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1.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 494, 2022 06 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35676655

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Childhood experience has been suggested to affect cognitive function in later life. However, the association between childhood friendship status and cognitive ageing trajectory in middle-aged and older adults has not been fully assessed. This study examined the association between childhood friendship status and cognitive ageing trajectory and identified factors modifying this association. METHODS: We used four waves of data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS), a national representative longitudinal study of adults aged 45 years or older, 2011-2018. The CHARLS included surveys on childhood friendship and cognitive assessments. Childhood friendship status was categorised as poor, fair, and good. To examine the association between childhood friendship and cognitive ageing trajectory in later life, we applied multilevel linear regression models, and explored potential influences of sociodemographic factors, health status and behaviours, and childhood conditions on this association. RESULTS: Of the 4,350 participants, 1,919 (44.1%) were women. The mean age was 56.29 ± 7.80 years. We found childhood friendship was significantly associated with cognitive ageing trajectory in later life, with a dose-response relationship. After adjusting for covariates, comparing to participants with poor childhood friendships, those with better childhood friendships had lower rates of cognitive decline (ß = 0.12, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.03 to 0.22 [interaction term of fair friendship and time]; ß = 0.19, 95% CI: 0.10 to 0.28 [interaction term of good friendship and time]) and higher level of cognitive functions (ß = 0.40, 95% CI: 0.22 to 0.58 [fair friendships]; ß = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.43 to 0.79 [good friendships]). These associations were stronger for those who were female, less educated, and had experienced more adverse childhood experiences. CONCLUSIONS: Childhood friendship is associated with cognitive ageing in later life. Enhancing childhood friendships can play an important role to promote healthy ageing in the future.


Asunto(s)
Disfunción Cognitiva , Jubilación , Anciano , China/epidemiología , Cognición/fisiología , Femenino , Amigos , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Jubilación/psicología
2.
J Long Term Eff Med Implants ; 32(2): 31-33, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35695624

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Consenting to a dental implant treatment plan may be a challenging decision for many patients, and they may prefer to consult their family and friends before making the final decision on this matter. The purpose of this preliminary report was to assess the role of family and friends, as the consultees, in consenting to a dental implant treatment plan by patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 106 patients with dental implants were questioned about whether they made the final decision regarding their dental implant treatment by themselves or they consulted their family and friends prior to finalizing their decision. RESULTS: The majority of men (52.1%) reported making this decision by themselves and based on their own personal opinion, while most women (48.2%) reported making the decision after consulting their children. CONCLUSIONS: Within the limitations of this preliminary report, it appears that women are more willing to consult their children and friends on this matter compared with men. Also, men mostly consult their wives in making such a decision while women pay more attention to the opinion of their children in this respect.


Asunto(s)
Implantes Dentales , Niño , Toma de Decisiones , Femenino , Amigos , Humanos , Irán , Masculino
3.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 147(12): 767-780, 2022 Jun.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35672024

RESUMEN

Traveling with babies and children is challenging for parents and the doctor providing travel medicine advice. Especially pediatric VFR (visiting friends and relatives) travelers have a higher risk for infectious diseases due to lower risk perception and higher exposure. Being well prepared helps in exploring the world while staying healthy. Topics to be discussed in pediatric travel consultation are travel vaccinations, mosquito repellents, malaria prophylaxis, thorough sun protection, rehydration for gastroentritis, avoidance of rabies exposure, an agetailored travel pharmacy and more. We provide a guide to the most important topics for pediatric travel consultations.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Transmisibles , Viaje , Niño , Amigos , Humanos , Lactante , Derivación y Consulta , Vacunación
4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682114

RESUMEN

According to attachment theory, the quality of the early child-parent bond determines the child's interpersonal relationships later in life. Utilising data from The First Experimental Study of Transference Work-In Teenagers (FEST-IT), the current paper investigated the connection between the self-reported quality of bonding with mother and father and the self-reported importance of relationships with friends and siblings in adolescents with depression. The scales employed were the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) and the Adolescent Relationship scale (ARS). A Pearson's correlation tested the relationship between the reported levels of maternal and paternal care and control, and the reported importance of friendship and relationship with siblings. Results revealed a statistically significant negative correlation between high levels of maternal control and importance of friendship, and a statistically significant positive correlation between high levels of paternal care and importance of relationships with siblings. The results are in line with Bowlby's theory of attachment.


Asunto(s)
Amigos , Hermanos , Adolescente , Depresión/epidemiología , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Apego a Objetos , Relaciones Padres-Hijo
5.
Soc Sci Res ; 105: 102694, 2022 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35659045

RESUMEN

Despite schooling gains over the last two decades, Mexican-origin adults complete fewer years of schooling than adults from other ethnic backgrounds. Explanations emphasizing network resources suggest Mexican-origin adolescents have social ties that are more likely to be "closed" from adults with experience in higher education-and this, in turn, inhibits the transition to college. In this study, we draw on unusual network data measuring characteristics of students' peers and friends, as well as the socioeconomic background of peers' and friends' parents. We demonstrate that Mexican-origin adolescents are much less likely to have friends whose parents have college educations. 83% of non-Hispanic Asian students and 72% of non-Hispanic white students have nominated friends with college-educated mothers; about half of Mexican-origin students do. These patterns are the result of socioeconomic segregation in social networks both across and within schools. Within schools, we observe that the educational background of friends is predictive of schooling outcomes for non-Mexican students. We find evidence that this network resource shapes non-Mexican students' educational expectations in high school and longer-run completed schooling as adults more so than it shapes the outcomes among Mexican-origin students.


Asunto(s)
Amigos , Instituciones Académicas , Adolescente , Adulto , Escolaridad , Humanos , Grupo Paritario , Estudiantes
6.
Front Public Health ; 10: 889227, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35707058

RESUMEN

Background: The purpose of this study was to assess the level of knowledge, attitude and practice of COVID-19 among staff in China-Guinea Friendship Hospital, and to confirm the effect of nosocomial infection management. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in December 2021. Information on socio demographic data, knowledge, attitude and practices related to COVID-19 was collected through a self-administered questionnaire. Results: A total of 143 employees participated in the survey, with a response rate of 99.31% and a vaccination rate of 95.10%. The average knowledge score of COVID-19 was 8.39 ± 1.3 points (10 points in total), without significant differences between subgroups with different demographic variables (P > 0.05); more than 80% of the participants had a positive attitude, and 72.03-93.01% of the participants could take appropriate preventive practices in different environments such as hospital, outdoor or home. Conclusion: The staff of the China-Guinea Friendship Hospital has good knowledge of COVID-19, a positive attitude and appropriate preventive practices. It can be concluded that the current nosocomial infection management is active and effective. Therefore, this study suggests that comprehensive activities such as training, promotion and supervision of COVID-19-related knowledge and countermeasures should be widely and continuously implemented in healthcare facilities, which will continuously improve the overall KAP level of hospital staff and play an important role in curbing the COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Infección Hospitalaria , COVID-19/epidemiología , China/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Amigos , Guinea , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Hospitales , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control
7.
Occup Ther Int ; 2022: 3932326, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35655944

RESUMEN

This study analyzes the effects of smartphone overdependence and the quality of friendship on depression among high school students in Korea. The study subjects were 121 high school students. Smartphone overdependence was assessed using the smartphone overdependence scale for adolescents, depression was assessed using the Korean version of the patient health questionnaire-9, and the quality of friendship was assessed using the friendship quality questionnaire. The results of the correlation analysis showed statistically significant differences among all the variables. The results of the multiple linear regression analysis showed that smartphone overdependence increases the depression level, whereas the quality of friendship lowers it. To decrease depression among high school students, smartphone overdependence and the quality of friendship should be managed appropriately. Moreover, the causal relationships and mediating effects between smartphone overdependence and the quality of friendship should be analyzed.


Asunto(s)
Amigos , Terapia Ocupacional , Adolescente , Depresión/epidemiología , Humanos , Teléfono Inteligente , Estudiantes
8.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 221: 105460, 2022 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35569173

RESUMEN

Research on empathy in intergroup contexts among children in collectivistic cultures is limited. To address this gap, this study examined empathic responding in two group contexts (intergroup and intragroup) among Japanese children by taking into account the collectivistic cultural context. Children aged 4 to 6 years participated in an experimental session (N = 50, Mage = 65.11 months). They listened to two versions of narratives about children of their age who were saddened because of a nasty wind that had blown their sand mountains away. The group membership and in-group status of the characters were manipulated. In the task, children rated the extent to which the characters were feeling sadness (affective perspective taking) and indicated the number of stars (empathic concern) for the characters. Age-related differences were found, with older children showing more affective perspective taking than younger children. Children of all age groups tended to express less empathic concern for the odd one out among friends (a loner in the group) than for the majority. Findings suggest that empathic responding is in part shaped by socialization, and cultural variations in empathy may emerge early in life.


Asunto(s)
Empatía , Amigos , Adolescente , Niño , Preescolar , Procesos de Grupo , Humanos , Japón
9.
J Genet Psychol ; 183(4): 328-344, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35608940

RESUMEN

Best friendships and romantic relationships are linked to psychological well-being in emerging adulthood, but few studies have assessed their contribution simultaneously. This research (n = 190; 64.4% women) examined the links between intimacy and conflict with the best friend and the romantic partner on psychological well-being (self-esteem, depression, loneliness). Results showed that both relationships were independently linked to well-being, while also interacting with one another. Among participants reporting a less intimate or conflictual romantic relationship, an intimate best friendship was linked to higher self-esteem. Moreover, a conflictual best friendship was related to higher depressive symptoms only among those having a conflictual romantic relationship. Thus, best friendships and romantic relationships show distinct and combined contributions to well-being in emerging adulthood.


Asunto(s)
Amigos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Adulto , Femenino , Amigos/psicología , Humanos , Soledad , Masculino , Autoimagen
10.
J Sch Psychol ; 92: 136-147, 2022 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35618366

RESUMEN

Extending past research on the social and academic disruption associated with the transition from middle to high school, this study examined the role of friendship stability. Specifically, the goal was to investigate how friendships maintained from middle school and perceived (academic and emotional) support from friends at ninth grade contributed to school-related affect (e.g., school belonging, academic identification, burnout) at 10th grade. Relying on a sample of 3410 ethnically diverse ninth grade students, multilevel structural equation modeling (MSEM) was conducted on 17,255 friendships. Friendships maintained from middle to high school (versus newly formed) provided greater academic support, and students with a greater number of stable friends reported higher levels of both academic and emotional support from friends. Tests of multiple mediation revealed that friendship maintenance across the high school transition was related with more positive school affect at 10th grade, in part due to higher levels of perceived academic support from friends (e.g., homework help, course-taking advice), but not emotional support. The findings underscore the academic value of maintaining social ties across the high school transition.


Asunto(s)
Amigos , Adolescente , Amigos/psicología , Humanos , Motivación , Instituciones Académicas , Estudiantes/psicología
11.
Subst Abus ; 43(1): 1190-1196, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35617624

RESUMEN

Background: Methamphetamine is a highly addictive central nervous stimulant associated with numerous adverse health, psychological, and social impacts. Family and friends of people who use methamphetamine often take on a crucial caregiving role in supporting their loved one. Consequently, they can experience a range of psychosocial challenges themselves. This review aimed to identify and assess the effectiveness of interventions designed to support caregivers of people who use methamphetamine. Methods: A systematic search of relevant literature published in the English language was conducted. Of 2257 records identified, only 2 evaluation studies examined interventions specifically designed for caregivers of people who use methamphetamine. Additionally, four qualitative accounts described experiences of caring for people who use methamphetamine. These accounts were summarized narratively to provide a more complete picture of family and caregiver experiences and coping strategies. Results: Effective treatment components included tending to caregiver concerns and providing training to enhance informational support and problem-solving skills. Qualitative accounts uncovered a range of challenges experienced by caregivers, such as emotional distress, concern for the person using methamphetamine, disrupted family structures, and financial difficulties. Coping strategies included attempts at managing and supporting the person using methamphetamine while protecting the overall cohesion and wellbeing of the family unit. Conclusions: This review highlighted a lack of evidence-based interventions for caregivers of people who use methamphetamine. More research is needed to clarify concerns that may be particularly relevant for those in a caregiving role.


Asunto(s)
Cuidadores , Metanfetamina , Adaptación Psicológica , Cuidadores/psicología , Familia/psicología , Amigos/psicología , Humanos , Metanfetamina/efectos adversos
12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35565081

RESUMEN

The potential health benefits of laughter are recognized in relation to several chronic diseases. However, no study has yet investigated the association between laughter and functional dyspepsia (FD). The purpose of this study was to investigate this issue in a young Japanese population. METHODS: This study was conducted on 8923 Japanese university students. Information on the frequency of laughter and types of laughter-inducing situations, digestive symptoms (Rome III criteria) were obtained through a self-administered, web-based questionnaire. RESULTS: The percentage of respondents who laughed out loud almost every day was 64.3%. On the other hand, 1.8% of the subjects reported that they rarely laughed. No association was found between the total frequency of laughter and FD. Laughing while talking with family and friends almost every day was significantly inversely associated with FD (adjusted odds ratio (OR): 0.47 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.28-0.81); p for trend was 0.003). On the other hand, laughing while watching TV or videos and laughing while looking at comics or magazines independently showed a positive correlation with FD (TV or videos: adjusted OR, 1-5 times a week: 1.74 (95% CI: 1.16-2.60); comics or magazines: adjusted OR, 1-5 times a week: 1.78 (95% CI: 1.08-2.81)). CONCLUSION: In this young Japanese population, no association between laughter frequency and FD was observed although laughing while talking with friends and family was independently and inversely associated with FD.


Asunto(s)
Dispepsia , Risa , Dispepsia/diagnóstico , Dispepsia/epidemiología , Amigos , Humanos , Japón/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
13.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0267886, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35594268

RESUMEN

While most social network research focuses on positive relational ties, such as friendship and information exchange, scholars are beginning to examine the dark side of human interaction, where negative connections represent different forms of interpersonal conflict, intolerance, and abuse. Despite this recent work, the extent to which positive and negative social network structure differs remains unclear. The current project considers whether a network's small-scale, structural patterns of reciprocity, transitivity, and skew, or its "structural signature," can distinguish positive versus negative links. Using exponential random graph models (ERGMs), we examine these differences across a sample of twenty distinct, negative networks and generate comparisons with a related set of twenty positive graphs. Relational ties represent multiple types of interaction such as like versus dislike in groups of adults, friendship versus cyberaggression among adolescents, and agreements versus disputes in online interaction. We find that both positive and negative networks contain more reciprocated dyads than expected by random chance. At the same time, patterns of transitivity define positive but not negative graphs, and negative networks tend to exhibit heavily skewed degree distributions. Given the unique structural signatures of many negative graphs, our results highlight the need for further theoretical and empirical research on the patterns of harmful interaction.


Asunto(s)
Amigos , Red Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Probabilidad
14.
J Pain Symptom Manage ; 63(6): e643-e644, 2022 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35595378

RESUMEN

We met each other through academic medicine, in search for answers, and found friendship. Its value in my life was abundant, unearned grace. In Dr. Curtis, I learned the truth of the words of Thomas Mann, "Illness was merely transformed love."


Asunto(s)
Amigos , Amor , Humanos , Aprendizaje
15.
J Psychopathol Clin Sci ; 131(5): 507-516, 2022 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35549290

RESUMEN

Adolescence is a critical period of substance use and substance use disorders (SUD). Social exchanges within the context of adolescent friendships are key to understanding peer influences on the development of SUD. In this study we tested whether dyadic conversations between friends at age 17 are predictive of lifetime SUD diagnosis assessed at age 27. In controlled lab sessions, we observed conversations of 497 17-year-old adolescents and a friend. We coded the general way adolescents talk about deviant actions (i.e., deviancy training), but also specific positive talk about drugs (i.e., drug use talk). At age 27, a diagnostic interview was completed to assess lifetime SUD. Independent sample t-tests (in a selection of substance naïve participants to rule out that potential links would be driven by previous substance use) and structural equation modeling (integrated models, controlling for relevant covariates) were used to test whether deviancy training and/or drug use talk were predictive of lifetime SUD-diagnosis 10 years later. No significant links were found between deviancy training and SUD. Independent sample t-tests and integrated models showed significant associations between drug use talk about alcohol and alcohol use disorder and between drug use talk about cannabis use and cannabis use disorder. The link between talking about hard drugs and hard drug use disorder was marginally significant. Findings illustrate the risk of adolescent social learning in drug use talk with friends based on only 10 minutes of interaction, on the prediction of lifetime SUD assessed 10 years later and informs early interventions to curtail development of SUD. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Alcoholismo , Aprendizaje Social , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Adolescente , Adulto , Alcoholismo/diagnóstico , Amigos , Humanos , Grupo Paritario , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología
16.
BMC Res Notes ; 15(1): 180, 2022 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35570312

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Social scientists have suggested two typical ways of acquiring social power: dominance approach (gaining social power by applying violence, coercion, threat, and punishment) and prestige approach (gaining admiration and liking by demonstrating competence and sharing experience and knowledge). However, little is known about how people recognize and evaluate the differentiated process of the approaches, and even less about the early development of these processes. In the current study, 5-6-year old children heard stories about pairs comprising a dominance-based and a prestige-based powerholder, chose one of the powerholders as their friend and leader, and predicted which powerholder will gain the contested resources. RESULTS: Compared to a dominance-based powerholder, children were more likely to choose a prestige-based powerholder as a friend and leader in different situations. Moreover, children predicted that prestige-based powerholders, and not dominance-based powerholders, would gain contested resources. These findings suggest that since childhood, human beings tend to be biased to not only judge prestige-based aspects as socially preferable, but also endorse the prestige-based powerholders' priority to possess valuable resources, which subsequently strengthens their high social status. These early childhood preferences can be instrumental in providing more harmonious environments for children in educational and daily contexts.


Asunto(s)
Poder Psicológico , Predominio Social , Niño , Preescolar , Coerción , Emociones , Amigos , Humanos
17.
CBE Life Sci Educ ; 21(2): ar17, 2022 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35580009

RESUMEN

Recent emphasis on research competencies in undergraduate biology education means that more students are doing course-based research. Professional research scientists learn from failed research, but undergraduate students who encounter failure in their biology lab research may not always respond in ways that advance their learning. There is a need to examine individual students' responses to failed research as they conduct investigations in an undergraduate lab course. Here, we report a qualitative research case study based on data from interviews and course work to examine five undergraduate students' emotional responses, coping strategies, and perceptions of learning as they confronted failure in a semester-long intro lab course investigation. All five students displayed negative emotions when they encountered a research obstacle, but their coping strategies varied. However, by the end of their research process, all had responded with competent actions, relationship actions, and autonomous actions as adaptive coping strategies. Support seeking played a critical role to promote autonomy as a foundation for research self-efficacy. After completing their research, the students reported valuable learning from the experience. Implications for instruction are based on examples of coping strategies for managing negative emotions from failed research.


Asunto(s)
Amigos , Estudiantes , Adaptación Psicológica , Biología , Humanos , Investigación Cualitativa
18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35564945

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This article focuses on how older persons perceive their friends' role in their daily experience of chronic pain. It reports part of the results of a study in which we interviewed 49 participants, aged 75 and older, about the way they communicate about chronic pain within their social network. METHODOLOGY: Using discourse and content analysis, we first examine older persons' definition of friendship, and then identify the various dimensions of friendship that are engaged in the communication about chronic pain. RESULTS: Participants define close friends as people with whom they share intimacy and social proximity (same gender, age and experience of pain). These dimensions allow older persons to talk freely about their pain without the fear of being judged or rejected, particularly when it is related to a dynamic of reciprocity. CONCLUSIONS: This article shows that the contribution of friends to the everyday life of older persons with chronic pain is mainly that of providing emotional support.


Asunto(s)
Dolor Crónico , Amigos , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Dolor Crónico/psicología , Comunicación , Amigos/psicología , Humanos
19.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 294: 214-218, 2022 May 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35612059

RESUMEN

Informal Caregivers such as a spouse, other close relatives or friends of cancer patients can play an essential role in home-based treatment and care. However, the informal caregivers might not be prepared for this responsibility, and they might have several unmet requirements for taking care of patients in the home environment. The informal caregivers' physical, social and psychological health is also profoundly affected due to the health conditions of their relatives. We propose a User-centred Positive Design as a hybrid framework by merging the traditional User-cantered design and positive design frameworks to enhance the informal caregivers' subjective well-being. Our ongoing project (Carer-eSupport) will be used as a case study, and its main objective is to co-create and evaluate a web-based support system for informal caregivers of people with cancer. The proposed framework can be used for the design and development of health information systems with a special focus on users' wellbeing and positive emotions.


Asunto(s)
Cuidadores , Neoplasias , Cuidadores/psicología , Amigos , Humanos , Salud Mental , Neoplasias/terapia
20.
Am J Health Behav ; 46(2): 96-113, 2022 04 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501964

RESUMEN

Objectives: Despite the substantial influence these acute alcohol-related problems cause globally, past research has failed historically to capture the dynamic nature of drinking events, including how multiple factors (ie, individual, group, and environmental) interact to affect event-level intoxication. Fortunately, technology (eg, transdermal alcohol monitors) and smartphone surveys have provided researchers with new avenues to measure the complex nature of alcohol consumption. This paper presents the methods of a pilot study that sought to measure event-level alcohol consumption in a natural drinking group of college students. Methods: Ten groups of friends (N=49) were followed for 2 weeks with daily diary surveys, continuous activity trackers, hourly geographic ecological momentary assessments (EMAs) on 4 separate drinking occasions, and a transdermal alcohol monitor during one group-based social event. Results: On average, participants responded to > 75% of both daily diaries and EMAs and were compliant with activity trackers on 96% of monitoring days. Over 90% of the sample had usable transdermal data and after smoothing, peak transdermal alcohol contents ranged from 0.13 to 0.395 during the observation evening. Conclusion: The lessons learned during this pilot study can provide a building block for future work in this area, especially as data collection in alcohol research rapidly advances.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Relacionados con Alcohol , Amigos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Etanol , Humanos , Proyectos Piloto
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