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1.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 29(2): 520-524, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812424

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To observe the changes of serum metabolites in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) by metabonomics, and explore the potential biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis, and progression of MM. METHODS: Serum samples were collected from 26 patients with MM and 50 healthy controls. The data detected by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was input into SIMCA-14.0 software for multivariate statistical analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were used to analyze the changes of metabolites. RESULTS: The metabolic change of uric acid and trans-vaccenic acid in serum samples of MM patients was 9.39 times and 2.77 times of these in healthy people, respectively, which were significantly higher than those of healthy people, and the difference was statistically significant(P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Uric acid and trans-vaccenic acid are expected to be important metabolic indicators for the diagnosis, prognosis, and efficacy evaluation of MM, thus providing some clues for the pathogenesis of MM.


Asunto(s)
Mieloma Múltiple , Biomarcadores , Cromatografía Liquida , Análisis Discriminante , Humanos , Espectrometría de Masas , Metabolómica
2.
Anal Chem ; 93(11): 4782-4787, 2021 03 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33656857

RESUMEN

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS CoV-2 is ongoing and a serious threat to global public health. It is essential to detect the disease quickly and immediately to isolate the infected individuals. Nevertheless, the current widely used PCR and immunoassay-based methods suffer from false negative results and delays in diagnosis. Herein, a high-throughput serum peptidome profiling method based on matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is developed for efficient detection of COVID-19. We analyzed the serum samples from 146 COVID-19 patients and 152 control cases (including 73 non-COVID-19 patients with similar clinical symptoms, 33 tuberculosis patients, and 46 healthy individuals). After MS data processing and feature selection, eight machine learning methods were used to build classification models. A logistic regression machine learning model with 25 feature peaks achieved the highest accuracy (99%), with sensitivity of 98% and specificity of 100%, for the detection of COVID-19. This result demonstrated a great potential of the method for screening, routine surveillance, and diagnosis of COVID-19 in large populations, which is an important part of the pandemic control.


Asunto(s)
/diagnóstico , Péptidos/sangre , Espectrometría de Masa por Láser de Matriz Asistida de Ionización Desorción/métodos , Área Bajo la Curva , /virología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Análisis Discriminante , Ensayos Analíticos de Alto Rendimiento , Humanos , Análisis de los Mínimos Cuadrados , Aprendizaje Automático , Análisis de Componente Principal , Curva ROC , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Tuberculosis/metabolismo , Tuberculosis/patología
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2941, 2021 02 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33536486

RESUMEN

In recent months, Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread throughout the world. COVID-19 patients show mild, moderate or severe symptoms with the latter ones requiring access to specialized intensive care. SARS-CoV-2 infections, pathogenesis and progression have not been clearly elucidated yet, thus forcing the development of many complementary approaches to identify candidate cellular pathways involved in disease progression. Host lipids play a critical role in the virus life, being the double-membrane vesicles a key factor in coronavirus replication. Moreover, lipid biogenesis pathways affect receptor-mediated virus entry at the endosomal cell surface and modulate virus propagation. In this study, targeted lipidomic analysis coupled with proinflammatory cytokines and alarmins measurement were carried out in serum of COVID-19 patients characterized by different severity degree. Serum IL-26, a cytokine involved in IL-17 pathway, TSLP and adiponectin were measured and correlated to lipid COVID-19 patient profiles. These results could be important for the classification of the COVID-19 disease and the identification of therapeutic targets.


Asunto(s)
/patología , Metabolismo de los Lípidos/fisiología , Alarminas/sangre , Citocinas/sangre , Análisis Discriminante , Femenino , Humanos , Análisis de los Mínimos Cuadrados , Lípidos/sangre , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1064, 2021 02 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33594056

RESUMEN

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by an oligo-anovulation, hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovarian morphology combined with major metabolic disturbances. However, despite the high prevalence and the human and economic consequences of this syndrome, its etiology remains unknown. In this study, we show that female Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, a type 2 diabetes mellitus model, encapsulate naturally all the reproductive and metabolic hallmarks of lean women with PCOS at puberty and in adulthood. The analysis of their gestation and of their fetuses demonstrates that this PCOS-like phenotype is developmentally programmed. GK rats also develop features of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Lastly, a comparison between GK rats and a cohort of women with PCOS reveals a similar reproductive signature. Thus, this spontaneous rodent model of PCOS represents an original tool for the identification of the mechanisms involved in its pathogenesis and for the development of novel strategies for its treatment.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome del Ovario Poliquístico/patología , Adiposidad , Animales , Animales Recién Nacidos , Peso Corporal , Análisis Discriminante , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Dislipidemias/patología , Sistema Endocrino/patología , Ciclo Estral , Femenino , Prueba de Tolerancia a la Glucosa , Gonadotropinas/farmacología , Hormonas/sangre , Humanos , Secreción de Insulina , Análisis de los Mínimos Cuadrados , Lípidos/química , Masculino , Intercambio Materno-Fetal , Análisis Multivariante , Ovario/patología , Ovario/fisiopatología , Fenotipo , Síndrome del Ovario Poliquístico/sangre , Síndrome del Ovario Poliquístico/fisiopatología , Embarazo , Ratas Wistar , Reproducción , Maduración Sexual
5.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 941-950, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33603361

RESUMEN

Purpose: Candidemia infection is common in the clinic and has a high mortality rate. Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Candida krusei are very important and common pathogenic species. Candida is difficult to isolate from clinical samples and culture, and immunological detection cannot distinguish these related strains. Furthermore, Candida has a complex cell wall, which causes difficulties in the extraction of DNA for nucleic acid detection. The purpose of this study was to establish a protocol for the direct identification of Candida from serum. Materials and Methods: We synthesized Fe3O4@PEI (where PEI stands for polyethylenimine) magnetic nanoparticles to capture Candida and prepared positively charged silver nanoparticles (AgNPs+) as the substrate for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Candida was directly identified from serum by SERS detection. Results: Orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was used as the multivariate analysis tool. Principal component analysis confirmed that this method can clearly distinguish common Candida. After 10-fold cross-validation, the accuracy of training data in this model was 100% and the accuracy of test data was 99.8%, indicating that the model has good classification ability. Conclusion: The detection could be completed within 40 minutes using Fe3O4@PEI and AgNPs+ prepared in advance. This is the first time that Fe3O4@PEI was used in the detection of Candida by SERS. We report the first rapid method to identify fungi directly from serum without breaking the cell wall to extract DNA from the fungi.


Asunto(s)
Candida/aislamiento & purificación , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/química , Nanopartículas del Metal/química , Plata/química , Espectrometría Raman/métodos , Candida albicans , Análisis Discriminante , Humanos , Análisis de los Mínimos Cuadrados , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/ultraestructura , Nanopartículas del Metal/ultraestructura , Análisis Multivariante , Polietileneimina/química
6.
J Chromatogr A ; 1639: 461939, 2021 Feb 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530009

RESUMEN

Comprehensive analysis of fatty acids (FAs) has long been challenging due to their poor ionization efficiency, lack of characteristic fragment ions and difficulty of identifying C=C bond locations. In this study, a high coverage ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was established for the quantification and C=C bond location characterization of FAs using two structural analogues, 2-hydrazinyl-4,6-dimethylpyrimidine (DMP) and 2-hydrazinylpyrimidine (DP), as dual derivatization reagents. DP-labeled FA standards were used as internal standards to reduced matrix effects, which guaranteed the accurate quantification of FAs. The derivatization yields of FAs were larger than 99% and the sensitivities were increased by 400-fold compared with non-derivatized FAs. Pretreatment and instrumental analysis of FAs can be completed in 20 minutes. Only 5 µL rat plasma can satisfy the quantification of 36 FAs with good linearity (r>0.99). Both intra-day and inter-day accuracies were in the range of 85-105%, and the precisions were less than 15%. The extraction recoveries were investigated to be in the range of 88-112%. No obvious matrix effects were observed for the derivatized FAs. In addition, the locations of C=C bonds in DMP-derivatized FAs could be identified by diagnostic fragment ions generated from 1,4-hydrogen elimination and allylic cleavage under low energy collision induced dissociation (CID). The new method was finally employed for FA profiling in plasma from rats with moxifloxacin-induced liver injury. Significant downregulation of butyric acid was observed in moxifloxacin treated model rats, which was believed to be related to the liver injury.


Asunto(s)
Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión/métodos , Ácidos Grasos/análisis , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem/métodos , Animales , Análisis Discriminante , Ácidos Grasos/química , Análisis de los Mínimos Cuadrados , Hígado/lesiones , Hígado/patología , Masculino , Redes y Vías Metabólicas , Moxifloxacino/efectos adversos , Ratas Wistar
7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(3)2021 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573249

RESUMEN

The acidity of green plum has an important influence on the fruit's deep processing. Traditional physical and chemical analysis methods for green plum acidity detection are destructive, time-consuming, and unable to achieve online detection. In response, a rapid and non-destructive detection method based on hyperspectral imaging technology was studied in this paper. Research on prediction performance comparisons between supervised learning methods and unsupervised learning methods is currently popular. To further improve the accuracy of component prediction, a new hyperspectral imaging system was developed, and the kernel principle component analysis-linear discriminant analysis-extreme gradient boosting algorithm (KPCA-LDA-XGB) model was proposed to predict the acidity of green plum. The KPCA-LDA-XGB model is a supervised learning model combined with the extreme gradient boosting algorithm (XGBoost), kernel principal component analysis (KPCA), and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The experimental results proved that the KPCA-LDA-XGB model offers good acidity predictions for green plum, with a correlation coefficient (R) of 0.829 and a root mean squared error (RMSE) of 0.107 for the prediction set. Compared with the basic XGBoost model, the KPCA-LDA-XGB model showed a 79.4% increase in R and a 31.2% decrease in RMSE. The use of linear, radial basis function (RBF), and polynomial (Poly) kernel functions were also compared and analyzed in this paper to further optimize the KPCA-LDA-XGB model.


Asunto(s)
Prunus domestica , Algoritmos , Análisis Discriminante , Análisis de Componente Principal , Prunus domestica/química
8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1139, 2021 02 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33602945

RESUMEN

Changes in the microbiota have been linked to persistent inflammation during treated HIV infection. In this pilot double-blind study, we study 30 HIV-infected subjects on antiretroviral therapy (ART) with a CD4/CD8 ratio < 1 randomized to either weekly fecal microbiota capsules or placebo for 8 weeks. Stool donors were rationally selected based on their microbiota signatures. We report that fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is safe, not related to severe adverse events, and attenuates HIV-associated dysbiosis. FMT elicits changes in gut microbiota structure, including significant increases in alpha diversity, and a mild and transient engraftment of donor's microbiota during the treatment period. The greater engraftment seems to be achieved by recent antibiotic use before FMT. The Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae families, which are typically depleted in people with HIV, are the taxa more robustly engrafted across time-points. In exploratory analyses, we describe a significant amelioration in the FMT group in intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (IFABP), a biomarker of intestinal damage that independently predicts mortality. Gut microbiota manipulation using a non-invasive and safe strategy of FMT delivery is feasible and deserves further investigation. Trial number: NCT03008941.


Asunto(s)
Trasplante de Microbiota Fecal , Infecciones por VIH/microbiología , Infecciones por VIH/terapia , Biodiversidad , Biomarcadores/sangre , Análisis Discriminante , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Infecciones por VIH/sangre , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Filogenia , Proyectos Piloto , Placebos , Donantes de Tejidos
9.
J Chromatogr A ; 1641: 461934, 2021 Mar 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33611117

RESUMEN

Legumes provide one of the uniquely nutrient-rich food sources to the population and are one of the primary field crops that play significant roles in agricultural sustainability. Inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum is necessary for the high yield of leguminous crops, i.e. soybean. Nodulation of soybean by Bradyrhizobium japonicum is a complex process that is essential for cultivation of these legumes and external stress factors, such as draught and soil acidity, that influence the nodulation and crop yield. Alterations in the nodule metabolites are known to identify the type of stress that mitigates nodulation and lowers crop yield. Current techniques aimed at understanding the metabolic activities in the symbiont, such as in the case of metabolic regulations in varying nodule growth phases, rely on exhaustive techniques based on the removal of nodules or other plant tissue. Aiming to capture a more in-depth, accurate profile of this system without quenching the metabolic activity in the nodules, or removing the nodules, a workflow was prepared for the metabolite sampling through in vivo solid phase microextraction in thin film format (TF-SPME). This technique was followed by LC-QTOF-MS instrumental analysis with subsequent metabolite annotation and reference standard validation. Our approach is unique in terms of eliminating the effects that arise due to analyte partition coefficients. We show that the symbiont undergoes metabolic regulations throughout the cultivation period, displaying the efficacy of TF-SPME as a non-exhaustive sampling method that can be used as a tool to investigate the metabolic alterations in nodules. These alterations would potentially fingerprint the environmental effects on soybean yield.


Asunto(s)
Bradyrhizobium/fisiología , Metaboloma , Microextracción en Fase Sólida/métodos , Soja/microbiología , Simbiosis , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem/métodos , Aminoácidos/biosíntesis , Cromatografía Liquida , Análisis Discriminante , Análisis de los Mínimos Cuadrados , Redes y Vías Metabólicas , Análisis de Componente Principal , Programas Informáticos , Suelo , Vitaminas/metabolismo , Ácido alfa-Linolénico/metabolismo
10.
Food Chem ; 345: 128754, 2021 May 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33601651

RESUMEN

The objective of this study is to realise the successful species discrimination of meat and bone meals (MBMs) based on the complementarity of FT-IR and Raman spectra. The spectral variation of typical lipid profiles on FT-IR and Raman spectra of MBMs as well as the chemical structure-related principle of FT-IR and Raman spectroscopies related to lipid characteristics were investigated. Lipids from MBMs were separately collected by FT-IR and Raman spectroscopes, which illustrated both spectra (1800 ~ 900 cm-1) presented different typical lipid peaks. The combination of FT-IR and Raman spectra contributed to establish the more reliable and robust species discrimination model compared to single FT-IR or Raman spectra due to more detailed and integrated molecular vibration information. Degree of unsaturation and cis/trans fatty acid contents were considered the important chemical structure-related factors for ideal species discrimination. Complementation of FT-IR and Raman spectra performed synergistic enhancement to the species discrimination with diverse contributions.


Asunto(s)
Lípidos/química , Carne/análisis , Minerales/análisis , Espectroscopía Infrarroja por Transformada de Fourier , Espectrometría Raman , Productos Biológicos/análisis , Análisis Discriminante , Análisis de los Mínimos Cuadrados , Análisis de Componente Principal
11.
Food Chem ; 347: 129057, 2021 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33484957

RESUMEN

A lipidomic evaluation was performed on the tilapia muscle, head and viscera, including studying the composition, distribution and stereospecific characteristics of fatty acids and lipid species. The head and viscera lipids were significantly richer than the muscle lipids. Triacylglycerols were the predominant fraction (over 80% of total lipid in the muscle and head). Additionally, polyunsaturated fatty acids had higher percentages in phospholipids (30.35-52.05% of total fatty acids) than in triacylglycerols (18.11-25.15%). The C52:2 and C52:3 were the most abundant triacylglycerols, which indicates the potential application in infant food. Moreover, 622, 530 and 513 lipids were identified using ultraperformance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry in the muscle, head and viscera, respectively. The three tilapia parts were distinguished using multivariate analysis. Five fatty acids and 33 lipid species were considered as the potential biomarkers. This comprehensive analysis will help to evaluate the lipid nutritional values and facilitate exploitation in tilapia consumption and processing.


Asunto(s)
Cíclidos/metabolismo , Lipidómica/métodos , Lípidos/análisis , Animales , Biomarcadores/análisis , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Análisis Discriminante , Ácidos Grasos/análisis , Análisis de los Mínimos Cuadrados , Lípidos/aislamiento & purificación , Extracción Líquido-Líquido , Músculos/química , Músculos/metabolismo , Fosfolípidos/análisis , Análisis de Componente Principal , Espectrometría de Masa por Ionización de Electrospray , Triglicéridos/análisis , Vísceras/química , Vísceras/metabolismo
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(2): 794-804, 2021 Jan 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401907

RESUMEN

Pufferfish is a traditional, delicious dish in Asia. However, eating wild or improperly processed pufferfish causes serious poisoning. This study aimed to exploit the high-resolution melting (HRM) method for authenticating four species of Takifugu pufferfish (Takifugu xanthopterus, T. fasciatus, T. flavidus, and T. rubripes). Candidate DNA barcodes, including the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), cytochrome oxidase b (Cytb), and the control region (D-loop), were analyzed, with COI selected as the optimal DNA barcode. An HRM method was developed to identify 57 commercial fish samples in China, including 33 commercial pufferfish products and 24 unlabeled fish products. The findings revealed that the pufferfish products were T. rubripes or T. fasciatus, and four T. xanthopterus samples were detected in unlabeled fish products. These results showed that DNA barcode coupled with HRM analysis was a rapid and efficient tool to identify pufferfish, which might aid in the prevention of consumer fraud or mislabeling of fish products.


Asunto(s)
ADN/genética , Complejo IV de Transporte de Electrones/genética , Proteínas de Peces/genética , Técnicas Genéticas , Takifugu/genética , Animales , China , ADN/química , Análisis Discriminante , Takifugu/clasificación , Temperatura de Transición
13.
Anal Chem ; 93(4): 2191-2199, 2021 02 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427452

RESUMEN

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has led to substantial infections and mortality around the world. Fast screening and diagnosis are thus crucial for quick isolation and clinical intervention. In this work, we showed that attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FT-IR) can be a primary diagnostic tool for COVID-19 as a supplement to in-use techniques. It requires only a small volume (∼3 µL) of the serum sample and a shorter detection time (several minutes). The distinct spectral differences and the separability between normal control and COVID-19 were investigated using multivariate and statistical analysis. Results showed that ATR-FT-IR coupled with partial least squares discriminant analysis was effective to differentiate COVID-19 from normal controls and some common respiratory viral infections or inflammation, with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of 0.9561 (95% CI: 0.9071-0.9774). Several serum constituents including, but not just, antibodies and serum phospholipids could be reflected on the infrared spectra, serving as "chemical fingerprints" and accounting for good model performances.


Asunto(s)
/diagnóstico , Espectroscopía Infrarroja por Transformada de Fourier/métodos , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Análisis Discriminante , Estudios de Factibilidad , Humanos
14.
Food Chem ; 347: 129007, 2021 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444887

RESUMEN

Cold chain (-20 °C) is one of the main transportation methods for storage of Tan sheep products. Lipids (66) in seven subclasses involved in sphingolipid, glycerophospholipid and fatty acid degradation metabolism were quantified in Tan sheep under cold chain storage, including fatty acyl carnitines, phosphatidylcholine (PC), lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), ceramides, sphingomyelin (SM) and lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE). Lipid transformation and molecular mechanism analyzed using fragmentation mechanisms and UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap MS/MS combined with lipidomics approaches determined transient increases of certain PC, PE and fatty acyl carnitine during the first 12 days of cold storage, subsequent declines of SM, PC, PE and fatty acyl carnitine, as well as increases of ceramide, LPC and LPE (24 days). These results offered insights into lipid transformation and quality of Tan sheep during cold chain storage.


Asunto(s)
Lipidómica/métodos , Lípidos/análisis , Carne/análisis , Animales , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Frío , Análisis Discriminante , Almacenamiento de Alimentos , Análisis de los Mínimos Cuadrados , Metabolismo de los Lípidos/fisiología , Lípidos/aislamiento & purificación , Masculino , Análisis de Componente Principal , Ovinos , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem , Factores de Tiempo
15.
Food Chem ; 347: 128999, 2021 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465687

RESUMEN

The effect of in-bag dry- and wet-ageing on metabolite profiles of lamb legs was determined using Rapid Evaporative Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (REIMS). Using orthogonal projection to latent structures-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) with REIMS, 1705 metabolite ions were identified (Q2 = 0.86) in four muscles: m. semimembranosus, m. biceps femoris, m. vastus lateralis and m. rectus femoris. A total of 663 metabolites differed between ageing methods (P < 0.05) which mainly resulted from proteolysis and lipid metabolism. Dry-aged lamb had higher pH (P = 0.016) and lower moisture content (P = 0.034) than the wet-aged. Dry-ageing produced more (P < 0.05) smaller sized metabolites including dipeptides and free amino acids and lipid oxidation metabolites compared to wet-aged equivalents. Different muscles had distinct REIMS metabolic profiles. Outcomes of this study demonstrated that REIMS can be used for authentication between in-bag dry- and wet-aged lamb based on their metabolic fingerprints.


Asunto(s)
Desecación/métodos , Espectrometría de Masas/métodos , Metaboloma , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/análisis , Animales , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Análisis Discriminante , Electroforesis en Gel de Poliacrilamida , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Análisis de los Mínimos Cuadrados , Metabolismo de los Lípidos , Proteínas Musculares/análisis , Proteolisis , Carne Roja/análisis , Ovinos , Factores de Tiempo
16.
Food Chem ; 347: 129005, 2021 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482487

RESUMEN

Jujube leaf is well known for its high nutritional value and medicinal benefits. However, a thorough and dynamic assessment of the metabolites present in jujube leaves is lacking. Here, the primary and secondary metabolites from purple leaf buds and green mature leaves were investigated using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 778 metabolites were characterized and more than 700 compounds were reported for the first time. Analysis of differentially accumulated metabolites showed that the flavonoids were the major differential metabolites and determined the leaf coloration. The transcriptome data indicated that 20 flavonoid structural genes and three main types of flavonoid regulatory genes were significantly differentially expressed. Moreover, light had a significant influence on flavonoid accumulation. These results improve our understanding of metabolite accumulation and the molecular mechanisms of flavonoid biosynthesis in jujube leaf.


Asunto(s)
Metaboloma , Transcriptoma , Ziziphus/metabolismo , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Color , Análisis Discriminante , Flavonoides/análisis , Análisis de los Mínimos Cuadrados , Luz , Hojas de la Planta/química , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Hojas de la Planta/efectos de la radiación , Análisis de Componente Principal , ARN de Planta/metabolismo , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem , Ziziphus/química , Ziziphus/genética
17.
Life Sci ; 269: 119008, 2021 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434535

RESUMEN

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease related to intestinal dysbiosis. Luteolin has been reported to reduce inflammation. However, it remains unclear whether luteolin ameliorates UC and regulates gut microbiota. In this study, we investigated the effects of luteolin on colonic structure and inflammation of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced rats using hematoxylin-eosin staining, immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and evaluated the effects of luteolin on gut microbiota using 16S rDNA sequencing. We found that luteolin treatment significantly reduced colonic damage, and inhibited colonic inflammation in UC rats, evidenced by the decreased levels of NF-κB, IL-17 and IL-23 in UC rats and the increased level of PPAR-γ. In addition, the 16S rDNA sequencing analysis revealed that luteolin treatment could alter diversity and composition of gut microbiota in UC rats. Lactobacillus, Bacteroides, Roseburia and Butyricicoccus were dominant genera in the luteolin group. Luteolin treatment reduced DSS-induced increased ratios of Lactobacillus and Prevotella_9. Furthermore, KEGG analysis revealed that gut microbiota was mainly related to DNA repair and recombination proteins, ribosome, purine metabolism, peptidases, and pyrimidine metabolism. In conclusion, our results revealed that luteolin could alleviate DSS-induced colitis in rats, and gut microbiota had the potential to serve as promising biomarkers for uncovering the mechanism by which luteolin improved UC.


Asunto(s)
Colitis Ulcerosa/tratamiento farmacológico , Colitis Ulcerosa/microbiología , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Inflamación/tratamiento farmacológico , Inflamación/microbiología , Luteolina/uso terapéutico , Animales , Bacterias/clasificación , Colitis Ulcerosa/complicaciones , Colon/patología , Análisis Discriminante , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efectos de los fármacos , Inflamación/complicaciones , Mediadores de Inflamación/metabolismo , Luteolina/farmacología , Masculino , Análisis de Componente Principal , Ratas Wistar
18.
Food Chem ; 347: 128959, 2021 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465688

RESUMEN

Laoshan green teas plucked in summer and autumn were measured by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). After baseline correction, the fingerprints data were resolved by multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) and a total of 57 components were acquired. Relative concentrations of these components were afterwards applied to distinguish plucking seasons using principal component analysis (PCA), support vector machines (SVM) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). For both SVM and PLS-DA models, the total recognition rates of training set, cross-validation and testing set were 100%, 91.3% and 100%, respectively. Besides, three variable selection methods were employed to determine characteristic components for the authentication of summer and autumn teas. Results showed that PLS-DA model based on three characteristic components selected by VIP possesses identical predictive ability as the original model. This study demonstrated that our proposed strategy is competent for the authentication of plucking seasons of Laoshan green tea.


Asunto(s)
Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Análisis de los Alimentos/métodos , Informática , Té/química , Análisis Discriminante , Fraude/prevención & control , Análisis de los Mínimos Cuadrados , Análisis de Componente Principal , Estaciones del Año
19.
Food Chem ; 347: 128955, 2021 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33486360

RESUMEN

Understanding which volatile compounds discriminate between products can be useful for quality, innovation or product authenticity purposes. As dataset size and dimensionality increase, linear chemometric techniques like partial least squares discriminant analysis and variable identification (PLS-DA-VID) may not identify the most discriminant compounds. This research compared the performance of self-organizing maps and entropy-based feature selection (SOM-EFS) and PLS-DA-VID to identify discriminant compounds in 17 blue cheese varieties. A total of 172 volatiles were detected using headspace solid phase microextraction, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, including 1-nonene and 2,6-dimethylpyridine, which were newly identified in blue cheese. Despite SOM-EFS selecting only 14 volatiles compared to 78 for PLS-DA-VID, SOM-EFS proved more effectively discriminant and improved the median five-fold cross-validated prediction accuracy of the model to 0.94 compared to 0.82 for PLS-DA-VID. These findings introduce SOM-EFS as a powerful non-linear exploratory data analysis approach in the field of volatile analytical chemistry.


Asunto(s)
Queso/análisis , Entropía , Análisis de los Alimentos/métodos , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles/análisis , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles/aislamiento & purificación , Análisis Discriminante , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Análisis de los Mínimos Cuadrados , Microextracción en Fase Sólida
20.
Food Chem ; 346: 128928, 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33412485

RESUMEN

The potential of traceability by nutrients and mineral elements in highland barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) from five cities in Tibet were investigated. The results showed that there were significant differences in nutrients and mineral elements in highland barley from different regions (P < 0.05). The original classification accuracy of linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was 78.3%, and the discrimination accuracy of training set samples based on partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) model was over 65%. The results of correlation analysis show that five elements (Fe, Zn, K, Mn and P) in highland barley are related to the concentration of elements in soil, while three elements (Ca, Cu and Mg) in highland barley have no obvious correlation with soil, because the special natural environment in Tibet affecting the growth of highland barley. This indicates that the origin traceability of highland barley can be achieved by measuring its nutrients and mineral elements.


Asunto(s)
Hordeum/química , Hordeum/clasificación , Minerales/análisis , Nutrientes/análisis , Filogenia , Análisis Discriminante , Tibet
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