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1.
Equine Vet J ; 52(1): 13-27, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657050

RESUMEN

Primary care guidelines provide a reference point to guide clinicians based on a systematic review of the literature, contextualised by expert clinical opinion. These guidelines develop a modification of the GRADE framework for assessment of research evidence (vetGRADE) and applied this to a range of clinical scenarios regarding use of analgesic agents. Key guidelines produced by the panel included recommendations that horses undergoing routine castration should receive intratesticular local anaesthesia irrespective of methods adopted and that horses should receive NSAIDs prior to surgery (overall certainty levels high). Butorphanol and buprenorphine should not be considered appropriate as sole analgesic for such procedures (high certainty). The panel recommend the continuation of analgesia for 3 days following castration (moderate certainty) and conclude that phenylbutazone provided superior analgesia to meloxicam and firocoxib for hoof pain/laminitis (moderate certainty), but that enhanced efficacy has not been demonstrated for joint pain. In horses with colic, flunixin and firocoxib are considered to provide more effective analgesia than meloxicam or phenylbutazone (moderate certainty). Given the risk of adverse events of all classes of analgesic, these agents should be used only under the control of a veterinary surgeon who has fully evaluated a horse and developed a therapeutic, analgesic plan that includes ongoing monitoring for such adverse events such as the development of right dorsal colitis with all classes of NSAID and spontaneous locomotor activity and potentially ileus with opiates. Finally, the panel call for the development of a single properly validated composite pain score for horses to allow accurate comparisons between medications in a robust manner.


Asunto(s)
Analgesia/veterinaria , Enfermedades de los Caballos/tratamiento farmacológico , Dolor/veterinaria , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Sociedades Científicas/normas , Medicina Veterinaria/normas , Animales , Caballos , Dolor/tratamiento farmacológico , Reino Unido
2.
Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract ; 49(6): 1013-1027, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481257

RESUMEN

Alpha-2 agonists have potent analgesic effects, in addition to their sedative actions. Alpha-2 agonists provide analgesia through any of several routes of administration, including parenteral, oral, epidural or intrathecal and intraarticular, because of spinal and supraspinal actions. Systemic doses are short acting, whereas local administration at the site of action result in longer analgesic effects. The potent cardiovascular and respiratory effects of alpha-2 agonists should be considered when used as analgesics.


Asunto(s)
Agonistas alfa-Adrenérgicos/uso terapéutico , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapéutico , Dolor/veterinaria , Mascotas , Analgesia/métodos , Analgesia/veterinaria , Animales , Dolor/tratamiento farmacológico
3.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 22(3): 419-439, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395323

RESUMEN

Even when performed by skilled operators, locating the nerves can be challenging in small exotic pets; in such cases, the use of an electrical nerve stimulator may be useful to confirm the correct identification of the target nerve. Exotic animal anesthesia and analgesia have dramatically progressed over the past decade and continue to do so as more research and technologies develop. Technological advancements such as airway devices, endoscopic intubation techniques, positive intermittent pressure ventilators, and invasive and noninvasive blood pressure monitors have played a significant role in improving patient safety and the anesthetic outcomes of exotic animals.


Asunto(s)
Analgesia/veterinaria , Anestesia/veterinaria , Animales Exóticos/fisiología , Manejo de la Vía Aérea/instrumentación , Manejo de la Vía Aérea/métodos , Manejo de la Vía Aérea/normas , Manejo de la Vía Aérea/veterinaria , Analgesia/tendencias , Anestesia/tendencias , Anestésicos/administración & dosificación , Animales , Aves/fisiología , Determinación de la Presión Sanguínea/métodos , Determinación de la Presión Sanguínea/normas , Determinación de la Presión Sanguínea/veterinaria , Endoscopía/instrumentación , Endoscopía/métodos , Endoscopía/tendencias , Endoscopía/veterinaria , Humanos , Mamíferos/fisiología , Bloqueo Nervioso/instrumentación , Bloqueo Nervioso/métodos , Bloqueo Nervioso/tendencias , Bloqueo Nervioso/veterinaria , Manejo del Dolor , Respiración Artificial/instrumentación , Respiración Artificial/métodos , Respiración Artificial/tendencias , Respiración Artificial/veterinaria
4.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(4): 1116-1120, jul.-ago. 2019. ilus
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038633

RESUMEN

Neuropathic pain occurs when there is a lesion or a dysfunction of the nervous system. Humans and veterinary patients may develop neuropathic pain, but in veterinary it is not often reported probably because of its mistaken diagnosis. A canine patient was admitted to the Veterinary Hospital of UNESP-Jaboticabal-SP, Brazil with a nodule on the left thoracic limb. The nodule was surgically removed, and histopathological analysis demonstrated the tumor was a soft tissue sarcoma (STS) and the margins were not clean. Based on the patient's health condition and the lack of suitable equipment, the next procedure was limb amputation. The patient received analgesic medication in the post-surgery period; nevertheless, clinical signs of neuropathic pain were present, such as compulsive licking and other behavioral disorders. Medications were administered for forty days, but clinical signs ceased only when replaced with a tryciclic antidepressant drug, Amitriptyline. Therapeutic management of the patient in this report can be considered effective, since five years after the end of the treatment there was no recurrence or presence of metastasis.(AU)


A dor neuropática ocorre quando há uma lesão ou disfunção do sistema nervoso. Tanto pacientes humanos quanto veterinários podem desenvolver a dor neuropática, mas na medicina veterinária ela é pouco relatada provavelmente por não ser corretamente diagnosticada. Um paciente canino foi atendido no Hospital Veterinário da Unesp-Jaboticabal, SP, Brasil, com um nódulo em membro torácico esquerdo. O nódulo foi removido cirurgicamente, e o exame histopatológico evidenciou a presença de sarcoma de tecidos moles (STM) e de margens comprometidas. Baseando-se nas condições de saúde do paciente e na ausência de equipamentos adequados, o próximo procedimento foi a amputação do membro. No pós-cirúrgico, o animal recebeu medicações analgésicas, todavia, mesmo assim, apresentava sinais de dor neuropática, como lambedura compulsiva e outros distúrbios comportamentais. O tratamento para dor aguda se estendeu por 40 dias; no entanto, os sinais clínicos cessaram apenas quando os analgésicos comuns foram substituídos por um medicamento antidepressivo tricíclico, a amitriptilina. O manejo terapêutico do paciente do presente relato pode ser considerado satisfatório, uma vez que, após cinco anos do término do tratamento, não houve recidiva nem presença de metástase.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Animales , Perros , Miembro Fantasma/tratamiento farmacológico , Sarcoma/veterinaria , Amitriptilina/uso terapéutico , Amputación/veterinaria , Analgesia/veterinaria , Conducta Animal , Extremidad Superior/patología
5.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(4): 1193-1197, jul.-ago. 2019. ilus
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038637

RESUMEN

A anestesia locorregional reduz o requerimento de agentes inalatórios e diminui as respostas autonômicas a estímulos cirúrgicos nocivos. Objetiva-se descrever um bloqueio anestésico do plexo braquial guiado por neuroestimulador em jumento, submetido à amputação do membro anterior direito. Foi realizada medicação pré-anestésica com detomidina 0,01mg.kg-1, indução com diazepam 0,05mg.kg-1 e cetamina 2mg.kg-1, todos pela via intravenosa (IV), e a manutenção da anestesia com isoflurano. O plexo braquial foi bloqueado por acesso subescapular, sendo usado neuroestimulador. Utilizou-se 1mg.kg-1 de bupivacaína 0,5% sem vasoconstritor, associada a 1mg.kg-1 de lidocaína 2% sem vasoconstrictor. Os valores de FC e ƒ durante o procedimento cirúrgico variaram de 62 a 78bpm e de 24 a 32rpm, respectivamente. Foram coletadas quatro amostras de sangue para dosagem de cortisol. Este, antes da aplicação da medicação pré-anestésica, foi de 6,4µg/dL e, 30 minutos após a MPA, foi de 2,8µg/dL. A recuperação anestésica foi rápida e sem complicações. O bloqueio do plexo braquial guiado por neuroestimulador mostrou-se eficaz em jumentos, fornecendo analgesia e anestesia satisfatória.(AU)


Locoregional anesthesia reduces the requirement for inhaled agents and reduces the autonomic responses to noxious surgical stimuli. The aim of this study was to describe an anesthetic block of the brachial plexus guided by a neurostimulator in a donkey submitted to right limb amputation. Preanesthetic medication was performed with detomidine 0.01mg.kg-1 induction with diazepam 0.05mg.kg-1 and ketamine 2mg.kg-1 all intravenously, and maintenance of anesthesia with isoflurane. The brachial plexus was blocked by subscapular access, using a neurostimulator. For this purpose, 1mg.kg -1 of bupivacaine 0.5%, without vasoconstrictor, and 1mg.kg- 1 of lidocaine 2%, without vasoconstrictor were used. The values of HR and ƒ during the surgical procedure ranged from 62 to 78bpm, and 24 to 32bpm, respectively. Four blood samples were collected for cortisol dosing. This, prior to the application of the pre-anesthetic medication was 6.4µg/dL and 30 minutes was 2.8µg/dL. Anesthesia recovery was rapid and uncomplicated. Neurostimulator-guided brachial plexus blockade proved to be effective in donkeys, providing satisfactory analgesia and anesthesia.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Animales , Equidae/cirugía , Neuroestimuladores Implantables/veterinaria , Bloqueo del Plexo Braquial/métodos , Bloqueo del Plexo Braquial/veterinaria , Analgesia/veterinaria , Anestesia/veterinaria
6.
Acta Vet Hung ; 67(2): 282-295, 2019 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238728

RESUMEN

Little information is available about the management of adrenalectomies in veterinary anaesthesia. The aim of this study was to describe the anaesthetic techniques, the complication rate and outcome of these cases. Data were collected retrospectively from patients' records. Descriptive statistics were performed with Student's t-tests and Chi-square tests where appropriate. Forty-one cases were included. The mean age was 124.7 ± 29.4 months and the median body weight was 23.1 kg (5.3-69 kg). Carcinoma was the most common diagnosis (34.1%). Premedication was most commonly achieved with methadone alone (70.7%) IV. Propofol was the most common induction agent (39%). An infusion of opioids (80.4%) and an epidural injection of morphine (70.7%) were the most common analgesic techniques. Hypotension was the most common complication observed (51.2%). The mortality rate was 14.6%. The lowest recorded oesophageal temperature was statistically associated with the incidence of haemorrhage (P = 0.025). The invasion of the vena cava (P = 0.001) was significantly associated with haemorrhagic complications. The survival rate was better when patients received hydrocortisone intra-operatively (P = 0.026). This study highlights some possible association between the anaesthetic management and the outcome of the procedure.


Asunto(s)
Adrenalectomía/veterinaria , Analgesia/veterinaria , Analgésicos/uso terapéutico , Anestesia/veterinaria , Anestésicos/uso terapéutico , Perros/cirugía , Adrenalectomía/métodos , Analgesia/métodos , Anestesia/métodos , Animales , Femenino , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos
7.
J Vet Pharmacol Ther ; 42(4): 411-419, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206734

RESUMEN

The present study aims to comparatively evaluate the effects of different doses of intravenous xylazine and medetomidine on sedation and antinociception scores, and physiological and laboratory parameters in dromedary calves. Thirty clinically healthy male dromedary calves 15 ± 2 weeks old and weighing 95 ± 5.5 kg were studied. Two groups received xylazine at low (0.2 mg/kg) and high (0.4 mg/kg) doses. Two groups received medetomidine at low (10 µg/kg) and high (20 µg/kg) doses. One group received normal saline. Sedation signs were scored using a 3-point scale. Analgesic effect was analyzed using pinpricks. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U-tests. Sedation and antinociception scores of the animals 1 hr after receiving the higher dose of xylazine and medetomidine were significantly higher than that of other groups. Compared with other studied groups, the animals receiving the higher dose of xylazine showed significantly higher potassium and creatinine serum levels after 24 hr. Doses as high as 0.4 mg/kg for xylazine and 20 µg/kg for medetomidine can be considered safe and useful for procedures associated with mild pain in dromedary calves.


Asunto(s)
Analgesia/veterinaria , Camelus , Sedación Consciente/veterinaria , Medetomidina/farmacología , Xilazina/farmacología , Animales , Hipnóticos y Sedantes/farmacología , Masculino , Dolor/tratamiento farmacológico , Dolor/veterinaria
8.
Res Vet Sci ; 125: 36-42, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125820

RESUMEN

The present study aimed to use behavioural measures to assess pain induced by surgical castration of piglets, and evaluate the efficacy of pain-relief medications. In total, 143 male piglets from 29 sows were used. The treatments included: 1) non-castration (NC; n = 28), 2) castration without medication (SC; n = 29), 3) castration with meloxicam injection 0.4 mg/kg i.m. (ME; n = 28), 4) castration with 0.5 ml of 2% lidocaine in each testicle (LA; n = 29), and 5) castration with general inhalation anaesthesia using isoflurane (1.5%) and meloxicam injection (GA; n = 29). Behaviour was monitored continuously for a ten minute period one hour prior to castration (-1 h), as well as immediately (0 h), one hour (1 h), and two hours (2 h) after castration. Behaviour was also monitored twice (08:00 and 20:00) during the following day. Compared to -1 h, castration induced changes in several behavioural measures in SC piglets at 0 h, suggesting that castration was painful. Furthermore, inactive standing or sitting, tail wagging and aggressive behaviour differed between SC and NC piglets at 0 h. ME and LA piglets spent less time standing or sitting inactively, and LA and GA piglets showed more tail wagging than SC piglets at 0 h (P < 0.05 for all). No other behavioural measures differed among the various groups of castrated piglets. In conclusion, the results indicate that surgical castration is indeed painful. However, the efficacy of various pain-relief protocols in piglets shortly after castration was not verified.


Asunto(s)
Analgesia/veterinaria , Anestesia/veterinaria , Conducta Animal , Orquiectomía/veterinaria , Dolor/veterinaria , Porcinos/cirugía , Animales , Antiinflamatorios no Esteroideos/administración & dosificación , Conducta Animal/efectos de los fármacos , Femenino , Humanos , Lidocaína/administración & dosificación , Masculino , Meloxicam/administración & dosificación , Orquiectomía/efectos adversos , Dolor/fisiopatología , Dolor/psicología , Manejo del Dolor/veterinaria , Dimensión del Dolor/veterinaria , Porcinos/fisiología , Tiazinas/administración & dosificación , Tiazoles/farmacología
9.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 102, 2019 Mar 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922306

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Polymelia is a congenital defect characterized by one or more supernumerary legs. The genetics and aetiology of this condition in cattle have not yet been thoroughly investigated even though several case reports do exist. The model of the nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR) has been characterized in several species to study spinal nociceptive processing. It is a polysynaptic spinal reflex that can be elicited by noxious electrical stimulation and recorded by electromyography. Thorough nociceptive examination and preventive analgesic management has not yet been an aspect in the perioperative management of polymelia cases. CASE PRESENTATION: A 4-month-old female Simmental calf was presented with notomelia. The animal was in good health and showed no neurologic deficiencies. Preoperatively, computed tomography was performed to gain more detailed anatomical information. To evaluate the sensitivity of the accessory limb, NWR testing was performed and revealed a connection of the afferent reflex pathway of the accessory limb to the efferent of the normal limb. The accessory limb was surgically removed under general anaesthesia. Intensive care included multimodal pain therapy adapted to the pain intensity scored during regular pain assessment. A gross anatomical dissection as well as a genetic analysis of the accessory limb were performed postoperatively. The calf was identified as a chimera. CONCLUSION: This calf was successfully relieved of its accessory limb. Chimerism has not been described in the congenital defect polymelia. As the accessory limb was pain sensitive and a common nociceptive reflex pathway was identified, thorough perioperative pain management was performed with the intention to prevent chronic neuropathic pain development.


Asunto(s)
Bovinos/anomalías , Deformidades Congénitas de las Extremidades/veterinaria , Analgesia/métodos , Analgesia/veterinaria , Animales , Bovinos/genética , Bovinos/fisiología , Bovinos/cirugía , Electromiografía/veterinaria , Femenino , Deformidades Congénitas de las Extremidades/diagnóstico por imagen , Deformidades Congénitas de las Extremidades/fisiopatología , Deformidades Congénitas de las Extremidades/cirugía , Nocicepción , Dimensión del Dolor/veterinaria , Reflejo , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X/veterinaria
10.
Animal ; 13(9): 2034-2043, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30808432

RESUMEN

Castration of male ruminants is a common livestock management practice, but induces pain. However, little is known about the effectiveness of multimodal analgesia compared to local anesthesia (LA) alone in reducing pain associated with burdizzo castration in sheep. This study aimed to monitor the pain response induced by castration in sheep and to assess the efficacy of analgesia strategies. Twenty-four 12-month-old male Texel sheep were burdizzo-castrated after administration of physiological serum (Burd), local anesthetic (Burd+LA) or LA plus non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (Burd+LA+NSAID). Sheep responses were monitored using behavioral and physiological indices of pain. Sampling occurred from 24 h pre-castration to 78 h post-castration, split into four periods based on the duration of analgesia: P0 (T-24 to T-1 h), P1 (T0 to T+2 h), P2 (T+3 to T+32 h) and P3 (T+36 to T+78 h). Behavioral indices were attention and head position, ear position, position of the eyelid, other facial expression, standing/lying postures, postures of the legs, clinical signs and abnormal activities. Physiological indices consisted in indicators of inflammation (haptoglobin, serum amyloid A (SAA), body temperature), hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (cortisol, non-esterified fatty acids, glucose), autonomous nervous system (heart rate variability (HRV)) and oxidative stress. The variables contributing most to discrimination of the period×treatment groups were analyzed by factorial discrimination analysis. Pre-castration (P0), there was no significant difference between treatments for all indicators (P > 0.05). Post-castration, eight indicators varied significantly according to period and treatment: cortisol, clinical signs, ratio of low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF) bands of the HRV, attention and head position, SAA, haptoglobin, body temperature and glucose. The treatment×periods groups were well discriminated by the 23 indicators. Burd in P0, Burd+LA in P0 and Burd+LA+NSAID in P0, P1 and P2 had low values for all indicators, likely reflecting absence of pain and discomfort. Burd in P1 and P2 and Burd+LA in P2 showed clinical signs and reduced attention, high LF/HF and high cortisol levels, reflecting acute pain. Burd and Burd+LA in P3 had high temperature, high haptoglobin, high glucose and high SAA, but no response from other pathways. These results suggest that (i) behavioral signs of pain were apparent up to 32 h post-castration, (ii) LA was partially effective, but only during its time of action (2 h) and (iii). multimodal analgesia (LA and NSAID) was effective for up to 3 days post-castration. These findings, and especially those related to sheep behavior, can help veterinarians and farmers better detect pain and refine their pain alleviation methods.


Asunto(s)
Analgesia/veterinaria , Anestésicos Locales/administración & dosificación , Antiinflamatorios no Esteroideos/administración & dosificación , Conducta Animal/efectos de los fármacos , Dolor/veterinaria , Ovinos/fisiología , Anestesia Local/veterinaria , Anestésicos Locales/sangre , Animales , Temperatura Corporal , Humanos , Inflamación/veterinaria , Masculino , Orquiectomía/veterinaria , Dolor/prevención & control , Ovinos/inmunología
11.
Vet Rec ; 184(5): 155, 2019 Feb 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30661018

RESUMEN

The objective of this study was to determine if buffering mepivacaine HCL (mepHCl) with sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) would significantly decrease the time to onset of analgesia when performing median and ulnar nerve blocks in naturally lame horses. Median and ulnar nerve blocks were performed on the naturally lame limb of nine horses during two separate study periods, with a minimum washout period of three days between study periods. Nerve blocks were performed by administering mepHCl alone or mepHCl mixed with NaHCO3 (nine parts 2 per cent mepHCl to one part 8.4 per cent NaHCO3). Lameness was evaluated objectively using a wireless, inertial, sensor-based, motion analysis system (Lameness Locator) prior to the high regional nerve block and every five minutes following administration of the nerve block for 75 min. Resolution of lameness occurred earlier and was more profound for horses administered median and ulnar nerve blocks performed with mepHCl and NaHCO3 than when these nerve blocks were performed using only mepHCl.


Asunto(s)
Analgesia/veterinaria , Anestésicos Locales/farmacología , Enfermedades de los Caballos/tratamiento farmacológico , Cojera Animal/tratamiento farmacológico , Mepivacaína/farmacología , Bloqueo Nervioso/veterinaria , Bicarbonato de Sodio/farmacología , Analgesia/métodos , Animales , Femenino , Caballos , Masculino , Factores de Tiempo , Resultado del Tratamiento
12.
Vet Surg ; 48(4): 578-583, 2019 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30637777

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To compare meloxicam and robenacoxib for short-term postoperative pain management after combined laparoscopic ovariectomy and laparoscopic-assisted gastropexy. STUDY DESIGN: Double-blind, prospective, randomised clinical trial. ANIMALS: Twenty-six client-owned female dogs. METHODS: Dogs undergoing combined laparoscopic ovariectomy and laparoscopic-assisted gastropexy were randomly divided into 2 groups. Before induction of anesthesia, 13 dogs received meloxicam (0.2 mg/kg subcutaneously), and 13 dogs received robenacoxib (2 mg/kg subcutaneously). Pain was scored with the Glasgow Composite Pain Scale (short form) before surgery and at 1, 6, 12, 18, and 24 hours after extubation. Rescue analgesia (tramadol, 3 mg/kg) was provided to dogs with a Glasgow pain score (GPS) ≥5. Glasgow pain scores were analyzed by ANOVA with treatment, age, and surgical time as fixed factors. RESULTS: Glasgow pain scores were higher at 24 hours postsurgery in dogs treated with robenacoxib (2.18 ± 0.29) compared with those treated with meloxicam (0.68 ± 0.41, P = .04). Two dogs treated with meloxicam and 7 dogs treated with robenacoxib required rescue analgesia. Regardless of the treatment, the overall GPS was lower at 18 and 24 hours postsurgery when the surgical time was >40 minutes compared with surgical times ≤40 minutes, but surgical site inflammation was likely a confounding factor in this finding. Glasgow pain score was not affected by patient age. CONCLUSION: Meloxicam was more effective than robenacoxib at controlling pain in the population of dogs reported here. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Preoperative administration of meloxicam effectively controls pain for 24 hours after combined laparoscopic ovariectomy and laparoscopic-assisted gastropexy, but rescue analgesia may be required.


Asunto(s)
Difenilamina/análogos & derivados , Gastropexia/veterinaria , Meloxicam/uso terapéutico , Ovariectomía/veterinaria , Dolor Postoperatorio/veterinaria , Fenilacetatos/uso terapéutico , Analgesia/veterinaria , Anestesia , Animales , Antiinflamatorios no Esteroideos/uso terapéutico , Difenilamina/uso terapéutico , Perros , Método Doble Ciego , Femenino , Gastropexia/efectos adversos , Laparoscopía , Ovariectomía/efectos adversos , Manejo del Dolor/veterinaria , Dimensión del Dolor/veterinaria , Dolor Postoperatorio/prevención & control , Estudios Prospectivos , Distribución Aleatoria
13.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(3): 2492-2506, 2019 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30638993

RESUMEN

Anesthesia of the horn bud for calf disbudding commonly is attained by injection of local anesthetic over branches of the cornual nerve, with anesthesia achieved in 3 to 20 min. With experienced and trained staff, this method is effective in 88 to 100% of calves. Variability in response and time of onset can compromise calf welfare if calves are disbudded before anesthesia is attained. Proposed legislative reliance on effective local anesthetic as the minimal method of pain relief for calves at disbudding means that administration of local anesthetic must achieve a repeatable level and rapid onset of analgesia. We describe an alternative method of local anesthesia administration that uses local site infiltration of anesthetic over the horn bud. However, this method has not yet been scientifically validated. This study assessed differences between disbudding using the cornual nerve block and disbudding with local anesthesia administered by local site infiltration. Efficacy of local anesthesia was assessed at 30-s intervals after administration by absence of reaction to 3 consecutive needle pricks over the horn buds. Behavior indicating pain was assessed during disbudding and scored from 0 to 3. Calf behavior was also recorded for 3 h after disbudding. Accelerometer data loggers were fitted to each calf for 24 h before and after disbudding to assess lying and standing times. Median time to cutaneous desensitization for local infiltration was 60 s compared with 225 s for cornual nerve block, and the variance in time to desensitization was less with local infiltration. Calves disbudded under cornual block had a larger behavioral response (indicated by a graded aversive body reaction) than calves disbudded under local infiltration. A multivariable model predicted that the mean body reaction score would be 0.6 for calves disbudded under local infiltration and 1.2 for calves disbudded under cornual block. There was no difference in any behaviors between the treatment groups in the 3 h after disbudding. Method of analgesia had no effect on lying time over the 24 h after disbudding. In this study, local infiltration was at least as effective in providing analgesia for disbudding as the cornual nerve block. Our results suggest that a more consistent, effective level of analgesia during disbudding was achieved using local infiltration and that there was no difference in postoperative expressions of pain.


Asunto(s)
Anestésicos Locales/administración & dosificación , Bovinos/cirugía , Cuernos/cirugía , Manejo del Dolor/veterinaria , Dolor Postoperatorio/veterinaria , Analgesia/veterinaria , Anestesia Local/veterinaria , Animales , Bloqueo Nervioso/métodos , Nueva Zelanda , Dolor Postoperatorio/prevención & control
14.
Vet Anaesth Analg ; 46(1): 116-125, 2019 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30527858

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To compare the analgesic efficacy and suitability of an existing oral tramadol-based protocol with a transdermal fentanyl-based protocol following lateral thoracotomy in dogs. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective randomized clinical trial. ANIMALS: A group of 16 healthy laboratory beagle dogs. METHODS: Dogs were randomly allocated to one of two treatment groups: group F (intramuscular methadone 0.2 mg kg-1 and transdermal fentanyl 2.6 mg kg-1 both administered on discontinuation of anaesthesia, n = 8) or group T (intramuscular methadone 0.2 mg kg-1 on discontinuation of anaesthesia and again 4 hours later, followed by oral tramadol 12 mg kg-1 per 24 hours commencing 7 hours after discontinuation of anaesthesia, n = 8). Intercostal bupivacaine (0.5-1 mg kg-1) and subcutaneous carprofen (4 mg kg-1) were administered to all dogs at induction. Body weight (BW), presence of clinical signs, pain score, activity, heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were assessed for 72 hours postoperatively. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed in BW change, presence of clinical signs or gross locomotor activity between groups. Pain scores were low at all times for all dogs, and rescue analgesia was not required. Dogs in group T exhibited higher pedometric activity (p = 0.006), HR (p < 0.001) and MAP (p < 0.001) than those in group F, in particular on night 1 following surgery. Least squared mean (LSM) pedometric activity was 1.81 and 1.02 jerks minute-1, LSM HR was 111.13 and 78.64 beats minute-1 and LSM MAP was 111.62 and 105.24 mmHg, respectively, in groups T and F. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Both regimes appear to provide adequate analgesia following lateral thoracotomy in dogs. Ease of administration of transdermal fentanyl compared to oral tramadol is advantageous. Reduced activity observed with the fentanyl regime was not associated with any adverse effects and may be desirable following some invasive surgeries. However, while transdermal fentanyl remains currently unavailable in the European Union, the oral tramadol-based regime provides an acceptable alternative.


Asunto(s)
Analgesia/veterinaria , Analgésicos Opioides/farmacología , Perros/fisiología , Fentanilo/farmacología , Frecuencia Cardíaca/efectos de los fármacos , Tramadol/farmacología , Administración Cutánea , Administración Oral , Analgésicos Opioides/administración & dosificación , Animales , Femenino , Fentanilo/administración & dosificación , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos , Distribución Aleatoria , Toracotomía/veterinaria , Tramadol/administración & dosificación , Resultado del Tratamiento
15.
J Vet Pharmacol Ther ; 42(2): 154-159, 2019 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30393871

RESUMEN

Ketorolac is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that possesses potent analgesic activity comparable to morphine. The opioid shortage in the United States has led to an unreliable supply of opioids for use in rehabilitation facilities, thus underscoring the need for research on the safe and effective use of nonopioid alternatives. The goal of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of ketorolac after a single 0.25 mg/kg intramuscular injection administered to injured Eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina). A sparse blood sampling protocol was used to collect samples from 32 wild turtles that presented to the Turtle Rescue Team at North Carolina State University for traumatic injuries. Blood was collected from 0 to 24 hr after injection and analyzed via high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). A nonlinear mixed-effects (NLME) model was fitted to the data to obtain typical values for population parameters. Using this approach, we identified a long half-life (T1/2 ) of 9.78 hr and a volume of distribution (Vss ) of 0.26 L/kg. We have concluded that this long T1/2 for a dose of 0.25 mg/kg ketorolac-injected IM provides plasma levels above a previously published target level for 24-hour analgesia to allow for once daily dosing.


Asunto(s)
Analgésicos/farmacocinética , Ketorolaco/farmacocinética , Tortugas/metabolismo , Analgesia/métodos , Analgesia/veterinaria , Analgésicos/administración & dosificación , Analgésicos/sangre , Animales , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión/veterinaria , Femenino , Semivida , Inyecciones Intramusculares/veterinaria , Ketorolaco/administración & dosificación , Ketorolaco/sangre , Masculino , Tortugas/sangre
16.
Vet J ; 242: 24-32, 2018 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30503540

RESUMEN

Epidural anesthesia is a commonly performed technique in both human and veterinary medicine. The technique is relatively simple following appropriate training and provides anesthesia and analgesia for acute and chronic pain. Several drug combinations have been administered by this route with variable success and duration. Multiple techniques to guide or confirm correct epidural needle placement are discussed in this article, as well as anatomical features of the epidural space, effect of drug volume and concentration, and adverse effects of the technique in small animal practice. This article is not an exhaustive review of the literature, but an update of some new findings over the last decade.


Asunto(s)
Anestesia Epidural/veterinaria , Dolor Crónico/veterinaria , Perros/fisiología , Dolor Postoperatorio/veterinaria , Analgesia/veterinaria , Anestésicos Locales/administración & dosificación , Animales , Dolor Crónico/prevención & control , Región Lumbosacra , Dimensión del Dolor/veterinaria , Dolor Postoperatorio/prevención & control
17.
Vet Anaesth Analg ; 45(6): 820-830, 2018 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30316696

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare the analgesic efficacy and adverse effects of dexketoprofen and methadone using a noninferiority trial, during the first 24 postoperative hours in dogs undergoing orthopaedic surgery. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized, blinded clinical study. ANIMALS: A total of 38 healthy dogs undergoing orthopaedic surgery. METHODS: Dogs were premedicated with dexmedetomidine [1 µg kg-1 intravenously (IV)] followed by dexketoprofen (1 mg kg-1 IV; group DK) or methadone (0.2 mg kg-1 IV; group M). Anaesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with isoflurane in 60% oxygen. Postoperatively, dexketoprofen was administered every 8 hours (group DK) and methadone every 4 hours (group M). Analgesia was assessed at baseline and at 1, 2, 4, 6, 18 and 24 hours after extubation using a dynamic and interactive visual analogue scale (DIVAS), the short form of the Glasgow Composite Measure Pain Scale (CMPS-SF), mechanical wound thresholds (MWTs) and plasma cortisol levels. If CMPS-SF score was ≥5, rescue analgesia was administered. Data were analysed using a general linear mixed model, Mann-Whitney U test and chi-squared test as appropriate; a p value <0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: The CMPS-SF and DIVAS scores were significantly higher in group M compared with group DK and remained higher for a longer period in group M, although the differences were not clinically significant. No significant differences were found in MWT assessment between groups. Plasma cortisol level significantly increased 2 hours after extubation, without significant differences between treatments. Rescue analgesia was administered to three animals (one in group DK; two in group M). CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: We conclude that 1 mg kg-1 IV dexketoprofen administered every 8 hours during the first 24 hours postoperatively is noninferior to methadone in controlling pain after orthopaedic surgery in dog, although frequent pain assessments are recommended to adjust the analgesia plan.


Asunto(s)
Analgésicos Opioides/farmacología , Antiinflamatorios no Esteroideos/farmacología , Perros/cirugía , Cetoprofeno/análogos & derivados , Metadona/farmacología , Procedimientos Ortopédicos/veterinaria , Dolor Postoperatorio/veterinaria , Trometamina/farmacología , Analgesia/veterinaria , Animales , Femenino , Cetoprofeno/farmacología , Masculino , Dolor Postoperatorio/tratamiento farmacológico , Periodo Posoperatorio , Método Simple Ciego
18.
Vet J ; 239: 1-6, 2018 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30197103

RESUMEN

Altered body lean has been subjectively observed during lungeing in lame horses. The objectives were to quantify the influence of lameness on body lean in trot on the lunge and to investigate the influence of improvement in lameness on the differences in body lean between reins. Thirteen lame horses were trotted in straight lines and lunged on a 10m-diameter circle on both reins before and after lameness was subjectively substantially improved by diagnostic analgesia. A global position system-aided inertial measurement unit attached to the tubera sacrale quantified body lean. Differences between reins in body lean before and after diagnostic analgesia were calculated and means were determined. Five and eight horses had unilateral and bilateral hindlimb lameness, respectively. Two of five horses with unilateral and three of eight horses with bilateral lameness leaned more on the rein with the lame or lamer hindlimb on the inside of the circle (difference between reins 5-8°). Two of five horses with unilateral and two of eight horses with bilateral lameness leaned more on the rein with the lame or lamer hindlimb on the outside of the circle (4-10°). Four horses, one with unilateral and three with bilateral lameness, had only 1° difference in body lean angle between left and right reins. When lameness was improved by diagnostic analgesia, the body lean changed significantly towards similar leaning on left and right reins (mean angle changed from 8.8° to 10.0° (P=0.03) on one rein and 13.4° to 10.8° (P=0.002) on the other rein). It was concluded that body lean becomes more symmetrical between reins after improvement in lameness using diagnostic analgesia.


Asunto(s)
Analgesia/veterinaria , Enfermedades de los Caballos/diagnóstico , Cojera Animal/diagnóstico , Manejo del Dolor/veterinaria , Dimensión del Dolor/veterinaria , Postura , Analgesia/estadística & datos numéricos , Animales , Inglaterra , Femenino , Miembro Anterior/fisiopatología , Miembro Posterior/fisiopatología , Enfermedades de los Caballos/fisiopatología , Caballos , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos
20.
BMC Vet Res ; 14(1): 220, 2018 Jul 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29986699

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Certified Swiss farmers are allowed to disbud their goat kids using a standard intramuscularly administered anaesthetic mixture. This mixture, containing xylazine and ketamine, is officially distributed with the goal to provide a painless disbudding. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of analgesia and anaesthesia achieved during disbudding, when performed by Swiss farmers. To assess this, 174 goat kids at 31 different farms were observed and filmed during cautery disbudding. RESULTS: The standard anaesthetic mixture (0.05 mg/kg xylazine and 20 mg/kg ketamine) was used only in 71 goat kids. Fifty-eight goat kids were anaesthetised with different dosages of xylazine (median 0.18 mg/kg) and ketamine (median 10 mg/kg), 22 with xylazine only (median 0.61 mg/kg), 20 with xylazine (median 1.84 mg/kg) and perineural lidocaine (median 1.23 mg/kg), three with acepromazine (dosage unknown) and ketamine (10 mg/kg). Based on vocalisation, limb movement and head lifting during disbudding, a general reaction score was attributed to 168 goat kids (six were excluded due to firm restraint): 56.5% were scored zero (no limb movement, no vocalisation), 7.7% one, 17.3% two and 18.5% three (strong movements, vocalisation). Significant risk factors for higher reaction scores were the type of anaesthetic protocol and manipulation by the farmer during induction. Significant risk factors for longer recoveries were use of xylazine alone or xylazine in combination with perineural lidocaine, breed, younger age and recovery underneath heat lamp. CONCLUSIONS: The present study indicates that anaesthesia and analgesia of goat kids disbudded by Swiss farmers is inadequate, as 35.8% of the animals showed moderate to strong behavioural reactions during the procedure. Unexpectedly, only 40.8% of the goat kids were anaesthetised with the standard anaesthetic mixture and several other protocols were used. A refinement of the recommended protocol is urgently needed to guarantee animal welfare.


Asunto(s)
Analgesia/veterinaria , Anestesia/veterinaria , Cabras/cirugía , Cuernos/cirugía , Analgesia/métodos , Analgésicos/administración & dosificación , Anestesia/métodos , Animales , Femenino , Inyecciones Intramusculares/veterinaria , Ketamina/administración & dosificación , Masculino , Suiza , Xilazina/administración & dosificación
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