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1.
Barbarói ; (58): 30-46, jan.-jun. 2021.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-1150661

RESUMEN

O autoconceito pode ser concebido como uma construção teórica que o indivíduo realiza sobre si a partir de sua interação com o meio social, que assume importante papel na compreensão do processo de desenvolvimento humano. Variáveis como desempenho escolar e práticas educativas parentais tem sido relatadas como relevantes para o estabelecimento do autoconceito. Tendo em vista a relevância do tema na adolescência o presente artigo objetivou investigar as possíveis relações entre o autoconceito, desempenho escolar e práticas educativas dos pais, em adolescentes escolares. Fizeram parte desta pesquisa 57 adolescentes de ambos os sexos, com idades entre 12 e 16 anos (M= 13,44; DP=1,13) do 6º ao 9º ano de uma escola pública de Ensino Fundamental. Para isso, foram utilizados a Escala de Autoconceito Infanto ­Juvenil (EAC-IJ), a Escala de Responsividade e Exigência Parental e análise documental na escola para o desempenho escolar. Os resultados demonstraram que houve correlação significativa entre as variáveis do estudo, destacando-se as correlações estabelecidas entre autoconceito e desempenho escolar, desempenho escolar e exigência da mãe, assim como do autoconceito com a responsividade do pai. Discute-se sobre a importância da qualidade da relação familiar e do grupo de amigos no estabelecimento do autoconceito dos adolescentes.(AU)


Self-concept may be conceived as a theoretical construction that the individual has about himself from his interaction with society that assumes an important role in the comprehension of the human development process. Variables such as school performance and parental educational practices have been reported as relevant for the establishment of self-concept. Since this theme can be relevant in adolescence the present article sought to investigate the possible relations between self-concept, school performance and educational practices from parents in school-aged teens. Were part of this research 57 teenagers, from both sexes, with ages between 12 and 16 years old (M= 13,44; DP=1,13) from 6th to9th years of an public elementary school. For that we used the "Escala de Autoconceito Infanto-Juvenil (EAC-IJ)", the "Escala de Responsividade e Exigencia Parental" and analysis of school papers for the school performance. The results showed that there's a significant relation between the variables of study, featuring the relations established between self-concept and school performance, school performance and mother exigency, as for self-concept and father responsiveness. We argue about the importance of a quality family relationship and group of friends in the establishment of self-concept of teenagers.(AU)


El autoconcepto puede ser determinado como una construcción teórica que el individuo realiza sobre sí por medio de su interacción con el medio social, que adquiere importante papel en la comprensión del proceso de desarrollo humano. Variables como el desempeño escolar y las prácticas educativas parentales han sido relatadas como relevantes para la determinación del autoconcepto. Teniendo en cuenta la relevancia del tema en la adolescencia el presente artículo tuvo como objetivo investigar las posibles relaciones entre el autoconcepto, desempeño escolar y prácticas educativas de los padres, en adolescentes escolares. Participaron de esta investigación 57 adolescentes de ambos sexos, con edades comprendidas entre 12 y 16 años (M = 13,44, SD = 1,13) del 6 al 9 de grado de una escuela pública de enseñanza primaria. Para eso, fueron utilizadas la Escala de Autoconcepto Infantil Juvenil (EAC-IJ), la Escala de Responsividad y Exigencia Parental y análisis documental en escuela para el desempeño escolar. Los resultados demostraron que hubo correlación significativa entre las variables del estudio, resaltándose las correlaciones establecidas entre autoconcepto y desempeño escolar, desempeño escolar y exigencia de la madre, asi como del autoconcepto con la responsividad del padre. Se discute sobre la importancia de la calidad de la relación familiar y del grupo de amigos en la determinación del autoconcepto de los adolescentes.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Adolescente , Padres , Autoimagen , Adolescente , Relaciones Familiares , Rendimiento Académico , Amigos , Desarrollo Humano
2.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806563

RESUMEN

Background: This study evaluates the effectiveness of parent-assisted children's friendship training intervention for enhancing friendship quality and social skills among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We conducted a quasi-experimental study to investigate the effective outcomes of social skills and friendship quality in the pre-and post-parent-assisted CFT intervention phases; Methods: to conduct a 12-week field session, 30 children with their parents were selected. The Social Skills Improvement System Rating Scales and the Quality of Play Questionnaire-Parent were used to assess the effectiveness of the parent-assisted children's friendship training during pre-and post-intervention. A semi-structured interview with parents was conducted at the end of the session; Results: findings revealed that intervention improved the social skills of these children. Additionally, the friendship quality of children with ASD improved before and after the intervention, however, engagement remained unchanged. Parents also showed some sort of improvement after the session as they reported a heightened sense of fear and resistance, awareness, learning and adjustment, change is not easy, and identifying support; Conclusions: there was clear evidence that children with ASD benefitted from parent-assisted CFTs in terms of social skills and friendship quality. However, larger and controlled studies are required to draw firm conclusions about this kind of intervention.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno del Espectro Autista , Trastorno Autístico , Trastornos Generalizados del Desarrollo Infantil , Niño , Amigos , Humanos , Malasia , Habilidades Sociales
3.
Laryngorhinootologie ; 100(5): 336-337, 2021 05.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33915585

Asunto(s)
Amigos , Humanos
4.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 253, 2021 04 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33863278

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Older adults are encouraged to use Medical Visit Companions (MVCs) for routine medical encounters; however, many vulnerable older adults attend alone or fail to attend. In the absence of available family or friends, community volunteers could potentially fill this gap. We aimed to understand the role and acceptability of volunteer MVCs accompanying older adults to medical visits and explore potential barriers and facilitators of increasing MVC availability and expanding roles beyond transportation. METHODS: Two moderators conducted 4 focus groups with 29 volunteers grouped by whether they provided (n = 15) or received (n = 14) rides to medical visits. All were members of Partners In Care (PIC), a community organization in Maryland, United States which offers a range of programs and services that support the independence of older adults including the provision of volunteer MVCs. Participants were asked to discuss why they were involved with PIC, and to describe their experiences with providing or receiving companionship during medical visits. Inductive thematic analysis was used to explore the views and experiences of participants, particularly around the roles played by MVCs and the feasibility of expanding these roles. RESULTS: All participants reported benefits from their role whether that was giving or receiving rides. Many accompanied participants reported missing medical appointments prior to joining PIC and being able to avail of the services of a MVC. Volunteer roles varied and ranged from transportation only, help with care coordination and in some cases accompanying the person into their medical visit. A subgroup of volunteers expressed a willingness to take on additional roles during the physician visit following additional training and isolated older adults welcomed the prospect of their assistance. CONCLUSION: Our qualitative data indicate that non-family, volunteer MVCs are willing and able to assist older people going to a medical visit. With appropriate training and support, volunteer companions could do much to improve the healthcare experience for those who otherwise would attend alone or would not attend medical visits.


Asunto(s)
Amigos , Voluntarios , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Grupos Focales , Humanos , Maryland , Estados Unidos
5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804857

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cannabis is an illegal psychoactive substance that's use is widespread among adolescents. During adolescence, many changes can cause stress. In this phase, the group of friends becomes increasingly important, being a situation of vulnerability for the beginning of cannabis use, either as an escape mechanism or due to peer's influence. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to describe and analyze the structure of the consumption and friendship network, the intention to use cannabis, and the stress in a secondary school class. METHODS: An online platform with validated self-reported questionnaires were used for data collection. RESULTS: The sample consisted of adolescents (n = 20) aged 14-16 from a third-year class of compulsory secondary education in Ponferrada (León, Spain). Significant differences were obtained concerning consumption intention and the different network metrics in both the friendship and consumption networks. Subsequently, the representation of these networks was carried out. CONCLUSIONS: Social Network Analysis is a very useful tool that provides a picture of the context in which adolescents are located. In the consumption network, there are central actors who have not yet consumed cannabis; this is a crucial moment to implement prevention strategies.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Cannabis , Adolescente , Amigos , Humanos , Intención , Instituciones Académicas , España/epidemiología
6.
Cell ; 184(9): 2276-2278, 2021 04 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33930293

RESUMEN

Infection with SARS-CoV-2 sets off a molecular arms race between virus replication and host cell defense. In this issue of Cell, Flynn, Belk, et al. integrate an advanced large-scale RNA-centered approach with custom CRISPR screens to functionally characterize the interactome of the SARS-CoV-2 RNA genome during infection.


Asunto(s)
Amigos , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno/genética , Humanos , ARN Viral/genética
7.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 21(1): 191-191, ene.-abr. 2021. tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-200209

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Most studies have evaluated victimization at a single time point, making it difficult to determine the impact of the time during which an individual is victimized. This longitudinal study aims to examine the differences in the levels of social status (social preference and perceived popularity) and friendship in peer victimization trajectories, and to analyse if there were changes over time in the levels of social status and friendship in each trajectory. METHOD: The final sample was composed of 1,239 students (49% girls) with ages between 9 and 18 (M = 12.23, SD = 1.73), from 22 schools in southern Spain. Peer nominations were collected. RESULTS: The General Linear Model results associated the highest levels of social preference, perceived popularity and friendship with the sporadic victimization profile and the lowest levels of these dimensions with the stable profile. CONCLUSIONS: The results are discussed based on important personal aspects of stable victimization that confirms social rejection, unpopularity, and the low social support that victimization causes. This contribution is discussed in terms of health and social welfare in adolescence


ANTECEDENTES/OBJETIVO: La mayoría de los estudios han evaluado la victimización en un único momento temporal, lo que impide determinar el impacto del tiempo durante el que un individuo es victimizado. Este estudio longitudinal pretende examinar las diferencias en los niveles de estatus social (preferencia social y popularidad percibida) y amistad entre las diferentes trayectorias de las víctimas de iguales en función de su trayectoria de victimización, y explorar si existen cambios con el paso del tiempo en los niveles de estatus social y amistad de cada trayectoria. MÉTODO: La muestra se compuso por 1.239 estudiantes (49% chicas) entre 9 y 18 años (M = 12,23, DT = 1,73), pertenecientes a 22 centros educativos del sur de España. Se utilizaron las hetero-nominaciones de sus iguales dentro del grupo de clase. RESULTADOS: Los resultados del Modelo Lineal General asociaron los niveles más altos de preferencia social, popularidad percibida y amistad a la victimización esporádica, y los niveles más bajos de estas dimensiones a la trayectoria estable. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados se discuten en base al rechazo social, la impopularidad y los escasos apoyos sociales que provoca la victimización. Se valora esta aportación a nivel de salud y bienestar social adolescente


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Adolescente , Clase Social , Amigos/psicología , Víctimas de Crimen/psicología , Influencia de los Compañeros , Estudios Longitudinales , Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Estudiantes/psicología , Factores Sexuales , Modelos Lineales
8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652980

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Social contact leads to an increased likelihood of engaging in physical activity (PA). However, the influence of social contact on PA would be different depending on the social contact source. This study aimed to identify the association of changes in social contact with family and non-family members with the change in PA using a parallel latent growth curve modeling. METHODS: Participants were randomly selected from among residents in the study area age ≥ 20 years (n = 7000). We conducted mail surveys in 2014, 2016, and 2019. The 1365 participants completed all surveys. PA was assessed with validated single-item physical activity measure. Social contact was assessed by summing frequencies of face-to-face and non-face-to-face contacts with family/relatives not living with the participant and friends/neighbors. Parallel latent growth curve modeling was used to assess the cross-sectional, prospective, and parallel associations of social contact with PA change. RESULTS: There was a positive cross-sectional association between contact with friends/neighbors and PA, whereas prospective and parallel associations between contact with family/relatives and PA. CONCLUSION: Contacting friends/neighbors did not predict the change in PA, and a high frequency of contact with family/relatives at baseline and increasing contact with family/relatives was associated with increased PA over 5-year.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico , Amigos , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Estudios Prospectivos , Apoyo Social , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668758

RESUMEN

Adolescence is a period of great changes and the assumption of risk behaviours at the level of sexuality may have implications for health and well-being. Nowadays, adolescents live free from constraints and prioritise freedom, using their own terminology to label their relationships, it becoming in turn important to conceptualise intimacy relationships from their perspective. Therefore, a qualitative, descriptive, and exploratory study was performed. Participants included 109 adolescents aged 14 and 18 years old from public schools in central Portugal. Data were collected using 12 focus groups and a content analysis was undertaken. These terms attributed to intimate relationships by adolescents are, for the most part, mutual for both genders: crush, friendzone, friends with benefits, making out, dating, and similar in terms of meaning. In an intimate relationship, adolescents give priority to factors such as respect, trust, and love. The fear of loneliness, obsession, and low self-esteem are reasons pointed out by adolescents for maintaining an unhealthy intimate relationship. Adolescents' knowledge of language about their intimate relationships is essential to establish effective communication and to build intervention programs in the healthy intimacy relationships field.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Conducta Sexual , Adolescente , Femenino , Amigos , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Masculino , Portugal , Parejas Sexuales
10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671290

RESUMEN

After-school programs (ASPs) might influence the activities and behaviors of children. The aim of the reported study was to investigate how stationary behavior unfolds during ASP time in a sample of Norwegian first graders. A total of 42 first graders from 14 ASPs were observed during one entire ASP day. ActiGraph accelerometers were used to measure the intensity of their physical activity (PA). Children were found to be involved in stationary behavior for 54.9% of the studied ASP time-a median of 79.5 min (IQR = 62.0). However, there was considerable variation among the children in the sample. Most stationary behavior-63.5% of all stationary behavior during ASP time-was accumulated when the children were sitting indoors. The proportion of stationary behavior was significantly higher indoors than outdoors, during adult-managed time than child-managed time, and during time spent together with other children than time spent alone (p < 0.05). In child-managed physical activity play outdoors, stationary behavior commonly occurred during short periods of standing still. Stationary behavior was usually rapidly broken up by longer periods of PA. Stationary periods involved activities in close relationship with other children and appeared to be important for social interaction and friendship building. The researchers suggest that ASP staff members should actively promote physical activity play that breaks up sedentary time and replaces some stationary behaviors with PA, especially among the least active children.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico , Instituciones Académicas , Niño , Amigos , Humanos , Noruega , Conducta Sedentaria
11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672273

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Men who develop behaviors connected with the model of hegemonic masculinity present several health problems. Previous research has shown the types of problems that men commonly suffer in this regard such as chronic diseases, dietary disorders, and traffic accidents. To combat and overcome this situation, several campaigns, policies and recommendations have been undertaken, and consequently, their influence has been analyzed. However, there have been few investigations into the role of men's friendship in the reduction of these physical health problems. The findings presented in this article are focused on this issue, illustrating the impact of male friendship on the shaping of healthy behaviors. METHODS: Drawing upon a qualitative-based methodology articulated in a case study of the Men in Dialogue association, located in Spain, the study has followed the premises of the communicative approach, a total of 15 structured online open-ended questionnaires have been performed and analyzed. The median age of the participants is 37.5 years. RESULTS: The findings show how men involved in Men in Dialogue are promoting a kind of masculine friendship that is improving men's emotional well-being and, consequently, their physical health.


Asunto(s)
Amigos , Masculinidad , Adulto , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Hombres , Salud del Hombre , España
12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672506

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to examine, through the roles of peers with regards to diabetes, the relationship between the support perceived by adolescents with diabetes and their peer-group affiliation. This is a descriptive, phenomenological and retrospective study based on a qualitative methodology. In-depth interviews with 15 people aged 18-35 with type 1 diabetes mellitus diagnosed in their childhood or adolescence were carried out. Data was analyzed through the interpretation of general discourses. Peers have considerable influence on adolescents and provide them social support from different roles. The protective role basically offers emotional support and sends reminders of different aspects of the treatment, while the indifferent role does not meddle in any aspect related to the diabetes. Both roles can foster social integration of adolescents with diabetes into the peer group. The offender role creates social conflicts through discrimination and stigma of adolescents with diabetes. These roles appear during the process of socialization of adolescents with diabetes, where commensality and situations of self-monitoring or administering insulin, key aspect of diabetes treatment, are crucial. Peer groups, depending on the role adopted, may offer support or bring a specific conflict regarding diabetes to their adolescent peer. The combination of roles that friends and peer group play with regards to diabetes will determine the degree of socialization and integration of adolescents with diabetes.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Grupo Paritario , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/terapia , Amigos , Humanos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Apoyo Social , Adulto Joven
13.
J Korean Acad Nurs ; 51(1): 54-67, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Coreano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33706331

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was threefold, to longitudinally examine the risk of habitual smoking onset in adolescents, to delineate the effects of neighborhood characteristics and friends' smoking status on the habitual smoking onset, and to investigate whether the association between friends' smoking status and habitual smoking onset was moderated by neighborhood characteristics. METHODS: This study conducted multilevel discrete-time survival analysis, using cohort data from the 3rd to 6th waves of the Korean Child and Youth Panel Survey, which excluded habitual smokers, matched with 2010 census data on respondents' residence. RESULTS: Habitual smoking onset risk increased from the 8th to the 11th grade, and then slightly decreased from the 11th to the 12th grade. Friends' smoking status (B = 0.60, p < .001), smoking rate (B = 0.06, p = .038), and the number of tobacco outlets in the respondents' neighborhood (B = 0.51, p = .003) were positively associated with habitual smoking onset risk. Furthermore, the association between friends' smoking status and habitual smoking onset risk was moderated by the number of tobacco outlets in the neighborhood. Specifically, the association was stronger in neighborhoods with more tobacco outlets (B = 0.58, p = .048). CONCLUSION: Friends' smoking status and living in neighborhoods that are more susceptible to smoking increase the risk of habitual smoking. The number of tobacco outlets in the neighborhood enhances the peer effect of adolescent's smoking behavior. Therefore, policies or interventions designed to reduce youth's tobacco use should focus on not only on reducing peer smoking, but also restricting smoking by adults and the number of neighborhood tobacco outlets.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Fumar/psicología , Adolescente , Familia , Femenino , Amigos , Humanos , Masculino , Motivación , Grupo Paritario , Factores de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
14.
J Youth Adolesc ; 50(5): 1003-1016, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33675504

RESUMEN

Although relationships between co-rumination and depressive symptoms have often been found, little research attention has been given to mechanisms underlying this association. The current study investigated brooding rumination as a mediator of the relationship between co-rumination and depressive symptoms. Analyses were performed on data of 1549 adolescents (53.4% girls; Mage = 12.93, range 9-17) using three waves of data with 1-year intervals. Mediated and indirect effects were investigated by means of cross-lagged analyses. The results indicated that co-rumination was not predictive of depressive symptoms 2 years later. However, co-rumination did have an indirect effect on prospective depressive symptoms through brooding rumination. Additional analyses looking into the directionality of effects showed that neither brooding rumination nor depressive symptoms were predictive of relative increases in one's tendency to co-ruminate. Multi-group analyses further showed that findings were not moderated by gender or age. The current study contributes to the growing literature on the role of interpersonal and intrapersonal affect-regulation styles in predicting depressive symptoms and suggests that passive and catastrophic problem talk with same-sex friends may get internalized into maladaptive and repetitive thinking patterns.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Depresión , Adolescente , Atención , Niño , Femenino , Amigos , Humanos , Estudios Prospectivos
15.
J Affect Disord ; 286: 360-369, 2021 05 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33691948

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the validity of using social media for depression screening. METHOD: Article searches on PubMed and PsycINFO from database inception to August 20, 2019 were completed with a search string and filters. RESULTS: 15 articles made the inclusion criteria. Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram profiles of depressed people were distinguishable from nondepressed people shown by social media markers. Facebook studies showed that having fewer Facebook friends and mutual friends, posting frequently, and using fewer location tags positively correlated with depressive symptoms. Also, Facebook posts with explicit expression of depressive symptoms, use of personal pronouns, and words related to pain, depressive symptoms, aggressive emotions, and rumination predicted depression. Twitter studies showed that the use of "past focus" words, negative emotions and anger words, and fewer words per Tweet positively correlated with depression. Finally, Instagram studies showed that differences in follower patterns, photo posting and editing, and linguistic features between depressed people and nondepressed people could serve as a marker. LIMITATIONS: The primary articles analyzed had different methods, which constricts the amount of comparisons that can be made. Further, only four social media platforms were explored. CONCLUSION: Social media markers like number and content of Facebook messages, linguistic variability in tweets and tweet word count on Twitter, and number of followers, frequency of Instagram use and the content of messages on Instagram differed between depressed people and nondepressed people. Therefore, screening social media profiles on these platforms could be a valid way to detect depression.


Asunto(s)
Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Depresión/diagnóstico , Emociones , Amigos , Humanos , Lingüística
16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668655

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 virus has become a fearful epidemic for people all over the world. In Turkey, long quarantine periods and curfews have increased both physical and psychological problems. Due to the rapid spread and substantial impact of the COVID-19 virus, different psychological effects were observed among different segments of society, such as among young people, elderly people, and active workers. Because of fear caused by the COVID-19 virus, it is thought that depression, stress, and anxiety levels have increased. It is estimated that there are more psychological issues for people with poor health and others whose friends or family became ill or have died because of COVID-19. To explore and test the situation mentioned above, we conducted a cross-sectional study in Turkey with 3287 participants above 16 years old. We measured COVID-19 fear, along with anxiety, stress, and depression levels (DASS21) and demographics. Firstly, we tested whether COVID-19 fear predicts stress, anxiety, and depression. Secondly, we investigated if the effect of COVID-19 fear is stronger for those who have underlying illness and for those whose friends or family became ill or have died because of COVID-19. The results showed that women and 16-25 years old youths have higher COVID-19-related fear, anxiety, depression, and stress. Furthermore, we found a significant relationship between COVID-19 fear and stress, anxiety, and depression, as well as significant moderation effects of having an underlying illness and having friends or family who were infected or have died. These results show the importance of implementing specific implementations, particularly for vulnerable groups, to minimize the psychological problems that may arise with the pandemic.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Miedo , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/epidemiología , Familia , Femenino , Amigos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Turquia/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
17.
Psychiatr Serv ; 72(4): 444-447, 2021 04 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530731

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study examined psychosocial and mental health characteristics associated with COVID-19 infection. METHODS: An online survey that asked about COVID-19 status, social support, and mental health was used to recruit a national sample of 6,607 low- and middle-income adults; 354 reported a positive COVID-19 test, 1,819 reported a negative test, and 4,434 reported not being tested in May or June 2020. RESULTS: Psychiatric history and current social support and mental health were not statistically significantly associated with testing positive for COVID-19 after analyses controlled for other characteristics. In order of magnitude, having any friends or family who had COVID-19, being a veteran, having a greater number of close friends or relatives, having any history of homelessness, having an advanced degree, or being a student was significantly associated with testing positive for COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical risk for COVID-19 infection and the medical needs of veterans and of unstably housed populations should be considered.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Familia , Amigos , Personas sin Hogar/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Apoyo Social , Veteranos/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , /estadística & datos numéricos , Escolaridad , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Mental , Pobreza/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores de Riesgo , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
18.
Laryngorhinootologie ; 100(2): 88-89, 2021 02.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33525003

Asunto(s)
Amigos , Humanos
19.
Laryngorhinootologie ; 100(3): 160-161, 2021 03.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33636725

Asunto(s)
Amigos , Humanos
20.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 82(1): 121-131, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573730

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: We investigate how alcohol use and friendship co-evolve during students' transition to university. We discern effects of peer influence from friend selection based on alcohol use, whether such effects vary in strength across the school year, and whether alcohol has different effects on friendship formation versus friendship maintenance. METHOD: We gathered data on friendships, alcohol use, and binge drinking from 300 residence hall students (71% female) at a large, public U.S. university. Surveys were conducted at four time points during the 2015-2016 academic year. We used a stochastic actor-oriented model to test whether alcohol use was influenced by one's friends, while simultaneously testing for friend selection based on alcohol use and related network processes. RESULTS: Students were 7.0 times more likely to drink alcohol weekly if all versus none of their friends drank weekly and 6.8 times more likely to binge drink when all versus none of their friends engaged in binge drinking, after we controlled for friend selection. Alcohol use differentially affected friendship creation and maintenance in a complex manner: (a) weekly drinkers were more likely to form new friendships and dissolve existing friendships than nondrinkers and (b) similarity on drinking fostered new friendships but had no effect on friendship persistence. CONCLUSIONS: Friends influence one another's weekly drinking and binge drinking, whereas conversely, alcohol use contributes to both friendship formation and friendship instability.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Amigos , Grupo Paritario , Estudiantes/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Universidades
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