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1.
Span J Psychol ; 24: e16, 2021 Mar 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33745483

RESUMEN

A sample of 641 participants were presented with four decision-making tasks during the first stages of the COVID-19 lockdown in Spain: The dictator game, framing problems, utilitarian/deontological and altruistic/egoistic moral dilemmas. Participants also completed questionnaires on mental health status and experiences related to the COVID-19 pandemic. We used boosted regression trees (an advanced form of regression analysis based on machine learning) to model relationships between responses to the questionnaires and decision-making tasks. Results showed that the psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic predicted participants' responses to the framing problems and utilitarian/deontological and altruistic/egoistic moral dilemmas (but not to the dictator game). More concretely, the more psychological impact participants suffered, the more they were willing to choose the safest response in the framing problems, and the more deontological/altruistic were their responses to moral dilemmas. These results suggest that the psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic might prompt automatic processes.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/psicología , Toma de Decisiones , Depresión/psicología , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Altruismo , Teoría Ética , Ética , Femenino , Humanos , Aprendizaje Automático , Masculino , Salud Mental , Persona de Mediana Edad , Principios Morales , Análisis de Regresión , España , Adulto Joven
2.
Animal ; 15(3): 100139, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33785186

RESUMEN

Determination of the chemical composition in the body and carcass of ruminants is important for both nutritional requirement studies and the meat industry. This study aimed to develop equations to predict the body and carcass chemical composition of hair sheep using the chemical composition of body parts, carcass measurements and shrunk BW as predictors. A database containing 107 individual records for castrated male hair sheep ranging from 24 to 43 kg BW was gathered from two body composition studies. The empty body, carcass and body parts were analyzed for water, ash, fat and protein contents (%). The body parts used to estimate body and carcass composition were fore leg, hind leg and 9-11th rib section. The carcass measurements used were leg length, thoracic circumference, hind circumference, hind width, thoracic width, thoracic depth and chest width. Each model performance was evaluated using a leave-one-out cross-validation. Multiple regression analysis considering the study as a random effect revealed that body parts in association with carcass measurements were significant for predicting the chemical composition in the body of castrate male sheep. However, the use of the chemical composition of hind leg produced the best models for predicting the ash and fat contents in the empty body, whereas the water and protein contents in the empty body were better predicted when using the chemical compositions of 9-11th rib section and fore leg, respectively. Multiple regression analysis also revealed that most body parts were suitable for predicting the carcass composition, except for 9-11th rib section whose chemical composition did not produce significant prediction equations for ash and protein carcass contents. The use of the chemical composition of hind leg in association with carcass measurements produced the best models for predicting the water and fat contents in the carcass, while the ash and protein contents in the carcass were better predicted when using the chemical composition of fore leg. In conclusion, precision, accuracy and goodness-of-fit of the equations drove the selection of the chemical composition of hind leg and carcass measurements in a multivariate approach, as the most suitable predictors of the chemical composition of the body and carcass of hair sheep. However, the chemical composition of fore leg may be used as well. The developed equations could improve the accuracy of the empty body and carcass composition estimations in sheep, optimizing the estimation of nutrient requirements, as well as the carcass quality evaluation for this species.


Asunto(s)
Tejido Adiposo , Cuerpo Humano , Animales , Composición Corporal , Peso Corporal , Masculino , Carne/análisis , Análisis de Regresión , Ovinos
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(11): e25186, 2021 Mar 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33726008

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to ascertain changes in symptoms of patients with borderline personality disorder undergoing psychodynamic day treatment with a duration of 9 months and the factors that predict clinical outcome or dropouts from the program.In an observational study, demographic characteristics (age, number of psychiatric hospitalizations, number of suicide attempts, current involvement in work or study activities), day doses of antipsychotic and antidepressant medication, psychiatric symptoms, and social functioning (Health of the Nation Outcome Scales), and symptoms of dissociation (Dissociative Experiences Scale) were assessed in patients at the beginning of treatment (N = 105). Further, psychiatric symptoms and social functioning were assessed at 3 stages: beginning of the program, end of the program, and 1-year follow-up. To study the differences between baseline values and values at the end of the treatment and follow-up values, the Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used. To discover baseline factors related to the effect of the treatment, Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated. To evaluate the differences between patients who completed the program (N = 67) and patients who dropped out (N = 38), differences in baseline factors between both groups were compared, using the Mann-Whitney test for independent samples.Improvement in symptoms (Health of the Nation Outcome Scales - version for external evaluators) at the end of the therapy (N = 67, P < .001) and at the 1-year follow-up (N = 46, P < .001) was found. Experience of an intimate relationship was positively related to clinical improvement at follow-up examinations (P < .001). Predictors of dropout included a higher number of psychiatric hospitalizations (P = .004), suicide attempts (P = .004), more severe pretreatment symptoms (P = .002), and symptoms of dissociation (P = .046).The results indicate that a psychodynamic day treatment is feasible for the treatment of less clinically disturbed patients with a history of intimate relationships. Patients with a higher number of previous psychiatric hospitalizations, more suicide attempts in the past, more severe pretreatment symptoms, and symptoms of dissociation are more likely not to complete the program.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno de Personalidad Limítrofe/terapia , Centros de Día/métodos , Pacientes Desistentes del Tratamiento/estadística & datos numéricos , Psicoterapia Psicodinámica/métodos , Adulto , Estudios de Factibilidad , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Escalas de Valoración Psiquiátrica , Análisis de Regresión , Factores de Riesgo , Estadísticas no Paramétricas , Intento de Suicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Resultado del Tratamiento
4.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e68, 2021 03 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33691815

RESUMEN

We analysed the coronavirus disease 2019 epidemic curve from March to the end of April 2020 in Germany. We use statistical models to estimate the number of cases with disease onset on a given day and use back-projection techniques to obtain the number of new infections per day. The respective time series are analysed by a trend regression model with change points. The change points are estimated directly from the data. We carry out the analysis for the whole of Germany and the federal state of Bavaria, where we have more detailed data. Both analyses show a major change between 9 and 13 March for the time series of infections: from a strong increase to a decrease. Another change was found between 25 March and 29 March, where the decline intensified. Furthermore, we perform an analysis stratified by age. A main result is a delayed course of the pandemic for the age group 80 + resulting in a turning point at the end of March. Our results differ from those by other authors as we take into account the reporting delay, which turned out to be time dependent and therefore changes the structure of the epidemic curve compared to the curve of newly reported cases.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Distribución por Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Teorema de Bayes , Femenino , Alemania/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Análisis de Regresión
5.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(3): 987-1000, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729353

RESUMEN

The objective was to identify the impact of social distance in the management of noncommunicable diseases (NCD) in the adult population from the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. This is an ambispective, population-based cohort study. Descriptive analysis and Poisson regression models were used and the results were reported as prevalence ratio and 95% confidence intervals. From a total of 1,288 participants, 43.1% needed medical care and 28.5% reported impaired management of NCDs during social distance. Female sex, age between 18 and 30 years old, living in the Serra region (central region of the state), people with depression and multimorbidity were more likely to have impaired management of NCDs. Being physically active reduced the probability of having impaired management of NCD by 15%. Reduced monthly income was associated with the difficulty in accessing prescription medicine and avoidance of seeking in-person medical assistance. Depression was associated with difficulties in accessing medications, while avoidance of seeking in-person medical assistance was more likely for people with multimorbidity, arthritis/arthrosis/fibromyalgia, heart disease, and high cholesterol.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Enfermedades no Transmisibles/terapia , Pandemias , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Depresión/psicología , Ejercicio Físico , Femenino , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Renta , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Multimorbilidad , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud , Distribución de Poisson , Análisis de Regresión , Factores Sexuales , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto Joven
6.
J Health Care Poor Underserved ; 32(1): 373-385, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33678702

RESUMEN

In order to describe the Chinese experience for the purposes of global epidemic control, the study analyzed the impact on the COVID-19 pandemic of policies adopted during the lockdown of Wuhan city. Descriptive analysis and stepwise regression analysis were performed using the official case data from January 10, 2020 to April 8, 2020. The results show that the prevention and control policies of Lockdown Wuhan City (LWC) has played a significant role in reducing new case numbers, improving COVID-19's cure rate and reducing mortality. Among the policies of LWC, stay at home, centralized isolation of convalescent patients, launching makeshift hospitals, and centralized isolation of "the four types of personnel" that play a decisive role. As the COVID-19 pandemic progresses, this study provides valuable experience for other countries.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Cuarentena , /epidemiología , China/epidemiología , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Análisis de Regresión
7.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 60(3): 1474-1479, 2021 03 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677595

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to estimate what proportion of people with SLE attending UK rheumatology clinics would be categorized as being at high risk from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and therefore asked to shield, and explore what implications this has for rheumatology clinical practice. METHODS: We used data from the British Society for Rheumatology multicentre audit of SLE, which included a large, representative cross-sectional sample of patients attending UK Rheumatology clinics with SLE. We calculated who would receive shielding advice using the British Society for Rheumatology's risk stratification guidance and accompanying scoring grid, and assessed whether ethnicity and history of nephritis were over-represented in the shielding group. RESULTS: The audit included 1003 patients from 51 centres across all 4 nations of the UK. Overall 344 (34.3%) patients had a shielding score ≥3 and would have been advised to shield. People with previous or current LN were 2.6 (1.9-3.4) times more likely to be in the shielding group than people with no previous LN (P < 0.001). Ethnicity was not evenly distributed between the groups (chi-squared P < 0.001). Compared with White people, people of Black ethnicity were 1.9 (1.3-2.8) and Asian 1.9 (1.3-2.7) times more likely to be in the shielding group. Increased risk persisted after controlling for LN. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates the large number of people with SLE who are likely to be shielding. Implications for clinical practice include considering communication across language and cultural differences, and ways to conduct renal assessment including urinalysis, during telephone and video consultations for patients who are shielding.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Lupus Eritematoso Sistémico/terapia , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Pautas de la Práctica en Medicina/estadística & datos numéricos , Cuarentena/estadística & datos numéricos , Reumatología/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Lupus Eritematoso Sistémico/virología , Nefritis Lúpica/terapia , Nefritis Lúpica/virología , Masculino , Auditoría Médica , Persona de Mediana Edad , Análisis de Regresión , Telemedicina/estadística & datos numéricos , Reino Unido/epidemiología
8.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(2): 425-432, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650351

RESUMEN

The trade-off between leaf size and number is the basis for plant growth strategies. It is of great significance to study the underlying mechanism of leaf size and number trade-offs for well understanding plant growth strategies. In this study, leaf size was expressed by the dry mass of single leaf, while leafing intensity was expressed by the number of leaves per unit stem volume. We used standardized major axis regression analysis method to examine the trade-off relationship between leaf size and number in Hulunbuir grassland. There was a significant negative isometric-growth trade-off between leaf size and number in Chenqicuogang (typical steppe) and Chenqibayi (meadow steppe). There was a significant negative allometric-growth trade-off between leaf size and number in Xeltala (meadow steppe). The underlying mechanism of the relationship between leaf size and number depended on the leaf and stem biomass allocation mechanism and the changes of the stem tissue density.


Asunto(s)
Pradera , Hojas de la Planta , Biomasa , China , Análisis de Regresión
9.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248591, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33720985

RESUMEN

COVID-19 has led to global dramatic shifts in daily life. Following the biopsychosocial model of health, the goal of the current study was to predict people's psychological well-being (PWB) during the initial lockdown phase of the pandemic and to investigate which coping strategies were most common among people with low and high PWB. Participants were 938 volunteers in the United States who responded to an online survey during the lockdown in April 2020. The main findings were that all three groups of variables, biological, psychological, and socio-economic, significantly contributed to PWB explaining 53% variance. Social loneliness and sense of agency were the strongest predictors. PWB was significantly predicted by physical health (not gender nor age); by spirituality, emotional loneliness, social loneliness, and sense of agency; by job security (not income, nor neighborhood safety, nor hours spent on social media). Comparing the coping strategies of participants, results show more intentional coping in the high-PWB group and more passive coping in the low-PWB group. During this unprecedented pandemic, the findings highlight that ability to sustainably cope with the global shifts in daily life depends on actively and intentionally attending to PWB by being one's own agent for physical health, spiritual health, and social connection.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica , /patología , Adulto , Emociones , Femenino , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Soledad , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Análisis de Regresión , Espiritualidad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
10.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668491

RESUMEN

In this study, a complex consisting of 2-hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin and 5,10,15,20-tetrakis (4-hydroxyphenyl) porphyrin, (named dual chiral-achiral selector complex) was used for the determination of two novel potential anticancer agents of (I) and (II) aminoalkanol derivatives. This work aimed at developing an effective method that can be utilized for the determination of I (S), I (R), and II (S) and II (R) enantiomers of (I) and (II) compounds through the use of a dual chiral-achiral selector complex consisting of hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin and 5,10,15,20-tetrakis (4-hydroxyphenyl) porphyrin system by applying capillary electrophoresis. This combination proved to be beneficial in achieving high separation selectivity due to the combined effects of different modes of chiral discrimination. The enantiomers of (I) and (II) compounds were separated within a very short time of 3.6-7.2 min, in pH 2.5 phosphate buffer containing 2-hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin and 5,10,15,20-tetrakis (4-hydroxyphenyl) porphyrin system at a concentration of 5 and 10 mM, respectively, at 25 °C and +10 kV. The detection wavelength of the detector was set at 200 nm. The LOD for I (S), I (R), II (S), and II (R) was 65.2, 65.6, 65.1, and 65.7 ng/mL, respectively. LOQ for I (S), I (R), II (S), and II (R) was 216.5, 217.8, 217.1, and 218.1 ng/mL, respectively. Recovery was 94.9-99.9%. The repeatability and reproducibility of the method based on the values of the migration time, and the area under the peak was 0.3-2.9% RSD. The stability of the method was determined at 0.1-4.9% RSD. The developed method was used in the pilot studies for determining the enantiomers I (S), I (R), II (S), and II (R) in the blood serum.


Asunto(s)
2-Hidroxipropil-beta-Ciclodextrina/química , Aminas/aislamiento & purificación , Aminas/farmacología , Antineoplásicos/farmacología , Electroforesis Capilar , Porfirinas/química , Antineoplásicos/sangre , Tampones (Química) , Electrólitos/química , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Límite de Detección , Porfirinas/farmacología , Análisis de Regresión , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Estereoisomerismo , Temperatura
11.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669321

RESUMEN

This study was aimed at preparing and characterizing solid lipid nanoparticles loading rutin (RT-SLNs) for the treatment of oxidative stress-induced diseases. Phospholipon 80H® as a solid lipid and Polysorbate 80 as surfactant were used for the SLNs preparation, using the solvent emulsification/diffusion method. We obtained spherical RT-SLNs with low sizes, ranging from 40 to 60 nm (hydrodynamic radius) for the SLNs prepared starting from 2% and 5% (w/w) theoretical amount. All prepared formulations showed negative zeta-potential values. RT was efficiently encapsulated within SLNs, obtaining high encapsulation efficiency and drug content percentages, particularly for SLNs prepared with a 5% theoretical amount of RT. In vitro release profiles and analysis of the obtained data applying different kinetic models revealed Fickian diffusion as the main mechanism of RT release from the SLNs. The morphology of RT-SLNs was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), whereas the interactions between RT and the lipid matrix were investigated by Raman spectroscopy, evidencing spectral modifications of characteristic bands of RT due to the establishment of new interactions. Finally, antioxidant activity assay on human glioblastoma astrocytoma (U373) culture cells showed a dose-dependent activity for RT-SLNs, particularly at the highest assayed dose (50 µM), whereas the free drug showed the lesser activity.


Asunto(s)
Lípidos/química , Nanopartículas/química , Rutina/farmacología , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Bioensayo , Línea Celular Tumoral , Supervivencia Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Liberación de Fármacos , Humanos , Hidrodinámica , Nanopartículas/ultraestructura , Análisis de Regresión , Espectrometría Raman , Electricidad Estática
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 214: 112111, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690009

RESUMEN

The aim of present study was to investigate the association of acrylamide (AA) hemoglobin biomarkers and serum lipids level in a general population. Data set of our study were extracted from an open database - National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) 2013-2016. In total 2899 participants were enrolled. The associations between AA hemoglobin parameters [hemoglobin adducts of AA (HbAA) and glycidamide (HbGA), total of HbAA and HbGA (HbAA+HbGA), and ratio of HbGA to HbAA (HbGA/HbAA)] and lipid levels [total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C)] were analyzed. Generalized linear models and restricted cubic spline plots were conducted to address the relationship between lipid levels and acrylamide markers. Comparing the lowest quantiles, HbGA and HbGA/HbAA both remained a significant trend regardless of lipid types. Analyses using a generalized linear model with restricted cubic spline and validated with regression models, all 4 AA parameters demonstrated a linear association and positive correlation with TG. Furthermore, there were also opposite nonlinear association between HbGA/HbAA and LDL-C (positive correlation), and HbGA/HbAA and HDL-C (negative correlation). Further analysis with threshold effect analysis or regression analysis showed HbGA and HbGA/HbAA remained significant association with all TC, TG, LDL-C, and HDL-C. The hemoglobin adducts AA parameters as long-term exposure biomarkers are associated with the atherosclerotic lipid changes in a population of US adults.


Asunto(s)
Acrilamida , Colesterol/sangre , Compuestos Epoxi , Hemoglobinas/análisis , Triglicéridos/sangre , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangre , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Lineales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas Nutricionales , Análisis de Regresión , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
13.
J Chromatogr A ; 1641: 462012, 2021 Mar 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647538

RESUMEN

Synthesis and applications of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) are rapidly growing. In this study, a biomimetic MIP was prepared through silanes polymerization on the surface of 96-well microplates using recombinant human erythropoietin-alfa (rhEPO) as a template molecule. The rhEPO was immobilized onto the plate surface using bi-functional cross-linker and a thin imprinted layer following sol-gel procedure was constructed. After template extraction, uniform three-dimensional cavities compatible with the configuration of rhEPO were obtained. The rhEPO-MIP preparation was optimized using 2-level factorial design and response surface design where polymerization time and interactions between the different variable were found to be the most significant factors. Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) was used to monitor the stability of the rhEPO under the investigated polymerization conditions. Determination of rhEPO using the MIP microplate showed good dynamic response fitting to the 4 PL regression model (0.9962) over a concentration range of 10.00 - 100.00 ng mL-1. Adsorption of rhEPO onto MIP followed the Langmuir isotherm model (r = 0.9957, χ2 =0.02786) with pseudo-second-order kinetics (r = 0.9984). The surface of the rhEPO-MIP was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) while step-by-step surface modification was tracked using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The rhEPO-MIP was able to distinguish between the rhEPO-alfa template and modified rhEPO molecules; rhEPO-beta, hyperglycosylated and pegylated forms (imprinting factors < 2) and in the commonly used formulation additive human serum albumin (HSA) (R% = 113.96 -95.22%). The rhEPO-MIP was applied to compare the receptor-binding pattern to rhEPO and its biosimilars / structural analogues. The results were cross-validated using the conventional assay protocol (RP-HPLC and ELISA) and an acceptable correlation was observed with RP-HPLC (maximum deviation is 7.78%). This work confirmed the applicability of rhEPO-MIP with its unique binding features for batch release, stability and biosimilarity assessment as well as subsequent evaluation of batch-to-batch consistency during bioproduction of target analytes.


Asunto(s)
Biosimilares Farmacéuticos/análisis , Eritropoyetina/análisis , Impresión Molecular/instrumentación , Proteínas Recombinantes/análisis , Adsorción , Cromatografía en Gel , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Cromatografía de Fase Inversa , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Humanos , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Polimerizacion , Análisis de Regresión , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Espectroscopía Infrarroja por Transformada de Fourier
14.
J Chromatogr A ; 1641: 461997, 2021 Mar 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676111

RESUMEN

In recent years, the use of quantitative liquid chromatography (LC) coupled charged aerosol detection (CAD) for poor UV absorbing analytes in multicomponent mixtures has grown exponentially across academic and industrial sectors. The ballpark of previous LC-CAD reports is focused on practical applications, as well as optimization of critical parameters such as: response dependencies on temperature, nebulization process, analyte volatility, and mobile-phase composition. However, straightforward approaches to deal with the characteristic nonlinear response of CAD still scarce. A highly overlooked parameter is the power function value (PFV), whose optimization enables a detection signal that is more linear with higher signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) and lower relative standard deviation (RSD) of area counts. Herein, a systematic investigation of different regression models (log-log, first-and second-degree polynomial) by both interpolation and extrapolation process in conjunction with PFV optimization throughout the development of LC-CAD assays is reported. The accuracy of the results via interpolation is always good (< 5%) when operating in the vicinity of the optimum PFV regardless the regression model choice. On the contrary, extrapolation process only worked when applying log-log regression at the optimum PFV (accuracy <5%). This outcome indicates that a first-order regression via interpolation can be a safe and simple choice for quantitative LC-CAD in highly regulated laboratories (GLP, GMP, etc.). Whereas a straightforward extrapolation combined with log-log regression can enable the deployment of high-throughput LC-CAD assays, especially but not limited to laboratories where the synthetic process route is undergoing rapid change and optimization (medicinal chemistry, discovery, biocatalysis, process chemistry, etc.). This approach is crucial in developing quantitative LC-CAD assays for poor UV absorbing pharmaceuticals that are sensitive, precise, accurate and robust across early and late-stage pharmaceutical development.


Asunto(s)
Aerosoles/análisis , Algoritmos , Desarrollo de Medicamentos/métodos , Amicacina/análisis , Análisis de Regresión , Relación Señal-Ruido
15.
JAMA ; 325(11): 1074-1087, 2021 03 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33625505

RESUMEN

Importance: Refinement of criteria for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) may inform efforts to improve health outcomes. Objective: To compare clinical characteristics and outcomes of children and adolescents with MIS-C vs those with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Setting, Design, and Participants: Case series of 1116 patients aged younger than 21 years hospitalized between March 15 and October 31, 2020, at 66 US hospitals in 31 states. Final date of follow-up was January 5, 2021. Patients with MIS-C had fever, inflammation, multisystem involvement, and positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or antibody test results or recent exposure with no alternate diagnosis. Patients with COVID-19 had positive RT-PCR test results and severe organ system involvement. Exposure: SARS-CoV-2. Main Outcomes and Measures: Presenting symptoms, organ system complications, laboratory biomarkers, interventions, and clinical outcomes. Multivariable regression was used to compute adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) of factors associated with MIS-C vs COVID-19. Results: Of 1116 patients (median age, 9.7 years; 45% female), 539 (48%) were diagnosed with MIS-C and 577 (52%) with COVID-19. Compared with patients with COVID-19, patients with MIS-C were more likely to be 6 to 12 years old (40.8% vs 19.4%; absolute risk difference [RD], 21.4% [95% CI, 16.1%-26.7%]; aRR, 1.51 [95% CI, 1.33-1.72] vs 0-5 years) and non-Hispanic Black (32.3% vs 21.5%; RD, 10.8% [95% CI, 5.6%-16.0%]; aRR, 1.43 [95% CI, 1.17-1.76] vs White). Compared with patients with COVID-19, patients with MIS-C were more likely to have cardiorespiratory involvement (56.0% vs 8.8%; RD, 47.2% [95% CI, 42.4%-52.0%]; aRR, 2.99 [95% CI, 2.55-3.50] vs respiratory involvement), cardiovascular without respiratory involvement (10.6% vs 2.9%; RD, 7.7% [95% CI, 4.7%-10.6%]; aRR, 2.49 [95% CI, 2.05-3.02] vs respiratory involvement), and mucocutaneous without cardiorespiratory involvement (7.1% vs 2.3%; RD, 4.8% [95% CI, 2.3%-7.3%]; aRR, 2.29 [95% CI, 1.84-2.85] vs respiratory involvement). Patients with MIS-C had higher neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (median, 6.4 vs 2.7, P < .001), higher C-reactive protein level (median, 152 mg/L vs 33 mg/L; P < .001), and lower platelet count (<150 ×103 cells/µL [212/523 {41%} vs 84/486 {17%}, P < .001]). A total of 398 patients (73.8%) with MIS-C and 253 (43.8%) with COVID-19 were admitted to the intensive care unit, and 10 (1.9%) with MIS-C and 8 (1.4%) with COVID-19 died during hospitalization. Among patients with MIS-C with reduced left ventricular systolic function (172/503, 34.2%) and coronary artery aneurysm (57/424, 13.4%), an estimated 91.0% (95% CI, 86.0%-94.7%) and 79.1% (95% CI, 67.1%-89.1%), respectively, normalized within 30 days. Conclusions and Relevance: This case series of patients with MIS-C and with COVID-19 identified patterns of clinical presentation and organ system involvement. These patterns may help differentiate between MIS-C and COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Respuesta Inflamatoria Sistémica , Adolescente , Factores de Edad , Biomarcadores/análisis , /diagnóstico , /terapia , Niño , Preescolar , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Femenino , Humanos , Unidades de Cuidado Intensivo Pediátrico , Masculino , Gravedad del Paciente , Análisis de Regresión , Volumen Sistólico , Síndrome de Respuesta Inflamatoria Sistémica/complicaciones , Síndrome de Respuesta Inflamatoria Sistémica/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Respuesta Inflamatoria Sistémica/fisiopatología , Síndrome de Respuesta Inflamatoria Sistémica/terapia , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
16.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 22(1): 80, 2021 Feb 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607938

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: One goal of multi-omic studies is to identify interpretable predictive models for outcomes of interest, with analytes drawn from multiple omes. Such findings could support refined biological insight and hypothesis generation. However, standard analytical approaches are not designed to be "ome aware." Thus, some researchers analyze data from one ome at a time, and then combine predictions across omes. Others resort to correlation studies, cataloging pairwise relationships, but lacking an obvious approach for cohesive and interpretable summaries of these catalogs. METHODS: We present a novel workflow for building predictive regression models from network neighborhoods in multi-omic networks. First, we generate pairwise regression models across all pairs of analytes from all omes, encoding the resulting "top table" of relationships in a network. Then, we build predictive logistic regression models using the analytes in network neighborhoods of interest. We call this method CANTARE (Consolidated Analysis of Network Topology And Regression Elements). RESULTS: We applied CANTARE to previously published data from healthy controls and patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) consisting of three omes: gut microbiome, metabolomics, and microbial-derived enzymes. We identified 8 unique predictive models with AUC > 0.90. The number of predictors in these models ranged from 3 to 13. We compare the results of CANTARE to random forests and elastic-net penalized regressions, analyzing AUC, predictions, and predictors. CANTARE AUC values were competitive with those generated by random forests and  penalized regressions. The top 3 CANTARE models had a greater dynamic range of predicted probabilities than did random forests and penalized regressions (p-value = 1.35 × 10-5). CANTARE models were significantly more likely to prioritize predictors from multiple omes than were the alternatives (p-value = 0.005). We also showed that predictive models from a network based on pairwise models with an interaction term for IBD have higher AUC than predictive models built from a correlation network (p-value = 0.016). R scripts and a CANTARE User's Guide are available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/cytomelodics/files/CANTARE/ . CONCLUSION: CANTARE offers a flexible approach for building parsimonious, interpretable multi-omic models. These models yield quantitative and directional effect sizes for predictors and support the generation of hypotheses for follow-up investigation.


Asunto(s)
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Metabolómica , Análisis de Regresión , Programas Informáticos , Biología de Sistemas
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(6): e24174, 2021 Feb 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578520

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is no golden standard for the diagnosis of Kawasaki disease (KD), the most common cause of acquired heart disease in children in many countries. In recent years, many studies have focused on the relationship between microRNAs (miRNAs) and KD. Thus, we perform this meta-analysis to understand the role of circulating miRNAs as a biomarker to detect KD. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure through March 10, 2019. Meta-disc 1.4 and STATA 15.1 (Stata Corporation, College Station, TX) were used to conduct the meta-analysis. RESULTS: Six eligible articles were included in this meta-analysis. The overall performance of total mixed miRNAs detection was: pooled sensitivity, 0.7 (95% confidence interval, 0.66-0.74); pooled specificity, 0.87 (95% confidence interval, 0.83-0.90); and area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curves value (SROC), 0.8302. The meta-regression analysis indicated that the specimen types, the composition of the control group, and types of the reference miRNA were not responsible for the existing heterogeneities. The subgroup analysis showed that SROC of the plasma group (0.8890) was more significant than the serum group (0.7204), and SROC of the non-healthy control group (0.9622) was more significant than the healthy control group (0.8096). CONCLUSIONS: : This is the first meta-analysis show that miRNAs may be used as novel biomarkers for detecting KD, especially for distinguishing KD from other febrile diseases. More studies are needed in the future to clarify the association between KD and miRNAs. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019129976.


Asunto(s)
Biomarcadores/sangre , MicroARN Circulante/sangre , Síndrome Mucocutáneo Linfonodular/genética , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Niño , Preescolar , China/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Síndrome Mucocutáneo Linfonodular/sangre , Síndrome Mucocutáneo Linfonodular/diagnóstico , Curva ROC , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Análisis de Regresión , Sensibilidad y Especificidad
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(5): e23774, 2021 Feb 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592833

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: To investigate the status quo of empowerment ability of primary caregivers in post-stroke patients with disability and its influencing factors.A cross-sectional design and a convenience sample were used. Participants (N = 189) from 3 hospital in Beijing were recruited from October 2018 to June 2019. The following measurement tools were used in this study: Barthel index, Main Caregiver Empowerment Measurement, General Self-Efficacy Scale, Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire and Social Support Rating Scale. Multiple linear stepwise regression analysis was used to statistically infer the influencing factors of empowerment ability of primary caregivers.The total score of main caregivers' empowerment measurement among the participants was 161.03 ±â€Š14.678, the median (interquartile range) score was 162.00 (150.00-171.50). The average scores of each dimension ranged from high to low: relationship with the person being cared for, goodwill care, expectation for care outcomes, subjectivity of caregiver, faith in care, understanding of care role, knowledge and skills of care, scruples about the surroundings, personal resources. The single factor analysis showed that the patient's payment method for medical expenses, whether the patient accompanied by other chronic diseases and the gender of the caregiver had an effect on the empowerment ability of primary caregivers, and the positive coping style, negative coping style, self-efficacy and subjective support of primary caregivers were positively correlated with their empowerment ability (P < .05). Multiple linear stepwise regression analysis showed that the type of payment for treatment of patients (b = 7.449, P < .01), and gender of caregivers (b = 5.039, P < .05), subjective support of caregivers (b = 0.439, P < .05), positive coping style of caregivers (b = 0.585, P < .01), self-efficacy of caregivers (b = 6.456, P < .01) were the main influencing factors of empowerment ability of primary caregivers.The empowerment ability of the primary caregivers of post-stroke patients with disability in China is at the upper middle level. However, there are more scruples about the surrounding and less personal resources, which deserve attention. Furthermore, the identification of the factors related to empowerment lays a foundation for clinical nursing practitioners to further develop targeted interventions on empowerment of caregivers.


Asunto(s)
Cuidadores/psicología , Empoderamiento , Accidente Cerebrovascular/epidemiología , Actividades Cotidianas , Adaptación Psicológica , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , China/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Personas con Discapacidad , Femenino , Financiación Personal , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Análisis de Regresión , Autoeficacia , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Factores Sexuales , Apoyo Social , Factores Socioeconómicos
19.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 965, 2021 02 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33594059

RESUMEN

The disappearance of many North American megafauna at the end of the Pleistocene is a contentious topic. While the proposed causes for megafaunal extinction are varied, most researchers fall into three broad camps emphasizing human overhunting, climate change, or some combination of the two. Understanding the cause of megafaunal extinctions requires the analysis of through-time relationships between climate change and megafauna and human population dynamics. To do so, many researchers have used summed probability density functions (SPDFs) as a proxy for through-time fluctuations in human and megafauna population sizes. SPDFs, however, conflate process variation with the chronological uncertainty inherent in radiocarbon dates. Recently, a new Bayesian regression technique was developed that overcomes this problem-Radiocarbon-dated Event-Count (REC) Modelling. Here we employ REC models to test whether declines in North American megafauna species could be best explained by climate changes, increases in human population densities, or both, using the largest available database of megafauna and human radiocarbon dates. Our results suggest that there is currently no evidence for a persistent through-time relationship between human and megafauna population levels in North America. There is, however, evidence that decreases in global temperature correlated with megafauna population declines.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Extinción Biológica , Crecimiento Demográfico , Animales , Arqueología , Geografía , Humanos , Mamuts/fisiología , Mastodontes/fisiología , Modelos Teóricos , América del Norte , Isótopos de Oxígeno , Análisis de Regresión , Factores de Tiempo
20.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1050, 2021 02 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33594080

RESUMEN

Attributing the similarity between individuals to genetic and non-genetic factors is central to genetic analyses. In this paper we use the genomic relationship ([Formula: see text]) among 417,060 individuals to investigate the phenotypic covariance between pairs of individuals for 32 traits across the spectrum of relatedness, from unrelated pairs through to identical twins. We find linear relationships between phenotypic covariance and [Formula: see text] that agree with the SNP-based heritability ([Formula: see text]) in unrelated pairs ([Formula: see text]), and with pedigree-estimated heritability in close relatives ([Formula: see text]). The covariance increases faster than [Formula: see text] in distant relatives ([Formula: see text]), and we attribute this to imperfect linkage disequilibrium between causal variants and the common variants used to construct [Formula: see text]. We also examine the effect of assortative mating on heritability estimates from different experimental designs. We find that full-sib identity-by-descent regression estimates for height (0.66 s.e. 0.07) are consistent with estimates from close relatives (0.82 s.e. 0.04) after accounting for the effect of assortative mating.


Asunto(s)
Genoma Humano , Filogenia , Adulto , Anciano , Bancos de Muestras Biológicas , Índice de Masa Corporal , Escolaridad , Humanos , Patrón de Herencia/genética , Desequilibrio de Ligamiento , Persona de Mediana Edad , Modelos Genéticos , Fenotipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple/genética , Carácter Cuantitativo Heredable , Análisis de Regresión , Reino Unido
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