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1.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 22(1): 39, 2021 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33522897

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Generating and analysing single-cell data has become a widespread approach to examine tissue heterogeneity, and numerous algorithms exist for clustering these datasets to identify putative cell types with shared transcriptomic signatures. However, many of these clustering workflows rely on user-tuned parameter values, tailored to each dataset, to identify a set of biologically relevant clusters. Whereas users often develop their own intuition as to the optimal range of parameters for clustering on each data set, the lack of systematic approaches to identify this range can be daunting to new users of any given workflow. In addition, an optimal parameter set does not guarantee that all clusters are equally well-resolved, given the heterogeneity in transcriptomic signatures in most biological systems. RESULTS: Here, we illustrate a subsampling-based approach (chooseR) that simultaneously guides parameter selection and characterizes cluster robustness. Through bootstrapped iterative clustering across a range of parameters, chooseR was used to select parameter values for two distinct clustering workflows (Seurat and scVI). In each case, chooseR identified parameters that produced biologically relevant clusters from both well-characterized (human PBMC) and complex (mouse spinal cord) datasets. Moreover, it provided a simple "robustness score" for each of these clusters, facilitating the assessment of cluster quality. CONCLUSION: chooseR is a simple, conceptually understandable tool that can be used flexibly across clustering algorithms, workflows, and datasets to guide clustering parameter selection and characterize cluster robustness.


Asunto(s)
Benchmarking , Análisis de Datos , Leucocitos Mononucleares , Algoritmos , Análisis por Conglomerados , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica
2.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 22(1): 41, 2021 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33526006

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The drive to understand how microbial communities interact with their environments has inspired innovations across many fields. The data generated from sequence-based analyses of microbial communities typically are of high dimensionality and can involve multiple data tables consisting of taxonomic or functional gene/pathway counts. Merging multiple high dimensional tables with study-related metadata can be challenging. Existing microbiome pipelines available in R have created their own data structures to manage this problem. However, these data structures may be unfamiliar to analysts new to microbiome data or R and do not allow for deviations from internal workflows. Existing analysis tools also focus primarily on community-level analyses and exploratory visualizations, as opposed to analyses of individual taxa. RESULTS: We developed the R package "tidyMicro" to serve as a more complete microbiome analysis pipeline. This open source software provides all of the essential tools available in other popular packages (e.g., management of sequence count tables, standard exploratory visualizations, and diversity inference tools) supplemented with multiple options for regression modelling (e.g., negative binomial, beta binomial, and/or rank based testing) and novel visualizations to improve interpretability (e.g., Rocky Mountain plots, longitudinal ordination plots). This comprehensive pipeline for microbiome analysis also maintains data structures familiar to R users to improve analysts' control over workflow. A complete vignette is provided to aid new users in analysis workflow. CONCLUSIONS: tidyMicro provides a reliable alternative to popular microbiome analysis packages in R. We provide standard tools as well as novel extensions on standard analyses to improve interpretability results while maintaining object malleability to encourage open source collaboration. The simple examples and full workflow from the package are reproducible and applicable to external data sets.


Asunto(s)
Análisis de Datos , Microbiota , Programas Informáticos , Flujo de Trabajo
3.
J Vis Exp ; (167)2021 01 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33522501

RESUMEN

Protein structure elucidation using X-ray crystallography requires both high quality diffracting crystals and computational solution of the diffraction phase problem. Novel structures that lack a suitable homology model are often derivatized with heavy atoms to provide experimental phase information. The presented protocol efficiently generates derivatized protein crystals by combining random microseeding matrix screening with derivatization with a heavy atom molecule I3C (5-amino-2,4,6-triiodoisophthalic acid). By incorporating I3C into the crystal lattice, the diffraction phase problem can be efficiently solved using single wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) phasing. The equilateral triangle arrangement of iodine atoms in I3C allows for rapid validation of a correct anomalous substructure. This protocol will be useful to structural biologists who solve macromolecular structures using crystallography-based techniques with interest in experimental phasing.


Asunto(s)
Cristalografía por Rayos X , Proteínas/química , Ácidos Triyodobenzoicos/química , Animales , Pollos , Análisis de Datos , Difusión , Imagenología Tridimensional , Litio/química , Modelos Moleculares , Muramidasa/química
4.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e26302, 2021 02 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33529155

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 (ie, COVID-19) has given rise to a global pandemic affecting 215 countries and over 40 million people as of October 2020. Meanwhile, we are also experiencing an infodemic induced by the overabundance of information, some accurate and some inaccurate, spreading rapidly across social media platforms. Social media has arguably shifted the information acquisition and dissemination of a considerably large population of internet users toward higher interactivities. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate COVID-19-related health beliefs on one of the mainstream social media platforms, Twitter, as well as potential impacting factors associated with fluctuations in health beliefs on social media. METHODS: We used COVID-19-related posts from the mainstream social media platform Twitter to monitor health beliefs. A total of 92,687,660 tweets corresponding to 8,967,986 unique users from January 6 to June 21, 2020, were retrieved. To quantify health beliefs, we employed the health belief model (HBM) with four core constructs: perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, and perceived barriers. We utilized natural language processing and machine learning techniques to automate the process of judging the conformity of each tweet with each of the four HBM constructs. A total of 5000 tweets were manually annotated for training the machine learning architectures. RESULTS: The machine learning classifiers yielded areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves over 0.86 for the classification of all four HBM constructs. Our analyses revealed a basic reproduction number R0 of 7.62 for trends in the number of Twitter users posting health belief-related content over the study period. The fluctuations in the number of health belief-related tweets could reflect dynamics in case and death statistics, systematic interventions, and public events. Specifically, we observed that scientific events, such as scientific publications, and nonscientific events, such as politicians' speeches, were comparable in their ability to influence health belief trends on social media through a Kruskal-Wallis test (P=.78 and P=.92 for perceived benefits and perceived barriers, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: As an analogy of the classic epidemiology model where an infection is considered to be spreading in a population with an R0 greater than 1, we found that the number of users tweeting about COVID-19 health beliefs was amplifying in an epidemic manner and could partially intensify the infodemic. It is "unhealthy" that both scientific and nonscientific events constitute no disparity in impacting the health belief trends on Twitter, since nonscientific events, such as politicians' speeches, might not be endorsed by substantial evidence and could sometimes be misleading.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Análisis de Datos , Educación en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Aprendizaje Automático , Procesamiento de Lenguaje Natural , Opinión Pública , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/estadística & datos numéricos , /epidemiología , Humanos , Pandemias
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1226, 2021 02 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33619257

RESUMEN

The goal of the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Genomic Data Commons (GDC) is to provide the cancer research community with a data repository of uniformly processed genomic and associated clinical data that enables data sharing and collaborative analysis in the support of precision medicine. The initial GDC dataset include genomic, epigenomic, proteomic, clinical and other data from the NCI TCGA and TARGET programs. Data production for the GDC started in June, 2015 using an OpenStack-based private cloud. By June of 2016, the GDC had analyzed more than 50,000 raw sequencing data inputs, as well as multiple other data types. Using the latest human genome reference build GRCh38, the GDC generated a variety of data types from aligned reads to somatic mutations, gene expression, miRNA expression, DNA methylation status, and copy number variation. In this paper, we describe the pipelines and workflows used to process and harmonize the data in the GDC. The generated data, as well as the original input files from TCGA and TARGET, are available for download and exploratory analysis at the GDC Data Portal and Legacy Archive ( https://gdc.cancer.gov/ ).


Asunto(s)
Análisis de Datos , Bases de Datos Genéticas , Genómica , Secuencia de Bases , Variaciones en el Número de Copia de ADN/genética , Metilación de ADN/genética , Regulación de la Expresión Génica , Genoma Humano , Humanos , MicroARNs/genética , MicroARNs/metabolismo , Anotación de Secuencia Molecular , Mutación/genética , National Cancer Institute (U.S.) , RNA-Seq , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Estados Unidos , Virus/genética
6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1219, 2021 02 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33619268

RESUMEN

Evidence on the long-term risk of HIV infection in individuals taking HIV post-exposure prophylaxis remains limited. In this retrospective data linkage study, we evaluate the occurrence of HIV infection in 975 individuals who sought post-exposure prophylaxis in a tertiary hospital between 2007 and 2013. Using privacy preserving probabilistic linkage, we link these 975 records with two observational databases providing data on HIV events (Zurich Primary HIV Infection study and the Swiss HIV Cohort Study). This enables us to identify 22 HIV infections and to obtain long-term follow-up data, which reveal a median of 4.1 years between consultation for post-exposure prophylaxis and HIV diagnosis. Even though men who have sex with men constitute only 35.8% of those seeking post-exposure prophylaxis, all 22 events occur in this subgroup. These findings should strongly encourage early consideration of pre-exposure prophylaxis in men who have sex with men after a first episode of post-exposure prophylaxis.


Asunto(s)
Análisis de Datos , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Profilaxis Posexposición , Adulto , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Factores de Riesgo
7.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 22(1): 49, 2021 Feb 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546590

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Microbiomes consist of bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms, and are responsible for many different functions in both organisms and the environment. Past analyses of microbiomes focused on using correlation to determine linear relationships between microbes and diseases. Weak correlations due to nonlinearity between microbe pairs may cause researchers to overlook critical components of the data. With the abundance of available microbiome, we need a method that comprehensively studies microbiomes and how they are related to each other. RESULTS: We collected publicly available datasets from human, environment, and animal samples to determine both symmetric and asymmetric Boolean implication relationships between a pair of microbes. We then found relationships that are potentially invariants, meaning they will hold in any microbe community. In other words, if we determine there is a relationship between two microbes, we expect the relationship to hold in almost all contexts. We discovered that around 330,000 pairs of microbes universally exhibit the same relationship in almost all the datasets we studied, thus making them good candidates for invariants. Our results also confirm known biological properties and seem promising in terms of disease diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Since the relationships are likely universal, we expect them to hold in clinical settings, as well as general populations. If these strong invariants are present in disease settings, it may provide insight into prognostic, predictive, or therapeutic properties of clinically relevant diseases. For example, our results indicate that there is a difference in the microbe distributions between patients who have or do not have IBD, eczema and psoriasis. These new analyses may improve disease diagnosis and drug development in terms of accuracy and efficiency.


Asunto(s)
Análisis de Datos , Microbiota , Animales , Bacterias , Humanos
8.
Sci Data ; 8(1): 10, 2021 01 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452270

RESUMEN

Rett syndrome (RTT) is a rare neurological disorder mostly caused by a genetic variation in MECP2. Making new MECP2 variants and the related phenotypes available provides data for better understanding of disease mechanisms and faster identification of variants for diagnosis. This is, however, currently hampered by the lack of interoperability between genotype-phenotype databases. Here, we demonstrate on the example of MECP2 in RTT that by making the genotype-phenotype data more Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, and Reusable (FAIR), we can facilitate prioritization and analysis of variants. In total, 10,968 MECP2 variants were successfully integrated. Among these variants 863 unique confirmed RTT causing and 209 unique confirmed benign variants were found. This dataset was used for comparison of pathogenicity predicting tools, protein consequences, and identification of ambiguous variants. Prediction tools generally recognised the RTT causing and benign variants, however, there was a broad range of overlap Nineteen variants were identified that were annotated as both disease-causing and benign, suggesting that there are additional factors in these cases contributing to disease development.


Asunto(s)
Proteína 2 de Unión a Metil-CpG/genética , Mutación , Síndrome de Rett/etiología , Análisis Mutacional de ADN , Análisis de Datos , Humanos , Síndrome de Rett/genética
9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33419145

RESUMEN

Pregnant women face many physical and psychological changes during their pregnancy. It is known that stress, caused by many factors and life events such as the COVID-19 pandemic, can negatively impact the health of mothers and offspring. It is the first time social media, such as Twitter, are available and commonly used during a global pandemic; this allows access to a rich set of data. The objective of this study was to characterize the content of an international sample of tweets related to pregnancy and mental health during the first wave of COVID-19, from March to June 2020. Tweets were collected using GetOldTweets3. Sentiment analysis was performed using the VADER sentiment analysis tool, and a thematic analysis was performed. In total, 192 tweets were analyzed: 51 were from individuals, 37 from companies, 56 from non-profit organizations, and 48 from health professionals/researchers. Findings showed discrepancies between individual and non-individual tweets. Women expressed anxiety, depressive symptoms, sleeping problems, and distress related to isolation. Alarmingly, there was a discrepancy between distress expressed by women with isolation and sleep difficulties compared to support offered by non-individuals. Concrete efforts should be made to acknowledge these issues on Twitter while maintaining the current support offered.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Mujeres Embarazadas/psicología , Sueño , Aislamiento Social , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Apoyo Social , Análisis de Datos , Femenino , Humanos , Pandemias , Embarazo
10.
J Vis Exp ; (167)2021 01 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33491676

RESUMEN

The cell cycle of antigen-specific T cells in vivo has been examined by using a few methods, all of which possess some limitations. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) marks cells that are in or recently completed S-phase, and carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE) detects daughter cells after division. However, these dyes do not allow identification of the cell cycle phase at the time of analysis. An alternative approach is to exploit Ki67, a marker that is highly expressed by cells in all phases of the cell cycle except the quiescent phase G0. Unfortunately, Ki67 does not allow further differentiation as it does not separate cells in S-phase that are committed to mitosis from those in G1 that can remain in this phase, proceed into cycling, or move into G0. Here, we describe a flow cytometric method for capturing a "snapshot" of T cells in different cell cycle phases in mouse secondary lymphoid organs. The method combines Ki67 and DNA staining with major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-peptide-multimer staining and an innovative gating strategy, allowing us to successfully differentiate between antigen-specific CD8 T cells in G0, in G1 and in S-G2/M phases of the cell cycle in the spleen and draining lymph nodes of mice after vaccination with viral vectors carrying the model antigen gag of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1. Critical steps of the method were the choice of the DNA dye and the gating strategy to increase the assay sensitivity and to include highly activated/proliferating antigen-specific T cells that would have been missed by current criteria of analysis. The DNA dye, Hoechst 33342, enabled us to obtain a high-quality discrimination of the G0/G1 and G2/M DNA peaks, while preserving membrane and intracellular staining. The method has great potential to increase knowledge about T cell response in vivo and to improve immuno-monitoring analysis.


Asunto(s)
Linfocitos T CD8-positivos/inmunología , Ciclo Celular , ADN/metabolismo , Epítopos/inmunología , Citometría de Flujo/métodos , Antígeno Ki-67/metabolismo , Vacunación , Animales , Células de la Médula Ósea/citología , Análisis de Datos , Femenino , Humanos , Ganglios Linfáticos/citología , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C , Bazo/citología , Coloración y Etiquetado
12.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(1): e21825, 2021 01 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417586

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Internet hospitals in China are being rapidly developed as an innovative approach to providing health services. The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has triggered the development of internet hospitals that promote outpatient service delivery to the public via internet technologies. To date, no studies have assessed China's internet hospitals during the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to elucidate the characteristics of China's internet hospitals and assess the health service capacity of these hospitals. METHODS: Data on 711 internet hospitals were collected from official websites, the WeChat (Tencent Inc) platform, smartphone apps, and the Baidu search engine until July 16, 2020. RESULTS: As of July 16, 2020, 711 internet hospitals were developed in mainland China. More than half of these internet hospitals (421/711, 59.2%) were established during 2019 (206/711, 29%) and 2020 (215/711, 30.2%). Furthermore, about one-third (215/711, 30.2%) of internet hospitals were established at the beginning of 2020 as an emergency response to the COVID-19 epidemic. The 711 internet hospitals consisted of the following 3 types of hospitals: government-oriented (42/711, 5.91%), hospital-oriented (143/711, 20.11%), and enterprise-oriented internet hospitals (526/711, 73.98%). The vast majority of internet hospitals were traditional hospitals (526/711, 74%). Nearly 46.1% (221/711) of internet hospitals requested doctors to provide health services at a specific web clinic. Most patients (224/639, 35.1%) accessed outpatient services via WeChat. Internet hospitals' consulting methods included SMS text messaging consultations involving the use of graphics (552/570, 96.8%), video consultations (248/570, 43.5%), and telephone consultations (238/570, 41.8%). The median number of available web-based doctors was 43, and the median consultation fees of fever clinics and other outpatient clinics were ¥0 (US $0) per consultation and ¥6 (US $0.93) per consultation, respectively. Internet hospitals have provided various services during the COVID-19 pandemic, including medical prescription, drug delivery, and medical insurance services. CONCLUSIONS: The dramatic increase of internet hospitals in China has played an important role in the prevention and control of COVID-19. Internet hospitals provide different and convenient medical services for people in need.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Telemedicina/métodos , /terapia , China/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Análisis de Datos , Femenino , Hospitales , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pandemias
14.
J Frailty Aging ; 10(1): 31-37, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331619

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Given the important association between cardiovascular disease and cognitive decline, and their significant implications on frailty status, the contribution of neurocognitive frailty measure helping with the assessment of patient outcomes is dearly needed. OBJECTIVES: The present study examines the prognostic value of the Neurocognitive Frailty Index (NFI) in the elderly with cardiovascular disease. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA) dataset was used for prediction of 5-year cognitive changes. SETTING: Community and institutional sample. PARTICIPANTS: Canadians aged 65 and over [Mean age: 80.4 years (SD=6.9; Range of 66-100)]. MEASUREMENT: Neurocognitive Frailty Index (NFI) and Modified Mini-Mental State (3MS) scores for cognitive functioning of all subjects at follow-up and mortality rate were measured. RESULTS: The NFI mean score was 9.63 (SD = 6.04) and ranged from 0 to 33. This study demonstrated that the NFI was significantly associated with cognitive changes for subjects with heart disease and this correlation was a stronger predictor than age. CONCLUSION: The clinical relevance of this study is that our result supports the prognostic utility of the NFI tool in treatment planning for those with modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factors in the development of dementia.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/psicología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/mortalidad , Cognición/fisiología , Fragilidad/psicología , Evaluación Geriátrica/métodos , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Canadá/epidemiología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/psicología , Envejecimiento Cognitivo , Análisis de Datos , Anciano Frágil/psicología , Humanos , Tasa de Supervivencia
15.
Food Chem ; 336: 127699, 2021 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768905

RESUMEN

Cheese is one of the most widely consumed food products in the world. However, the increasing demand for nutritionally enhanced or functional products by the cheese industry has created new approaches that partially or fully replace milk fat. With this, new methods of adulteration have also been noted, potentially leading to these fully/partially-replaced products being offered as cheese. In this study, Raman spectroscopy was used to determine origins of fats in margarine, corn, and palm oils present in white and ultra-filtered cheese samples. Raman spectra were evaluated with partial least square-discriminant (PLS-DA) and PLS to identify fat/oil origins and adulteration ratios. The coefficients of determination and limits of detection for margarine, and corn and palm oil adulteration were found to be 0.990, 0.993, 0.991 and 3.38%, 3.36% and 3.59%, respectively.


Asunto(s)
Queso/análisis , Análisis de Datos , Grasas/análisis , Análisis de los Alimentos/métodos , Leche/química , Espectrometría Raman , Ultrafiltración , Animales , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Análisis de los Mínimos Cuadrados , Análisis Multivariante
16.
Neural Netw ; 133: 69-86, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125919

RESUMEN

The data imbalance problem in classification is a frequent but challenging task. In real-world datasets, numerous class distributions are imbalanced and the classification result under such condition reveals extreme bias in the majority data class. Recently, the potential of GAN as a data augmentation method on minority data has been studied. In this paper, we propose a classification enhancement generative adversarial networks (CEGAN) to enhance the quality of generated synthetic minority data and more importantly, to improve the prediction accuracy in data imbalanced condition. In addition, we propose an ambiguity reduction method using the generated synthetic minority data for the case of multiple similar classes that are degenerating the classification accuracy. The proposed method is demonstrated with five benchmark datasets. The results indicate that approximating the real data distribution using CEGAN improves the classification performance significantly in data imbalanced conditions compared with various standard data augmentation methods.


Asunto(s)
Análisis de Datos , Redes Neurales de la Computación , Reconocimiento de Normas Patrones Automatizadas/clasificación , Reconocimiento de Normas Patrones Automatizadas/métodos , Humanos
17.
Neural Netw ; 133: 207-219, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227665

RESUMEN

Incomplete multi-view clustering which aims to solve the difficult clustering challenge on incomplete multi-view data collected from diverse domains with missing views has drawn considerable attention in recent years. In this paper, we propose a novel method, called consensus guided incomplete multi-view spectral clustering (CGIMVSC), to address the incomplete clustering problem. Specifically, CGIMVSC seeks to explore the local information within every single-view and the semantic consistent information shared by all views in a unified framework simultaneously, where the local structure is adaptively obtained from the incomplete data rather than pre-constructed via a k-nearest neighbor approach in the existing methods. Considering the semantic consistency of multiple views, CGIMVSC introduces a co-regularization constraint to minimize the disagreement between the common representation and the individual representations with respect to different views, such that all views will obtain a consensus clustering result. Experimental comparisons with some state-of-the-art methods on seven datasets validate the effectiveness of the proposed method on incomplete multi-view clustering.


Asunto(s)
Algoritmos , Consenso , Análisis de Datos , Análisis por Conglomerados , Humanos , Semántica
18.
Rev. odontopediatr. latinoam ; 11(1): 220160, 2021. tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1147621

RESUMEN

Objetivo: Evaluar la eficacia de la musicoterapia para la reducción de la ansiedad dental en niños entre 5 a 12 años con discapacidad durante la atención odontológica. Materiales y métodos: Estudio cuasi experimental. Se evaluaron 40 pacientes, divididos aleatoriamente en 2 grupos: grupo de expuestos y no expuestos a musicoterapia. El nivel de ansiedad fue registrado por la escala de imagen facial antes y después de la atención clínica, el comportamiento durante la atención a través de la escala de Frankl y el nivel de ansiedad de los padres a través de la escala modificada de Corah. Se registraron las funciones vitales de ambos grupos antes y después de dicha atención. El análisis de los datos se realizó análisis descriptivo (media ± desviación estándar) y análisis inferencial: Test de T-Student y Chi cuadrado (p<0,05). Resultados: Se encontró que la presión arterial inicial/ final en el grupo expuesto fue (Sístole: 108.75 ± 8.56/ 95.50 ± 6.86, Diástole: 67.75 ± 7.15 / 57.75 ± 6.38), y en el grupo no expuesto (Sístole: 101.75 ± 8.77/ 110.15 ± 13.31, Diástole: 59.20 ± 6.08) respectivamente, y la frecuencia cardiaca inicial/final en el grupo expuesto (72.30 ± 7.18 / 63.95 ± 6.12); y en el grupo no expuesto (66.50 ± 9.88 / 73.90 ± 11.46). Se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en los valores de la presión arterial (sístole, p<0,001 y diástole, p=0,007) y frecuencia cardiaca final (p=0,001), así como una reducción de los niveles de ansiedad final en el grupo expuesto a musicoterapia (p=0,001).


Objetivo:Avaliar a eficacia da musicoterapia para redução da ansiedade dental em crianças com discapacidades entre 5 a 12 anos durante o atendimento odontológico. Materiais e métodos: Estudo quase experimental. Avaliou-se 40 pacientes divididos aleatoriamente em dois grupos: grupos de expostos e não expostos a musicoterapia. O nível de ansiedade foi registrado pela escala de imagem facial antes e durante o atendimento odontológico, o comportamento durante o atendimento foi através da escala de Frankl e o nível de ansiedade dos padres através da escala modificada de Corah. As funções vitais foram registradas antes e depois do atendimento. O análises de dados foi realizado através análises descritivas (média ± ds) e análises inferenciais: Teste de T-Student e Chi Quadrado (p<0,05). Resultados: A pressão arterial inicial/final no grupo exposto foi (Sístole: 108.75 ± 8.56/95.50 ± 6.86, Diástole: 67.75 ± 7.15/ 57.75 ± 6.38), e no grupo não exposto (Sístole: 101.75 ± 8.77/110.15 ± 13.31, Diástole: 59.20 ± 6.08) respetivamente, e a frequência cardíaca inicial/final no grupo exposto (72.30 ± 7.18/ 63.95 ± 6.12); e no grupo não exposto (66.50 ± 9.88 / 73.90 ± 11.46). Se encontraram diferenças estatisticamente significativas nos valores da pressão arterial (sístole, p=0,000 e diástole, p=0,007) e frequência cardíaca final (p= 0,001), assim como na redução dos níveis de ansiedade final no grupo exposto à musicoterapia (p=0,001). Conclusão: O uso da musicoterapia diminuiu significativamente os níveis da ansiedade durante o atendimento odontológico nos pacientes com discapacidades


Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of music therapy in reducing dental anxiety in children with disabilities between 5 and 12 years old during dental care. Materials and methods: Quasi-experimental study. 40 patients were evaluated, randomly divided into 2 groups: a group exposed to music therapy and a group not exposed to it. The levels of anxiety were registered using the Facial Image Scale before and after the dental care, the behaviour during dental care using the Frank Scale and the level of anxiety of the parents using the Modified Corah Scale. The vital functions of both groups were registered before and after the dental care. The data analysis was performed using descriptive analysis (media ± standard deviation) and inferential analysis: T- Student test and Chi square (p<0,05). Results: It was found that the initial/final blood pressure in the exposed group was (Systole: 108.75 ± 8.56/ 95.50 ± 6.86, Diastole: 67.75 ± 7.15/ 57.75 ± 6.38), and in the unexposed group (Systole: 101.75 ± 8.77/ 110.15 ± 13.31, Diastole: 59.20 ± 6.08), and the initial/final heart rate in the exposed group was (72.30 ± 7.18/ 63.95 ± 6.12); and in the unexposed group (66.50 ± 9.88/ 73.90 ± 11.46). Statistically significant differences were found in the values of blood pressure (systole, p=0,000 y diastole, p=0,007) and heart rate (p= 0,001), as well as a reduction in the levels of anxiety in the exposed group to music therapy (p=0,001). Conclusion: The use of Music therapy significantly reduces levels of anxiety during dental care in patients with disabilities.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Preescolar , Niño , Adolescente , Ansiedad al Tratamiento Odontológico , Niños con Discapacidad , Musicoterapia , Ansiedad , Terapéutica , Efectividad , Atención Odontológica , Análisis de Datos
20.
Trials ; 21(1): 1028, 2020 Dec 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33353566

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) provide valuable information and inform the development of harm profiles of new treatments. Harms are typically assessed through the collection of adverse events (AEs). Despite AEs being routine outcomes collected in trials, analysis and reporting of AEs in journal articles are continually shown to be suboptimal. One key challenge is the large volume of AEs, which can make evaluation and communication problematic. Prominent practice is to report frequency tables of AEs by arm. Visual displays offer an effective solution to assess and communicate complex information; however, they are rarely used and there is a lack of practical guidance on what and how to visually display complex AE data. METHODS: In this article, we demonstrate the use of two plots identified to be beneficial for wide use in RCTs, since both can display multiple AEs and are suitable to display point estimates for binary, count, or time-to-event AE data: the volcano and dot plots. We compare and contrast the use of data visualisations against traditional frequency table reporting, using published AE information in two placebo-controlled trials, of remdesivir for COVID-19 and GDNF for Parkinson disease. We introduce statistical programmes for implementation in Stata. RESULTS/CASE STUDY: Visualisations of AEs in the COVID-19 trial communicated a risk profile for remdesivir which differed from the main message in the published authors' conclusion. In the Parkinson's disease trial of GDNF, the visualisation provided immediate communication of harm signals, which had otherwise been contained within lengthy descriptive text and tables. Asymmetry in the volcano plot helped flag extreme events that were less obvious from review of the frequency table and dot plot. The dot plot allowed a more comprehensive representation by means of a more detailed summary. CONCLUSIONS: Visualisations can better support investigators to assimilate large volumes of data and enable improved informal between-arm comparisons compared to tables. We endorse increased uptake for use in trial publications. Care in construction of visual displays needs to be taken as there can be potential to overemphasise treatment effects in some circumstances.


Asunto(s)
Adenosina Monofosfato/análogos & derivados , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Presentación de Datos , Visualización de Datos , Efectos Colaterales y Reacciones Adversas Relacionados con Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Factor Neurotrófico Derivado de la Línea Celular Glial/efectos adversos , Enfermedad de Parkinson/tratamiento farmacológico , Proyectos de Investigación/normas , Adenosina Monofosfato/efectos adversos , Alanina/efectos adversos , Antiparkinsonianos/efectos adversos , Antivirales/efectos adversos , Gráficos por Computador , Exactitud de los Datos , Análisis de Datos , Monitoreo de Drogas/métodos , Humanos , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
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