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1.
Bioresour Technol ; 329: 124894, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662851

RESUMEN

The presence of (nano)microplastics in domestic wastewater and their subsequent release to the aquatic environment via the discharge of treated sewage has raised significant concerns. Previous studies have also identified their excessive accumulation in sewage sludge. Anaerobic digestion is one of the most used sludge stabilization methods in wastewater treatment plants. Therefore, understanding the potential effects of (nano)microplastics on anaerobic digestion has been receiving increasing attention from researchers. This article provides a comprehensive review of mechanisms underlying the impacts of (nano)microplastics on anaerobic digestion. Notably, this review covers mechanisms of inhibition/enhancement of anaerobic digestion by (nano)microplastics and their potential impacts on biochemical pathways, key enzymes, functional genes, and microbial communities investigated to date. Moreover, potential environmental risks of biosolids contaminated with (nano)microplastics were highlighted. Finally, knowledge gaps and future research needs were outlined. This review will guide more standardized studies in the future, covering both fundamental and engineering aspects.


Asunto(s)
Microplásticos , Plásticos , Anaerobiosis , Aguas del Alcantarillado , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos
2.
Bioresour Technol ; 329: 124903, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662853

RESUMEN

Synchronous sludge reduction and nitrogen removal have attracted increasing attention, while the underlying mechanisms of diverse nitrogen metabolism within the complicated processes remain unclear. Four anoxic/oxic membrane bioreactors, three of which were upgraded by anaerobic side-stream reactors (ASSR) and carriers (APSSR-MBRs), were operated to determine effects of hydraulic retention time of ASSRs. APSSR-MBRs achieved more significant nitrogen removal and higher nitrate uptake rate because of more denitrifying bacteria and the supernumerary release of secondary substrates. Ammonia uptake rate showed the diverse Nitrospira preceded over anaerobic decay and sulfide inhibition in the ASSR, and made the reactor exhibit higher nitrification capacity. Metagenomic analysis indicated that APSSR-MBRs showed higher abundances of genes related to nitrogen consumption processes, and higher abundances on the carriers, confirming their pivotal roles in nitrogen metabolism. This study provided novel perspectives to build a bridge between process model and nitrogen metabolism in the sludge reduction system..


Asunto(s)
Nitrógeno , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos , Anaerobiosis , Reactores Biológicos , Desnitrificación , Redes y Vías Metabólicas , Aguas del Alcantarillado
3.
Bioresour Technol ; 329: 124889, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662854

RESUMEN

The study aims to investigate the feasibility of anaerobic co-landfilling of effluent treatment plant sludge (ETPS) from paper mill and municipal solid waste (MSW) in prismoidal shaped simulated anaerobic landfill bioreactors. Both ETPS and MSW were co-disposed in 0:100 (R1), 25:75 (R2), 50:50 (R3) and 75:25 (R4) ratios. Periodic assessments of leachate characteristics and biomethane production were carried out for 300 days. ETPS co-disposal with MSW showed considerable reduction in biochemical oxygen demand of leachate (R2: 95.9%, R3: 97.5% and R4: 93.2%). Moreover, cumulative methane gas generations were 2.974, 6.085 and 4.653 times more in R2, R3 and R4 bioreactors as compared to R1. Gompertz growth model was found in well-fitting for methane generation with the observed data. Correlogram plotted among leachate parameters exhibited exclusive relationships and justified leachate trends. This simulation of co-landfilling could be baseline study for the implementation of technology at pilot scale.


Asunto(s)
Eliminación de Residuos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Anaerobiosis , Reactores Biológicos , Descontaminación , Metano , Aguas del Alcantarillado , Residuos Sólidos , Instalaciones de Eliminación de Residuos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
4.
J Environ Manage ; 286: 112267, 2021 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667820

RESUMEN

Antibiotic pollution is becoming increasingly severe due to its extensive use. The potential application of the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process in the treatment of wastewater containing antibiotics has attracted much attention. As common antibiotics, spiramycin (SPM) and streptomycin (STM) are widely used to treat human and animal diseases. However, their combined effects on the anammox process remain unknown. Therefore, this study systematically evaluated the response of the anammox process to both antibiotics. The half maximal inhibitory concentrations of SPM and STM were determined. The continuous-flow anammox system could adapt to SPM and STM at low concentrations, while antibiotics at high concentrations exhibited inhibitory effects. When the concentrations reached 5 mg L-1 SPM and 50 mg L-1 STM, the nitrogen removal efficiency dramatically decreased and then rapidly recovered within 8 days. Correspondingly, the abundances of dominant bacteria and genes also changed with antibiotic concentrations. In general, the anammox process showed a stable performance and a high resistance to SPM and STM, suggesting that acclimatization by elevating the concentrations was beneficial for the anammox process to obtain resistance to different antibiotics with high concentrations. This study provides guidance for the stable operation of anammox-based biological treatment of antibiotics containing wastewater.


Asunto(s)
Compuestos de Amonio , Macrólidos , Aminoglicósidos , Anaerobiosis , Animales , Antibacterianos , Reactores Biológicos , Humanos , Nitrógeno , Oxidación-Reducción , Aguas Residuales
5.
J Environ Manage ; 286: 112229, 2021 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667821

RESUMEN

Up-flow anaerobic bioreactors are widely applied for high-rate digestion of industrial wastewaters and rely on formation, and retention, of methanogenic granules, comprising of dense, fast-settling, microbial aggregates (approx. 0.5-4.0 mm in diameter). Granule formation (granulation) mechanisms have been reasonably well hypothesized and documented. However, this study used laboratory-scale bioreactors, inoculated with size-separated granular sludge to follow new granule formation, maturation, disintegration and re-formation. Temporal size profiles, volatile solids content, settling velocity, and ultrastructure of granules were determined from each of four bioreactors inoculated only with small granules, four with only large granules, and four with a full complement of naturally-size-distributed granules. Constrained granule size profiles shifted toward the natural distribution, which was associated with maximal bioreactor performance. Distinct morphological features characterized different granule sizes and biofilm development stages, including 'young', 'juvenile', 'mature' and 'old'. The findings offer opportunities toward optimizing management of high-rate, anaerobic digesters by shedding light on the rates of granule growth, the role of flocculent sludge in granulation and how shifting size distributions should be considered when setting upflow velocities.


Asunto(s)
Euryarchaeota , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos , Anaerobiosis , Reactores Biológicos , Crecimiento y Desarrollo , Aguas del Alcantarillado
6.
Bioresour Technol ; 329: 124905, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676351

RESUMEN

Parameters of temperature-phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD) were varied to study their effects on hydrolysis, biomethane potential (BMP), and microbial diversity of microalgae biodegradation. Anaerobic pretreatments at 85 °C demonstrated the release of soluble carbohydrate and protein molecules under low microbial metabolic activity. However, at 55 °C, anaerobic pretreatments showed superior performance in methane yield, nutrient release, and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production due to dominant Clostridium. Furthermore, the highest destruction of volatile solids (VS) was observed during aerobic pretreatments at 55 °C under the influence of various quantities of these genera - Luteimonas, Symbiobacterium, Soehngenia, Thermobacillus, and Ureibacillus. Statistical analysis revealed that hydrolysis and BMP were not correlated. However, soluble nitrogen and phosphorous showed strong correlation with methane (r = 0.623 and 0.948, respectively) under thermo-anaerobic pretreatment, while VS removal and concentrations of acetic and butyric acids and lipids were positively correlated with each other under thermo-aerobic pretreatment.


Asunto(s)
Microalgas , Microbiota , Anaerobiosis , Hidrólisis , Metano
7.
Bioresour Technol ; 329: 124919, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676353

RESUMEN

Links between synergy and microbial community characteristics in co-digestion of food waste (FW), cattle manure (CM) and corn straw (CS) were investigated. Mono-digestion of FW and CS were inhibited by organic acids. Co-digestion of FW with CM achieved greater synergistic rates (18.5% and 22.3%) than CM with CS (14.8% and 12.3%). Synergy resulted from coupling effects of improving nutrient balance, dilution of toxic compounds, higher buffering capacity, detoxification based on co-metabolism, which ultimately reflected in microbial community functions. Although co-digestion of FW with CS exhibited lowest synergistic rates (7.9% and 4.9%), detoxification based on co-metabolism of syntrophic communities of Syntrophomonadaceae with hydrogenotrophic methanogens accelerated system recovery. Digester with the greatest synergy (65% FW + 35% CM) maintained dominant growth of hydrogenotrophic methanogens (68.9%), highest methanogenic community diversity and relative abundance of Methanosarcina (14.6%), which sustained more diverse and switchable methanogenic pathways therefore ensured powerful methanogenic functions and vigorous methanogenic capability.


Asunto(s)
Microbiota , Eliminación de Residuos , Anaerobiosis , Animales , Biocombustibles , Reactores Biológicos , Bovinos , Digestión , Alimentos , Estiércol , Metano , Zea mays
8.
Bioresour Technol ; 329: 124893, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690059

RESUMEN

The objective of this study was to understand how lactate-to-butyrate ratio and substrates concentrations affect the caproate production and product structure. The results showed that a higher butyrate-to-lactate ratio is beneficial to caproate production at low initial lactate concentration. Low pH (5.0) and low substrate concentration (20 mM and 40 mM) effectively decreased propionate production via restrained acrylate pathway, resulting in higher electron efficiency of caproate. With the optimum mole ratio of lactate to butyrate (1:4) and 80 mM initial butyrate concentration, the electron efficiency of caproate reached the maximum (43.10%). Moreover, high butyrate concentration suppressed the production of odd-carbon-number carboxylates while promoting the production of caproate. Compared with the batch operation, the caproate production in semi-continuous operation was enhanced by 3.45 times to 30.91 ± 1.07 mM as the acrylate pathway was successfully inhibited in semi-continuous experiments due to low pH and low lactate concentration.


Asunto(s)
Butiratos , Caproatos , Anaerobiosis , Carbono , Fermentación , Ácido Láctico
9.
Bioresour Technol ; 329: 124928, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690060

RESUMEN

In current study, the enhancement effect of magnetite on anaerobic digestion was evaluated at increased organic loading rate (OLR) from 1.6 to 25.6 kg COD·m-3·d-1. The supplement of magnetite enhanced the methane yield by 7-483% accompanied with faster VFAs conversion. Microbial analysis suggested the varied enhancing effect achieved at different OLRs was attributed to different syntrophic interactions triggered by magnetite. More specially, an electroactive syntropy was established between Trichococcus with Methanobacterium at OLR lower than 6.4 kg COD·m-3·d-1, while with the OLR increase, more acid fermentative bacteria (Propionimicrobium, Syner-01) were enriched and further enhanced methanogenesis in a syntrophic way with Methanosaeta. Overall, the incorporation of magnetite was a promising approach to achieve efficient anaerobic digestion, OLR was also critical factor affecting the methanogenesis and should be carefully regulated in future application.


Asunto(s)
Reactores Biológicos , Microbiota , Anaerobiosis , Óxido Ferrosoférrico , Metano
10.
Bioresour Technol ; 329: 124924, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33691205

RESUMEN

For exploring the impact of temperature on antibiotic resistant genes (ARGs) during sludge anaerobic digestion (AD), the dynamic variations of sludge ARGs, plasmid ARGs, and cell-free ARGs in mesophilic (25 °C and 35 °C) and thermophilic (55 °C) digesters were investigated. The study revealed that the abundance of sludge ARGs and plasmid ARGs in thermophilic sludge AD was significantly lower than that in mesophilic digesters, while the cell-free ARGs abundance of the thermophilic digesters was similar to mesophilic digesters. Higher archaea abundance, lower bacteria abundance, and different microbial community were found in thermophilic digesters compared to that of mesophilic ones. Firmicutes might be a main group of potential hosts of ARGs in sludge AD. The distinct microbial community was the main contributor to the low ARGs abundance in thermophilic sludge AD. Thermophilic operation at 55 °C rather than mesophilic operation is more conducive to control ARGs in sludge anaerobic digestion.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos , Aguas del Alcantarillado , Anaerobiosis , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Bacterias/genética , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana/genética , Temperatura
11.
Bioresour Technol ; 329: 124927, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33706177

RESUMEN

The anaerobic digestion of leachate from organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is a long-standing challenge. A submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) embedding three flat sheet membrane was therefore continuously operated for 63 days to investigate the materials flow and membrane performance. The results obtained show that approximately 90% COD was removed and 86% was converted into methane under an OLR of 5.6 kgCOD/m3·d corresponding to a HRT of 10 days. Under the high solid condition (34.5-61.1 g/L total solids in AnMBR) and flux of 5 and 6 LMH, the membranes was operated practically at constant trans-membrane pressure (TMP). When the membrane was operated at a high flux of 7 LMH the TMP rapid increase occurred in 22 h resulting in a non-recoverable permeability. A sustainable flux was thus identified. This study demonstrated the feasibility of AnMBR treating OFMSW leachate under high solid condition with high flux.


Asunto(s)
Membranas Artificiales , Residuos Sólidos , Anaerobiosis , Reactores Biológicos , Metano , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos
12.
Bioresour Technol ; 329: 124913, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711716

RESUMEN

This study investigated the tolerance, defensive response and methanogenic pathways of anaerobic granular slugde and anaerobic suspended sludge (AGS and ASS) exposed to different LCM concentrations. AGS presented a higher tolerance to LCM stress, accompanied with 20.8 ± 2.6% enhancement in methane production at 1000 mg/L LCM, which was likely attributed to the less cell deaths and extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) protection. In the acidification stage, acetate accumulation was stimulated and the activity of acetate kinase was promoted by LCM. In the methanogenesis stage, propionate and butyrate utilization for methane production were impaired after LCM addition. LCM also improved the activity of pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase and strengthened the process of hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis, likely by accelerating interspecies electron transfer mediated by hydrogen. ErmB and ermF were the dominate LCM resistance genes in AGS under LCM pressure conferring the resistance mechanism of ribosomal protection.


Asunto(s)
Biocombustibles , Aguas del Alcantarillado , Anaerobiosis , Reactores Biológicos , Lincomicina , Metano
13.
Bioresour Technol ; 329: 124937, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712339

RESUMEN

With the increasing popularity of waste to energy conversion, demand for large-scale operation of anaerobic digestors has emerged in the market. However, the process instabilities in anaerobic digestors limit the expansion of facilities to high loading rates. The irregularities in the process can be addressed directly by altering the feedstock characteristics provided an on-hand, robust, and sensitive monitoring device is available. In this context, the bioelectrochemical system has emerged as an excellent tool for monitoring and optimizing the anaerobic process within the reactor. This article reviews the gradual evolution in techniques and approaches for monitoring of anaerobic digestion (AD) process. An analysis of the recently popular biosensing techniques has been done with a focus on the bioelectrochemical monitoring system and its operation mode. A brief attempt to highlight the current challenges in the field of bioelectrochemical process monitoring for AD has also been made, which can be supportive of future research.


Asunto(s)
Reactores Biológicos , Metano , Anaerobiosis
14.
Bioresour Technol ; 329: 124916, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33730622

RESUMEN

Nanobubble technology has significant potential to improve the anaerobic digestion (AD) process by ameliorating the rate-limiting steps of hydrolysis and methanogenesis, as well as providing process stability by reducing sulfide and volatile fatty acid (VFA) levels. Nanobubbles (NB) can enhance substrate accessibility, digestibility, and enzymatic activity due to their minuscule size, high electrostatic interaction, and ability to generate reactive oxygen species. Air- and O2-NB can create a microaerobic environment for higher efficiency of the electron transport system, thereby reducing VFAs through enhanced facultative bacterial activity. Additionally, H2- and CO2-NB can improve hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. Recently, several studies have employed NB technology in the AD process. There is, however, a lack of concise, synthesized information on NB applications to the AD process. This review provides an in-depth discussion on the NB-integrated AD process and the putative mechanisms involved. General discussions on other potential applications and future research directions are also provided.


Asunto(s)
Reactores Biológicos , Metano , Anaerobiosis , Ácidos Grasos Volátiles , Hidrólisis
15.
Bioresour Technol ; 330: 124965, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735725

RESUMEN

With the increasing of data in wastewater treatment, data-driven machine learning models are useful for modeling biological processes and complex reactions. However, few data-driven models have been developed for simulating the microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) and traditional models are too ambiguous to comprehend the mechanisms. In this study, a new general data-driven two-stage model was firstly developed to predict CH4 production from in-situ biogas upgrading in the biocathode MECs via direct electron transfer (DET), named NARX-BP hybrid neural networks. Compared with traditional one-stage model, the model could well predict methane production via DET with excellent performance (all R2 and MES of 0.918 and 6.52 × 10-2, respectively) and reveal the mechanisms of biogas upgrading, for the new systematical modeling approach could improve the versatility and applicability by inputting significant intermediate variables. In addition, the model is generally available to support long-term prediction and optimal operation for anaerobic digestion or complex MEC systems.


Asunto(s)
Biocombustibles , Metano , Anaerobiosis , Reactores Biológicos , Electrólisis , Electrones , Aprendizaje Automático , Redes Neurales de la Computación
16.
Bioresour Technol ; 330: 124970, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735726

RESUMEN

Currently, anaerobic sludge digestion (ASD) is considered not only for treating residual sewage sludge and energy recovery but also for the reduction of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). The current review highlights the reasons why antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and ARGs exist in ASD and how ASD performs in the reduction of ARB and ARGs. ARGs and ARB have been detected in ASD with some reports indicating some of the ARGs can be completely removed during the ASD process, while other studies reported the enrichment of ARB and ARGs after ASD. This paper reviews the performance of ASD based on operational parameters as well as environmental chemistry. More studies are needed to improve the performance of ASD in reducing ARGs that are difficult to handle and also differentiate between extracellular (eARGs) and intracellular ARGs (iARGs) to achieve more accurate quantification of the ARGs.


Asunto(s)
Genes Bacterianos , Aguas del Alcantarillado , Anaerobiosis , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina , Inhibidores de la Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Bacterias/genética , Digestión , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana/genética , Aguas Residuales
17.
Bioresour Technol ; 330: 124945, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735733

RESUMEN

The influence of copper ion (Cu2+) on anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) performance and microbial community structures after oxytetracycline (OTC) stress recovery were assessed. Experimental results demonstrated that anammox performance were stressed by 1.0 mg L-1 Cu2+ and inhibitions were reversible with total nitrogen removal rate higher than 3.08 ± 0.2 kg N m-3 d-1. The residual OTC in the anammox sludge could combine with Cu2+ introduced and thereby retarded inhibition on performance in the presence of 2.0 mg L-1 Cu2+. Moreover, the positive relation of dominant bacterium Ca. Anammoxoglobus with the abundance of functional genes and parts of antibiotic resistance genes were observed, suggesting that regain of performance was the results of the gradual domestication of latent resistant species after inhibition. This investigation reveals new insights into resistance of anammox performance for Cu2+ and OTC.


Asunto(s)
Microbiota , Oxitetraciclina , Anaerobiosis , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Reactores Biológicos , Cobre , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana/genética , Nitrógeno , Oxidación-Reducción , Oxitetraciclina/farmacología , Aguas del Alcantarillado
18.
Bioresour Technol ; 330: 124951, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735734

RESUMEN

High solid anaerobic digestion (HSAD) was an emerging bioconversion technology which had the advantages of small digester, less digestate and low heating energy. A one-stage anaerobic system in CSTR by inoculating activated sludge of simultaneous propionate degradation and methanogenesis was proposed to improve the high-solid digestion performance and to stabilize the reaction process. Semi-continuous mode was successfully used to perform HSAD from cellulosic ethanol whole stillage at an initial substrate loading of 15.4% (w/w) dry matter content with different OLRs from 1.5 to 5.0 gVS·L-1 d-1 at an HRT of 30 days. The average methane yield during whole digestion reached 349.9 mL⋅gVS-1 with a total VS removal rate of 61.3%. The acclimation mechanism of multifunctional activated sludge was also explored by analyzing the functional property, physiological activity and microbial community structure. The results indicated the feasibility and efficiency of multifunctional activated sludge in a semi-continuous high-solid stirred tank reactor system.


Asunto(s)
Propionatos , Aguas del Alcantarillado , Anaerobiosis , Reactores Biológicos , Digestión , Etanol , Metano
19.
Bioresour Technol ; 330: 124971, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740584

RESUMEN

This study investigates the suitability of continuous hybrid fixed bed anaerobic filter reactor for treating sewage and agro-industrial digestate hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) products; hydrochar and HTC liquor (HTCL). The reactor was operated for 300 days under mesophilic conditions at different organic loading rates (OLR); maximum OLRs of 7.4 and 10 gCOD/L/d were reached while treating HTC liquor and slurry, respectively. 15 g/L hydrochar were added to the reactor as a supplement while treating HTCL solely thus increasing the biogas production up to 153%. The reactor was fed with HTCL and hydrochar with an increasing mixing ratio, and the co-digestion impact was dependent on hydrochar concentrations. The results of the study indicate that the hybrid fixed bed anaerobic filter reactor is a promising anaerobic digestion configuration for treating HTCL and overcoming the HTC upscaling challenges, and the suitability of digestate hydrochar utilization as supplement material for anaerobic digestion.


Asunto(s)
Biocombustibles , Aguas del Alcantarillado , Anaerobiosis , Suplementos Dietéticos
20.
Bioresour Technol ; 330: 124962, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740585

RESUMEN

This study aimed to investigate the effect of bioaugmentation on microbial community and function in a continuous anaerobic process treating lignocellulosic cow manure. One reactor (Rb) received bioaugmentation dosage for a certain period (d100-d170) and stopped afterward (d170-d220), while the same applied to the control (Rc) except sterilized bioaugmentation dosage was introduced. Samples were taken on day130, 170 and 220 from both reactors for metatranscriptomic analysis. The results underlined the promotive effect of bioaugmentation on indigenous microorganisms regarding hydrolysis and methanogenesis. Bioaugmentation contributed to the enrichment of Clostridium, Cellvibrio, Cellulomonas, Bacillus, Fibrobacter, resulting in enhanced cellulase activity (Rb: 0.917-1.081; Rc: 0.551-0.677). Moreover, bioaugmentation brought Rb the prosperity of uncultured_ Bathyarchaeia, a prominent archaeal group responsible for the improved methyl-coenzyme M reductase activity, thus accelerated methanogenesis. Unique metabolic pathways (autotrophic carbon fixation and methanogenesis) in uncultured_ Bathyarchaeia broadened the horizon of its fundamental role as acetogens and methanogens in anaerobic digestion.


Asunto(s)
Euryarchaeota , Estiércol , Anaerobiosis , Animales , Biocombustibles , Reactores Biológicos , Bovinos , Femenino , Metano
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