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1.
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 43(3): 223-227, 2020 Mar 12.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164093

RESUMEN

Objective: To investigate the efficacy and safety of transcatheter embolization for the treatment of pulmonary artery pseudoaneurysms (PAPs) with massive hemoptysis via both arterial and venous access. Methods: The clinical data of 15 patients of pulmonary tuberculosis presenting with massive hemoptysis, who were confirmed by CTA/DSA with PAPs at the Second Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical University from January 2016 to February 2018, were retrospectively analyzed. The imaging presentation, technical and clinical success of endovascular treatment, and recurrence of hemoptysis within 1 year was recorded. Results: A total of 15 PAPs were involved. Fourteen PAPs were confirmed by pulmonary CTA and one by angiography. Six PAPs were visualized during bronchial artery angiography, 4 PAPs during pulmonary artery angiography, and 4 PAPs both. One PAP was not shown during catheter-directed angiography. Except for one patient who died of asphyxia due to severe hemoptysis undergoing embolization, hemoptysis relapse was achieved in 14 patients after endovascular treatment. During 12 months follow-up, one patient underwent surgical resection because of recurrent hemoptysis 2 weeks after embolization, and another patient with recurrence hemoptysis 3 months after embolization received repeated intervention and hemoptysis relapsed. Conclusion: Transcatheter embolization via dual access is effective and feasible for the treatment of PAPs with massive hemoptysis in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, but still some risks.


Asunto(s)
Aneurisma Falso , Embolización Terapéutica , Hemoptisis , Tuberculosis Pulmonar , Aneurisma Falso/complicaciones , Aneurisma Falso/terapia , Angiografía , Arterias Bronquiales , Hemoptisis/etiología , Hemoptisis/terapia , Humanos , Arteria Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagen , Arteria Pulmonar/patología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X , Tuberculosis Pulmonar/complicaciones
3.
Orv Hetil ; 161(9): 354-358, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32088977

RESUMEN

Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) plays an important role in the treatment of symptomatic coronary artery disease. During the fifty years since the first operation, a great amount of clinical observations confirm that the internal mammary artery (IMA) can be used for the bypass grafting by the most favorable outcome. IMA's histological structure and physiological properties make it resistant to atherosclerosis. In our article, we remember the first CABG operation in Hungary using IMA graft and we also confirm the favorable properties of IMA by the results of the 35-year follow-up, with the longest reported coronary angiography in the literature after IMA grafting. On the basis of this case, we can speculate that the prostacyclin secretion of the mammary graft can prevent the run-off tract of the left anterior descending (LAD) artery from the atherosclerotic progression. Large-scale study is warranted to compare the long-term prognosis of the run-off tract after grafting versus stenting of the LAD. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(9): 354-358.


Asunto(s)
Angiografía , Puente de Arteria Coronaria , Arterias Mamarias/diagnóstico por imagen , Arterias Mamarias/cirugía , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Hungría
5.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 145(2): 407e-411e, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31985656

RESUMEN

The utility of nitroglycerin is well established in coronary angiography but less so in other surgical fields. In this study, the authors investigated the utility of preoperative computed tomographic angiography after sublingual nitroglycerin followed by three-dimensional visualization for selecting suitable perforators in planning the free anterolateral thigh flap. The authors performed preoperative computed tomographic angiography following sublingual nitroglycerin (after screening for contraindications) in patients for whom reconstructive surgery with the free anterolateral thigh flap was planned. Data were reconstructed three-dimensionally, mapping location and course of source arteries and perforators. Suitable perforators were selected, and flap design was planned. The characteristics of perforators were analyzed statistically. Of 14 patients for whom surgery was planned, two had contraindications to nitroglycerin and underwent computed tomographic angiography alone. Nitroglycerin allowed for the visualization of more peripheral branches. The Hounsfield units at the deep fascia of perforators selected for surgery were significantly higher than for those not selected (p = 0.003). The distance from the intermuscular septum to the selected perforators was significantly shorter than the distance to nonselected perforators (p = 0.017). There were no adverse events, and all flaps survived. Sublingual nitroglycerin before computed tomographic angiography was safe and increased the visibility of perforators, enabling preoperative planning of flap design based on the three-dimensionally-reconstructed image. The authors highly recommend this procedure. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:: Diagnostic, IV.


Asunto(s)
Angiografía/instrumentación , Arterias/diagnóstico por imagen , Nitroglicerina/administración & dosificación , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Reconstructivos/métodos , Traumatismos de los Tejidos Blandos/cirugía , Colgajos Quirúrgicos , Muslo/cirugía , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X/métodos , Adulto , Angiografía/métodos , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
6.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 15(1): 8, 2020 Jan 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915025

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Bleeding of the subclavian artery is a fatal condition. Adhesion between the pleura and staple line may develop after surgical treatment of pneumothorax, and collateral arteries often develop from the subclavian artery toward the adhesion at the lung apex; however, atraumatic tearing and bleeding of these collateral arteries into the extrapleural and intrathoracic cavities is rare. CASE PRESENTATION: A 70-year-old man visited the hospital for evaluation of left chest pain. Contrast-enhanced chest computed tomography showed a huge tumor in the left apex of the lung. It was suspected to be an extrapleural huge hematoma, and it ruptured into the thoracic cavity. Bleeding from the left subclavian artery was suspected; therefore, emergency angiography was performed. Angiography showed some collateral circulation from the left subclavian artery to the apex of the left lung. Distal and proximal bleeding points were identified. The distal bleeding point was embolized using coils. The proximal bleeding point was blown out, and stents were placed in the left subclavian artery. He had undergone pneumothorax surgery 20 years previously, and the present bleeding episode was strongly suspected to be associated with that surgery. The collateral circulation from the subclavian artery could have developed because of post-pneumothorax inflammation, eventually rupturing and bleeding into the extrapleural space. CONCLUSIONS: This report described an important case of atraumatic subclavian artery bleeding considered to have been caused by surgical treatment of pneumothorax 20 years previously. Emergency angiography and percutaneous stent placement or coil embolization should be considered first in such cases.


Asunto(s)
Embolización Terapéutica , Hematoma/etiología , Hematoma/terapia , Neumotórax/cirugía , Arteria Subclavia , Adherencias Tisulares/complicaciones , Anciano , Angiografía , Circulación Colateral , Hematoma/diagnóstico por imagen , Humanos , Masculino , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/diagnóstico por imagen , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/etiología , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/terapia
7.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eRC4934, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31994612

RESUMEN

Varicose gastrointestinal bleeding is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic liver disease. Endoscopic treatment is the first therapeutic line for these patients, however, for those whom this therapeutic modality fail, a broad knowledge of alternative treatment options may improve the prognosis. We describe a case of a patient who were successfully embolized from gastroesophageal varices via transsplenic access.


Asunto(s)
Embolización Terapéutica/métodos , Várices Esofágicas y Gástricas/cirugía , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/cirugía , Vena Esplénica/cirugía , Adulto , Angiografía/métodos , Várices Esofágicas y Gástricas/diagnóstico por imagen , Femenino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico por imagen , Humanos , Vena Porta/cirugía , Vena Esplénica/diagnóstico por imagen , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X/métodos , Resultado del Tratamiento , Ultrasonografía Doppler/métodos , Trombosis de la Vena/cirugía
9.
Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 34(1): 92-97, 2020 Jan 15.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31939242

RESUMEN

Objective: To investigate the influencing factors of flap-related complications and the economic benefits of intraoperative indocyanine green (ICG) angiography in the patients undergoing autologous breast reconstruction. Methods: Between July 2013 and June 2018, the clinical data of 150 patients (152 breasts) who met the selection criteria after autologous breast reconstruction were analyzed retrospectively. Ten factors including age, body mass index, preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NC), chest radiation history, diabetes, abdominal operation history, chest wall reconstruction, reconstruction timing, flap type, intraoperative ICG angiography were analyzed by univariate analysis. Significant variables found in univariate analysis were used to perform backward multivariate logistic regression of flap related complications and local necrosis. According to the above multi factor analysis results, the patients were divided into 4 groups: ICG+NC group (group A), ICG+non-NC group (group B), non-ICG+NC group (group C), non-ICG+non-NC group (group D). The average extra costs of surgical treatment (including ICG imaging cost+cost of handling flap related complications) of each group was calculated. Results: All the 152 flaps survived. There were 33 flap-related complications, including 22 regional necrosis, 9 regional infection, 5 hematoma, 5 simple fat liquefaction, and 2 anasto-motic thrombosis. Univariate analysis showed that preoperative NC, flap type, and intraoperative ICG angiography had significant influence on the incidence of flap-related complications ( P<0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that preoperative NC and non-ICG angiography were the risk factors of flap-related complications ( P<0.05), and also the risk factors of regional flap necrosis ( P<0.05). For patients who had NC, intraoperative ICG angiography could greatly save the average extra costs. The average extra costs in group A was 1 378 yuan less than that in group C. For the patients without NC, intraoperative ICG angiography would increase the average extra costs, which was 747 yuan in group B more than that in group D. Conclusion: In autologous breast reconstruction, ICG angiography can reduce the incidence of flap-related complications, especially the incidence of regional flap necrosis, while NC is the opposite. For patients without NC, ICG angiography is not cost-effective but still can be used if conditions permit. However, for those with NC, ICG angiography is cost-effective and recommended.


Asunto(s)
Mamoplastia , Angiografía , Humanos , Verde de Indocianina , Mastectomía , Complicaciones Posoperatorias , Estudios Retrospectivos
10.
World Neurosurg ; 133: 29-33, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526887

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) typically has a single intradural drainage vein, abnormally connecting with the radiculomeningeal artery at the dura root sleeve. Multiple intradural draining veins are extremely rare. To date, only 1 case of spinal DAVF with multiple draining veins has been reported. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 62-year-old woman presented with a 2-year history of progressive weakness and numbness in her lower extremities. Spinal magnetic resonance imaging showed extensive edema of the cord and prominent vascular flow voids. Spinal angiography demonstrated a right L3 DAVF with supply from the left L3 lumbar artery. The feeding artery was also thought to give rise to the artery of Adamkiewicz. The spinal DAVF was surgically treated, and the artery of Adamkiewicz was retained. Her postoperative symptoms gradually improved. Eight months after the surgery, her symptoms gradually worsened. Repeat spinal angiography revealed a right L3 DAVF at the same location of the first fistula. In retrospect, the draining vein identified on the second angiography was mistakenly considered as the artery of Adamkiewicz at the first angiography. Therefore the initial fistula was drained through double draining veins, 1 of them mimicking the artery of Adamkiewicz. The fistula was coagulated and divided. Postoperatively, the patient's symptoms gradually improved. Three months after the second surgery, she was able to walk independently. CONCLUSIONS: Spinal DAVF is a rare disease, but clinicians should be cautious of possible multiple drainage veins in diagnosis and treatment.


Asunto(s)
Malformaciones Vasculares del Sistema Nervioso Central/diagnóstico por imagen , Duramadre/diagnóstico por imagen , Enfermedades de la Médula Espinal/diagnóstico por imagen , Angiografía , Malformaciones Vasculares del Sistema Nervioso Central/cirugía , Duramadre/irrigación sanguínea , Duramadre/cirugía , Femenino , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Persona de Mediana Edad , Enfermedades de la Médula Espinal/cirugía
11.
J Vasc Access ; 21(1): 60-65, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203718

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Radiologic justification for endovascular treatment of a dialysis arteriovenous fistula circuit stenosis is currently based on ⩾50% severity. However, the clinical significance of any given stenosis is not always clear. The minimum luminal diameter of any stenotic lesion in the arteriovenous fistula circuit might exert a more predictive effect on the arteriovenous fistula blood flow rate (Qa). METHODS: To investigate relationships between anatomic parameters of stenosis and Qa, this study was conducted in a cohort of patients with a variety of arteriovenous fistula stenotic lesions. The goals were to determine (1) the degree of correlation between arteriovenous fistula stenosis estimated during the procedure, and that which is measured, and (2) the correlations between two anatomic stenosis parameters (percent stenosis and stenosis minimum luminal diameter) and Qa. RESULTS: The cohort comprised 113 patients. Only a moderate correlation between estimated and measured stenosis was seen. A correlation between measured stenosis and Qa for the whole cohort was not seen, but a weak correlation between estimated stenosis and Qa was seen. Correlations between stenosis minimum luminal diameter and Qa were superior. The superiority of stenosis minimum luminal diameter to percent stenosis in correlating with a Qa of <500 mL/h was also demonstrated by receiver operating characteristics curve analysis. Stenosis minimum luminal diameter cutoffs of ⩽2.5 mm or >4 mm seemed to have a good predictive value of Qa. CONCLUSIONS: Percent stenosis determination is fraught with uncertainty and exhibits a weak correlation with Qa. Compared with percent stenosis, the minimum luminal diameter of the stenosis demonstrates a superior correlation with Qa.


Asunto(s)
Angiografía , Derivación Arteriovenosa Quirúrgica/efectos adversos , Oclusión de Injerto Vascular/diagnóstico por imagen , Diálisis Renal , Ultrasonografía Doppler , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Velocidad del Flujo Sanguíneo , Femenino , Fluoroscopía , Oclusión de Injerto Vascular/etiología , Oclusión de Injerto Vascular/fisiopatología , Oclusión de Injerto Vascular/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Flujo Sanguíneo Regional , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
12.
Radiol Med ; 125(3): 288-295, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31823294

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: High-flow priapism is an incomplete and painless persistent erection caused by trauma. Its diagnosis is performed thanks to clinic and imaging evaluation with detection of fistula/pseudoaneurysm in the cavernous tissue. This paper aims to retrospectively assess the efficacy and safety of superselective arterial embolization in patients with high-flow priapism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 2008 to March 2017, nine patients with high-flow priapism have been treated in a single center with embolization. The main etiology was trauma in eight subjects. The patients were evaluated with laboratory examinations and clinical and imaging findings (color Doppler ultrasonography and angiography). The mean follow-up time after embolization was 24 months. RESULTS: Eleven procedures were performed in nine patients: two of them required a second treatment session because of recurrence after 1-2 weeks. Embolic agents were microcoils, microparticles (300-500 µm) and Spongostan. Restoration of erectile function was monitored by clinical and color Doppler evaluation during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Superselective embolization should be the procedure of choice in patients affected by high-flow priapism; this technique appears to be successful in preserving erectile function. The choice of the embolic agent is crucial, and it should be tailored for each patient.


Asunto(s)
Embolización Terapéutica/métodos , Pene/irrigación sanguínea , Priapismo/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Angiografía , Niño , Embolización Terapéutica/instrumentación , Procedimientos Endovasculares/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Erección Peniana , Pene/lesiones , Priapismo/diagnóstico por imagen , Priapismo/etiología , Recurrencia , Flujo Sanguíneo Regional , Retratamiento , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Tiempo , Resultado del Tratamiento , Ultrasonografía Doppler en Color , Adulto Joven
14.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 12: 460-465, jan.-dez. 2020. tab
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1053063

RESUMEN

Objetivo: Determinar a prevalência da nefropatia induzida por contraste em pacientes cardiopatas submetidos a procedimentos angiográficos de diagnóstico e/ou tratamento. Método: Estudo prospectivo, quantitativo, realizado no setor de hemodinâmica de um hospital de grande porte, situado na região norte do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. A amostra foi constituída por 79 participantes através do cálculo de tamanho amostral. Resultados: A amostra foi formada por 52 (65,8%) homens e 27 (34,2%) mulheres. A idade média foi de 65,9 ± 9,52 anos. A incidência de nefropatia induzida por contraste foi de 30,38%, totalizando 24 pacientes. Conclusão: Foi evidenciada uma alta prevalência de nefropatia por contraste, apesar dos pacientes apresentarem poucos fatores de risco, o que ressalta a necessidade de medidas preventivas e redução do volume de contraste


Objective: To determine the prevalence of contrast-induced nephropathy in cardiac patients undergoing diagnostic and / or treatment angiographic procedures. Method: A prospective, quantitative study in the hemodynamics sector of a large hospital, located in the northern region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The sample consisted of 79 participants through the calculation of sample size. Results: The sample consisted of 52 (65.8%) men and 27 (34.2%) women. The mean age was 65.9 ± 9.52 years. The incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy was 30,38%, totaling 24 patients. Conclusion: A high prevalence of contrast nephropathy was evidenced, despite the fact that patients presented few risk factors, which highlights the need for preventive measures and reduction of contrast volume


Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de la nefropatía inducida por contraste en pacientes cardiopatas sometidos a procedimientos angiográficos de diagnóstico y / o tratamiento. Método: Estudio prospectivo, cuantitativo, realizado en el sector de hemodinámica de un hospital de gran porte, situado en la región norte de Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. La muestra fue constituida por 79 participantes a través del cálculo de tamaño muestral. Resultados: La muestra fue formada por 52 (65,8%) hombres y 27 (34,2%) mujeres. La edad media fue de 65,9 ± 9,52 años. La incidencia de nefropatía inducida por contraste fue del 30,38%, totalizando 24 pacientes. Conclusión: Se evidenció una alta prevalencia de nefropatía por contraste, a pesar de que los pacientes presentaban pocos factores de riesgo, lo que resalta la necesidad de medidas preventivas y reducción del volumen de contraste


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Angiografía/efectos adversos , Cardiopatías/complicaciones , Cardiopatías/diagnóstico por imagen , Enfermedades Renales/inducido químicamente , Enfermedades Renales/epidemiología , Estudios Prospectivos , Medios de Contraste/efectos adversos , Enfermedad Coronaria/complicaciones , Lesión Renal Aguda/inducido químicamente , Hemodinámica
16.
World Neurosurg ; 135: e679-e685, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884126

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Preoperative embolization of meningiomas to reduce tumor vascularity and intraoperative blood loss remains controversial. Incomplete devascularization on angiography is not significantly correlated with intraoperative estimated blood loss (EBL). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may provide a better assessment of devascularization and prediction of EBL. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed patients undergoing preoperative embolization for intracranial meningiomas. Cohorts based on postembolization devascularization (>50% vs. ≤50%) were compared. RESULTS: Of 84 patients with meningioma undergoing preoperative embolization, 35 (42%) had a postembolization MRI before resection and met study inclusion criteria. The mean tumor diameter was 4.9 ± 1.3 cm, and mean intraoperative EBL was 576 ± 341 mL. Compared with MRI, angiography overestimated devascularization in 22 patients (63%). Using pre- versus postembolization MRIs, 17 (49%) patients had a >50% decrease in enhancement, which was associated with lower mean intraoperative blood loss (444 ± 255 mL) compared with 17 patients with ≤50% devascularization (700 ± 374 mL) (P = 0.03). On angiography, the 22 (63%) patients who demonstrated >50% devascularization during embolization did not statistically differ in intraoperative EBL when compared with 13 (37%) patients with <50% angiographic devascularization. Patients with a ≤50% decrease in contrast enhancement on postembolization MRI were 9 times more likely to lose >500 mL blood intraoperatively during resection (95% confidence interval 1.6-54, P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Postembolization contrast-enhanced MRI is a better predictor of intraoperative blood loss during meningioma resection than postembolization angiography, which overestimates the degree of embolic devascularization. Postembolization preoperative MRI is warranted for optimal patient management.


Asunto(s)
Pérdida de Sangre Quirúrgica/estadística & datos numéricos , Embolización Terapéutica/métodos , Neoplasias Meníngeas/terapia , Meningioma/terapia , Angiografía/métodos , Medios de Contraste , Femenino , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Neoplasias Meníngeas/irrigación sanguínea , Meningioma/irrigación sanguínea , Persona de Mediana Edad , Cuidados Preoperatorios/métodos , Estudios Retrospectivos
18.
Clin Nucl Med ; 45(1): 90-91, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789915

RESUMEN

A 64-year-old woman with a history of cirrhosis and progressive difficulty breathing underwent pulmonary ventilation/perfusion SPECT to evaluate possible pulmonary embolism. The images demonstrated multiple mismatched ventilation/perfusion defects in both lungs, suggesting pulmonary embolism. However, there was also Tc-MAA radioactivity in the brain and bilateral kidney, with a right-to-left shunting rate of 8.8%. In addition, CT pulmonary angiography did not demonstrate embolus. The findings indicated that perfusion defects were caused by hepatopulmonary syndrome.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome Hepatopulmonar/diagnóstico por imagen , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagen , Tomografía Computarizada por Tomografía Computarizada de Emisión de Fotón Único , Angiografía , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Radiofármacos , Compuestos de Sulfhidrilo , Agregado de Albúmina Marcado con Tecnecio Tc 99m
20.
Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 33(12): 1589-1592, 2019 Dec 15.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31823564

RESUMEN

Objective: To summarize the application progress of indocyanine green (ICG) angiography in diagnosis and treatment of lymphedema. Methods: The literature related to dynamic imaging tracing of lymphedema at home and abroad was reviewed extensively. And the research status and progress of ICG angiography in diagnosis and treatment of lymphedema were retrospectively analyzed. Results: ICG angiography can be used as the gold standard for the diagnosis of lymphedema at present and the classification of lymphedema severity, selection of surgical incisions and methods, and intraoperative operation. It can also be used to observe lymphatic drainage and regeneration within 1.5 cm of subcutaneous and determine the prognosis. Conclusion: Compared with traditional methods, ICG angiography has more obvious advantages and value in diagnosis and treatment of lymphedema. However, it also has problems such as slow development speed and difficulty in developing deep lymphatic vessels (nodes).


Asunto(s)
Vasos Linfáticos , Linfedema , Linfografía , Angiografía , Humanos , Verde de Indocianina , Vasos Linfáticos/diagnóstico por imagen , Linfedema/diagnóstico por imagen , Estudios Retrospectivos
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