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1.
Arthroscopy ; 37(4): 1115-1116, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812516

RESUMEN

The creation of pain as the fifth vital sign in 2001 led to an unforeseen and dramatic increase in postoperative narcotic use. It became clear that chronic opioid use was associated with overdoses and deaths, and state medical licensing boards began to require completion of narcotic Continuing Medical Education courses to maintain licensure. Despite the overwhelming evidence of adverse effects of narcotic usage in both the pre- and postoperative periods, this continues to be a persistent problem in all areas of orthopaedic surgery. The magnitude of the problem is significant and now opioid-specific training is a mandated component of the American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery Maintenance of Certification for their Web-based Longitudinal Assessment of continuing medical education. Large database studies are helpful in identifying trends and factors that influence outcomes, potentially cut cost of care, and hopefully help us find a way out of this ongoing dilemma. This dilemma has taken a long time to create and will require a concerted disciplined effort to eliminate.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Relacionados con Opioides , Lesiones del Manguito de los Rotadores , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapéutico , Artroscopía , Humanos , Manguito de los Rotadores , Lesiones del Manguito de los Rotadores/tratamiento farmacológico
3.
Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy ; 16(1): 22, 2021 03 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673847

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In North America the opioid poisoning crisis currently faces the unprecedented challenges brought by the COVID-19 pandemic, further straining people and communities already facing structural and individual vulnerabilities. People with opioid use disorder (OUD) are facing unique challenges in response to COVID-19, such as not being able to adopt best practices (e.g., physical distancing) if they're financially insecure or living in shelters (or homeless). They also have other medical conditions that make them more likely to be immunocompromised and at risk of developing COVID-19. In response to the COVID-19 public health emergency, national and provincial regulatory bodies introduced guidance and exemptions to mitigate the spread of the virus. Among them, clinical guidance for prescribers were issued to allow take home opioid medications for opioid agonist treatment (OAT). Take Home for injectable opioid agonist treatment (iOAT) is only considered within a restrictive regulatory structure, specific to the pandemic. Nevertheless, this risk mitigation guidance allowed carries, mostly daily dispensed, to a population that would not have access to it prior to the pandemic. In this case it is presented and discussed that if a carry was possible during the pandemic, then the carry could continue post COVID-19 to address a gap in our approach to individualize care for people with OUD receiving iOAT. CASE PRESENTATION: Here we present the first case of a patient in Canada with long-term OUD that received take home injectable diacetylmorphine to self-isolate in an approved site after being diagnosed with COVID-19 during a visit to the emergency room where he was diagnosed with cellulitis and admitted to receive antibiotics. CONCLUSION: In the present case we demonstrated that it is feasible to provide iOAT outside the community clinic with no apparent negative consequences. Improving upon and making permanent these recently introduced risk mitigating guidance during COVID-19, have the potential not just to protect during the pandemic, but also to address long-overdue barriers to access evidence-based care in addiction treatment.


Asunto(s)
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapéutico , Heroína/uso terapéutico , Tratamiento de Sustitución de Opiáceos/métodos , Trastornos Relacionados con Opioides/tratamiento farmacológico , Administración Intravenosa , Administración Oral , Analgésicos Opioides/administración & dosificación , Heroína/administración & dosificación , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias
4.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 19(1): 179-188, 2021 Jan 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33723977

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Analgesics (painkillers) are one of the most widely used medications to reduce and control pain. The objective of this study was to investigate the self-medication with analgesics (narcotic or non-narcotic) in controlling odontogenic pain in patients visiting dental offices, dental clinics, and the dental school of Kerman. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a descriptive-analytic study, conducted in 2018. The study sample included patients referring to dental offices, dental clinics and the dental school of Kerman. After obtaining informed consent, a questionnaire consisting of demographic data and questions regarding the consumption of different types of analgesics for relieving and controlling odontogenic pain and their impact on patients was given by the researcher to the respondents. The patients were asked to complete and return the forms. The questionnaire consisted of three categories of questions, including demographic data, pain characteristics (severity, aggravating factors, relieving factors, etc) and the drug used to relieve the pain. Pain severity was measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Mann-Whitney and chi-squared tests were used for statistical analysis in SPSS. RESULTS: This study included 230 males and 351 females (male:female ratio = 0.66) in the age range of 18 to 71 years old (38.21 ± 7.45). 2.6% of respondents were illiterate and 11.3% of respondents were unemployed. The mean value of pain intensity was 6.21 ± 1.11 on a scale of 1 to 10. The types of drugs used for pain relief included 71.8% analgesics, 12.1% complementary medicines and 16.1% antibiotics. The most commonly used medication was NSAIDS, followed by acetaminophen codeine. In this study, the fourth most common medication consumed by patients as an analgesic was amoxicillin. Moreover, it showed that 44.3% (257 individuals) of study participants had used analgesics as self-medication to relieve odontogenic pain, of which 46.08% were males (N = 107) and 42.68% were females (N = 150). The gender of respondents, level of education, and occupation were significantly associated with the consumption of opioid drugs (p = 0.023, p = 0.041, p = 0.011, respectively). Consumption of opioid medications was not statistically significantly correlated with pain intensity (p = 0.115). CONCLUSION: The factors affecting the appropriate use of medications are social, economic, cultural, and flaws in the health-care system of a society. This study showed that the medications used to reduce pain included analgesics, traditional drugs, and antibiotics. The rate of self-medication was higher among men and among those having a higher level of education.


Asunto(s)
Analgésicos , Dolor , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Analgésicos/uso terapéutico , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapéutico , Antiinflamatorios no Esteroideos/uso terapéutico , Femenino , Humanos , Irán , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Dolor/tratamiento farmacológico , Automedicación , Adulto Joven
5.
JAMA ; 325(9): 865-877, 2021 Mar 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33651094

RESUMEN

Importance: The prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in the United States is between 7% and 16%, most common in women and young people, with annual direct costs estimated at more than $1 billion dollars in the United States. Traditionally, the diagnosis of IBS has been based on the positive identification of symptoms that correlate with several different syndromes associated with disorders such as IBS diarrhea, IBS constipation, functional diarrhea, functional constipation, chronic functional abdominal pain, or bloating. Several peripheral and central mechanisms initiate gastrointestinal motor and sensory dysfunctions leading to IBS symptoms. Those dysfunctions may require evaluation in patients whose symptoms do not respond to first-line treatments. Observations: Validation studies of consensus symptom-based criteria have identified deficiencies that favor a simpler identification of the predominant symptoms of abdominal pain, bowel dysfunction, and bloating and exclusion of alarm symptoms such as unintentional weight loss, rectal bleeding, or recent change in bowel function. Symptom-based diagnosis of IBS is enhanced with additional history for symptoms of somatoform and psychological disorders and alarm symptoms, physical examination including digital rectal examination, and screening tests to exclude organic disease (by measuring hemoglobin and C-reactive protein concentrations). The initial treatment plan should include patient education, reassurance, and first-line treatments such as fiber and osmotic laxatives for constipation, opioids for diarrhea, antispasmodics for pain and for management of associated psychological disorders. For patients who do not respond to those IBS treatments, testing for specific functional disorders may be required in a minority of patients with IBS. These disorders include rectal evacuation disorder, abnormal colonic transit, and bile acid diarrhea. Their identification is followed by individualized treatment, such as pelvic floor retraining for rectal evacuation disorders, sequestrants for bile acid diarrhea, and secretory agents for constipation, although there is only limited evidence that this individualized management approach is effective. Conclusions and Relevance: Advances in the identification of specific dysfunctions as causes of individual symptoms in the "IBS spectrum" leads to the potential to enhance the diagnosis and management of symptoms for the majority of patients for whom first-line therapies of IBS and management of comorbid psychological disorders are insufficient.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome del Colon Irritable/diagnóstico , Síndrome del Colon Irritable/terapia , Dolor Abdominal/tratamiento farmacológico , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapéutico , Antidiarreicos/uso terapéutico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Dietoterapia , Fibras de la Dieta/uso terapéutico , Suplementos Dietéticos , Humanos , Laxativos/uso terapéutico , Psicoterapia
8.
Anesth Analg ; 132(4): 1138-1145, 2021 04 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617181

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Epidural block are often used for analgesia after open nephrectomy surgery. Subcostal anterior quadratus lumborum block may be an alternative. We therefore tested the hypothesis that the continuous subcostal anterior quadratus lumborum block is noninferior to epidural block for analgesia in patients having open partial nephrectomies. METHODS: Adults having open partial nephrectomies were randomly allocated to epidural or unilateral subcostal anterior quadratus lumborum block. The joint primary outcomes were opioid consumption measured in morphine equivalents and pain measured on a numeric rating scale (0-10) from postanesthesia care unit (PACU) until 72 hours after surgery. The noninferiority deltas were 30% for opioid consumption and 1 point on a 0-10 scale for pain. Secondary outcomes included patient global assessment of pain management on the third postoperative day, the number of antiemetic medication doses through the third postoperative day, duration of PACU stay, and postoperative duration of hospitalization. RESULTS: Twenty-six patients were randomized to anterior quadratus lumborum block and 29 to epidural analgesia. Neither pain scores nor opioid consumption in the quadratus lumborum patients were noninferior to epidural analgesia. At 72 hours, mean ± standard deviation pain scores in subcoastal anterior quadratus lumborum block and epidural group were 4.7 ± 1.8 and 4.1 ± 1.7, with an estimated difference in pain scores of 0.62 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.74-1.99; noninferiority P = .21). The median [Q1, Q3] opioid consumption was more than doubled in quadratus lumborum patients at 70 mg [43, 125] versus 30 mg [18, 75] in the epidural group with an estimated ratio of geometric means of 1.69 (95% CI, 0.66-4.33; noninferiority P = .80). Patient global assessment and duration of PACU and hospital stays did not differ significantly in the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS: We were unable to show that subcostal anterior quadratus lumborum block are noninferior to epidural analgesia in terms of pain scores and opioid consumption for open partial nephrectomies. Effectiveness of novel blocks should be rigorously tested in specific surgical setting before widespread adoption.


Asunto(s)
Analgesia Epidural , Nefrectomía , Bloqueo Nervioso , Dolor Postoperatorio/prevención & control , Anciano , Analgesia Epidural/efectos adversos , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapéutico , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nefrectomía/efectos adversos , Bloqueo Nervioso/efectos adversos , Ohio , Dimensión del Dolor , Umbral del Dolor/efectos de los fármacos , Dolor Postoperatorio/diagnóstico , Dolor Postoperatorio/etiología , Dolor Postoperatorio/fisiopatología , Factores de Tiempo , Resultado del Tratamiento
9.
Value Health ; 24(2): 147-157, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518021

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Opioid-related medication errors (MEs) can have a significant impact on patient health and contribute to opioid misuse. The objective of this study was to estimate the incidence of and variables associated with the receipt of an opioid prescription and opioid-related MEs (omissions, duplications, or dose changes) at hospital discharge. We also determined rates of adverse drug events and risks of emergency department visits, readmissions, or death 30 days and 90 days post discharge associated with MEs. METHODS: A cohort of hospitalized patients discharged from the McGill University Health Centre between 2014 and 2016 was assembled. The impact of opioid-related MEs was assessed in a propensity score-adjusted logistic regression models. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine characteristics associated with MEs and discharge opioid prescription. RESULTS: A total of 1530 (43.9%) of 3486 patients were prescribed opioids, of which 13.4% (n = 205) of patients had at least 1 opioid-related ME. Rates of MEs were higher in handwritten prescriptions compared to the electronic reconciliation discharge prescription group (20.6% vs 1.2%). Computer-based prescriptions were associated with a 69% lower risk of opioid-related MEs (adjusted odds ratio: 0.31, 95% confidence interval: 0.14-0.65) as well as 63% lower risk of receiving an opioid prescription. Opioid-related MEs were associated with a 2.3 times increased risk of healthcare utilization in the 30 days postdischarge period (adjusted odds ratio: 2.32, 95% confidence interval: 1.24-4.32). CONCLUSIONS: Opioid-related MEs are common in handwritten discharge prescriptions. Our findings highlight the need for computer-based prescribing platforms and careful review of medications during critical periods of care such as hospital transitions.


Asunto(s)
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapéutico , Prescripción Electrónica/normas , Errores de Medicación/estadística & datos numéricos , Alta del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Analgésicos Opioides/administración & dosificación , Analgésicos Opioides/efectos adversos , Continuidad de la Atención al Paciente , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Conciliación de Medicamentos/normas , Persona de Mediana Edad , Readmisión del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Pautas de la Práctica en Medicina/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Prospectivos
10.
Value Health ; 24(2): 196-205, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518026

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Little is known about relationships between opioid- and gabapentinoid-use patterns and healthcare expenditures that may be affected by pain management and risk of adverse outcomes. This study examined the association between patients' opioid and gabapentinoid prescription filling/refilling trajectories and direct medical expenditures in US Medicare. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included a 5% national sample (2011-2016) of fee-for-service beneficiaries with fibromyalgia, low back pain, neuropathy, or osteoarthritis newly initiating opioids or gabapentinoids. Using group-based multitrajectory modeling, this study identified patients' distinct opioid and gabapentinoid (OPI-GABA) dose and duration patterns, based on standardized daily doses, within a year of initiating opioids and/or gabapentinoids. Concurrent direct medical expenditures within the same year were estimated using inverse probability of treatment weighted multivariable generalized linear regression, adjusting for sociodemographic and health status factors. RESULTS: Among 67 827 eligible beneficiaries (mean age ± SD = 63.6 ± 14.8 years, female = 65.8%, white = 77.1%), 11 distinct trajectories were identified (3 opioid-only, 4 gabapentinoid-only, and 4 concurrent OPI-GABA trajectories). Compared with opioid-only early discontinuers ($13 830, 95% confidence interval = $13 643-14 019), gabapentinoid-only early discontinuers and consistent low-dose and moderate-dose gabapentinoid-only users were associated with 11% to 23% lower health expenditures (adjusted mean expenditure = $10 607-$11 713). Consistent low-dose opioid-only users, consistent high-dose opioid-only users, consistent low-dose OPI-GABA users, consistent low-dose opioid and high-dose gabapentinoid users, and consistent high-dose opioid and moderate-dose gabapentinoid users were associated with 14% to 106% higher healthcare expenditures (adjusted mean expenditure = $15 721-$28 464). CONCLUSIONS: Dose and duration patterns of concurrent OPI-GABA varied substantially among fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries. Consistent opioid-only users and all concurrent OPI-GABA users were associated with higher healthcare expenditures compared to opioid-only discontinuers.


Asunto(s)
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapéutico , Analgésicos/uso terapéutico , Gabapentina/uso terapéutico , Medicare/economía , Dolor/tratamiento farmacológico , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Analgésicos/administración & dosificación , Analgésicos Opioides/administración & dosificación , Estudios Transversales , Utilización de Medicamentos , Planes de Aranceles por Servicios/economía , Femenino , Gabapentina/administración & dosificación , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estados Unidos
11.
Z Rheumatol ; 80(3): 243-250, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33635407

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prescription frequency of analgesics in persons diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), axial spondylarthritis (axSpA), psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in 2019 using claims data. METHODS: Persons ≥ 18 years insured in 2019 with a diagnosis of RA (M05, M06), axSpA (M45), PsA (M07.0-3) or SLE (M32.1,8,9) were included. Analgesics were identified by the anatomic therapeutic classification (ATC) system. Reported is the percentage of individuals with ≥ 1 analgesics prescription for the respective rheumatic diagnosis in 2019 and for opioids age-standardized in each of the years 2005-2019. In addition, the proportion of long-term opioid use (prescriptions in ≥ 3 consecutive quarter years) in 2006 and 2019 is compared. RESULTS: Metamizole (29-33%) was the most commonly prescribed analgesic. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID)/coxibs were prescribed from 35% (SLE) to 50% (axSpA). Of the patients 11-13% were prescribed weak and 6-8% strong opioids. From 2005 to 2019, the proportion of persons with an opioid prescription remained stable, with similar or slightly decreasing proportions of weak opioids and more frequent prescriptions of strong opioids. The proportion of long-term opioid prescriptions increased from 2006 to 2019 from 8.9% to 11.0% (RA), from 6.9% to 9.1% (axSPA), from 7.8% to 9.5% (PsA), and from 7.5% to 8.8% (SLE), corresponding to a 17-24% increase. CONCLUSION: The prescription of opioids for persons with inflammatory rheumatic diagnoses is not as high in Germany as in other countries; however, the proportion of long-term prescriptions has considerably increased. The frequent prescription of metamizole is conspicuous.


Asunto(s)
Análisis de Datos , Enfermedades Reumáticas , Analgésicos/uso terapéutico , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapéutico , Alemania/epidemiología , Humanos , Enfermedades Reumáticas/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Reumáticas/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades Reumáticas/epidemiología
12.
J Am Dent Assoc ; 152(4): 309-317, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33637299

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: It is unknown which procedures account for the most US dental opioid prescriptions. Moreover, few national studies have assessed opioid prescribing patterns for these procedures. These knowledge gaps impede the optimal targeting of dental opioid stewardship initiatives. METHODS: The authors analyzed claims data from the 2013 through 2018 IBM MarketScan Dental, Commercial, and Medicaid Multi-State Databases. Patients aged 13 through 64 years undergoing 1 of 120 procedures were identified. "Initial prescriptions" were opioid prescriptions dispensed on the date of procedures to 3 days afterward. For the procedures accounting for the 5 highest proportions of initial prescriptions, the authors fitted linear regression models assessing trends in the probability of 1 or more initial prescriptions and mean total morphine milligram equivalents prescribed-a standardized measure of opioid amount. Regressions were adjusted for demographic characteristics and comorbidities. RESULTS: The 9,482,976 procedures in the sample were associated with 2,721,688 initial prescriptions. Of these prescriptions, 5 procedures accounted for 95.2%: tooth extraction (65.2%), problem-focused limited oral evaluation (17.2%), endodontic therapy (8.4%), alveoloplasty (2.9%), and surgical implant services (1.5%). Among the 5 procedures, the median adjusted annual change in the probability of 1 or more initial prescriptions was -1.3 percentage points. The median adjusted annual change in mean total morphine milligram equivalents was -4.5 (roughly 1 pill containing 5 mg of hydrocodone). In 2018, 45.3% of tooth extractions resulted in 1 or more initial prescriptions. CONCLUSIONS: Five procedures accounted for 95.2% of dental opioid prescriptions, and tooth extraction accounted for almost two-thirds of those. Opioid prescribing for tooth extractions is declining but remains common, despite the availability of equally effective nonopioid alternatives. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Eliminating routine opioid prescribing for tooth extraction could reduce dental opioid exposure substantially.


Asunto(s)
Analgésicos Opioides , Pautas de la Práctica en Odontología , Adolescente , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Hidrocodona , Seguro de Salud , Medicaid , Pautas de la Práctica en Medicina , Estados Unidos
13.
Maturitas ; 145: 24-30, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541559

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a frequently occurring, chronic condition; however, few studies describe the clinical characteristics of individuals with OA and the treatments they use to manage their symptoms. We conducted a study to characterize the OA population in the US and describe the nonsurgical management used by this population based on consumer research data collected through an online survey. METHODS: Data from the 2017 US National Health and Wellness Survey (NHWS) for adults aged ≥35 years were used to evaluate the relationship between OA and certain study participant characteristics and to identify the most commonly used treatment options. NHWS data were collected through a survey of individuals drawn from the internet panel maintained by Lightspeed Research (Bridgewater, New Jersey) and its panel partners. Weighted estimates were generated using data from the 2016 Current Population Survey (Annual Demographics File) of the US Census Bureau. Comparisons between the general and OA populations were made based on body mass index (BMI), exercise frequency, and comorbid diagnoses of hypertension or diabetes. Among the OA population, the use of dietary supplements, prescription or over-the-counter (OTC) treatments with chondroitin with or without glucosamine (Ch ± Gl), prescription treatment by time since OA diagnosis, and utilization of a physical therapist were also recorded. RESULTS: The prevalence of OA in the overall population was 17.6 % and was higher for individuals with a BMI ≥ 25 (21.9 %), patients diagnosed with hypertension or diabetes (36.2 %), and those who did not exercise regularly (19.0 %). Adults without OA were more likely to exercise regularly (12 days per month or more) than adults diagnosed with OA. Ch ± Gl (6.0 %) was the most commonly used OTC dietary supplement in the OA population, followed by omega-3 fatty acids (2.8 %), vitamin D (1.9 %), calcium (1.1 %), and multivitamins (0.7 %). Individuals using Ch ± Gl were more likely to use OTC only products (75.4 % vs 37.3 %) or prescription medications, namely non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and/or opioids, and OTC products (24.6 % vs 13.0 %) compared with individuals not using Ch ± Gl, while individuals not using Ch ± Gl were more likely to be untreated (30.3 % vs 0) or to use prescription medications only (19.4 % vs 0). Nearly 32 % of individuals with OA reported using prescription treatments, and the likelihood of using a prescription treatment increased with number of years since OA diagnosis (<3 years: 27.5 %; ≥21 years: 32.5 %). The pharmaceutical products used by this population primarily consisted of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, acetaminophen and opioids. Approximately 13 % of patients with OA had visited a physical therapist in the past 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of OA was higher in those with a high BMI, and comorbid diabetes or hypertension. Individuals with OA using Ch ± Gl primarily reported use of OTC products only or used them in combination with prescription products. The likelihood of using prescription products increased with the length of OA history. These data provide valuable new information about demographics, clinical characteristics, and commonly used prescription and OTC treatments and dietary supplements in the OA population.


Asunto(s)
Condroitín/uso terapéutico , Suplementos Dietéticos , Glucosamina/uso terapéutico , Medicamentos sin Prescripción/uso terapéutico , Osteoartritis/tratamiento farmacológico , Adulto , Anciano , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapéutico , Antiinflamatorios no Esteroideos/uso terapéutico , Índice de Masa Corporal , Comorbilidad , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamiento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiología , Utilización de Medicamentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Ejercicio Físico , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Hipertensión/tratamiento farmacológico , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estados Unidos , Vitaminas/uso terapéutico
14.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 8(4): 301-309, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33640039

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Opioid agonist treatment (OAT) reduces many of the harms associated with opioid dependence. We use mathematical modelling to comprehensively evaluate the overall health benefits of OAT in people who inject drugs in Perry County (KY, USA), Kyiv (Ukraine), and Tehran (Iran). METHODS: We developed a dynamic model of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission, incarceration, and mortality through overdose, injury, suicide, disease-related and other causes. The model was calibrated to site-specific data using Bayesian methods. We evaluated preventable drug-related deaths (deaths due to HIV, HCV, overdose, suicide, or injury) averted over 2020-40 for four scenarios, added incrementally, compared with a scenario without OAT: existing OAT coverage (setting-dependent; community 4-11%; prison 0-40%); scaling up community OAT to 40% coverage; increasing average OAT duration from 4-14 months to 2 years; and scaling up prison-based OAT. OUTCOMES: Drug-related harms contributed differentially to mortality across settings: overdose contributed 27-47% (range of median projections) of preventable drug-related deaths over 2020-40, suicide 6-17%, injury 3-17%, HIV 0-59%, and HCV 2-18%. Existing OAT coverage in Tehran (31%) could have a substantial effect, averting 13% of preventable drug-related deaths, but will have negligible effect (averting <2% of preventable drug-related deaths) in Kyiv and Perry County due to low OAT coverage (<4%). Scaling up community OAT to 40% could avert 12-24% of preventable drug-related deaths, including 13-22% of overdose deaths, with greater effect in settings with significant HIV mortality (Tehran and Kyiv). Improving OAT retention and providing prison-based OAT would have a significant additional effect, averting 27-51% of preventable drug-related deaths. INTERPRETATION: OAT can substantially reduce drug-related harms, particularly in settings with HIV epidemics in people who inject drugs. Maximising these effects requires research and investment into achieving higher coverage and provision and longer retention of OAT in prisons and the community. FUNDING: UK National Institute for Health Research, US National Institute on Drug Abuse.


Asunto(s)
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapéutico , Trastornos Relacionados con Opioides/tratamiento farmacológico , Prisiones/organización & administración , Abuso de Sustancias por Vía Intravenosa/mortalidad , Adulto , Sobredosis de Droga/mortalidad , Sobredosis de Droga/prevención & control , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/mortalidad , Infecciones por VIH/transmisión , Hepatitis C/mortalidad , Hepatitis C/transmisión , Humanos , Irán/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Modelos Teóricos , Trastornos Relacionados con Opioides/mortalidad , Suicidio/prevención & control , Suicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Ucrania/epidemiología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(7): e24512, 2021 Feb 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607780

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The postoperative pain associated with total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is severe for most patients. The analgesic efficacy and safety of preoperative use of selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors for patients undergoing TKA are unclear. OBJECTIVES: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess whether the use of selective COX-2 inhibitors before TKA decreases the postoperative pain intensity. METHODS: Data sources: The PubMed, Embase, EBSCO, Web of Science, and Cochrane Controlled Register of Trials databases from inception to January 2020. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in which the intervention treatment was preoperative selective COX-2 vs placebo in patients undergoing TKA and that had at least one of the quantitative outcomes mentioned in the following section of this paper were included. Letters, review articles, case reports, editorials, animal experimental studies, and retrospective studies were excluded. INTERVENTIONS: All RCTs in which the intervention treatment was preoperative selective COX-2 vs placebo in patients undergoing TKA. STUDY APPRAISAL AND SYNTHESIS METHODS: The quality of the RCTs was quantified using the Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scale. RevMan 5.3 software was used for the meta-analysis. RESULTS: Six RCTs that had enrolled a total of 574 patients were included in the meta-analysis. The visual analog scale pain score at rest was significantly different between the experimental group and control group at 24 hours (P < .05) and 72 hours (P < .05) postoperatively. The experimental group exhibited a significant visual analog scale pain score during flexion at 24 hours postoperatively (P < .05), and it was not different at 72 hours postoperatively (P = .08). There was a significant difference in opioid consumption (P < .05), but there was no difference in the operation time (P = .24) or postoperative nausea/vomiting (P = .64) between the groups. CONCLUSION: The efficacy of preoperative administration of selective COX-2 inhibitors to reduce postoperative pain and opioid consumption after TKA is validated. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION NUMBER: INPLASY202090101.


Asunto(s)
Analgesia/métodos , Artroplastia de Reemplazo de Rodilla/métodos , Inhibidores de la Ciclooxigenasa 2/administración & dosificación , Dolor Postoperatorio/prevención & control , Cuidados Preoperatorios/métodos , Anciano , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapéutico , Inhibidores de la Ciclooxigenasa 2/efectos adversos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
16.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(2): e2037328, 2021 02 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33591365

RESUMEN

Importance: Low-value care, defined as care offering no net benefit in specific clinical scenarios, is associated with harmful outcomes in patients and wasteful spending. Despite a national education campaign and increasing attention on reducing health care waste, recent trends in low-value care delivery remain unknown. Objective: To assess national trends in low-value care use and spending. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cross-sectional study, analyses of low-value care use and spending from 2014 to 2018 were conducted using 100% Medicare fee-for-service enrollment and claims data. Included individuals were aged 65 years or older and continuously enrolled in Medicare parts A, B, and D during each measurement year and the previous year. Data were analyzed from September 2019 through December 2020. Exposure: Being enrolled in fee-for-service Medicare for a period of time, in years. Main Outcomes and Measures: The Milliman MedInsight Health Waste Calculator was used to assess 32 claims-based measures of low-value care associated with Choosing Wisely recommendations and other professional guidelines. The calculator designates services as wasteful, likely wasteful, or not wasteful based on an absence of indication of appropriate use in the claims history; calculator-designated wasteful services were defined as low-value care. Spending was calculated as claim-line level (ie, spending on the low-value service) and claim level (ie, spending on the low-value service plus associated services), adjusting for inflation. Results: Among 21 045 759 individuals with fee-for-service Medicare (mean [SD] age, 77.4 [7.9] years; 12 515 915 [59.5%] women), the percentage receiving any of 32 low-value services decreased from 36.3% (95% CI, 36.3%-36.4%) to 33.6% (95% CI, 33.6%-33.6%) from 2014 to 2018. Uses of low-value services per 1000 individuals decreased from 677.8 (95% CI, 676.2-679.5) to 632.7 (95% CI, 632.6-632.8) from 2014 to 2018. Three services comprised approximately two-thirds of uses among 32 low-value services per 1000 individuals: preoperative laboratory testing decreased from 213.8 (95% CI, 213.4-214.2) to 166.2 (95% CI, 166.2-166.2), while opioids for back pain increased from 154.4 (95% CI, 153.6-155.2) to 182.1 (95% CI, 182.1-182.1) and antibiotics for upper respiratory infections increased from 75.0 (95% CI, 75.0-75.1) to 82 (95% CI, 82.0-82.0). Spending per 1000 individuals on low-value care also decreased, from $52 765.5 (95% CI, $51 952.3-$53 578.6) to $46 921.7 (95% CI, $46 593.7-$47 249.7) at the claim-line level and from $160 070.4 (95% CI, $158 999.8-$161 141.0) to $144 741.1 (95% CI, $144 287.5-$145 194.7) at the claim level. Conclusions and Relevance: This cross-sectional study found that among individuals with fee-for-service Medicare receiving any of 32 measured services, low-value care use and spending decreased marginally from 2014 to 2018, despite a national education campaign in collaboration with clinician specialty societies and increased attention on low-value care. While most use of low-value care came from 3 services, 1 of these was opioid prescriptions, which increased over time despite the harms associated with their use. These findings may represent several opportunities to prevent patient harm and lower spending.


Asunto(s)
Planes de Aranceles por Servicios , Gastos en Salud/tendencias , Servicios de Salud/tendencias , Medicare , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapéutico , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Dolor de Espalda/tratamiento farmacológico , Pruebas Diagnósticas de Rutina/tendencias , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Cuidados Preoperatorios/tendencias , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/tratamiento farmacológico , Estados Unidos
17.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(2): e2037371, 2021 02 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33591367

RESUMEN

Importance: Acute low back pain (LBP) is highly prevalent, with a presumed favorable prognosis; however, once chronic, LBP becomes a disabling and expensive condition. Acute to chronic LBP transition rates vary widely owing to absence of standardized operational definitions, and it is unknown whether a standardized prognostic tool (ie, Subgroups for Targeted Treatment Back tool [SBT]) can estimate this transition or whether early non-guideline concordant treatment is associated with the transition to chronic LBP. Objective: To assess the associations between the transition from acute to chronic LBP with SBT risk strata; demographic, clinical, and practice characteristics; and guideline nonconcordant processes of care. Design, Setting, and Participants: This inception cohort study was conducted alongside a multisite, pragmatic cluster randomized trial. Adult patients with acute LBP stratified by SBT risk were enrolled in 77 primary care practices in 4 regions across the United States between May 2016 and June 2018 and followed up for 6 months, with final follow-up completed by March 2019. Data analysis was conducted from January to March 2020. Exposures: SBT risk strata and early LBP guideline nonconcordant processes of care (eg, receipt of opioids, imaging, and subspecialty referral). Main Outcomes and Measures: Transition from acute to chronic LBP at 6 months using the National Institutes of Health Task Force on Research Standards consensus definition of chronic LBP. Patient demographic characteristics, clinical factors, and LBP process of care were obtained via electronic medical records. Results: Overall, 5233 patients with acute LBP (3029 [58%] women; 4353 [83%] White individuals; mean [SD] age 50.6 [16.9] years; 1788 [34%] low risk; 2152 [41%] medium risk; and 1293 [25%] high risk) were included. Overall transition rate to chronic LBP at six months was 32% (1666 patients). In a multivariable model, SBT risk stratum was positively associated with transition to chronic LBP (eg, high-risk vs low-risk groups: adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.45; 95% CI, 2.00-2.98; P < .001). Patient and clinical characteristics associated with transition to chronic LBP included obesity (aOR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.28-1.80; P < .001); smoking (aOR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.29-1.89; P < .001); severe and very severe baseline disability (aOR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.48-2.24; P < .001 and aOR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.60-2.68; P < .001, respectively) and diagnosed depression/anxiety (aOR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.28-2.15; P < .001). After controlling for all other variables, patients exposed to 1, 2, or 3 nonconcordant processes of care within the first 21 days were 1.39 (95% CI, 1.21-2.32), 1.88 (95% CI, 1.53-2.32), and 2.16 (95% CI, 1.10-4.25) times more likely to develop chronic LBP compared with those with no exposure (P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, the transition rate to chronic LBP was substantial and increased correspondingly with SBT stratum and early exposure to guideline nonconcordant care.


Asunto(s)
Dolor Agudo/fisiopatología , Dolor Crónico/fisiopatología , Dolor de la Región Lumbar/fisiopatología , Atención Primaria de Salud , Dolor Agudo/diagnóstico por imagen , Dolor Agudo/epidemiología , Dolor Agudo/terapia , Adulto , Anciano , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapéutico , Trastornos de Ansiedad/epidemiología , Dolor Crónico/epidemiología , Trastorno Depresivo/epidemiología , Diagnóstico por Imagen/estadística & datos numéricos , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Femenino , Adhesión a Directriz/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Dolor de la Región Lumbar/diagnóstico por imagen , Dolor de la Región Lumbar/epidemiología , Dolor de la Región Lumbar/terapia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/epidemiología , Oportunidad Relativa , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Pronóstico , Derivación y Consulta/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores de Riesgo , Fumar/epidemiología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
19.
Pain Med ; 22(2): 470-480, 2021 02 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33537764

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Individuals with chronic pain are uniquely challenged by the COVID-19 pandemic, as increased stress may exacerbate chronic pain, and there are new barriers to receiving chronic pain treatment. In light of this, using a large online sample in the United States, we examined 1) the early impact of COVID-19 on pain severity, pain interference, and chronic pain management; and 2) variables associated with perceived changes in pain severity and pain interference. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. METHODS: Online survey data for 1,453 adults with chronic pain were collected via Amazon's Mechanical Turk platform. RESULTS: Although a large proportion of participants reported no perceived changes in their pain severity and pain interference since the outbreak, approximately 25-30% of individuals reported exacerbation in these domains. Individuals identifying as Black and of non-Hispanic origin, who experienced greater disruptions in their mood and sleep quality, were more likely to report worsened pain interference. The majority of participants reported engaging in self-management strategies as usual. However, most appointments for chronic pain treatment were either postponed or canceled, with no future session scheduled. Furthermore, a notable proportion of participants had concerns about or difficulty accessing prescription opioids due to COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: We may expect to see a long-term exacerbation of chronic pain and related interference in functioning and chronic pain management among individuals most impacted by the pandemic. These individuals may benefit from remotely delivered intervention to effectively mitigate COVID-19-related exacerbations in chronic pain and interruptions in face-to-face treatment.


Asunto(s)
Actividades Cotidianas , Dolor Crónico/fisiopatología , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Automanejo , Tiempo de Tratamiento , Adulto , Afecto , Afroamericanos , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapéutico , Dolor Crónico/psicología , Dolor Crónico/terapia , Estudios Transversales , Empleo , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea , Femenino , Hispanoamericanos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Manejo del Dolor , Dimensión del Dolor , Sueño , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos
20.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(2): e210061, 2021 02 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33625511

RESUMEN

Importance: Persons with opioid use disorder (OUD) and co-occurring alcohol use disorder (AUD) are understudied and undertreated. It is unknown whether the use of medications to treat OUD is associated with reduced risk of alcohol-related morbidity. Objective: To determine whether the use of OUD medications is associated with decreased risk for alcohol-related falls, injuries, and poisonings in persons with OUD with and without co-occurring AUD. Design, Setting, and Participants: This recurrent-event, case-control, cohort study used prescription claims from IBM MarketScan insurance databases from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2016. The sample included persons aged 12 to 64 years in the US with an OUD diagnosis and taking OUD medication who had at least 1 alcohol-related admission. The unit of observation was person-day. Data analysis was performed from June 26 through September 28, 2020. Exposures: Days of active OUD medication prescriptions, with either agonist (ie, buprenorphine or methadone) or antagonist (ie, oral or extended-release naltrexone) treatments compared with days without OUD prescriptions. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was admission for any acute alcohol-related event defined by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision and International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision codes. Conditional logistic regression was used to compare OUD medication use between days with and without an alcohol-related event. Stratified analyses were conducted between patients with OUD with and without a recent AUD diagnostic code. Results: There were 8 424 214 person-days of observation time among 13 335 participants who received OUD medications and experienced an alcohol-related admission (mean [SD] age, 33.1 [13.1] years; 5884 female participants [44.1%]). Agonist treatments (buprenorphine and methadone) were associated with reductions in the odds of any alcohol-related acute event compared with nontreatment days, with a 43% reduction for buprenorphine (odds ratio [OR], 0.57; 95% CI, 0.52-0.61) and a 66% reduction for methadone (OR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.26-0.45). The antagonist treatment naltrexone was associated with reductions in alcohol-related acute events compared with nonmedication days, with a 37% reduction for extended-release naltrexone (OR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.52-0.76) and a 16% reduction for oral naltrexone (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.76-0.93). Naltrexone use was more prevalent among patients with OUD with recent AUD claims than their peers without AUD claims. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that OUD medication is associated with fewer admissions for alcohol-related acute events in patients with OUD with co-occurring AUD.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes por Caídas/estadística & datos numéricos , Alcoholismo/epidemiología , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapéutico , Antagonistas de Narcóticos/uso terapéutico , Trastornos Relacionados con Opioides/tratamiento farmacológico , Heridas y Traumatismos/epidemiología , Adulto , Trastornos Relacionados con Alcohol/epidemiología , Buprenorfina/uso terapéutico , Depresores del Sistema Nervioso Central/envenenamiento , Sobredosis de Droga/epidemiología , Etanol/envenenamiento , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Metadona/uso terapéutico , Persona de Mediana Edad , Naltrexona/uso terapéutico , Tratamiento de Sustitución de Opiáceos/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos Relacionados con Opioides/epidemiología , Factores Protectores , Adulto Joven
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