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1.
Food Chem ; 336: 127725, 2021 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768912

RESUMEN

Thirty one samples from different macroalgae species have been studied to determine the influence of several parameters such as the harvesting season, the geographical origin, the species or a pretreatment procedure on their volatile composition. A Multiple Head Space Sorptive Extraction methodology coupled to Gas Chromatography with Mass Spectrometry Detection (MHSSE-GC-MS) has been used to analyze 44 volatile compounds that can be found in the different samples. Of all the factors, the collection season proved to be the most influential, followed by origin with significantly lower volatile compounds concentrations found in the samples collected in spring and in southern Spain. A Principal Component Analysis showed that beta ionone, benzaldehyde, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, together with some acids were the most strongly affected by the season, with highest values in those samples that had been collected in the autumn. On the other hand, the pretreatment (raw, salting or dehydration) proved to have a low influence.


Asunto(s)
Algas Marinas/química , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles/análisis , Análisis de Varianza , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas/métodos , Análisis de Componente Principal , Estaciones del Año , Algas Marinas/metabolismo , España
2.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239576, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33113548

RESUMEN

In the global context, health and the quality of life of people are adversely affected by either one or more types of chronic diseases. This paper investigates the differences in the level of income and expenditure between chronically-ill people and non-chronic population. Data were gathered from a national level survey conducted namely, the Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES) by the Department of Census and Statistics (DCS) of Sri Lanka. These data were statistically analysed with one-way and two-way ANOVA, to identify the factors that cause the differences among different groups. For the first time, this study makes an attempt using survey data, to examine the differences in the level of income and expenditure among chronically-ill people in Sri Lanka. Accordingly, the study discovered that married females who do not engage in any type of economic activity (being unemployed due to the disability associated with the respective chronic illness), in the age category of 40-65, having an educational level of tertiary education or below and living in the urban sector have a higher likelihood of suffering from chronic diseases. If workforce population is compelled to lose jobs, it can lead to income insecurity and impair their quality of lives. Under above findings, it is reasonable to assume that most health care expenses are out of pocket. Furthermore, the study infers that chronic illnesses have a statistically proven significant differences towards the income and expenditure level. This has caused due to the interaction of demographic and socio-economic characteristics associated with chronic illnesses. Considering private-public sector partnerships that enable affordable access to health care services for all as well as implementation of commercial insurance and community-based mutual services that help ease burden to the public, are vital when formulating effective policies and strategies related to the healthcare sector. Sri Lanka is making strong efforts to support its healthcare sector and public, which was affected by the coronavirus (COVID-19) in early 2020. Therefore, findings of this paper will be useful to gain insights on the differences of chronic illnesses towards the income and expenditure of chronically-ill patients in Sri Lanka.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Enfermedad Crónica/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Gastos en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Renta/estadística & datos numéricos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Análisis de Varianza , Niño , Preescolar , Enfermedad Crónica/economía , Comorbilidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/economía , Países en Desarrollo/economía , Personas con Discapacidad/estadística & datos numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Composición Familiar , Femenino , Alimentos/economía , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Indigencia Médica/estadística & datos numéricos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias/economía , Neumonía Viral/economía , Pobreza , Factores Socioeconómicos , Sri Lanka/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
3.
Exp Parasitol ; 218: 108012, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011239

RESUMEN

Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, is endemic in almost all countries of Latin America. In Brazil, oral infection is becoming the most important mechanism of transmission of the disease in several regions of the country. The gastrointestinal tract is the gateway for the parasite through this route of infection, however, little is known about the involvement of these organs related to oral route. In this sense, the present study evaluated the impact of oral infection on the digestive tract in mice infected by Berenice-78 (Be-78) T. cruzi strain, in comparison with the intraperitoneal route of infection. In this work, the intraperitoneal route group showed a peak of parasitemia similar to the oral route group, however the mortality rate among the orally infected animals was higher when compared to intraperitoneal route. By analyzing the frequency of blood cell populations, differences were mainly observed in CD4+ T lymphocytes, and not in CD8+, presenting an earlier reduction in the number of CD4+ T cells, which persisted for a longer period, in the animals of the oral group when compared with the intraperitoneal group. Animals infected by oral route presented a higher tissue parasitism and inflammatory infiltrate in stomach, duodenum and colon on the 28th day after infection. Therefore, these data suggest that oral infection has a different profile of parasitological and immune responses compared to intraperitoneal route, being the oral route more virulent and with greater tissue parasitism in organs of the gastrointestinal tract evaluated during the acute phase.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Chagas/patología , Tracto Gastrointestinal/patología , Tracto Gastrointestinal/parasitología , Trypanosoma cruzi/patogenicidad , Administración Oral , Análisis de Varianza , Animales , Enfermedad de Chagas/mortalidad , Enfermedad de Chagas/parasitología , Colon/parasitología , Colon/patología , Duodeno/parasitología , Duodeno/patología , Inmunofenotipificación , Masculino , Ratones , Monocitos/patología , Parasitemia/mortalidad , Parasitemia/parasitología , Estómago/parasitología , Estómago/patología , Tasa de Supervivencia
4.
Indian J Dent Res ; 31(4): 585-588, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107461

RESUMEN

Aim: To evaluate and compare the effect of contamination with haemostatic agents like Tranexamic Acid (TA) and Ethamsylate, on the shear bond strength. Materials and Methods: There are about 100 extracted human premolars randomly segregated into four groups each consisting of 25 samples. Group I was bonded with Transbond, Group II was bonded with Transbond after blood contamination, while groups III and IV were bonded with Transbond after contamination with Tranexamic acid and the shear bond strength was measured. The data were compared by One- way ANOVA and Tukey (HSD) tests. Results: Group I had the highest shear bond strength (SBS) while Group II, where the teeth were contaminated with blood showed the least SBS values ANOVA indicated significant differences between the four groups (P < .05). Tukey HSD revealed that contamination with TA (Group III) had a statistically higher SBS that contamination with Ethamsylate (Group IV) (P < .05). Conclusion: Since tranexamic acid and ethamsylate reduces the bleeding when used during surgery, these haemostatic agents may be considered in bonding situations where blood contamination is anticipated.


Asunto(s)
Recubrimiento Dental Adhesivo , Hemostáticos , Soportes Ortodóncicos , Análisis de Varianza , Humanos , Resistencia al Corte
5.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 6159-6162, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019377

RESUMEN

A computerized version of "Noo-Khor-Arn" `May I read?', a paper-based screening test for Thai children at risk with Learning Disability (LD), was developed and some core ideas of development were given in details. Six test categories with 23 subtests were conducted on 110 Thai children aged between 7-12 years old (Mean = 7.94, SD = 1.45), divided into 50 LD and 60 Typically Developing (TD) children to determine most relevant test categories and subtests for classifying between the groups. Two-factor balanced Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) revealed that a computerized version shown a significant difference between TD and LD groups in the tasks related to linguistics, decoding, and naming. These tasks were Phonological Awareness (PA), Morphological Awareness (MA), Decoding (DEC), and Rapid Naming (RN), respectively. The rest of the test categories showed non-significant factors between TD and LD. Not only the results can be used for classification but also for streamlining the test categories and subtests, to shorten the test tool.Clinical relevance- The subtests related to linguistics and decoding aspects showed promising results in screening children at risk for learning disabilities.


Asunto(s)
Discapacidades para el Aprendizaje , Fonética , Análisis de Varianza , Niño , Humanos , Discapacidades para el Aprendizaje/diagnóstico , Lectura , Tailandia
6.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 7601-7613, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33116490

RESUMEN

Introduction: Etoposide refers to a derivative of podophyllotoxin, which plays an important role in the treatment of cancer due to its prominent anti-tumor effect. As a BCS IV drug, etoposide exhibits insufficient aqueous solubility and permeability, thereby limiting its oral absorption. To enhance the oral bioavailability of etoposide, this study developed an amorphous nanopowder. Methods: Based on preliminary screening and experimental design, the stabilizer and preparation process of etoposide nanosuspension were explored. Subsequently, using a Box-Behnken design, the effects of independent factors (ultrasonication time, ratio of two phases and stabilizer concentration) on response variables (particle size and polydispersity index) were studied, and then the formulation was optimized. Finally, nanosuspension was further freeze dried with 1% of mannitol resulting in the formation of etoposide amorphous nanopowder. Results: The optimized etoposide nanopowder showed as spherical particles with an average particle size and polydispersity index of 211.7 ± 10.4 nm and 0.125 ± 0.028. X-ray powder diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry confirmed the ETO in the nanopowder was amorphous. Compared with coarse powder and physical mixture, etoposide nanopowder achieved significantly enhanced saturated solubility and dissolution in various pH environments. The Cmax and AUC0-t of etoposide nanopowder after oral administration in rats were respectively 2.21 and 2.13 times higher than the crude etoposide suspension. Additionally, the Tmax value of nanopowder was 0.25 h, compared with 0.5 h of reference group. Discussion: In the present study, the optimized amorphous nanopowder could significantly facilitate the dissolution and oral absorption of etoposide and might act as an effective delivery method to enhance its oral bioavailability.


Asunto(s)
Composición de Medicamentos , Etopósido/administración & dosificación , Etopósido/farmacología , Nanopartículas/química , Administración Oral , Análisis de Varianza , Animales , Disponibilidad Biológica , Rastreo Diferencial de Calorimetría , Cristalización , Etopósido/química , Etopósido/farmacocinética , Liofilización , Masculino , Modelos Estadísticos , Tamaño de la Partícula , Permeabilidad , Polvos , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Solubilidad , Solventes , Suspensiones , Difracción de Rayos X
7.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 22(10): 618-622, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070485

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) experience frequent exacerbations and need to be hospitalized, resulting in an economic and social burden. Although data exist regarding reasons of frequent hospitalizations, there is no data available about the impact on the length of stay (LOS). OBJECTIVES: To characterize the causes of prolonged hospitalizations in COPD patients. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted of patients who were diagnosed and treated in the pulmonary department for severe COPD exacerbations. All patient demographic data and medical history were collected. Data regarding the disease severity were also collected (including Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] criteria, pulmonologist follow-up, prior hospitalizations, and LOS). RESULTS: The study comprised 200 patients, average age 69.5 ± 10.8 years, 61% males. Of these patients, 89 (45%) were hospitalized for up to 4 days, 111 (55%) for 5 days or more, and 34 (17%) for more than 7 days. Single patients had longer LOS compared with married patients (48% vs. 34%, P = 0.044). Multivariate analysis showed that the number of prior hospital admissions in the last year was a predictor of LOS (P = 0.038, odds ratio [OR] = 0.807, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] = 0.659-0.988), as well as the use of non-invasive respiratory support by bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) during the hospitalization (P = 0.024, OR = 4.662, 95%CI = 1.229-17.681). CONCLUSIONS: Fewer previous hospitalizations due to COPD exacerbations and the need for non-invasive respiratory support by BiPAP were found as predictors of longer LOS.


Asunto(s)
Progresión de la Enfermedad , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Tiempo de Internación/estadística & datos numéricos , Respiración con Presión Positiva/métodos , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/diagnóstico , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/terapia , Distribución por Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Análisis de Varianza , Distribución de Chi-Cuadrado , Estudios de Cohortes , Bases de Datos Factuales , Femenino , Mortalidad Hospitalaria , Humanos , Incidencia , Israel , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Medición de Riesgo , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Distribución por Sexo , Análisis de Supervivencia
8.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 21(6): 651-656, 2020 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025934

RESUMEN

AIM: This study relates the average number of nucleolar organizing regions (NORs) obtained in a series of cases of oral leukoplakia, with three methods of histopathological classification of such lesion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a histopathological-histochemical laboratory cross-sectional study. The 18 cases of leukoplakia analyzed were filed at Pathology Service of the Biological Sciences Institute of the University of Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (SDH/ICB/UPF) (2017 and 2018), from which epidemiological data were extracted. New histological sections were performed for impregnation by the argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions (AgNOR) technique. The histopathological slides were analyzed by photon microscopy (1,000×), and the nuclei of 100 epithelial cells were photographed to count the number of NORs. Three methods were used for the lesions' histopathological classification [World Health Organization (WHO), Brothwell, and binary system]. The means of NORs were compared with the three histopathological classifications by means of the t or analysis of variance (ANOVA) statistical tests, at a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: According to the WHO classification method, most cases (11-61.1%) had a moderate classification. Evaluations by the Brothwell method showed moderate and mild classification in 50 and 38.9% of cases, respectively. According to the binary system, most cases (10-55.6%) had low risk. The average NORs found in 100 nuclei of each of the 18 lesions ranged from 2 to 4. When crossing the average NORs with the histopathological classification methods of the lesions by means of the t test or ANOVA, no significant relationship was noted. CONCLUSION: The average of NORs is not associated with the histological classifications of leukoplakias. Thus, the AgNOR method should be used with caution when differentiating different histological grades of leukoplakias. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The AgNOR method should be used with caution to determine the clinical treatment of oral leukoplakias, since no agreement was observed between this method and the histopathological classifications available for such lesion.


Asunto(s)
Leucoplasia Bucal , Región Organizadora del Nucléolo , Análisis de Varianza , Brasil , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Leucoplasia Bucal/genética
9.
Ann Cardiol Angeiol (Paris) ; 69(5): 247-254, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039120

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) type 2 is the receptor of SARSCoV-2 for cell entry into lung cells. Because ACE-2 may be modulated by ACE inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), there are concern that patients treated with ACEIs and ARBs are at higher risk for COVID-19 infection or severity. This study sought to analyse the association of severe forms of COVID-19 and mortality with hypertension and a previous treatment with ACEI and ARB. METHODS: Prospective follow-up of 433 consecutive patients hospitalised for COVID-19 pneumonia confirmed by PCR or highly probable on clinical, biological, and radiological findings, and included in the COVHYP study. Mortality and severe COVID-19 (criteria: death, intensive care unit, or hospitalisation >30 days) were compared in patients receiving or not ACEIs and ARBs. Follow-up was 100% at hospital discharge, and 96.5% at >1month. RESULTS: Age was 63.6±18.7 years, and 40%) were female. At follow-up (mean 78±50 days), 136 (31%) patients had severity criteria (death, 64 ; intensive care unit, 73; hospital stay >30 days, 49). Hypertension (55.1% vs 36.7%, P<0.001) and antihypertensive treatment were associated with severe COVID-19 and mortality. The association between ACEI/ARB treatment and COVID-19 severity criteria found in univariate analysis (Odds Ratio 1.74, 95%CI [1.14-2.64], P=0.01) was not confirmed when adjusted on age, gender, and hypertension (adjusted OR1.13 [0.59-2.15], P=0.72). Diabetes and hypothyroidism were associated with severe COVID-19, whereas history of asthma was not. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that previous treatment with ACEI and ARB is not associated with hospital mortality, 1- and 2-month mortality, and severity criteria in patients hospitalised for COVID-19. No protective effect of ACEIs and ARBs on severe pneumonia related to COVID-19 was demonstrated.


Asunto(s)
Bloqueadores del Receptor Tipo 2 de Angiotensina II/uso terapéutico , Inhibidores de la Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina/uso terapéutico , Antihipertensivos/uso terapéutico , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Hipertensión/tratamiento farmacológico , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Análisis de Varianza , Bloqueadores del Receptor Tipo 2 de Angiotensina II/efectos adversos , Inhibidores de la Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina/efectos adversos , Antihipertensivos/efectos adversos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Cuidados Críticos/estadística & datos numéricos , Diabetes Mellitus , Femenino , Francia/epidemiología , Hospitalización , Humanos , Hipotiroidismo/complicaciones , Tiempo de Internación/estadística & datos numéricos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Peptidil-Dipeptidasa A , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Estudios Prospectivos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad
10.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 188-199, mayo 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-192055

RESUMEN

El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar empíricamente la eficacia de un programa de intervención con mujeres víctimas de violencia de género. El programa en conjunto se enmarca dentro de las Terapias Contextuales, específicamente se ha utilizado la Psicoterapia Analítica Funcional, combinada con la Terapia de Aceptación y Compromiso y la Activación Conductual. Se ha llevado a cabo en formato grupal, durante 11 sesiones de 2 horas cada una. Participaron un total de 21 mujeres (de una media de edad de 45 años), que habían sufrido violencia física y/o abuso emocional por parte de sus parejas, en diferente grado e intensidad, y en diferentes momentos en sus vidas. Se ha utilizado un diseño intragrupo con medidas pre-post. Se realizaron tres grupos de tratamiento en diferentes ciudades con 6 a 8 mujeres cada uno. Para medir la intervención se ha aplicado el cuestionario Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure (CORE-OM). Los resultados han mostrado una disminución estadísticamente significativa en la severidad del malestar, han disminuido los indicadores de riesgo de suicidio, y han mejorado las conductas problemáticas dentro y fuera de las sesiones, además de incrementarse la apertura hacia los demás. Se discute la utilidad de las terapias contextual es para mejorar la calidad de vida de mujeres maltratadas, y su utilidad de aplicación en grupos en las instituciones públicas


The goal of this study is to empirically evaluate the efficacy of an intervention program with women victims of gender violence. Specifically, Functional Analytical Psychotherapy has been used, combined with Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, and Behavioral Activation. It has been carried out in group format, during 11 sessions of 2 hours each. A total of 21 women participated (an average of 45 years-old), who had suffered physical violence and/or emotional abuse by their partners, with different degrees and intensity, and at different moments of their lives. An intra-group design with pre-post measures was used. Three treatment groups were carried out in different cities with 6 to 8 women each one. To measure the intervention, the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) questionnaire was applied. The results has shown a statistically significant decrease in the severity of discomfort, decreased suicide risk indicators, improved problem behavior inside and outside sessions, and increased openness to others. The usefulness of contextual therapies to improve the quality of life of battered women and their usefulness for application in groups in public institutions are discussed


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Violencia de Género/psicología , Resultado del Tratamiento , Psicoterapia de Grupo/métodos , Psicometría/instrumentación , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Abuso Físico/psicología , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Apoyo Social , Escalas de Valoración Psiquiátrica/normas , Análisis de Varianza , Maltrato Conyugal/psicología
11.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 232-241, mayo 2020. tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-192059

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The cardinal aim of the present study was to assess the level of social support, self esteem and quality of life among people living with HIV/AIDS in Jammu and Kashmir State of India. Further, the study strived to explore the relationship between independent and dependent variables. METHOD: The study consists a sample of 460 AIDS patients selected through purposive sampling technique, out of them 177 (38.3%) were male, 283 (61.5%) were female patients; 295 (64.1%) were married and 165 (35.9%) were unmarried. Measures included Enriched Social Support Inventory by Mitchell et al., (2003), Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (1965) and Quality of Life Scale by Sharma & Nasreen (2014). For the statistical analysis of data Mean, Standard deviation, Frequency distribution, t-test, one way analysis of variance, correlation analysis and Scheffe's post hoc test was applied by SPSS 20.0 version. Findings: The findings illustrated that majority of patients have poor social support, lower self-esteem and poor quality of life; also it reveals that patient's social support, and self-esteem differs by age, occupation, duration of illness, gender, and marital status. However their quality of life differs only by their age, occupation, duration of illness, and marital status. Further the result shows social support and self-esteem are positively correlated with quality of life


ANTECEDENTES: El objetivo principal del presente estudio fue evaluar el nivel de apoyo social, autoestima y calidad de vida entre las personas que viven con el VIH / SIDA en Jammu y el Esta do de Cachemira de la India. Además, el estudio se esforzó por explorar la relación entre variables independientes y dependientes. Método: El estudio consiste en una muestra de 460 pacientes con SIDA seleccionados mediante una técnica de muestreo intencional, de ellos 177 (38.3%) eran hombres, 283 (61.5%) eran pacientes femeninas; 295 (64.1%) estaban casados y 165 (35.9%) no estaban casados. Las medidas incluyeron el Inventario de apoyo social enriquecido de Mitchell et al. (2003), la Escala de autoestima de Rosenberg (1965) y la Escala de calidad de vida de Sharma y Nasreen (2014). Para el análisis estadístico de los datos, la versión SPSS 20.0 aplicó la media, la desviación estándar, la distribución de frecuencia, la prueba t, el análisis de varianza unidireccional, el cuadrado de eta, el análisis de correlación y la prueba post hoc de Scheffe. Hallazgos: Los hallazgos ilustran que la mayoría de los pacientes tienen poco apoyo social, baja autoestima y mala calidad de vida; también revela que el apoyo social y la autoestima del paciente difieren según la edad, la ocupación, la duración de la enfermedad, el género y el estado civil. Sin embargo, su calidad de vida difiere solo por su edad, ocupación, duración de la enfermedad y estado civil. Además, el resultado muestra que el apoyo social y la autoestima se correlacionan positivamente con la calidad de vida


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/epidemiología , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/psicología , Apoyo Social , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Autoimagen , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , India/epidemiología , Análisis de Varianza
12.
Interv. psicosoc. (Internet) ; 29(3): 165-174, sept. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-194493

RESUMEN

Studies of intimate partner violence (IPV) have generally focused on only one partner. Although this has allowed advances in scientific knowledge on the causes of IPV, currently recent literature is demanding the need to study both members of the couple. Methodologically, the study of dyads requires the use of appropriate statistical techniques to avoid possible systematic biases (for example, type I error due to dependence of observations). We used the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model to study aggression and victimization in 361 heterosexual couples of young adults. The results indicated, on the one hand, that self-reported mutual aggression was found in more than 50% of the couples. On the other hand, we found that participants' victimization was largely predicted by their own aggressive behavior towards the other member of the couple. While this result suggests the existence of a victim-offender overlap, it may also hide an upwards victimization scores bias: when participants are aggressive toward their partners, they may bias their victimization scores upwards to justify their levels of aggression ("I was aggressive because I felt victimized")


Los estudios sobre la violencia de pareja (en inglés IPV) generalmente han centrado sus análisis sólo en uno de los miembros. Aunque esto ha permitido avanzar en el conocimiento de las causas de la IPV, la literatura reciente ha señalado la necesidad de estudiar a los dos miembros de la pareja. Metodológicamente el estudio de las parejas requiere el uso de técnicas estadísticas apropiadas para evitar posibles sesgos sistemáticos (por ejemplo, error tipo I debido a la dependencia de las observaciones). En este estudio utilizamos el modelo de interdependencia actor-pareja para el estudio de la agresión y la victimización en 361 parejas jóvenes heterosexuales de jóvenes adultos. Los resultados indicaban, por una parte, que había agresión mutua autoinformada en más de la mitad de las parejas. Por otro lado, encontramos que el principal predictor de la victimización de los participantes fue su propio comportamiento agresivo hacia el otro miembro de la pareja. Este resultado sugiere que la víctima y el agresor son la misma persona. Sin embargo, también puede ocultar un posible sesgo al alza de las puntuaciones de victimización: cuando los participantes son agresivos con sus parejas, pueden sesgar al alza sus puntuaciones de victimización para justificar sus niveles de agresión ("Fui agresivo porque me sentí victimizado")


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Maltrato Conyugal/psicología , Violencia de Pareja/psicología , Víctimas de Crimen/psicología , Deseabilidad Social , Autoinforme , Heterosexualidad/psicología , Análisis de Varianza
13.
Br J Radiol ; 93(1115): 20200101, 2020 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32903036

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the diffusion properties in the kidneys affected by renal artery stenosis (RAS) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). METHODS: In this prospective study, 35 patients with RAS and 15 patients without renal abnormalities were enrolled and examined using DTI. Cortical and medullary regions of interest (ROIs) were located to obtain the corresponding values of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA). The cortical and medullary ADC and FA were compared in the kidney affected by variable degrees of stenosis (RAS 50-75% and >75%) vs controls, using the one-way ANOVA and Student's t-test. The Spearman correlation test was used to correlate the mean ADC and FA values in the cortex and medulla with the estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). RESULTS: For the controls, the ADC value was significantly (p = 0.03) higher in the cortex than in the medulla; the FA value was significantly (p = 0.001) higher in the medulla than in the cortex. Compared with the controls, a significant reduction in the cortical ADC was present with a RAS of 50-75% and >75% (p = 0.001 and 0.041, respectively); a significant reduction in the medullary FA was verified only for RAS >75% (p = 0.023). The Spearman correlation test did not show a statistically significant correlation between the cortical and medullary ADC and FA, and the eGFR. CONCLUSION: The alterations of the diffusional parameters caused by RAS can be detected by DTI and could be useful in the diagnostic evaluation of these patients. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: 1. Magnetic resonance DTI could provide useful information about renal involvement in RAS.2. Magnetic resonance DTI allows non-invasive repeatable evaluation of the renal parenchyma, without contrast media.


Asunto(s)
Imagen de Difusión Tensora/métodos , Corteza Renal/diagnóstico por imagen , Médula Renal/diagnóstico por imagen , Obstrucción de la Arteria Renal/diagnóstico por imagen , Adulto , Anciano , Análisis de Varianza , Anisotropía , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Femenino , Tasa de Filtración Glomerular , Humanos , Corteza Renal/irrigación sanguínea , Médula Renal/irrigación sanguínea , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Estadísticas no Paramétricas
14.
Exp Parasitol ; 218: 107981, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871144

RESUMEN

Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) are a group of small insects of great concern for Public Health. These dipterous are intensely studied worldwide due to their involvement in the transmission of several pathogens, mainly Leishmania spp. parasites. Nowadays, the molecular tools have been included in Phlebotomine sand flies studies and has shown to be powerful tools in bioecology studies of these dipterous. Thereby, when molecular approaches are employed, there is a great concern regarding the amount and quality of the DNA obtained for analysis. Here, seven methods of DNA extraction, between commercial kits and in house extraction protocols were evaluated. We considered measure of DNA concentration and purity ratios using a spectrophotometer to check the performance of each protocol. In addition, the quality evaluation of the DNA extracted was performed by endogenous gene PCR on samples. The results of the seven evaluated DNA extraction protocols and their implications are discussed.


Asunto(s)
ADN/aislamiento & purificación , Psychodidae/genética , Análisis de Varianza , Animales , Costos y Análisis de Costo , ADN/análisis , ADN/normas , Electroforesis en Gel de Agar , Femenino , Masculino , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa/métodos , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa/normas , Cloruro de Sodio , Espectrofotometría , Factores de Tiempo
15.
Exp Parasitol ; 218: 107984, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871143

RESUMEN

The fascioliasis is a parasitic disease of importance in veterinary medicine and public health. For this parasitosis, the treatment by synthetic fasciolicides is used and due to their intense use although they have been shown less effective because of the establishment of resistant Fasciola hepatica population to these drugs, with a global concern. The use of derived products of plants with biological activity has been shown promising in the control of parasites. In this context, we evaluated the chemical composition and action of ovicidal in vitro fixed oil of Helianthus annuus L. (FOH) and essential oil of Cuminum cyminum L. (EOC), as well as their combination (FOH + EOC) of F. hepatica. In the assay in vitro of F. hepatica were submitted to different concentrations of oils, such as FOH (2.3 mg/mL + 0,017 mg/mL); EOC (2.07 mg/mL + 0,004 mg/mL) and the combination of (1.15 mg/mL + 1.03 mg/mL to 0,0085 mg/mL + 0,008 mg/mL) as well as a positive control of thiabendazole (0.025 mg/mL) and a negative control with distilled water and tween. The identification of the majority chemical compounds was performed by gas chromatography. The -cell viability of the oils was tested in MDBK cellular line by the MTT method. The majority compounds in the FOH were the linoleic (53.6%) and oleic (35.85%) unsaturated fatty acids, and the majority phytochemicals compounds in the EOC were the Cumaldehyde (26.8%) and the 2-Caren 10-al (22.17%). The EOC and the combination presented effectiveness of 99% (±1) and of 94% (±1) in the concentration of 0.03 mg/mL and 0.035 mg/mL+0.03 mg/mL, respectively, and the FOH was insufficiently active as ovicidal. The cell viability at this concentration of EOC was 93%. From the results above we could infer that the EOC is promising as a new alternative for the fascioliasis control.


Asunto(s)
Cuminum/química , Fasciola hepatica/efectos de los fármacos , Helianthus/química , Aceites Volátiles/farmacología , Aceites Vegetales/farmacología , Análisis de Varianza , Animales , Antihelmínticos/farmacología , Bovinos , Supervivencia Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Cromatografía de Gases , Perros , Combinación de Medicamentos , Indicadores y Reactivos , Hígado/parasitología , Células de Riñón Canino Madin Darby/efectos de los fármacos , Aceites Volátiles/química , Óvulo/efectos de los fármacos , Aceites Vegetales/química , Sales de Tetrazolio , Tiabendazol/farmacología
16.
Exp Parasitol ; 218: 107997, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946882

RESUMEN

Toxocara cati is one of the causative agents of human toxocariasis. Serological methods are used for diagnosis in paratenic hosts like humans but the humoral immune response triggered by this parasite is unknown. We characterized the humoral immune response to T. cati excretory-secretory antigens (TES) in pigs as animal model during the acute and chronic stages of infection. ELISA and Western Blot techniques were used to determine antibody response. Pigs were experimentally inoculated with 100,000 infective Toxocara cati eggs. Blood was collected at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post-inoculation (d.p.i.) to assess the acute stage of infection and 90, 120 and 180 d. p.i. for chronic stage analysis. ELISA showed values higher than the cut-off of specific IgM and IgG at 7 d. p.i. with significant differences at 0 and 7 d. p.i. for IgM and at 14, 21 and 28 d. p.i. for IgG in the acute stage. Higher and stable levels were detected in the chronic stage. Western Blot showed bands from 102 to 38 kDa detected by specific IgM and IgG. More immunogenic bands were identified by specific IgG. In the chronic stage of infection a band near 31 kDa was the only band detected by IgM until 150 d. p.i. Specific IgG recognized bands between 102 and 31 kDa. This study demonstrates how the humoral immune response evolves in the acute and chronic stages of infection and provides evidence on the role of the pig as a paratenic host of T. cati.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antihelmínticos/biosíntesis , Inmunidad Humoral , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/inmunología , Toxocara/inmunología , Toxocariasis/inmunología , Análisis de Varianza , Animales , Anticuerpos Antihelmínticos/sangre , Área Bajo la Curva , Western Blotting , Gatos , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Heces/parasitología , Inmunoglobulina G/biosíntesis , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Inmunoglobulina M/biosíntesis , Inmunoglobulina M/sangre , Masculino , Curva ROC , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/parasitología , Toxocariasis/parasitología
17.
Exp Parasitol ; 218: 108005, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32971132

RESUMEN

Nematodiosis are responsible for financial losses in cattle production systems due to treatment costs, falling production rates and animal deaths. The incorporation of sodium alginate pellets containing nematophagous fungi in the bovine diet is a method for the control of nematodiosis. The aims of this study were to evaluate the viability of Arthrobotrys cladodes and Pochonia chlamydosporia contained in sodium alginate pellets after passage through the bovine gastrointestinal tract, as well as to evaluate the effects of single and combined use of these fungi against bovine parasitic nematodes. The reduction in parasitic nematode infective larvae of bovines by the combined use of Arthrobotrys cladodes and Pochonia chlamydosporia was more than the reduction in infective larvae by Arthrobotrys cladodes or Pochonia chlamydosporia alone in the collections 12, 24 and 36 h after giving the pellets to the animals. Arthrobotrys cladodes and Pochonia chlamydosporia combined promoted maximum reduction of infective larvae of 86.3%. Therefore, the combination of Arthrobotrys cladodes and Pochonia chlamydosporia may be an effective method to control gastrointestinal nematodiosis affecting grazing cattle.


Asunto(s)
Ascomicetos/fisiología , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/prevención & control , Tracto Gastrointestinal/microbiología , Hypocreales/fisiología , Infecciones por Nematodos/veterinaria , Análisis de Varianza , Animales , Ascomicetos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Agentes de Control Biológico , Bovinos , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/parasitología , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Tracto Gastrointestinal/parasitología , Hypocreales/crecimiento & desarrollo , Larva/crecimiento & desarrollo , Micelio/crecimiento & desarrollo , Nematodos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Nematodos/microbiología , Infecciones por Nematodos/prevención & control
18.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239332, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960909

RESUMEN

The Low Back Activity Confidence Scale (LoBACS) assesses the self-efficacy to perform activities in individuals with chronic low back pain (CLBP). As self-efficacy appears to directly influence the patient's functional capacity and prognosis, it is important to develop a scale that evaluates this attribute to guide treatment strategy and monitor the clinical course of patients. This study aimed to evaluate the reliability, construct validity, and responsiveness of the Brazilian version of the LoBACS. The scale was applied to 112 male and female patients (age, 18-65 years) with specific and nonspecific CLBP. For evaluating the interobserver reliability, the scale was applied twice on the first evaluation day by two trained evaluators (A and B). Within 48-72 h of the first evaluation, assessor A reapplied the scale to evaluate intraobserver reliability (test-retest), which was analyzed by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The first LoBACS applied in the baseline evaluation was also used to assess the construct validity of the scale by factor analysis. For responsiveness, the scale was applied 5 times at 2-week intervals and the change in scores was analyzed by the repeated measures ANOVA. Although factor analysis indicated three subscales, they did not present acceptable values of convergent and divergent validity. Reliability ranged from good to excellent, with ICC values of .90 (95% CI, .84; .93) and .85 (95% CI, .77; .91) for inter- and intraobserver variability for total score. Moreover, the total score was responsive in all comparisons, with no floor or ceiling effects. Thus, only the total score of the Brazilian version of LoBACS proved to be reliable, valid, and responsive.


Asunto(s)
Dolor de la Región Lumbar/fisiopatología , Dimensión del Dolor/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Análisis de Varianza , Enfermedad Crónica , Análisis Factorial , Femenino , Humanos , Dolor de la Región Lumbar/psicología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Autoeficacia , Traducción , Adulto Joven
19.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 21(1): 423, 2020 Sep 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993490

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is the technique of choice for quantifying gene expression. While the technique itself is well established, approaches for the analysis of qPCR data continue to improve. RESULTS: Here we expand on the common base method to develop procedures for testing linear relationships between gene expression and either a measured dependent variable, independent variable, or expression of another gene. We further develop functions relating variables to a relative expression value and develop calculations for determination of associated confidence intervals. CONCLUSIONS: Traditional qPCR analysis methods typically rely on paired designs. The common base method does not require such pairing of samples. It is therefore applicable to other designs within the general linear model such as linear regression and analysis of covariance. The methodology presented here is also simple enough to be performed using basic spreadsheet software.


Asunto(s)
Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa/métodos , Análisis de Varianza , Expresión Génica , Modelos Lineales , Programas Informáticos
20.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 50(11): e13412, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954492

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a public health emergency that is spreading worldwide and seriously affecting the global economy. Data on the effectiveness and safety of the use of methylprednisolone for patients with severe COVID-19 remain limited. METHODS: In this retrospective study, epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, treatment and outcomes data of hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19 in Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University from January 1 to 7 March 2020, were collected. Binary logistic regression model was used to analyse risk factors for disease progression from severe COVID-19 illness to critical illness. The effectiveness and safety of the use of methylprednisolone for patients with severe COVID-19 disease were evaluated. RESULTS: The results of the multivariate analysis from 175 patients with severe COVID-19 indicate that the use of methylprednisolone was a protective factor against disease progression from severe to critical illness(P < .001; OR: 0.054 95% CI: 0.017-0.173). Among patients with severe COVID-19 aged < 65 years, both the proportion of patients who progressed to critical illness (42.2% vs 90.0%, P = .000) and the mortality(6.7% vs 30.0%, P = .002) were lower for patients in methylprednisolone group, compared with those in the non-methylprednisolone group, whereas no statistical differences between the methylprednisolone group and the non-methylprednisolone group were found among patients with COVID-19 older than 65 years. Moreover, both the levels of CD4+ T lymphocyte counts (646 vs 463/µL, P = .007) and IL-6 (241.9 vs 82.8 pg/mL, P = .025) were higher among patients with severe COVID-19 aged < 65 years, compared with those patients ≥ 65 years old. CONCLUSION: Data from the limited sample showed that the early use of low or medium doses of methylprednisolone has a positive effect for patients with severe COVID-19 younger than 65 years old, and excessive immune response and cytokine storm may be some of the reasons for the effectiveness.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , ADN Viral/análisis , Mortalidad Hospitalaria , Metilprednisolona/uso terapéutico , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/tratamiento farmacológico , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Análisis de Varianza , Distribución de Chi-Cuadrado , China/epidemiología , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Enfermedad Crítica/mortalidad , Bases de Datos Factuales , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Femenino , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Hospitales Universitarios , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa/métodos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Medición de Riesgo , Análisis de Supervivencia
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