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1.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(12): e0008907, 2020 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370267

RESUMEN

Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are endemic in Indonesia. However, prevalence data for many parts of the country are incomplete. The aim of this study was to determine human STH prevalence and knowledge and practices relating to STH risk behaviour, to provide a current view of the status of STH infection in rural communities in Central Java. A cross-sectional survey of 16 villages was conducted in Semarang, Central Java in 2015. Demographic and household data together with information about knowledge and practices relating to STH and hygiene were elicited through face-to-face interviews. Stool samples were collected and examined using the flotation method. Children (aged 2-12 years) also had their haemoglobin (Hb) levels, height and weight data collected, and BMI estimated. Data were analysed using univariate logistic regression analysis. A total of 6,466 individuals with a mean age of 33.5 years (range: 2-93) from 2,195 households were interviewed. The overall prevalence of STH was 33.8% with Ascaris lumbricoides (roundworm) the predominant nematode identified (prevalence = 26.0%). Hookworm and Trichuris trichiura (whipworm) were found in 7.9% and 1.8% of participants, respectively. Females were at increased odds of infection with A. lumbricoides (adjusted OR 1.14, 95% CI [1.02-1.29], p = 0.02). Adults in age groups 51-60 and over 60 years had the highest odds of being infected with hookworm (adjusted OR 3.01, 95% CI [1.84-4.91], p<0.001 and adjusted OR 3.79, 95% CI [2.30-6.26], p<0.001, respectively) compared to 6-12 year olds. Farmers also had higher odds of being infected with hookworm (adjusted OR 2.36, 95% CI [1.17-4.76], p = 0.02) compared to other occupation categories. Poverty (OR 2.14, 95% CI [1.77-2.58], p<0.001), overcrowding (OR 1.35, 95% CI [1.27-1.44], p<0.001), goat ownership (OR 1.61, 95% CI [1.10-2.41], p = 0.02) and the presence of dry floor space in the home (OR 0.73, 95% CI [0.58-0.91], p = 0.01) were all household factors significantly associated with an increased odds of infection. Infection with STH was not significantly associated with the gastrointestinal illness (p>0.05), BMI or Hb levels; however, one third of all 2-12 year olds surveyed were found to be anaemic (i.e. Hb concentrations below 110g/l or 115g/l for children under 5 and 5 years or older, respectively), with a greater proportion of school-age children at risk. Knowledge and behaviour related to hygiene and gastrointestinal diseases varied widely and were generally not associated with STH infection. The study revealed that STH infection remains endemic in Central Java despite ongoing deworming programs. Current control efforts would benefit from being re-evaluated to determine a more effective way forward.


Asunto(s)
Ascariasis/epidemiología , Enfermedades Gastrointestinales/epidemiología , Enfermedades Gastrointestinales/parasitología , Infecciones por Uncinaria/epidemiología , Suelo/parasitología , Tricuriasis/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Ancylostomatoidea/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Ascaris lumbricoides/aislamiento & purificación , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Agricultores/estadística & datos numéricos , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Humanos , Higiene , Indonesia/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Saneamiento , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Trichuris/aislamiento & purificación , Adulto Joven
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 803, 2020 Oct 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33121458

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminths are more prevalent in tropics and sub-tropics including Ethiopia. Despite their high prevalence, direct saline microscopy with its low sensitivity has been used as a diagnostic method in almost all health facilities in Ethiopia. Alternative diagnostic methods which have higher sensitivity are not yet implemented. Therefore, this study aimed to compare and evaluate the performance of diagnostic methods for soil transmitted helminths. METHODS: A cross-sectional study among 520 school children was conducted from October to December, 2019 in Amhara National Regional State. The study participants were selected using systematic random sampling technique. Stool samples were processed via formol ether concentration, Kato-Katz, spontaneous tube sedimentation and agar plate culture techniques. Data was entered into Epi-data version 3.1 and analysis was done using SPSS version 20.0. The sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive value were calculated against the combined result. Strength of agreement of the diagnostic methods was determined by Kappa value. RESULTS: The Overall prevalence of soil transmitted helminths was 40.8% using combination of methods. The prevalence 24.4, 22.5, and 32.4%, respectively was recorded by using formol ether concentration, Kato-Katz and spontaneous tube sedimentation. The highest prevalence of hookworm (29.2%) was detected by the agar plate culture. The sensitivity and negative predictive value of formol ether concentration were 57.9 and 78.4%, for Kato-Katz thick smear 55.2 and 76.4%, for spontaneous tube sedimentation were 79.2 and 87.5% to soil transmitted helminths detection, respectively. The sensitivity and negative predictive value of agar plate culture to hookworm detection were 86.4 and 93.5%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Spontaneous tube sedimentation shows higher sensitivity in the detection of soil transmitted helminth infections. Agar plate culture method also indicated better performance for hookworm detection than other methods. Therefore, the employment of spontaneous tube sedimentation technique for routine laboratory and agar plate culture for research purposes will significantly aid in accurate diagnosis of parasitic infections.


Asunto(s)
Ancylostomatoidea/aislamiento & purificación , Pruebas Diagnósticas de Rutina/métodos , Infecciones por Uncinaria/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Uncinaria/transmisión , Suelo/parasitología , Adolescente , Animales , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía/epidemiología , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Formaldehído , Infecciones por Uncinaria/epidemiología , Infecciones por Uncinaria/parasitología , Humanos , Masculino , Microscopía/métodos , Prevalencia , Sensibilidad y Especificidad
3.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(9): e0008511, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976499

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) is endemic in Fiji but its prevalence is not known and likely to have changed after a decade of mass drug administration (MDA) for lymphatic filariasis (LF). By linking with LF transmission assessment surveys (LF-TAS), we undertook the first nation-wide assessment of STH in Fijian primary schools, as well as an analysis of factors associated with STH infections. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional assessment for STH was conducted in all four Divisions of Fiji from 2014 to 2015. In the Western, Central, and Northern Divisions, schools were sub-sampled after LF-TAS, while, in the Eastern Division, schools were selected via simple random sampling. For the diagnosis of STH, stool samples were examined by coproscopy with a single Kato-Katz thick smear (KK) and the formol-ether-acetate concentration technique, except for the samples from the Eastern Division where only KK was used. Mean prevalence of any STH among class 1-2 students at the national level was 10.5% (95% CI: 6.9-15.5). Across the three Divisions via LF-TAS, the prevalence levels for ascariasis were 8.7% (95% CI: 4.3-16.6), hookworm 3.9% (95% CI: 2.3-6.6) and trichuriasis 0%. In the Eastern Division, ascariasis prevalence was 13.3% (95% CI: 6.4-25.6), and hookworm 0.7% (95% CI: 0.2-2.5), with one case of trichuriasis. Among class 3-8 students, ascariasis prevalence was lower. Lower risk of any STH was associated with wearing shoes (adjusted OR 0.54, 95% CI: 0.32-0.90) and having piped water from the Fiji Water Authority at home (adjusted OR 0.48, 95% CI: 0.25-0.92). CONCLUSIONS: After a decade of community-based LF-MDA, STH in school-age children in Fiji is now close to 10%, but localities of endemicity remain. Preventive chemotherapy should be maintained in areas with elevated STH prevalence alongside targeted delivery of integrated WASH interventions. LF-TAS has provided an opportunity to develop future public health surveillance platforms.


Asunto(s)
Ascariasis/epidemiología , Infecciones por Uncinaria/epidemiología , Tricuriasis/epidemiología , Adolescente , Ancylostomatoidea/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Ascaris/aislamiento & purificación , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Filariasis Linfática/epidemiología , Femenino , Fiji/epidemiología , Helmintiasis/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Recuento de Huevos de Parásitos , Prevalencia , Zapatos , Estudiantes , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Trichuris/aislamiento & purificación , Abastecimiento de Agua
4.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239680, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986746

RESUMEN

Geohelminthiasis is a worldwide problem, especially in low-income countries. Children from rural areas and those living in poverty, lacking basic health amenities and having poor environmental sanitation are likely to be affected. Adverse effects such as anemia, protein malnutrition, colitis are common which can affect both the children's physical and mental growing development. A cross-sectional study on geohelminthiasis was conducted among children from 238 households in 13 villages in Kota Marudu of northern Sabah, East Malaysia. The study involved interviewing villagers using questionnaires to collect demographic and socio-economic data, getting faecal samples from the children, collecting soil samples and identifying parasite eggs with microscopy and molecular methods. A total of 407 children (6 months-17 years old) enrolled in the study. Geohelminthiasis was detected in the faecal samples of children from 54% (7/13) of the villages with mean prevalence of infection per village of 9.0% (0%-34.9%). On a household basis, 18% (43/238) of the households sampled had infected children, with mean prevalence rate per household of 11% (0%-43%). The prevalence was for Ascaris lumbricoides: 9.6% (39/407), Trichuris trichiura: 2.7% (11/407) and hookworms (Necator americanus and Ancylostoma sp.): 2.7% (11/407). The overall mean infection rate of the children examined was 14.3%. Significantly higher prevalence was recorded for the children of mothers who did not have any formal education (p = 0.003); household income of less than USD119 (RM500) (p<0.001); children from homes without proper sanitation facilities (p<0.001); children who usually go about barefoot (p<0.001) and not washing feet before entering the house (p = 0.017). Soil samples were found to have geohelminth eggs or larvae which could be due to unhygienic sanitation practices. This study shows the geohelminthiasis is prevalent in the villages, and the risk factors are lack of maternal education, low income, poor sanitation facilities and irregular deworming practice. Expanding deworming coverage in the study region may help reduce the worm infections in these communities, so that the mental and physical development of the children would not be affected by geohelminthiasis. The data on the prevalence of geohelminthiasis in this study would contribute to better public health monitoring and operation to reduce the infection in rural areas.


Asunto(s)
Ancylostomatoidea/aislamiento & purificación , Ascariasis/epidemiología , Ascaris lumbricoides/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Uncinaria/epidemiología , Tricuriasis/epidemiología , Trichuris/aislamiento & purificación , Adolescente , Animales , Ascariasis/parasitología , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Infecciones por Uncinaria/parasitología , Humanos , Lactante , Malasia/epidemiología , Masculino , Pobreza , Prevalencia , Salud Pública , Factores de Riesgo , Población Rural , Saneamiento , Tricuriasis/parasitología
5.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(6): e0008392, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32542036

RESUMEN

The canine hookworms Ancylostoma braziliense, Ancylostoma ceylanicum, Ancylostoma caninum and Uncinaria stenocephala are not only capable of producing morbidity and mortality in dogs but are also neglected tropical zoonoses. Each hookworm species differs considerably in its geographical distribution, life cycle, biology, pathogenic impacts on both canine and human hosts, zoonotic potential, and response to treatment with anthelminthics. Here we describe the development and validation of two Taq-Man based multiplex PCR assays capable of detecting and differentiating all four canine hookworm species in faeces of naturally infected dogs. The analytical sensitivity of both assays was assessed using 10-fold serial dilutions of synthetic gene block fragments containing individual sequence targets of each hookworm species. The sensitivity of the assays and ability to detect mixed species infections were compared to a conventional PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism based-approach when applied to laboratory and field samples from endemic areas. The qPCRs detected at least one species of hookworms in 82.4% of PCR-RFLP-negative but microscopy-positive samples. The qPCRs detected an additional 68% mixed infections with different species of canine hookworms, and additional single species infection with A. caninum (47%), U. stenocephala (33%) and A. ceylanicum (0.02%) that were missed by PCR-RFLP. These multiplex qPCR assays will assist field based epidemiological surveillance studies towards an accurate and sensitive monitoring of canine hookworm infections in dogs, to inform their species-specific zoonotic risks to populations living in endemic areas, globally.


Asunto(s)
Ancylostomatoidea/genética , Ancylostomatoidea/aislamiento & purificación , Enfermedades de los Perros/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Uncinaria/diagnóstico , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa Multiplex/métodos , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa Multiplex/veterinaria , Ancylostoma/genética , Ancylostoma/aislamiento & purificación , Ancylostomatoidea/clasificación , Anquilostomiasis/diagnóstico , Anquilostomiasis/epidemiología , Anquilostomiasis/fisiopatología , Animales , ADN de Helmintos/análisis , ADN de Helmintos/genética , Enfermedades de los Perros/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Perros/fisiopatología , Perros , Heces/parasitología , Infecciones por Uncinaria/fisiopatología , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Longitud del Fragmento de Restricción , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Zoonosis/diagnóstico , Zoonosis/epidemiología , Zoonosis/fisiopatología
6.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 57(2): e163783, mai. 2020. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1122177

RESUMEN

Soil contamination by dog and cat feces can become a public health problem due to the transmission of various etiologic agents that cause zoonoses. This study aimed to verify the occurrence of geohelminths in the soil of some public square areas of the municipality of Rio Branco, Acre State, Western Brazilian Amazon. Five public squares were selected, and soil samples collection was performed from April 2014 to March 2015. The samples were processed by using the Baermann-Moraes and centrifugal-flotation methods. Geohelminths positivity was of 25% for Tox o c ara spp., 6.6% for the Ancylostomatoidea Superfamily and 1.6 for Trichuris spp.. Measures should be implemented to prevent the free access of animals to these places, as well as deworming of stray dogs and cats and the implementation of population control and policies for such animals.(AU)


A contaminação do solo por fezes de cães e gatos pode se tornar um problema de saúde pública devido à transmissão de vários agentes etiológicos que causam zoonoses. Este estudo objetivou verificar a ocorrência de geohelmintos no solo de praças públicas do município de Rio Branco, estado do Acre, Brasil. Cinco praças públicas foram selecionadas e amostras de solo foram colhidas entre abril de 2014 e março de 2015. As amostras foram processadas pelos métodos de Baermann-Moraes e centrífugo-flutuação. A positividade observada para geohelmintos foi de 25% para Tox o c ara spp., 6,6% para a Superfamília Ancylostomatoidea e 1,6% para Trichuris spp.. Medidas devem ser implementadas para prevenir a livre circulação de animais nestes locais, bem como a desverminação de cães e gatos de rua e a implementação de políticas de adoção e controle populacional de cães e gatos.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Animales , Gatos , Perros , Microbiología del Suelo , Toxocara/aislamiento & purificación , Ancylostomatoidea/aislamiento & purificación , Contaminación Ambiental , Brasil , Zoonosis , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa , Ecosistema Amazónico , Jardines
7.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(4): e0008087, 2020 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330127

RESUMEN

There is growing interest in local elimination of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection in endemic settings. In such settings, highly sensitive diagnostics are needed to detect STH infection. We compared double-slide Kato-Katz, the most commonly used copromicroscopic detection method, to multi-parallel quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in 2,799 stool samples from children aged 2-12 years in a setting in rural Bangladesh with predominantly low STH infection intensity. We estimated the sensitivity and specificity of each diagnostic using Bayesian latent class analysis. Compared to double-slide Kato-Katz, STH prevalence using qPCR was almost 3-fold higher for hookworm species and nearly 2-fold higher for Trichuris trichiura. Ascaris lumbricoides prevalence was lower using qPCR, and 26% of samples classified as A. lumbricoides positive by Kato-Katz were negative by qPCR. Amplicon sequencing of the 18S rDNA from 10 samples confirmed that A. lumbricoides was absent in samples classified as positive by Kato-Katz and negative by qPCR. The sensitivity of Kato-Katz was 49% for A. lumbricoides, 32% for hookworm, and 52% for T. trichiura; the sensitivity of qPCR was 79% for A. lumbricoides, 93% for hookworm, and 90% for T. trichiura. Specificity was ≥ 97% for both tests for all STH except for Kato-Katz for A. lumbricoides (specificity = 68%). There were moderate negative, monotonic correlations between qPCR cycle quantification values and eggs per gram quantified by Kato-Katz. While it is widely assumed that double-slide Kato-Katz has few false positives, our results indicate otherwise and highlight inherent limitations of the Kato-Katz technique. qPCR had higher sensitivity than Kato-Katz in this low intensity infection setting.


Asunto(s)
Helmintiasis/diagnóstico , Parasitosis Intestinales/diagnóstico , Técnicas Microbiológicas/métodos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa/métodos , Ancylostomatoidea/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Ascaris lumbricoides/aislamiento & purificación , Bangladesh , Niño , Preescolar , ADN de Helmintos/genética , ADN Ribosómico/genética , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , ARN Ribosómico 18S/genética , Población Rural , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Trichuris/aislamiento & purificación
8.
Int J Parasitol ; 50(3): 217-225, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135180

RESUMEN

Polyparasitism, involving soil-transmitted helminths. and Schistosoma blood flukes, is common in low to middle income countries. These helminths impact on the gut environment and can cause changes to the gut microbiome composition. Here we examined the gut microbiome in individuals with polyparasitism from two human cohorts in the Philippines utilising DNA sequencing-based profiling. Multiple helminth species infections were high with 70.3% of study participants harbouring at least two parasite species, and 16% harbouring at least five species. Increased numbers of helminth co-infections, in particular with the gut-resident soil-transmitted helminths, were significantly associated with increased bacterial diversity; however no significant parasite-gut microbiome associations were evident for individuals infected only with Schistosoma japonicum. In general, a healthy gut is associated with high bacterial diversity, which in these human cohorts may be the result of helminth-mediated immune modulation, or due to changes in the gut environment caused by these parasitic helminths.


Asunto(s)
Coinfección , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Helmintiasis/epidemiología , Helmintos/aislamiento & purificación , Esquistosomiasis/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Albendazol/uso terapéutico , Ancylostoma/aislamiento & purificación , Ancylostomatoidea/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Ascaris/aislamiento & purificación , Bacterias/clasificación , Bacterias/genética , Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios de Cohortes , Coinfección/microbiología , Coinfección/parasitología , Heces/microbiología , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Genes Bacterianos , Helmintiasis/tratamiento farmacológico , Helmintos/genética , Interacciones Huésped-Parásitos , Humanos , Masculino , Metagenómica , Interacciones Microbianas , Persona de Mediana Edad , Patología Molecular , Filipinas/epidemiología , Schistosoma/aislamiento & purificación , Esquistosomiasis/tratamiento farmacológico , Suelo/parasitología , Trichuris/aislamiento & purificación , Adulto Joven
9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778390

RESUMEN

Public parks are leisure environments widely used by both, adults and children, often accompained by their pets. Soil contamination of these environments by enteric viruses and intestinal parasites occurs through these animals feces. The aim of this work was to detect Carnivore protoparvovirus 1 (CPV-1) and different species of Mastadenovirus in soils samples from a park located in a medium-sized city in Brazil and evaluate the presence of helminth eggs and larvae in 18 points of a public park soil samples, as well as feces found on this site during six months. Parasitological analyzes were conducted through flotation and sedimentation techniques, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for viral detection. Of the 216 soil and 16 feces samples, 49% (106/216) and 12% (2/16) were positivefor nematodes larvae, respectively, through sedimentation techniques. Toxocara spp eggs were found in one soil sample and one feces sample, Trichuris spp eggs were found in only one feces sample and Hookworms eggs were found in four soil samples. After reconstruction work in the streets near the park, 30% (64/216) of the samples were positive for Human Mastadenovirus C (HAdV-C), 1.4% (3/216) for HAdV-E and 0.4% (1/216) for Canine Mastadenovirus A (CAdV-A). The parasitic forms found in this study have demonstrated that the contamination of the park's soil pose a threat to human and animal health. This was the first study to report the presence of HAdVs and CAdVs in soil samples.


Asunto(s)
Ancylostomatoidea/aislamiento & purificación , Mastadenovirus/aislamiento & purificación , Microbiología del Suelo , Suelo/parasitología , Toxocara/aislamiento & purificación , Ancylostomatoidea/clasificación , Ancylostomatoidea/genética , Animales , Perros , Heces/parasitología , Humanos , Mastadenovirus/clasificación , Mastadenovirus/genética , Parques Recreativos , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa , Toxocara/clasificación , Toxocara/genética
10.
Parasitol Res ; 118(12): 3409-3418, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31729572

RESUMEN

The arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus), an apex predator with an omnipresent distribution in the Arctic, is a potential source of intestinal parasites that may endanger people and pet animals such as dogs, thus posing a health risk. Non-invasive methods, such as coprology, are often the only option when studying wildlife parasitic fauna. However, the detection and identification of parasites are significantly enhanced when used in combination with methods of molecular biology. Using both approaches, we identified unicellular and multicellular parasites in faeces of arctic foxes and carcasses of sibling voles (Microtus levis) in Svalbard, where molecular methods are used for the first time. Six new species were detected in the arctic fox in Svalbard, Eucoleus aerophilus, Uncinaria stenocephala, Toxocara canis, Trichuris vulpis, Eimeria spp., and Enterocytozoon bieneusi, the latter never found in the arctic fox species before. In addition, only one parasite was found in the sibling vole in Svalbard, the Cryptosporidium alticolis, which has never been detected in Svalbard before.


Asunto(s)
Arvicolinae/parasitología , Zorros/parasitología , Parasitosis Intestinales/veterinaria , Ancylostomatoidea/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Animales Salvajes/parasitología , Regiones Árticas , Cryptosporidium/aislamiento & purificación , Perros , Eimeria/aislamiento & purificación , Heces/parasitología , Helmintos/aislamiento & purificación , Nematodos/aislamiento & purificación , Svalbard , Toxocara canis/aislamiento & purificación , Trichuris/aislamiento & purificación
11.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 644, 2019 Oct 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585533

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Soil-transmitted helminthes are among the most common infections worldwide and affect the poorest and most deprived communities. A health facility based cross-sectional study was conducted among pregnant women attending at Maytsebri primary hospital. Data was entered and analysed using SPSS version 20 software. Multivariate analyses were used to identify determinant factors associated with soil transmitted helminthiasis. A total of 448 pregnant women were examined microscopically with a Katokatz technique for parasitological study to each women. RESULTS: Out of the total 448 pregnant women examined in the primary hospital, 229 (51.5%) women were infected by at least one of the soil transmitted helminthiasis. Hookworm was the most prevalent 179 (78.16%) soil transmitted helminthes infection. Women who had a habit of eating soil were 2.6 times more likely to be infected by soil transmitted helminthes compared to who do not eat soil. Participants who wear shoe always were 95% less likely to be infected by soil transmitted helminthes. Efforts should be done to advance the awareness of women how to prevent soil transmitted helminthes.


Asunto(s)
Ancylostomatoidea/aislamiento & purificación , Ascaris/aislamiento & purificación , Helmintiasis/epidemiología , Suelo/parasitología , Trichuris/aislamiento & purificación , Adolescente , Adulto , Animales , Estudios Transversales , Escolaridad , Etiopía/epidemiología , Conducta Alimentaria , Femenino , Helmintiasis/diagnóstico , Helmintiasis/prevención & control , Helmintiasis/transmisión , Hospitales , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Embarazo , Atención Prenatal , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo
12.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(10): e0007778, 2019 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658264

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A DNA extraction and preservation protocol that yields sufficient and qualitative DNA is pivotal for the success of any nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT), but it still poses a challenge for soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), including Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and the two hookworms (Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale). In the present study, we assessed the impact of different DNA extraction and preservativation protocols on STH-specific DNA amplification from stool. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a first experiment, DNA was extracted from 37 stool samples with variable egg counts for T. trichiura and N. americanus applying two commercial kits, both with and without a prior bead beating step. The DNA concentration of T. trichiura and N. americanus was estimated by means of qPCR. The results showed clear differences in DNA concentration across both DNA extraction kits, which varied across both STHs. They also indicated that adding a bead beating step substantially improved DNA recovery, particularly when the FECs were high. In a second experiment, 20 stool samples with variable egg counts for A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura and N. americanus were preserved in either 96% ethanol, 5% potassium dichromate or RNAlater and were stored at 4°C for 65, 245 and 425 days. DNA was extracted using the DNeasy Blood & Tissue kit with a bead beating step. Stool samples preserved in ethanol proved to yield higher DNA concentrations as FEC increased, although stool samples appeared to be stable over time in all preservatives. CONCLUSIONS: The choice of DNA extraction kit significantly affects the outcome of NAATs. Given the clear benefit of bead beating and our validation of ethanol for (long-term) preservation, we recommend that these aspects of the protocol should be adopted by any stool sampling and DNA extraction protocol for downstream NAAT-based detection and quantification of STHs.


Asunto(s)
Heces/parasitología , Helmintiasis/diagnóstico , Helmintos/aislamiento & purificación , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Preservación Biológica/métodos , Suelo/parasitología , Adolescente , Ancylostoma/genética , Ancylostoma/aislamiento & purificación , Ancylostomatoidea/genética , Ancylostomatoidea/aislamiento & purificación , Ancylostomatoidea/parasitología , Animales , Ascariasis/diagnóstico , Ascariasis/parasitología , Ascaris lumbricoides/genética , Ascaris lumbricoides/aislamiento & purificación , Niño , Preescolar , ADN/aislamiento & purificación , Helmintiasis/parasitología , Helmintos/genética , Humanos , Necator americanus/aislamiento & purificación , Necatoriasis/diagnóstico , Necatoriasis/patología , Recuento de Huevos de Parásitos , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Tricuriasis/diagnóstico , Tricuriasis/parasitología , Trichuris/genética , Trichuris/aislamiento & purificación
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 838, 2019 Oct 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604429

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Helminthic and protozoan infections are common, particularly in low- or middle-income countries. Although an association between parasite carriage and markers of poor growth have been shown in some studies, systematic reviews have suggested only a modest impact of clearing carriage. The prevalence of these pathogens and the effect that they have on growth in preschool children has never been investigated in Malawi. METHODS: One hundred ninety-three children aged 0-72 months were randomly recruited from rural villages in the Mangochi district of Malawi. Formol-ether concentration was performed on stool and the samples examined with a light microscope. Anthropometric data was taken for each child and the haemoglobin measured with a point of care test. RESULTS: The mean age of the children was 2 years 4 months. Overall prevalence of intestinal parasite infection was 37.3%. Protozoa were found in 28.5% of children, while helminths were found in 8.8%. The most commonly found organisms were Giardia lambia (12.4%), Entamoeba coli (10.4%) and Hookworm species (3.6%). Stunting was seen in 47.8% of children, 12.9% were underweight and 5.0% were wasted. No significant association was found between markers of poor growth and infection with any intestinal parasite. CONCLUSIONS: We found that prevalence of helminth infection was low in preschool children living in the Mangochi district compared to international standards. However a significant proportion of the preschool population are infected with protozoa, particularly Giardia lambia. In this cohort, despite a significant prevalence of stunting, helminth infection was not significantly associated with any markers of poor growth. The significance of protozoal carriage and contribution to growth restriction in this context creates further avenues for future research.


Asunto(s)
Helmintiasis/diagnóstico , Parasitosis Intestinales/diagnóstico , Ancylostomatoidea/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Niño , Preescolar , Entamoeba/aislamiento & purificación , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Giardia lamblia/aislamiento & purificación , Helmintiasis/epidemiología , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Parasitosis Intestinales/epidemiología , Malaui/epidemiología , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Prevalencia
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 822, 2019 Sep 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533666

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Current guidelines and targets for soil-transmitted helminth (STH) control focus on school-based deworming for school-age children, given the high risk of associated morbidity in this age group. However, expanding deworming to all age groups may achieve improved STH control among both the community in general and school-age children, by reducing their risk of reinfection. This trial aims to compare school-based targeted deworming with community-wide mass deworming in terms of impact on STH infections among school-age children. METHODS: The CoDe-STH (Community Deworming against STH) trial is a cluster-randomised controlled trial (RCT) in 64 primary schools in Dak Lak province, Vietnam. The control arm will receive one round of school-based targeted deworming with albendazole, while in the intervention arm, community-wide mass deworming with albendazole will be implemented alongside school-based deworming. Prevalence of STH infections will be measured in school-age children at baseline and 12 months following deworming. The primary outcome is hookworm prevalence in school-age children at 12 months, by quantitative PCR. Analysis will be intention-to-treat, with outcomes compared between study arms using generalised linear and non-linear mixed models. Additionally, cost-effectiveness of mass and targeted deworming will be calculated and compared, and focus group discussions and interviews will be used to assess acceptability and feasibility of deworming approaches. Individual based stochastic models will be used to predict the impact of mass and targeted deworming strategies beyond the RCT timeframe to assess the likelihood of parasite population 'bounce-back' if deworming is ceased due to low STH prevalence. DISCUSSION: The first large-scale trial comparing mass and targeted deworming for STH control in South East Asia will provide key information for policy makers regarding the optimal design of STH control programs. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ACTRN12619000309189 .


Asunto(s)
Antiprotozoarios/uso terapéutico , Helmintiasis/tratamiento farmacológico , Helmintos/aislamiento & purificación , Suelo/parasitología , Albendazol/uso terapéutico , Ancylostomatoidea/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Niño , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Femenino , Helmintiasis/economía , Helmintiasis/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Vietnam/epidemiología
15.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(8): e0007580, 2019 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398200

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In South Asia, hundreds of millions of people are infected with soil-transmitted helminths (Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, and Trichuris trichiura). However, high-resolution risk profiles and the estimated number of people infected have yet to be determined. In turn, such information will assist control programs to identify priority areas for allocation of scarce resource for the control of soil-transmitted helminth infection. METHODOLOGY: We pursued a systematic review to identify prevalence surveys pertaining to soil-transmitted helminth infections in four mainland countries (i.e., Bangladesh, India, Nepal, and Pakistan) of South Asia. PubMed and ISI Web of Science were searched from inception to April 25, 2019, without restriction of language, study design, and survey date. We utilized Bayesian geostatistical models to identify environmental and socioeconomic predictors, and to estimate infection risk at high spatial resolution across the study region. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 536, 490, and 410 georeferenced surveys were identified for A. lumbricoides, hookworm, and T. trichiura, respectively. We estimate that 361 million people (95% Bayesian credible interval (BCI) 331-395 million), approximately one-quarter of the South Asia population, was infected with at least one soil-transmitted helminth species in 2015. A. lumbricoides was the predominant species. Moderate to high prevalence (>20%) of any soil-transmitted helminth infection was predicted in the northeastern part and some northern areas of the study region, as well as the southern coastal areas of India. The annual treatment needs for the school-age population requiring preventive chemotherapy was estimated at 165 million doses (95% BCI: 146-185 million). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our risk maps provide an overview of the geographic distribution of soil-transmitted helminth infection in four mainland countries of South Asia and highlight the need for up-to-date surveys to accurately evaluate the disease burden in the region.


Asunto(s)
Teorema de Bayes , Helmintiasis/epidemiología , Suelo/parasitología , Ancylostomatoidea/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Ascariasis/parasitología , Ascaris lumbricoides/aislamiento & purificación , Asia/epidemiología , Bangladesh/epidemiología , Bases de Datos Factuales , Helmintos/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Uncinaria/epidemiología , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Nepal/epidemiología , Pakistán/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Tricuriasis/epidemiología , Trichuris/aislamiento & purificación
16.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(8): e0007577, 2019 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381573

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Endemic areas for soil-transmitted helminthiases often lack the tools and trained personnel necessary for point-of-care diagnosis. This study pilots the use of smartphone microscopy and an artificial neural network-based (ANN) object detection application named Kankanet to address those two needs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A smartphone was equipped with a USB Video Class (UVC) microscope attachment and Kankanet, which was trained to recognize eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm using a dataset of 2,078 images. It was evaluated for interpretive accuracy based on 185 new images. Fecal samples were processed using Kato-Katz (KK), spontaneous sedimentation technique in tube (SSTT), and Merthiolate-Iodine-Formaldehyde (MIF) techniques. UVC imaging and ANN interpretation of these slides was compared to parasitologist interpretation of standard microscopy.Relative to a gold standard defined as any positive result from parasitologist reading of KK, SSTT, and MIF preparations through standard microscopy, parasitologists reading UVC imaging of SSTT achieved a comparable sensitivity (82.9%) and specificity (97.1%) in A. lumbricoides to standard KK interpretation (97.0% sensitivity, 96.0% specificity). The UVC could not accurately image T. trichiura or hookworm. Though Kankanet interpretation was not quite as sensitive as parasitologist interpretation, it still achieved high sensitivity for A. lumbricoides and hookworm (69.6% and 71.4%, respectively). Kankanet showed high sensitivity for T. trichiura in microscope images (100.0%), but low in UVC images (50.0%). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The UVC achieved comparable sensitivity to standard microscopy with only A. lumbricoides. With further improvement of image resolution and magnification, UVC shows promise as a point-of-care imaging tool. In addition to smartphone microscopy, ANN-based object detection can be developed as a diagnostic aid. Though trained with a limited dataset, Kankanet accurately interprets both standard microscope and low-quality UVC images. Kankanet may achieve sensitivity comparable to parasitologists with continued expansion of the image database and improvement of machine learning technology.


Asunto(s)
Helmintiasis/diagnóstico , Microscopía , Recuento de Huevos de Parásitos/métodos , Sistemas de Atención de Punto , Teléfono Inteligente , Suelo/parasitología , Ancylostomatoidea/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Ascaris lumbricoides/aislamiento & purificación , Heces/parasitología , Infecciones por Uncinaria/diagnóstico , Humanos , Procesamiento de Imagen Asistido por Computador , Madagascar , Redes Neurales de la Computación , Recuento de Huevos de Parásitos/instrumentación , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Programas Informáticos , Trichuris/aislamiento & purificación
17.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 17: 100316, 2019 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303229

RESUMEN

Hookworm infection is globally prevalent among dogs and cats representing a major public health risk. Although previous studies have surveyed canine and feline hookworms in Guangzhou city, the status of these infection needs to be further explored in other regions of South China. To investigate the prevalence and zoonotic risk of canine and feline hookworms in eight cities (Guangzhou, Foshan, Shenzhen, Huizhou, Zhongshan, Shaoguan, Shantou and Chaozhou) of Guangdong province, China, we developed specific PCR methods based on ITS sequence for identifying three common hookworm species. The results showed that the prevalence of hookworms from stray dogs and cats was 20.23% (142/702) and 15.26% (47/308), respectively. The established PCR methods could identify Ancylostoma ceylanicum, A. caninum and A. tubaeforme. The mixed infections of A. caninum and A. ceylanicum were detected in stray dogs of Guangzhou and Shaoguan, with the rate of 8.3% and 21.2%, respectively. Among the stray dogs in Foshan, the infection rate of A. ceylanicum was higher than that of A. caninum. The stray cats in four of five investigated cities were infected with A. ceylanicum. The different region, age and rearing environments had an impact on the hookworm infection rates of stray dogs and cats. In conclusion, the reported higher infection rate of A. ceylanicum than other hookworm species in stray dogs and cats poses a potential risk to public health.


Asunto(s)
Ancylostomatoidea/clasificación , Enfermedades de los Gatos/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Perros/epidemiología , Infecciones por Uncinaria/veterinaria , Zoonosis/epidemiología , Factores de Edad , Ancylostomatoidea/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Enfermedades de los Gatos/parasitología , Gatos , China/epidemiología , ADN de Helmintos/aislamiento & purificación , Enfermedades de los Perros/parasitología , Perros , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Infecciones por Uncinaria/epidemiología , Infecciones por Uncinaria/parasitología , Masculino , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa/veterinaria , Prevalencia , Riesgo , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Zoonosis/parasitología
18.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 333, 2019 Jun 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186041

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Parasitic infections are the commonest infections affecting 3.5 billion people leading 450 million illnesses. Parasites are major public health problems in developing countries. This study was aimed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of parasitic infections among patients. A cross sectional study was conducted on 364 patients, attending Shahura Health Center, Northwest Ethiopia. Stool specimens were collected and examined using formol-ether concentration technique. Socio-demographic data collected using questionnaire. Binary and multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to calculate the strength of association between variables. RESULT: The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitosis was 56.9%. The most prevalent parasite was Entamoeba histolytica/dispar 32.4% followed by Hookworm species 11.8% and Giardia lamblia 7.4% singly or mixed with other parasites. Furthermore, double and triple parasitic infections were observed in 3% and 1.4% patients respectively. Being male in gender (P = 0.049), age group interval between 1 and 20 years of old (P = 0.012), having stomach pain (P = 0.032) and having diarrhea (P = 0.007) were found to be significantly associated with parasitic infection. In conclusion, prevalence of parasitic infection in the area is high. Therefore, ensuring provision of clean potable water and minimizing the contamination of vegetables are recommended.


Asunto(s)
Ancylostomatoidea/aislamiento & purificación , Entamoeba histolytica/aislamiento & purificación , Heces/parasitología , Giardia lamblia/aislamiento & purificación , Parasitosis Intestinales/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Ancylostomatoidea/fisiología , Animales , Niño , Preescolar , Centros Comunitarios de Salud , Estudios Transversales , Entamoeba histolytica/fisiología , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Giardia lamblia/fisiología , Humanos , Lactante , Parasitosis Intestinales/diagnóstico , Parasitosis Intestinales/parasitología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
19.
Acta Trop ; 197: 105035, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31128094

RESUMEN

Large sectors of the Afghan population have limited access to safe water and sanitation, which increases the risk of transmission of water- and food- borne diseases, including Soil-Transmitted Helminth (STH) infections. STHs interfere with the human host's health status, and their burden of disease is highest among children of school age. Based on the results of a nationwide survey conducted in 2003, which showed an STH prevalence of 47.2%, and with the aim of reducing morbidity among school children, Afghanistan has been conducting nationwide deworming for preschool-age and school-age children since 2004. In 2017, 14 years after the first baseline assessment, a follow-up survey was carried out among schoolchildren aged 8-10 years to provide an update on STH epidemiology and facilitate evidence-informed planning of future deworming campaigns. Stool samples were collected from 2263 pupils aged 8-10 years in five provinces representing the different ecological zones of the country - Kabul, Balkh, Herat, Nangarhar and Kandahar. Microscopic examination was carried out by the Kato-Katz thick smear technique, to assess the presence and the number of parasites and/or their eggs. The survey revealed that 26.6% of the sample was infected with at least one of the STH, a marked decrease from the level registered in 2003. The most prevalent infection was the one with A. lumbricoides (25.7%), followed by T. trichiura (1.0%) and hookworms (0.1%). All positive children were noted to have light-intensity infections, compared to the previous survey where 9.7% of the sample had moderate-to-heavy intensity infections. Only 0.2% of the children had co-infection with two or more parasites. Meanwhile, 6.8% of the students were found infected with the dwarf tapeworm, Hymenolepis nana. The absence of infections of moderate-to-heavy intensity after several yearly rounds of deworming and overall improvements in provision of safe water and sanitation, indicates successful control of morbidity due to STH and, overall, their elimination as a public-health problem from Afghanistan. Nevertheless, current levels of prevalence of infection still show persistence of active transmission of STHs, thus justifying the continued implementation of mass deworming interventions among children. The permanent elimination of STH transmission, however, will be possible only when the country reaches a sanitation level sufficient to impede fecal contamination of the environment with human excreta.


Asunto(s)
Helmintiasis/epidemiología , Afganistán/epidemiología , Ancylostomatoidea/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Ascariasis/epidemiología , Ascaris lumbricoides/aislamiento & purificación , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Helmintiasis/transmisión , Infecciones por Uncinaria/epidemiología , Infecciones por Uncinaria/transmisión , Humanos , Himenolepiasis/epidemiología , Hymenolepis nana/aislamiento & purificación , Masculino , Recuento de Huevos de Parásitos , Prevalencia , Saneamiento , Instituciones Académicas , Suelo/parasitología , Estudiantes , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Tricuriasis/epidemiología , Tricuriasis/transmisión , Trichuris/aislamiento & purificación
20.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 231, 2019 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30992048

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of soil transmitted helminthes among primary school children. School based cross-sectional study design was employed. A total of six hundred study subjects were selected by a multistage sampling method. Fresh stool specimens were collected using clean, dry and wide mouthed labeled stool cups. It was processed by Kato-Katz technique. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 and p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULT: The overall prevalence of soil transmitted helminthes was 57 (9.5%). Hookworm was the most prevalent helminthes species isolated (4.2%) followed by A. lumbricoide (3%). The prevalence of Taenia species, T. trichiura, H. nana and E. vermicularis were; 1.2%, 0.5%, 0.7% and 0.8% respectively. The prevalence of the Soil transmitted helminthes infection was low and all cases of Soil transmitted infections in this study were with low infection intensity. This might be due to the preventive chemotherapy given to the school children.


Asunto(s)
Ancylostomatoidea/aislamiento & purificación , Ascariasis/epidemiología , Ascaris lumbricoides/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Uncinaria/epidemiología , Taenia/aislamiento & purificación , Teniasis/epidemiología , Adolescente , Ancylostomatoidea/clasificación , Animales , Antihelmínticos/administración & dosificación , Ascariasis/parasitología , Ascariasis/prevención & control , Ascariasis/transmisión , Ascaris lumbricoides/clasificación , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía/epidemiología , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Infecciones por Uncinaria/parasitología , Infecciones por Uncinaria/prevención & control , Infecciones por Uncinaria/transmisión , Humanos , Masculino , Profilaxis Pre-Exposición/métodos , Prevalencia , Instituciones Académicas , Suelo/parasitología , Taenia/clasificación , Teniasis/parasitología , Teniasis/prevención & control , Teniasis/transmisión
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