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38562998

RESUMEN

Identifying suitable habitats and conserving corridors are crucial to the long-term conservation of large and conflict-prone animals. Being a flagship species, survival of Asian elephants is threatened by human-induced mortality and habitat modification. We aimed to assess the habitat suitability and connectivity of the Asian elephant Elephas maximus Linnaeus, 1758 habitat in the state of Odisha in eastern India. We followed the ensemble of spatial prediction models using species presence data and five environmental variables. We used least-cost path and circuit theory approaches to identify the spatial connectivity between core habitats for Asian elephants. The results revealed that normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI; variable importance 42%) and terrain ruggedness (19%) are the most influential variables for predicting habitat suitability of species within the study area. Our habitat suitability map estimated 14.6% of Odisha's geographical area (c. 22,442 km2) as highly suitable and 13.3% (c. 20,464 km2) as moderate highly suitable. We identified 58 potential linkages to maintain the habitat connectivity across study area. Furthermore, we identified pinch points, bottlenecks, and high centrality links between core habitats. Our study offers management implications for long-term landscape conservation for Asian elephants in Odisha and highlights priority zones that can help maintain spatial links between elephant habitats.


Asunto(s)
Elefantes , Animales , Humanos , Ecosistema , Ambiente , India
16.
J Robot Surg ; 18(1): 155, 2024 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564052

RESUMEN

Given the rise in robotic surgery, and parallel movement towards net zero carbon, sustainable healthcare systems, it is important that the environmental impact of robotic approaches is minimised. The majority of greenhouse gas emissions associated with robotic surgery have previously been associated with single-use items. Whilst switching from single-use products to hybrid equivalents (predominantly reusable, with a small single-use component) has previously been found to reduce the environmental impact of a range of products used for laparoscopic surgery, the generalisability of this to robotic surgery has not previously been demonstrated. In this life cycle assessment, use of hybrid 5 mm ports compatible with emerging robotic systems (143 g CO2e) was found to reduce the carbon footprint by 83% compared with using single-use equivalents (816 g CO2e), accompanied by reductions in fifteen out of eighteen midpoint environmental impact categories. For endpoint categories, there was an 81% reduction in impact on human health and species loss, and 82% reductions in resource depletion associated with using hybrid robotic 5 mm ports. Whilst the carbon footprint of 5 mm hybrid ports compatible with emerging robotic equipment was 70% higher than previous estimates of ports appropriate for conventional laparoscopic approaches, the six-fold reductions seen with hybrids in this analysis point to the generalisability of the finding that reusable or hybrid products have a lower carbon footprint when compared with single-use equivalents. Surgeons, procurement teams, and policy makers should encourage innovation towards clinically safe and effective robotic instruments with maximal reusable components.


Asunto(s)
Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Robotizados , Robótica , Cirujanos , Humanos , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Robotizados/métodos , Movimiento , Ambiente
17.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301679, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38568983

RESUMEN

Reducing multidimensional relative poverty is one of the important issues in the current global poverty governance field. This article takes 12 ethnic regions in China as the research object and constructs a multidimensional relative poverty measurement system. The calculated multidimensional relative poverty index is decomposed according to provinces, cities, dimensions, and indicators. Then, the Dagum Gini coefficient and convergence analysis are used to analyze spatiotemporal heterogeneity and convergence characteristics. The results show that the multi-dimensional relative poverty situation of various provinces in ethnic minority areas has improved from 2012 to 2021, among which Tibet province is the most serious and Shaanxi is the best. According to the analysis of convergence, it was observed that there is no σ-convergence of multidimensional relative poverty in ethnic areas in general, and there is absolute ß-convergence in general and in the southwest and northwest regions, and there is no absolute ß-convergence in the northeast region. Based on this, policy recommendations for reducing multidimensional relative poverty are proposed at the end of the article. Compared with previous studies, this article focuses on ethnic regions that are easily overlooked. Starting from the dimensions of economy, social development, and ecological environment, the poverty measurement system has been enriched.


Asunto(s)
Etnicidad , Grupos Minoritarios , Humanos , Pobreza , Ambiente , China , Análisis Espacial
19.
Int. microbiol ; 27(2): 411-422, Abr. 2024. graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-ADZ-153

RESUMEN

Morganella morganii is a bacterium belonging to the normal intestinal microbiota and the environment; however, in immunocompromised individuals, this bacterium can become an opportunistic pathogen, causing a series of diseases, both in hospitals and in the community, being urinary tract infections more prevalent. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, virulence profile, and resistance to antimicrobials and the clonal relationship of isolates of urinary tract infections (UTI) caused by M. morganii, both in the hospital environment and in the community of the municipality of Londrina-PR, in southern Brazil, in order to better understand the mechanisms for the establishment of the disease caused by this bacterium. Our study showed that M. morganii presents a variety of virulence factors in the studied isolates. Hospital strains showed a higher prevalence for the virulence genes zapA, iutA, and fimH, while community strains showed a higher prevalence for the ireA and iutA genes. Hospital isolates showed greater resistance compared to community isolates, as well as a higher prevalence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extended-spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL)-producing isolates. Several M. morganii isolates from both sources showed high genetic similarity. The most prevalent plasmid incompatibility groups detected were FIB and I1, regardless of the isolation source. Thus, M. morganii isolates can accumulate virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance, making them a neglected opportunistic pathogen. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Morganella morganii , Bacterias , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Ambiente , Enfermedad , Hospitales
20.
Enferm. foco (Brasília) ; 15(supl.1): 1-6, mar. 2024.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1532836

RESUMEN

Objetivo: Descrever as práticas dos enfermeiros em nossa sociedade e sob as circunstâncias que podem contribuir para a inclusão das práticas avançadas. Métodos: Estudo descritivo, de abordagem qualitativa e delineamento transversal, sob a perspectiva da teoria do materialismo histórico-dialético de Karl Marx, estruturada pela utilização do instrumento COREQ. Resultados: O campo de atuação do enfermeiro na atenção primária à saúde é diversificado, extrapola os muros do consultório. Muitas vezes o dinamismo das atividades traduz o empenho de obter os melhores resultados por meio de sua assistência. E o materialismo histórico-dialético reflete justamente a busca por uma assistência de qualidade e as mudanças no ambiente laboral, onde a interação de diversos fatores contribuem de forma direta no ambiente laboral e social. Conclusão: Os enfermeiros da atenção primária à saúde brasileira atuam nos mais diversos territórios, desse modo, precisam dinamizar os seus atendimentos para contemplar as necessidades sociais. Perante esses aspectos, as diversidades sociodemográficas brasileiras demonstraram que a escassez de recursos em regiões remotas é um dos fatores que fortalece a inclusão das práticas avançadas de enfermagem na atenção primária à saúde no Brasil. (AU)


Objective: To describe the practices of nurses in our society and under circumstances that may contribute to the inclusion of advanced practices. Methods: Descriptive study, with a qualitative approach and cross-sectional design, from the perspective of Karl Marx's dialectical historical materialism theory, structured by using the COREQ instrument. Results: The nurse's field of action in primary health care is diverse, it goes beyond the walls of the office. Often the dynamism of activities translates the effort to obtain the best results through their assistance. And dialectical historical materialism precisely reflects the search for quality care and changes in the work environment, where the interaction of several factors directly contribute to the work and social environment. Conclusion: Brazilian primary health care nurses work in the most diverse territories, therefore, they need to streamline their care to address social needs. In view of these aspects, Brazilian sociodemographic diversity has shown that the scarcity of resources in remote regions is one of the factors that strengthens the inclusion of advanced nursing practices in primary health care in Brazil. (AU)


Objetivo: Describir las prácticas de los enfermeros en nuestra sociedad y en circunstancias que puedan contribuir a la inclusión de prácticas avanzadas. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, con enfoque cualitativo y diseño transversal, desde la perspectiva de la teoría del materialismo histórico dialéctico de Karl Marx, estructurado mediante el uso del instrumento COREQ. Resultados: El campo de actuación del enfermero en la atención primaria de salud es diverso, va más allá de las paredes del consultorio. Muchas veces el dinamismo de las actividades se traduce en el esfuerzo por obtener los mejores resultados a través de su asistencia. Y el materialismo histórico dialéctico refleja precisamente la búsqueda de cuidados de calidad y cambios en el ambiente laboral, donde la interacción de varios factores contribuyen directamente al ambiente laboral y social. Conclusión: Las enfermeras brasileñas de atención primaria de salud actúan en los más diversos territorios, por lo tanto, necesitan optimizar su atención para atender las necesidades sociales. Frente a estos aspectos, la diversidad sociodemográfica brasileña ha demostrado que la escasez de recursos en regiones remotas es uno de los factores que fortalece la inclusión de prácticas avanzadas de enfermería en la atención primaria de salud en Brasil. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Enfermeros , Atención Primaria de Salud , Enfermería en Salud Pública , Ambiente
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