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1.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228963, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097411

RESUMEN

Despite several decades of research on more effectively communicating climate change to the general public, there is only limited knowledge about how older adults engage with an issue that will shape and define future generations. We focus on two key factors that may motivate younger and older adults to engage in climate change action, legacy concern and place attachment, and assess whether older adults differ in any appreciable way from the general population in this domain. We randomly exposed participants of different ages to either a Legacy, Place, or control writing induction task before they completed various self-report measures. Both induction conditions were associated with significantly greater pro-environmental behavioral intentions and donations for all age groups when compared to the control condition. Legacy motivation and biophilia were used as manipulation checks and found to partially mediate these effects. Findings suggest that legacy and place message framing may be useful in prompting adults of all ages to take action to help combat climate change.


Asunto(s)
Anciano/psicología , Cambio Climático/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven/psicología , Adulto , Actitud , Procesos Climáticos , Ambiente , Femenino , Humanos , Intención , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Motivación , Política , Estados Unidos
2.
Fisioter. Mov. (Online) ; 33: e003310, 2020. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056187

RESUMEN

Abstract Introduction: Although previous studies have characterized the sociodemographic profile and physical activity level of older people at the Universities of the Third Age (Unati - Universidade Aberta da Terceira Idade), there are research gaps regarding the relationship of these variables with the psychological aspects and the quality of life. Objective: To assess the relationship between sociodemographic and psychological variables, physical activity level and quality of life (QoL) in older people at Unati in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. Method: This is a cross-sectional study that recruited 116 older participants of both gender, aged between 60 and 89 years. They were submitted to the following tests: the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), the Wagnild & Young's Resilience Scale (RS), the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE), the WHOQOL BREF, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ20) and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). The data were analyzed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov, chi-squared, Fisher's exact, t- and Mann-Whitney U tests, as well as the generalized linear models. Results: Self-esteem was associated with age, income, schooling level, membership time, and the psychological domain of the WHOQOL-BREF (p < 0.05). Resilience was associated with the schooling level and the psychological domain of the WHOQOL-BREF (p < 0.05), and the self-efficacy with the psychological domain of the WHOQOL-BREF. Common mental disorders were related to the physical and psychological domains of the WHOQOL-BREF, as well as the self-efficacy and being male. The physical activity level showed no correlation with the psychological aspects and the sociodemographic variables studied (p > 0.05). Conclusion: The sociodemographic variables influence emotional aspects, particularly older people's self-esteem and resilience at Unati. Additionally, the psychological domain of the WHOQOL-BREF was a predictor of all the emotional variables in this sample.


Resumo Introdução: apesar de o perfil sociodemográfico e o nível de atividade física de idosos das Universidades da Terceira Idade (Unati) terem sido caracterizados em estudos anteriores, encontram-se lacunas acerca das relações com os aspectos psicológicos e a qualidade de vida. Objetivo: verificar as relações entre variáveis sociodemográficas, psicológicas, nível de atividade física e qualidade de vida em idosos frequentadores da Unati de Campinas, São Paulo. Método: estudo transversal, no qual foram recrutados 116 idosos de ambos os sexos, com idade entre 60 e 89 anos, submetidos à Escala de Autoestima de Rosenberg, Escala de Resiliência de Wagnild & Young, Escala de autoeficácia geral percebida, WHOQoL Bref, Miniexame do estado mental, Self-report Questionnaire (SRQ20) e o Questionário Internacional de atividade física (IPAQ). Os dados foram analisados pelos testes Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Qui Quadrado, Exato de Fisher, teste t, U de Mann-Whitney e pelos Modelos Lineares Generalizados. Resultados: a autoestima associou-se à idade, renda, escolaridade, ao tempo no programa e ao domínio psicológico do WHOQoL-bref (p < 0,05). A resiliência apresentou associação com a escolaridade e ao domínio psicológico do WHOQoL-bref (p < 0.05). A autoeficácia associou-se ao domínio psicológico do WHOQoL-bref. Os transtornos mentais comuns mostraram associação com os domínios físico e psicológico do WHOQoL-bref, à autoeficácia e ao sexo masculino. O nível de atividade física não se associou com os aspectos psicológicos e as variáveis sociodemográficas estudadas (p > 0,05). Conclusão: as variáveis sociodemográficas influenciam aspectos emocionais, sobretudo autoestima e resiliência de idosos da Unati. Além disso, o domínio psicológico do WHOQoL-bref foi preditor de todas as variáveis emocionais nesta amostra.


Resumen Introducción: aunque el perfil sociodemográfico y el nivel de actividad física de los ancianos de las Universidades de Tercera Edad (Unati) se han caracterizado en estudios anteriores, existen lagunas sobre las relaciones con los aspectos psicológicos y la calidad de vida. Objetivo: verificar las relaciones entre las variables sociodemográficas y psicológicas, el nivel de actividad física y la calidad de vida en ancianos que asisten a Unati Campinas, São Paulo. Método: estudio transversal en el que 116 hombres y mujeres de edad avanzada de 60 a 89 años fueron reclutados y sometidos a la Escala de autoestima de Rosenberg, la Escala de resistencia de Wagnild & Young, la Escala de autoeficacia general percibida, WHOQoL Bref, Miniexame. Cuestionario de autoinforme (SRQ20) y el Cuestionario internacional de actividad física (IPAQ). Los datos fueron analizados por Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Chi-cuadrado, prueba exacta de Fisher, prueba t de Mann-Whitney y modelos lineales generalizados. Resultados: la autoestima se asoció con la edad, los ingresos, la educación, el tiempo en el programa y el dominio psicológico de WHOQoL-bref (p < 0.05). La resiliencia se asoció con la educación y con el dominio psicológico de WHOQoL-bref (p < 0.05). La autoeficacia se asoció con el dominio psicológico de WHOQoL-bref. Los trastornos mentales comunes se asociaron con los dominios físicos y psicológicos de WHOQoL-bref, la autoeficacia y el género masculino. El nivel de actividad física no se asoció con los aspectos psicológicos y las variables sociodemográficas estudiadas (p > 0.05). Conclusión: las variables sociodemográficas influyen en los aspectos emocionales, especialmente la autoestima y la capacidad de recuperación de ancianos en Unati. Además, el dominio psicológico WHOQoL-bref fue un predictor de todas las variables emocionales en esta muestra.


Asunto(s)
Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Calidad de Vida , Anciano/psicología , Envejecimiento , Autoimagen , Resiliencia Psicológica , Actividad Motora
3.
Artículo en Español | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1095657

RESUMEN

La sexualidad es inherente y acompaña durante todo el curso de la vida a los seres humanos, trasciende el acto sexual para abordar aspectos de orden físico, emocional y cultural. Objetivo. Analizar los factores asociados a la percepción de la sexualidad según características demográficas, emocionales y psicológicas en personas mayores de 60 años. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio cuantitativo, observacional analítico, con fuente de información primaria a 665 personas de 60 años y más de la ciudad de Medellín, en el año 2018. Se determinaron las características demográficas, emocionales y psicológicas que permitieran conocer su percepción sobre sexualidad. Se calcularon medidas de asociación X2 y como medidas epide- miológicas, razones de prevalencia crudas y ajustadas. Resultados. Las personas que nunca se sintieron tristes consideraron importante la sexualidad (69,4 %), los hombres con una pareja estable, que no se sienten solos, con apoyo social también la consideraron como algo importante. Conclusiones. La importancia en la sexualidad de la persona mayor está determinada por estados anímicos, de estabilidad emocional y de integración social.


Sexuality is inherent and accompanies human beings throughout the course of life, transcends the sexual act, to address aspects of physical, emotional and cultural order. Objective. To analyze the factors associ- ated with the perception of sexuality according to demographic, emotional and psychological characteristics in people over 60 years of age. Materials and methods. A quantitative, analytical, observational study was conducted, with a primary source of information, to 665 people aged 60 and over, from the city of Medellin, in 2018. The demographic, emotional and psychological characteristics that allowed to know their percep- tion about sexuality. X2 association measures were calculated and as epidemiological measures, crude and adjusted prevalence ratios. Results. People who never felt sad considered sexuality important (69.4%), men with a stable partner, who do not feel alone, with social support also considered it important. Conclusions. The importance in the sexuality of the older person is determined by moods, emotional stability and social integration.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Anciano , Anciano/psicología , Conducta Sexual/psicología , Envejecimiento/psicología , Sexualidad/psicología
4.
Estud. pesqui. psicol. (Impr.) ; 19(3): 718-734, dez. 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-1046006

RESUMEN

Na velhice, a capacidade aeróbica, a força muscular, a flexibilidade, o equilíbrio, o tempo de reação e movimento, a agilidade e a coordenação são gradativamente reduzidos. Isso pode acarretar inúmeras dificuldades para a realização das tarefas cotidianas e para a independência funcional dessas pessoas. Esses idosos sentem-se, com frequência, inúteis, ansiosos, frustrados, mal-humorados, irritados e, até, deprimidos. Por outro lado, a prática de atividades físicas regulares pode trazer melhorias para a saúde física e mental dos praticantes. Esta pesquisa investigou a relação entre o exercício físico regular e a depressão em indivíduos idosos. Participaram da pesquisa 160 pessoas de 60 a 85 anos de idade, sendo 84 praticantes de tipos variados de atividades físicas regulares e 76 sedentários. Para avaliar a depressão foi usada Escala de Depressão para Idosos, constituída pelas dimensões cognitiva-afetiva e somática-motora. Nos resultados, os idosos sedentários apresentaram graus médios mais elevados sem todas as dimensões da depressão comparados com os praticantes de exercícios físicos regulares. Na discussão, são abordadas as hipóteses neurofisiológicas e psicossociais para explicar os efeitos positivos do exercício regular sobre o humor dos praticantes.(AU)


The number of people over 60 years of age in the Brazilian population is around 12.5% of the total. Aerobic capacity, muscle strength, flexibility, balance, time of reaction and movement, agility and coordination are reduced in old age. This can entail numerous difficulties in carrying out the daily tasks and the functional independence of the elderly. They often feel useless, anxious, frustrated, moody, angry, and depressed. On the other hand, the practice of regular physical activities can bring improvements to their physical and mental health. This research investigated the relationship between regular physical exercise and depression in elderly individuals. A total of 160 people from 60 to 85 years of age participated in the study, of which 84 were of different types of regular physical activity and 76 were sedentary. Depression Scale for the Elderly was used to assess depression, which consists of cognitive-affective and somatic-motor dimensions. The Student's t test revealed that the sedentary elderly presented significantly higher average degrees in both dimensions and in total depression, compared to the elderly practicing regular physical exercises. In the discussion, we discuss the neurophysiological and psychosocial hypotheses to explain the positive effects of regular exercise on the mood of the practitioners.(AU)


El número de personas con más de 60 años de edad en la población brasileña se encuentra en torno del 12,5% del total. La capacidad aeróbica, la fuerza muscular, la flexibilidad, el equilibrio, el tiempo de reacción y el movimiento, la agilidad y la coordinación se reducen en la vejez. Esto puede acarrear innumerables dificultades para la realización de las tareas cotidianas y para la independencia funcional de las personas mayores. Estos se sienten a menudo inútiles, ansiosos, frustrados, malhumorados, irritados y depresivos. Por otro lado, la práctica de actividades físicas regulares puede traer mejoras para la salud física y mental de los mismos. Esta investigación investigó la relación entre el ejercicio regular y la depresión en los ancianos. Participó en la investigación 160 personas de 60 a 85 años de edad, siendo 84 practicantes de tipos variados de actividades físicas regulares y 76 sedentarios. Para evaluar la depresión se utilizó Escala de Depresión para los ancianos, constituida por las dimensiones cognitiva-afectiva y somática-motora. El test t de Student reveló que los ancianos sedentarios presentaron grados medios significativamente más elevados en las dos dimensiones y en la depresión total comparados con los ancianos practicantes de ejercicios físicos regulares. En la discusión, se abordan las hipótesis neurofisiológicas y psicosociales para explicar los efectos del ejercicio regular sobre el humor de los practicantes.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Anciano/psicología , Salud del Anciano , Actividad Motora , Depresión , Conducta Sedentaria
5.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 27: e36091, jan.-dez. 2019. tab
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1005510

RESUMEN

Objetivo: comparar a prevalência dos sintomas depressivos no idoso hospitalizado, mediante uso da Escala de Depressão Geriátrica­15 e por meio da avaliação realizada pelo enfermeiro na admissão do idoso. Método: estudo descritivo de abordagem transversal em hospital público de ensino. Utilizou-se a Escala de Depressão Geriátrica e instrumento com lista de sintomas depressivos, extraídos das características definidoras dos diagnósticos de enfermagem. Resultados: a prevalência de sintomas depressivos em idosos hospitalizados foi de 47%, segundo a Escala de Depressão Geriátrica, e de 25% segundo a avaliação do enfermeiro, no momento da admissão do paciente. Conclusão: a avaliação realizada pelo enfermeiro detectou baixa porcentagem dos sintomas depressivos no idoso em comparação ao instrumento específico para depressão.


Objective: : to compare the prevalence of depressive symptoms in hospitalized elderly using the Geriatric Depression Scale­15 and the nursing assessment of the older adult at admission. Method: this descriptive, cross-sectional study at a public teaching hospital used the Geriatric Depression Scale and an instrument listing depressive symptoms drawn from defining characteristics of nursing diagnoses. Results: the Geriatric Depression Scale returned a 47% prevalence of depressive symptoms in the hospitalized older adults, while the nursing assessment at admission found 25% prevalence. Conclusion: the nursing assessment detected a lower percentage of depressive symptoms in the older adults than the specific instrument for depression.


Objetivo: comparar la prevalencia de síntomas de depresión en el anciano hospitalizado, mediante uso de Escala de Depresión Geriátrica­15 y por medio de evaluación realizada por el enfermero en el momento de la admisión del anciano. Método: estudio descriptivo de abordaje transversal en hospital universitario. Se utilizó la Escala de Depresión Geriátrica y un instrumento con lista de síntomas de depresión, extraídos de las características definidoras de diagnósticos de enfermería. Resultados: la prevalencia de síntomas depresivos en ancianos hospitalizados fue del 47% según la Escala de Depresión Geriátrica y del 25% según evaluación del enfermero durante la admisión del paciente. Conclusión: la evaluación realizada por el enfermero detectó bajo porcentaje de síntomas de depresión en ancianos en comparación con el instrumento específico para la depresión.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Anciano , Depresión , Depresión/complicaciones , Depresión/enfermería , Hospitales Generales , Anciano/psicología , Epidemiología Descriptiva , Estudios Transversales , Enfermería
6.
Z Gerontol Geriatr ; 52(Suppl 3): 168-179, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520118

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Assistance systems serving the locomotion of older people interact in many ways with the culture of a society. Since early modern times at the latest, walking aids were tantamount to human frailty; however, the cane also symbolized governmental power or reputation. Nowadays, the cane, the wheelchair, and the rollator have not only a functional significance in terms of a better mobility, they also enable people to take an active part in social life. OBJECTIVE: This study aimes at tracing back these provisional insights into the history of civilization and thereby analyze the roots, new forms and pictures of the handling and metaphors of these assistance systems. The goal in the context of this special issue is to decipher a central textual and pictorial symbol of old age, comparing it with more recent symbols of assistance in old age. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Methodologically, the text combines approaches of philology and history of medicine with those of the history of art. It analyzes (after a brief retrospection of ancient times and the Middle Ages) by means of textual and pictorial sources from the sixteenth to the twenty-first centuries the historical development of these aids of locomotion for older people. Additionally, it explores the cultural relevancy of these assistance systems. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: In history the medical profession paid relatively late and then only minor attention to the assistive systems analyzed here. Its semantic diversity is closely related to the age roles and stereotypes of age prevailing in certain epochs. The more the respective assistive tool is used by old people, the more suitable it is as a symbol of old age and the more biased and negative the semantic connotation seems to be. The development of a symbol of age connoting frailty, at present symbolized most clearly by the rollator, tends to refer to a pejorative image of age in a society. The cultural historical analysis suggests that a contrasting development will only be possible when the assistive systems will again fulfil a diversity of alternative functions and semantics.


Asunto(s)
Bastones , Características Culturales , Andadores , Caminata , Anciano/fisiología , Anciano/psicología , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Cultura , Humanos , Locomoción , Persona de Mediana Edad , Semántica
7.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 85: 103935, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446186

RESUMEN

AIM: To investigate the interplay of sociodemographic, health, functional and psychosocial factors in predicting loneliness in community dwelling older adults accessing home support services and long-term aged residential care. METHODS: Older New Zealanders (age 65+), who had their first interRAI Home Care assessment between July 2014 and June 2016, were included. The outcome variable was the binary interRAI item "Lonely". The predictor variables included sociodemographics, hearing, vision, self-reported health, activities of daily living, social interaction and support, and depression. RESULTS: Data from 51,239 assessments of older adults (mean age: 82.3 years; female: 61%; European: 87.3%) were analysed. Loneliness was reported in 21%. A stepwise logistic regression model explained 12.1% of the variance and was statistically significant (Chi2 = 3501.0.8, df = 22; p < 0.001). The factors with the largest odds ratios (OR > 1.5) were depression, living alone, being Asian, financial difficulty and not in a relationship. Functional impairment was negatively associated with loneliness. CONCLUSIONS: Determining the predictors of older adults' loneliness is complex, multi-factorial, with each factor having a small, additive effect on the development of loneliness. Depression, social factors and financial difficulty are the strongest predictors but much of the variance remains unexplained. These factors could be targeted as modifiable risk factors for addressing loneliness in older adults.


Asunto(s)
Anciano de 80 o más Años/psicología , Depresión/psicología , Soledad/psicología , Pobreza , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Actividades Cotidianas , Anciano/psicología , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Renta , Vida Independiente , Masculino , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
8.
Psychol Aging ; 34(6): 836-847, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31259565

RESUMEN

Judgments of learning (JOLs) can improve younger adults' associative learning of related information. One theoretical explanation for this finding is that JOLs strengthen the relationship between the cue and target words of a related word pair. This cue-strengthening hypothesis is particularly relevant for older adults because learning interventions that enhance associations between items typically benefit their learning. Thus, we investigated the degree to which JOLs have a direct influence on older adults' learning. To do so, older and younger adults studied a list of related word pairs (Experiments 1 and 2) or weakly related word pairs (Experiments 3, 4, and 5). Half of the participants made a JOL for each pair and half did not. After a filled 3-min retention interval, participants took a cued-recall test. In all experiments, older adults' memory performance was not impacted by making JOLs. By contrast, younger adults who made JOLs recalled significantly more than those who did not. JOLs may not have modified older adults' learning because of age-related deficits in processing that limited the degree to which JOLs strengthened cue-target relationships. It is also possible that JOLs encourage attentional reorienting, which older adults do not benefit from because they are already engaged with the materials. An important direction for future work will be to explore these possibilities, as well as others. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Anciano/psicología , Envejecimiento/fisiología , Aprendizaje por Asociación/fisiología , Juicio/fisiología , Recuerdo Mental/fisiología , Tiempo de Reacción/fisiología , Adulto , Atención , Señales (Psicología) , Femenino , Humanos , Aprendizaje , Masculino , Memoria , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
9.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 66(7): 341-347, 2019.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31341139

RESUMEN

Objectives This study aimed to explore the association of difficulties in activities of daily living (ADL) (activities related to bending, spine extension, standing endurance, and walking) with fear of falling among community-dwelling older adults.Methods We recruited 642 older adults (men, n=267; women, n=375) aged 65 years and over. The mean age was 72.2±5.1 years. Fear of falling, falls in the previous year, pain (low back pain or knee pain), comorbidity, and cataracts were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. ADL difficulties were assessed individually, such as activities related to bending (getting in or out the car, picking up a lightweight object, putting on socks or stockings, and lifting a 5 kg object from the floor), spine extension (reaching an object above your head), standing endurance (standing on your feet for 2 h), and walking (walking 100 m on a level surface, climbing 10 steps without stopping, and walking down 10 steps). The independent association between fear of falling and each ADL difficulties was assessed using logistic regression analysis.Results Participants with fear of falling, compared with those without fear of falling, had an older age (74.8 and 71.6 in men, 73.3 and 71.0 in women, respectively; P<0.01), more falls in the previous year (21% and 9% in men, 28% and 11% in women, respectively; P<0.05), pain (80% and 61% in men, 82% and 64% in women, respectively; P<0.01), and comorbidity (23% and 15% in women, respectively; P<0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified each ADL difficulties except walking 100 m on a level surface as being independently associated with fear of falling after adjusting for age, body mass index, sex, falls in the previous year, pain, and comorbidity.Conclusion ADL difficulties, such as activities related to bending, spine extension, standing endurance, and walking, except for walking 100 m on a level surface, were associated with fear of falling.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes por Caídas , Actividades Cotidianas/psicología , Anciano de 80 o más Años/psicología , Anciano/psicología , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática/psicología , Miedo/psicología , Vida Independiente/psicología , Factores de Edad , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Resistencia Física , Columna Vertebral/fisiología , Posición de Pie , Caminata
10.
Ann Ist Super Sanita ; 55(2): 170-178, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264640

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Aiming at highlighting the importance of social networking for health of elderly, the association between social support and self-perceived health (SPH) was assessed in Slovenia. METHODS: Data from three consecutive cross-sectional surveys on health behaviour in Slovenia (2008, 2012 and 2016), for 4599 elderly, aged 65-75 years, were pooled. Association between poor SPH (PSPH) and social support (taking into account also existence of extended personal social network (EPSN)), adjusted for confounders, was analysed by multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: The PSPH odds were statistically significantly higher in single/divorced/living in extramarital partnership/widowed, all without EPSN (OR = 2.99; p = 0.005), and single/divorced with EPSN (OR = 1.49; p = 0.053) in comparison to married with EPSN. CONCLUSION: Irrespective of gender, socio-economic status or health-related factors, elderly with low level of social support were more likely to perceive their health as poor/very poor. Public health measures to reduce isolation of elderly should be included in the action plan in the frame of the Longevity strategy.


Asunto(s)
Anciano/psicología , Estado de Salud , Red Social , Apoyo Social , Empleo , Familia , Femenino , Amigos , Humanos , Masculino , Matrimonio , Autoimagen , Eslovenia , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
12.
J Sports Sci ; 37(20): 2309-2317, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31195893

RESUMEN

This study compared five different methods for analyzing accelerometer-measured physical activity (PA) in older adults and assessed the relationship between changes in PA and changes in physical function and depressive symptoms for each method. Older adult females (N = 144, Mage = 83.3 ± 6.4yrs) wore hip accelerometers for six days and completed measures of physical function and depressive symptoms at baseline and six months. Accelerometry data were processed by five methods to estimate PA: 1041 vertical axis cut-point, 15-second vector magnitude (VM) cut-point, 1-second VM algorithm (Activity Index (AI)), machine learned walking algorithm, and individualized cut-point derived from a 400-meter walk. Generalized estimating equations compared PA minutes across methods and showed significant differences between some methods but not others; methods estimated 6-month changes in PA ranging from 4 minutes to over 20 minutes. Linear mixed models for each method tested associations between changes in PA and health. All methods, except the individualized cut-point, had a significant relationship between change in PA and improved physical function and depressive symptoms. This study is among the first to compare accelerometry processing methods and their relationship to health. It is important to recognize the differences in PA estimates and relationship to health outcomes based on data processing method. Abbreviation: Machine Learning (ML); Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB); Center of Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D); Physical Activity (PA); Activity Index (AI); Activities of Daily Living (ADL).


Asunto(s)
Acelerometría/métodos , Anciano/fisiología , Ejercicio Físico/fisiología , Estado de Salud , Actividades Cotidianas , Anciano/psicología , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Algoritmos , Depresión/prevención & control , Ejercicio Físico/psicología , Prueba de Esfuerzo , Femenino , Monitores de Ejercicio , Marcha/fisiología , Humanos , Aprendizaje Automático , Fuerza Muscular/fisiología , Equilibrio Postural/fisiología , Caminata/fisiología
13.
Rev. ADM ; 76(3): 141-145, mayo-jun. 2019. tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1021580

RESUMEN

Introducción: La caries es una enfermedad multifactorial que se ha asociado con hábitos de higiene bucal deficientes. La Federación Dental Internacional establece el cepillado con una pasta fluorada dos veces por día como el patrón básico de higiene dental personal. Objetivo: Describir la frecuencia de caries y hábitos de higiene oral en un grupo de adultos mayores. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio de tipo observacional, prolectivo, transversal, descriptivo, en 74 adultos mayores del Estado de México con una media de edad de 63.4 (± 5.9); 73% (54) del sexo femenino y 27% (20) del masculino. Se valoraron la higiene dental con el índice IHOS y la experiencia de caries con el CPOD, y se aplicó un cuestionario sobre hábitos de higiene oral, que incluía las preguntas de frecuencia de cepillado y uso de hilo dental. Resultados: La experiencia de caries dental medida a través del índice CPOD para el total de la población fue de 20.0 (± 4.5); la categoría más alta del índice fue cariado con una media de 9.3 (± 6.0), al análisis por sexo se observó que el 70% (38) de las mujeres y el 65% (13) de los hombres presentan más de seis dientes con lesión cariosa ­no se encontró una diferencias estadísticamente significativa­. A la pregunta de cuántas veces se cepilla los dientes, el 32% (24) no lo hacía o lo realizaba sólo una vez al día; de éstos, 17 presentaban ≥ 6 lesiones cariosas. El 94% (66) usa para el cepillado de dientes pastas comerciales con flúor; cuatro usan alternativas como jabón de baño, detergente, pasta naturista, bicarbonato; dos adultos mayores usan sólo agua. La valoración de la higiene dental en el 70% (52) de los adultos mayores se califica como deficiente; 20 adultos mayores ­de ellos, 16 son mujeres­ reportan el uso de hilo dental. Conclusión: Los hábitos de higiene oral en los adultos mayores aún se encuentran lejos del patrón establecido por la Federación Dental Internacional, lo que contribuye al incremento de enfermedades bucodentales, entre éstas, las enfermedades periodontales y la caries radicular que, junto con las enfermedades sistémicas, coadyuvan al deterioro de la calidad de vida de los ancianos (AU)


Introduction: Caries is a multifactorial disease that has been associated with deficient oral hygiene habits. The FDI Word Dental Federation establishes brushing with a fluoridated paste twice a day as the basic standard of personal oral hygiene. Objective: Describe the frequency of tooth decay and oral hygiene habits in a group of elderly. Material and methods: An observational, prolective, cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted in 74 elderly of the State of Mexico with an average age of 63.4 (± 5.9); 73% (54) female and 27% (20) male. The oral hygiene with the IHOS index, the cavity experience with the DMFT was assessed, and a questionnaire on oral hygiene habits was applied, which included the questions of frequency of brushing and flossing. Results: The tooth decay experience measured through the CPOD index for the total population was 20.0 (± 4.5); the highest category of the index was decayed with an average of 9.3 (± 6.0), to the analysis by sex it was observed that, 70% (38) of the women and 65% (13) of the men present more than six teeth with a carious lesión ­no statistically significant differences were found­. To the question of how many times you brush your teeth, 32% (24) did not do it or did it only once a day, of these, 17 had ≥ 6 carious lesions. 94% (66) uses for tooth brushing, commercial pastes with fluoride; four ethereal, naturist paste like soap or detergent, bicarbonate; two senior adult uses only water. The evaluation of oral hygiene in 70% (52) of the elderly is classified as deficient; 20 senior adults ­of whom 16 are women­ report the use of dental floss. Conclusion: Oral hygiene habits in senior adults are still far from the pattern established by the FDI which contributes to the increase of oral diseases, including periodontal diseases and root decay which, together with systemic diseases contribute to deterioration of the quality of life of the elderly (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Higiene Bucal/métodos , Índice CPO , Caries Dental/epidemiología , Cepillado Dental , Anciano/psicología , Epidemiología Descriptiva , Estudios Transversales , Análisis Estadístico , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Distribución por Edad y Sexo , Estudio Observacional , México
14.
CMAJ ; 191(18): E491-E500, 2019 05 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31061074

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The Health TAPESTRY (Health Teams Advancing Patient Experience: STRengthening QualitY) intervention was designed to improve primary care teamwork and promote optimal aging. We evaluated the effectiveness of Health TAPESTRY in attaining goals of older adults (e.g., physical activity, productivity, social connection, medical status) and other outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a pragmatic randomized controlled trial between January and October 2015 in a primary care practice in Hamilton, Ontario. Older adults were randomized (1:1) to Health TAPESTRY (n = 158) or control (n = 154). Trained community volunteers gathered information on people's goals, needs and risks in their homes, using electronic forms. Interprofessional primary care teams reviewed summaries and addressed issues. Participants reported goal attainment (primary outcome), self-efficacy, quality of life, optimal aging, social support, empowerment, physical activity, falls, and access to and comprehensiveness of the health system. We determined use of health care resources through chart audit. RESULTS: There were no differences between groups in goal attainment or many other patient-reported outcome and experience assessments at 6 months. More primary care visits took place in the intervention versus control group over 6 months (mean ± standard deviation [SD] 4.93 ± 3.86 v. 3.50 ± 3.53; difference of 1.52 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84 to 2.19]). The odds of having 1 or more hospital admission were lower for the intervention group (odds ratio [OR] 0.44 [95% CI 0.20 to 0.95]). INTERPRETATION: Health TAPESTRY did not improve the primary outcome of goal attainment but showed signals of shifting care from reactive to active preventive care. Further evaluation will help in understanding effective components, costs and consequences of the intervention. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, no. NCT02283723.


Asunto(s)
Anciano/psicología , Servicios de Salud para Ancianos/organización & administración , Grupo de Atención al Paciente , Atención Primaria de Salud/organización & administración , Voluntarios , Accidentes por Caídas/prevención & control , Ejercicio Físico , Objetivos , Necesidades y Demandas de Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Medición de Resultados Informados por el Paciente , Servicios Preventivos de Salud , Calidad de Vida , Autoeficacia , Apoyo Social
15.
Neurobiol Aging ; 79: 119-130, 2019 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31051329

RESUMEN

Exercise plays a key role in healthy aging by promoting both physical and cognitive function. Physical function and cognitive function appear to be interrelated and may share common mechanisms. Thus, exercise-induced improvements in physical function and cognitive function may co-occur and be associated with each other. However, no systematic review has specifically assessed and compared the effects of exercise on both physical function and cognitive function in older adults, and the association between changes in both outcomes after exercise training. Thus, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis (N = 48 studies) among older adults (60+ years). These data suggest exercise training has a significant benefit for both physical function (g = 0.39; p < 0.001) and cognitive function (g = 0.24; p < 0.001). At the study level, there was a positive correlation between the size of the exercise-induced effect on physical function and on cognitive function (b = 0.41; p = 0.002). Our results indicate exercise improves both physical and cognitive function, reiterating the notion that exercise is a panacea for aging well.


Asunto(s)
Anciano/fisiología , Anciano/psicología , Cognición , Ejercicio Físico/fisiología , Envejecimiento Saludable/fisiología , Envejecimiento Saludable/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Rendimiento Físico Funcional
16.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 51(6): 1303-1313, 2019 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095087

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To review and update the evidence of the relationship between physical activity, risk of fall-related injury, and physical function in community-dwelling older people that was presented in the 2018 Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee Scientific Report (PAGAC Report). METHODS: Duplicate independent screenings of 1415 systematic reviews and meta-analyses published between 2006 and 2016 identified from PubMed®, Cochrane Library, and CINAHL databases yielded 111 articles used for the PAGAC Report. The PAGAC Aging Subcommittee members graded scientific evidence strength based upon a five-criteria rubric and assigned one of four grades: strong, moderate, limited, or not assignable. An updated search of 368 articles published between January 2017 and March 2018 yielded 35 additional pertinent articles. RESULTS: Strong evidence demonstrated that physical activity reduced the risk of fall-related injuries by 32% to 40%, including severe falls requiring medical care or hospitalization. Strong evidence also supported that physical activity improved physical function and reduced the risk of age-related loss of physical function in an inverse graded manner among the general aging population, and improved physical function in older people with frailty and with Parkinson's disease. Aerobic, muscle-strengthening, and/or multicomponent physical activity programs elicited the largest improvements in physical function in these same populations. Moderate evidence indicated that for older adults who sustained a hip fracture or stroke, extended exercise programs and mobility-oriented physical activity improved physical function. CONCLUSIONS: Regular physical activity effectively helps older adults improve or delay the loss of physical function and mobility while reducing the risk of fall-related injuries. These important public health benefits underscore the importance of physical activity among older adults, especially those living with declining physical function and chronic health conditions.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes por Caídas/prevención & control , Anciano/fisiología , Ejercicio Físico , Anciano/psicología , Peso Corporal , Enfermedad Crónica/psicología , Humanos , Vida Independiente , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Conducta de Reducción del Riesgo , Factores Socioeconómicos
17.
Int J Older People Nurs ; 14(3): e12234, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31025806

RESUMEN

AIM: To explore existential loneliness among older people in different healthcare contexts from the perspective of healthcare professionals. BACKGROUND: Professionals meet and care for older people in most care contexts and need to be prepared to address physical, psychological, social and existential needs. Addressing existential loneliness can be both challenging and meaningful for professionals and is often not prioritised in times of austerity. DESIGN: A multiple case study design was used. METHODS: Focus group interviews were conducted with healthcare professionals (n = 52) in home, residential, hospital and palliative care settings. The analysis was performed in two steps: firstly, a within-case analysis of each context was conducted, followed by a cross-case analysis. FINDINGS: Differences and similarities were observed among the care contexts, including for the origin of existential loneliness. In home care and residential care, the focus was on life, the present and the past, compared to hospital and palliative care, in which existential loneliness mainly related to the forthcoming death. The older person's home, as the place where home care or palliative care was received, helped preserve the older person's identity. In hospital and palliative care, as in institutional care, the place offered security, while in residential care, the place could make older people feel like strangers. Creating relationships was considered an important part of the professionals' role in all four care contexts, although this had different meanings, purposes and conditions. CONCLUSIONS: The context of care matters and influences how professionals view existential loneliness among older people and the opportunities they have to address existential loneliness. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Support for professionals must be tailored to their needs, their education levels and the context of care. Professionals need training and appropriate qualifications to address existential loneliness related to existential aspects of ageing and care.


Asunto(s)
Anciano/psicología , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Hogares para Ancianos , Soledad/psicología , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Existencialismo , Femenino , Grupos Focales , Anciano Frágil , Humanos , Masculino
18.
Enferm. glob ; 18(54): 410-417, abr. 2019. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-183489

RESUMEN

Introducción: La calidad de vida relacionada con la salud se entiende como el efecto funcional y anímico que una enfermedad produce en una persona, incluyendo el tratamiento y cómo este proceso es percibido por la persona, el cual puede estar influido por el género.Objetivo: Determinar la percepción de la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud entre hombre y mujeres adultos mayores en la Comarca Lagunera de Coahuila.Método: Estudio cuantitativo y descriptivo de corte transversal. La muestra estuvo conformada por 100 adultos mayores seleccionados a conveniencia en la escuela de Lic. en Enfermería, U.T. de la Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila y un hospital público de la localidad. Los datos se analizaron en el programa SPSS v22 para Mac, se utilizó estadística descriptiva y la prueba U de Mann-Withney.Resultados: El análisis entre el género y la percepción de calidad de vida relacionada con la salud no observó diferencia significativa (U= 922.00, p=.178); sin embargo, al analizar la calidad de vida por dimensiones, existe diferencia significativa en tres componentes que son movilidad física (U= 812.00, p>.05), dolor (U= 816.00, p>.05) y energía (U= 807.50, p>.05).Conclusiones: En la presente investigación, se puede observar que los hombres y mujeres adultos mayores perciben la calidad de vida relacionada a la salud de una forma muy parecida, sin embargo, se encontró diferencia en algunos componentes que desde el punto de vista de los autores están muy ligados al rol social que cumple una mujer o un hombre adulto mayor


Introduction: The quality of life related to health is understood as the functional and emotional effect that a disease produces in a person, including treatment and how this process is perceived by the person, which may be influenced by gender.Objective: To determine the perception of quality of life related to health among men and older women in the Comarca Lagunera of Coahuila.Method: Quantitative and descriptive cross-sectional study. The sample was 100 old adults selected at convenience in the Nursing School, U.T. from the Autonomous University of Coahuila and a public hospital in the town. Data were analyzed in the SPSS v22 program for Mac, descriptive statistics and the Mann-Whitney U test were used.Results: The analysis between gender and health-related quality of life perception did not observe a significant difference (U=922.00, p=.178); However, when analyzing the quality of life by dimensions, there is a significant difference in three components that are physical mobility (U= 812.00, p< .05), pain (U= 816.00, p< .05) and energy (U= 807.50, p< .05).Conclusions: In the present investigation, it can be observed that older men and women perceive the quality of life related to health in a very similar way, however, a difference was found in some components that from the point of view of the authors, they are closely linked to the social role played by a woman or an older adult man


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Salud del Anciano , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Anciano/psicología , Envejecimiento/psicología , Percepción Social , Habilidades Sociales , Factores Protectores , Factores de Riesgo , Distribución por Sexo , Afecciones Crónicas Múltiples/epidemiología , Polifarmacia
19.
BMC Nephrol ; 20(1): 38, 2019 02 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30717686

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Older people with advanced kidney disease require information and support from clinicians when deciding whether to have dialysis or conservative (non-dialysis) care. There is evidence that communication practices, information provision and treatment rates vary widely across renal units. However, experiences of communicating with clinicians among patients receiving conservative care are poorly understood. This evidence is essential to ensure support is patient-centred and equitable. Our aim was to explore views and experiences of communication, information provision and treatment decision-making among older patients receiving conservative care. METHODS: In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with patients with stage 5 chronic kidney disease from three UK renal units. Purposive sampling captured variation in age, co-morbidity and functional status. Interviews were analysed thematically. RESULTS: 20 patients were interviewed (11 were men; median age 82 (range 69-95)). Participants described positive experiences of communicating with clinicians and receiving information, but also negative experiences involving insensitivity, rushing or ambiguity. Participants reported clinicians omitting/avoiding conversations regarding diagnosis and prognosis, and described what helped and hindered good communication and support. They wanted information about their treatment options and illness, but expressed ambivalence about knowing details of disease progression. Clinicians' views and recommendations regarding treatment influenced patients' decision-making. CONCLUSIONS: Older patients report variable quality in communication with clinicians and gaps in the information received. Uncertainty about the disease trajectory and patients' ambivalence regarding information makes communication particularly challenging for clinicians. Tailoring information to patient preferences and conveying it clearly and sensitively is critical. Renal clinicians require support and training to ensure decision-making support for older patients is patient-centred. Future research should examine how clinicians' communication practices influence treatment decision-making.


Asunto(s)
Anciano de 80 o más Años/psicología , Anciano/psicología , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Comunicación , Tratamiento Conservador/psicología , Toma de Decisiones , Fallo Renal Crónico/psicología , Educación del Paciente como Asunto , Diálisis Renal/psicología , Costo de Enfermedad , Estudios Transversales , Inglaterra , Femenino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Fallo Renal Crónico/terapia , Masculino , Prioridad del Paciente , Relaciones Médico-Paciente , Investigación Cualitativa
20.
East Mediterr Health J ; 24(11): 1088-1097, 2019 Jan 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30701524

RESUMEN

Background: Ageing is a major known risk factor that is a threat to human health. To date, many studies have investigated quality of life (QOL) among the elderly population in the Islamic Republic of Iran. However, their results were inconsistent. Aims: We designed this systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the overall mean score of QOL based on the Short Form 36 Health Survey Questionnaire (SF-36) among the Iranian elderly population. Methods: We searched international databases (Medline, Scopus and Science Direct) and national databases (Science In-formation Database, MagIran, IranMedex and Irandoc) up to February 2015. We included all cross-sectional studies that evaluated QOL among the Iranian elderly population using SF-36. Results: Of 2150 studies identified, 15 were included in the meta-analysis. The mean scores for QOL in the 8 scales were: 47.58, 51.75, 55.42, 55.78, 59.55, 51.54, 47.85 and 51.31 for physical-role, physical function, mental health, bodily pain, social functioning, emotional-role, general health, and vitality, respectively. Conclusions: Our results indicated that health-related QOL decreased with increasing age. QOL was worse in women than in men, especially in physical-role and general health scales. Elderly people who lived in a nursing home had lower QOL than those who lived in their own home. So, health policy-makers should design comprehensive programmes to improve health-related QOL for the Iranian elderly population.


Asunto(s)
Anciano/psicología , Calidad de Vida , Anciano/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Irán , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
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