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1.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 51: 101030, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38772646

RESUMEN

Spirometra mansoni is a diphyllobothroid cestode and one of the causing agents of sparganosis, a zoonotic foodborne and waterborne infection in humans. This parasite has an indirect life cycle with domestic and wild canids or felids as definitive hosts. The last report of S. mansoni in Costa Rica was done in 2004 by morphological assessment of worms, whereas molecular evidence of this species was obtained recently in the Americas. Herein, we present seven cases of spirometrosis in four dogs, three cats and a coyote from different regions of Costa Rica occurring in a time span of a year. Dog cases presented vomiting, hyporexia, lethargy and diarrhea, whereas cats were mostly asymptomatic. Moreover, the coyote was found with Spirometra sp. proglottids incidentally. Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) sequences of eggs or proglottids derived from all cases were analyzed with a Bayesian Inference phylogenetic tree and a haplotype network. These analyses showed the clustering of S. mansoni from Costa Rica with other sequences derived from Asia and America. Moreover, cox1 sequences clustered in two separate haplotypes, suggesting the high genetic diversity of the species. The present cases represent the first molecular evidence of the parasite in Central America; thus, extending its known range in the American continent.


Asunto(s)
Animales Salvajes , Enfermedades de los Gatos , Enfermedades de los Perros , Filogenia , Spirometra , Animales , Costa Rica/epidemiología , Spirometra/genética , Spirometra/aislamiento & purificación , Gatos/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Perros/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Perros/epidemiología , Perros , Masculino , Enfermedades de los Gatos/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Gatos/epidemiología , Femenino , Animales Salvajes/parasitología , Coyotes/parasitología , Infecciones por Cestodos/veterinaria , Infecciones por Cestodos/parasitología , Infecciones por Cestodos/epidemiología , Complejo IV de Transporte de Electrones/análisis , Complejo IV de Transporte de Electrones/genética
2.
Science ; 384(6696): 615-617, 2024 May 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38723093

RESUMEN

An ambitious U.S. project aims to sample more than 50 animal species to clarify how the COVID-19 virus moves between people and wildlife.


Asunto(s)
Animales Salvajes , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/virología , Animales , Animales Salvajes/virología , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
3.
J Biosci ; 492024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38726821

RESUMEN

Disease cross-transmission between wild and domestic ungulates can negatively impact livelihoods and wildlife conservation. In Pin valley, migratory sheep and goats share pastures seasonally with the resident Asiatic ibex (Capra sibirica), leading to potential disease cross-transmission. Focussing on gastro-intestinal nematodes (GINs) as determinants of health in ungulates, we hypothesized that infection on pastures would increase over summer from contamination by migrating livestock. Consequently, interventions in livestock that are well-timed should reduce infection pressure for ibex. Using a parasite life-cycle model, that predicts infective larval availability, we investigated GIN transmission dynamics and evaluated potential interventions. Migratory livestock were predicted to contribute most infective larvae onto shared pastures due to higher density and parasite levels, driving infections in both livestock and ibex. The model predicted a c.30-day antiparasitic intervention towards the end of the livestock's time in Pin would be most effective at reducing GINs in both hosts. Albeit with the caveats of not being able to provide evidence of interspecific parasite transmission due to the inability to identify parasite species, this case demonstrates the usefulness of our predictive model for investigating parasite transmission in landscapes where domestic and wild ungulates share pastures. Additionally, it suggests management options for further investigation.


Asunto(s)
Cabras , Ganado , Animales , India/epidemiología , Cabras/parasitología , Ganado/parasitología , Ovinos/parasitología , Migración Animal , Enfermedades de las Cabras/parasitología , Enfermedades de las Cabras/transmisión , Animales Salvajes/parasitología , Enfermedades de las Ovejas/parasitología , Enfermedades de las Ovejas/transmisión , Enfermedades de las Ovejas/prevención & control , Infecciones por Nematodos/transmisión , Infecciones por Nematodos/veterinaria , Infecciones por Nematodos/prevención & control , Infecciones por Nematodos/parasitología , Infecciones por Nematodos/epidemiología , Estaciones del Año , Larva/parasitología , Nematodos/patogenicidad
4.
BMC Vet Res ; 20(1): 190, 2024 May 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38734647

RESUMEN

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is a fatal zoonosis caused by ticks in East Asia. As SFTS virus (SFTSV) is maintained between wildlife and ticks, seroepidemiological studies in wildlife are important to understand the behavior of SFTSV in the environment. Miyazaki Prefecture, Japan, is an SFTS-endemic area, and approximately 100 feral horses, called Misaki horses (Equus caballus), inhabit Cape Toi in Miyazaki Prefecture. While these animals are managed in a wild-like manner, their ages are ascertainable due to individual identification. In the present study, we conducted a seroepidemiological survey of SFTSV in Misaki horses between 2015 and 2023. This study aimed to understand SFTSV infection in horses and its transmission to wildlife. A total of 707 samples from 180 feral horses were used to determine the seroprevalence of SFTSV using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Neutralization testing was performed on 118 samples. In addition, SFTS viral RNA was detected in ticks from Cape Toi and feral horses. The overall seroprevalence between 2015 and 2023 was 78.5% (555/707). The lowest seroprevalence was 55% (44/80) in 2016 and the highest was 92% (76/83) in 2018. Seroprevalence was significantly affected by age, with 11% (8/71) in those less than one year of age and 96.7% (435/450) in those four years of age and older (p < 0.0001). The concordance between ELISA and neutralization test results was 88.9% (105/118). SFTS viral RNA was not detected in ticks (n = 516) or feral horses. This study demonstrated that horses can be infected with SFTSV and that age is a significant factor in seroprevalence in wildlife. This study provides insights into SFTSV infection not only in horses but also in wildlife in SFTS-endemic areas.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Caballos , Phlebovirus , Síndrome de Trombocitopenia Febril Grave , Animales , Caballos , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Japón/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Caballos/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Caballos/virología , Enfermedades de los Caballos/sangre , Phlebovirus/aislamiento & purificación , Síndrome de Trombocitopenia Febril Grave/epidemiología , Síndrome de Trombocitopenia Febril Grave/veterinaria , Síndrome de Trombocitopenia Febril Grave/virología , Femenino , Masculino , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Garrapatas/virología , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática/veterinaria , Animales Salvajes/virología
5.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 3988, 2024 May 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38734682

RESUMEN

Tick-borne bacteria of the genera Ehrlichia and Anaplasma cause several emerging human infectious diseases worldwide. In this study, we conduct an extensive survey for Ehrlichia and Anaplasma infections in the rainforests of the Amazon biome of French Guiana. Through molecular genetics and metagenomics reconstruction, we observe a high indigenous biodiversity of infections circulating among humans, wildlife, and ticks inhabiting these ecosystems. Molecular typing identifies these infections as highly endemic, with a majority of new strains and putative species specific to French Guiana. They are detected in unusual rainforest wild animals, suggesting they have distinctive sylvatic transmission cycles. They also present potential health hazards, as revealed by the detection of Candidatus Anaplasma sparouinense in human red blood cells and that of a new close relative of the human pathogen Ehrlichia ewingii, Candidatus Ehrlichia cajennense, in the tick species that most frequently bite humans in South America. The genome assembly of three new putative species obtained from human, sloth, and tick metagenomes further reveals the presence of major homologs of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma virulence factors. These observations converge to classify health hazards associated with Ehrlichia and Anaplasma infections in the Amazon biome as distinct from those in the Northern Hemisphere.


Asunto(s)
Anaplasma , Animales Salvajes , Ehrlichia , Filogenia , Bosque Lluvioso , Garrapatas , Anaplasma/genética , Anaplasma/aislamiento & purificación , Anaplasma/patogenicidad , Anaplasma/clasificación , Ehrlichia/genética , Ehrlichia/aislamiento & purificación , Ehrlichia/clasificación , Humanos , Animales , Garrapatas/microbiología , Animales Salvajes/microbiología , Anaplasmosis/microbiología , Anaplasmosis/epidemiología , Anaplasmosis/transmisión , Guyana Francesa , Ehrlichiosis/microbiología , Ehrlichiosis/epidemiología , Ehrlichiosis/veterinaria , Ehrlichiosis/transmisión , Metagenómica/métodos , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética
6.
Parasit Vectors ; 17(1): 199, 2024 May 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38698452

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Enteric parasitic infections remain a major public health problem globally. Cryptosporidium spp., Cyclospora spp. and Giardia spp. are parasites that cause diarrhea in the general populations of both developed and developing countries. Information from molecular genetic studies on the speciation of these parasites and on the role of animals as vectors in disease transmission is lacking in Ghana. This study therefore investigated these diarrhea-causing parasites in humans, domestic rats and wildlife animals in Ghana using molecular tools. METHODS: Fecal samples were collected from asymptomatic school children aged 9-12 years living around the Shai Hills Resource Reserve (tourist site), from wildlife (zebras, kobs, baboons, ostriches, bush rats and bush bucks) at the same site, from warthogs at the Mole National Park (tourist site) and from rats at the Madina Market (a popular vegetable market in Accra, Ghana. The 18S rRNA gene (18S rRNA) and 60-kDa glycoprotein gene (gp60) for Cryptosporidium spp., the glutamate dehydrogenase gene (gdh) for Giardia spp. and the 18S rDNA for Cyclospora spp. were analyzed in all samples by PCR and Sanger sequencing as markers of speciation and genetic diversity. RESULTS: The parasite species identified in the fecal samples collected from humans and animals included the Cryptosporidium species C. hominis, C. muris, C. parvum, C. tyzzeri, C. meleagridis and C. andersoni; the Cyclopora species C. cayetanensis; and the Gardia species, G. lamblia and G. muris. For Cryptosporidium, the presence of the gp60 gene confirmed the finding of C. parvum (41%, 35/85 samples) and C. hominis (29%, 27/85 samples) in animal samples. Cyclospora cayetanensis was found in animal samples for the first time in Ghana. Only one human sample (5%, 1/20) but the majority of animal samples (58%, 51/88) had all three parasite species in the samples tested. CONCLUSIONS: Based on these results of fecal sample testing for parasites, we conclude that animals and human share species of the three genera (Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, Giardia), with the parasitic species mostly found in animals also found in human samples, and vice-versa. The presence of enteric parasites as mixed infections in asymptomatic humans and animal species indicates that they are reservoirs of infections. This is the first study to report the presence of C. cayetanensis and C. hominis in animals from Ghana. Our findings highlight the need for a detailed description of these parasites using high-throughput genetic tools to further understand these parasites and the neglected tropical diseases they cause in Ghana where such information is scanty.


Asunto(s)
Animales Domésticos , Animales Salvajes , Criptosporidiosis , Cryptosporidium , Cyclospora , Ciclosporiasis , Heces , Animales , Ghana/epidemiología , Cyclospora/genética , Cyclospora/aislamiento & purificación , Cyclospora/clasificación , Cryptosporidium/genética , Cryptosporidium/aislamiento & purificación , Cryptosporidium/clasificación , Heces/parasitología , Ciclosporiasis/epidemiología , Ciclosporiasis/parasitología , Ciclosporiasis/veterinaria , Animales Salvajes/parasitología , Criptosporidiosis/parasitología , Criptosporidiosis/epidemiología , Criptosporidiosis/transmisión , Humanos , Niño , Animales Domésticos/parasitología , Ratas , ADN Protozoario/genética , ARN Ribosómico 18S/genética , Giardiasis/veterinaria , Giardiasis/parasitología , Giardiasis/epidemiología , Diarrea/parasitología , Diarrea/veterinaria , Diarrea/epidemiología , Filogenia , Giardia/genética , Giardia/aislamiento & purificación , Giardia/clasificación
7.
Onderstepoort J Vet Res ; 91(1): e1-e8, 2024 Apr 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38708768

RESUMEN

Interface areas shared by humans, domestic and wild animals may serve as high transmission contexts for Toxoplasma gondii. However, knowledge about the epidemiology of T. gondii in such areas is currently limited. The present study assessed the seroprevalence of T. gondii in different hosts from Mpumalanga, South Africa. Furthermore, we investigated the local knowledge and related practices about T. gondii by conducting a questionnaire study in the community. Blood samples were obtained and analysed for T. gondii antibodies using a commercial multispecies latex agglutination kit. The seroprevalence detected in humans (n = 160; patients showing signs of acute febrile illness), cats (n = 9), chickens (n = 336) and goats (n = 358) was 8.8%, 0.0%, 4.2% and 11.2%, respectively. Seroprevalence in impalas (n = 97), kudus (n = 55), wild dogs (n = 54), wildebeests (n = 43), warthogs (n = 97) and zebras (n = 68) was calculated at 5.2%, 7.3%, 100.0%, 20.9%, 13.4% and 9.1%, respectively. The questionnaire revealed that 63.0% of household owners were subsistence farmers, and 35.9% were pet owners. A high level of female participation was found (75.3%) when compared to male participation (24.7%). The results show a low circulation of T. gondii in the domestic cycle and suggest the presence of possible bridges between the wildlife cycle and the surrounding domestic cycle.Contribution: The study contributes to identifying transmission patterns and risk factors of T. gondii within human and animal populations. This topic fits within the scope of the journal presenting original research in veterinary science, with the focus on wild and domestic populations on the African continent on a topic of universal importance.


Asunto(s)
Animales Salvajes , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmosis Animal , Animales , Sudáfrica/epidemiología , Humanos , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasmosis Animal/epidemiología , Femenino , Masculino , Toxoplasmosis/epidemiología , Gatos , Ganado/parasitología , Anticuerpos Antiprotozoarios/sangre , Zoonosis , Cabras , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
8.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10562, 2024 05 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38719842

RESUMEN

Protected areas are traditionally the foundation of conservation strategy, but land not formally protected is of particular importance for the conservation of large carnivores because of their typically wide-ranging nature. In South Africa, leopard (Panthera pardus) population decreases are thought to be occurring in areas of human development and intense negative interactions, but research is biased towards protected areas, with quantitative information on population sizes and trends in non-protected areas severely lacking. Using Spatially Explicit Capture-Recapture and occupancy techniques including 10 environmental and anthropogenic covariates, we analysed camera trap data from commercial farmland in South Africa where negative human-wildlife interactions are reported to be high. Our findings demonstrate that leopards persist at a moderate density (2.21 /100 km2) and exhibit signs of avoidance from areas where lethal control measures are implemented. This suggests leopards have the potential to navigate mixed mosaic landscapes effectively, enhancing their chances of long-term survival and coexistence with humans. Mixed mosaics of agriculture that include crops, game and livestock farming should be encouraged and, providing lethal control is not ubiquitous in the landscape, chains of safer spaces should permit vital landscape connectivity. However, continuing to promote non-lethal mitigation techniques remains vital.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Panthera , Densidad de Población , Sudáfrica , Animales , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos , Agricultura/métodos , Humanos , Ecosistema , Animales Salvajes
9.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10570, 2024 05 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38719931

RESUMEN

The coexistence of sympatric species with similar ecological niches has been a central issue in ecology. Clarifying the daily activity patterns of sympatric wild ungulates can help understand their temporal niche differentiation and the mechanisms of coexistence, providing information for their conservation. The Baotianman National Nature Reserve in northern China is rich in wild ungulates, but little is known about the daily activity patterns of wild ungulates in the area, making it difficult to develop effective conservation strategies. We studied five representative wild ungulates (i.e. forest musk deer, Chinese goral, Reeve's muntjac, Siberian roe deer, and wild boar) of the region using camera-trapping data, focusing on the seasonal daily activity patterns and effects of seasonal grazing of domestic sheep, to reveal their coexistence based on temporal ecological niche differentiation. Comparative analyses of the seasonal daily activity showed that forest musk deer exhibited a single-peak activity in the warm season. Other ungulates exhibited multipeak activity. All five ungulates differed significantly in daily activity patterns. Notably, wild boar and Reeve's muntjac showed high overlap coefficients between the cold and warm seasons. In both cold and warm seasons, the five wild ungulates and domestic sheep displayed low overlap in their daily activity rhythms potentially indicating temporal ecological niche differentiation. The results suggest that temporal isolation might be a strategy for wild ungulates to avoid domestic sheep and reduce interspecific competition, and that temporal ecological niche differentiation potentially promoted the coexistence among the studied sympatric ungulates. This understanding may provide new insights for the development of targeted conservation strategies.


Asunto(s)
Animales Salvajes , Ciervos , Ecosistema , Estaciones del Año , Simpatría , Animales , Ciervos/fisiología , Animales Salvajes/fisiología , China , Ovinos/fisiología
10.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0301438, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38771857

RESUMEN

In a One Health perspective general wildlife health surveillance (GWHS) gains importance worldwide, as pathogen transmission among wildlife, domestic animals and humans raises health, conservation and economic concerns. However, GWHS programs operate in the face of legal, geographical, financial, or administrative challenges. The present study uses a multi-tiered approach to understand the current characteristics, strengths and gaps of a European GWHS that operates in a fragmented legislative and multi-stakeholder environment. The aim is to support the implementation or improvement of other GWHS systems by managers, surveillance experts, and administrations. To assess the current state of wildlife health investigations and trends within the GWHS, we retrospectively analyzed 20 years of wildlife diagnostic data to explore alterations in annual case numbers, diagnosed diseases, and submitter types, conducted an online survey and phone interviews with official field partners (hunting administrators, game wardens and hunters) to assess their case submission criteria as well as their needs for post-mortem investigations, and performed in-house time estimations of post-mortem investigations to conduct a time-per-task analysis. Firstly, we found that infectious disease dynamics, the level of public awareness for specific diseases, research activities and increasing population sizes of in depth-monitored protected species, together with biogeographical and political boundaries all impacted case numbers and can present unexpected challenges to a GWHS. Secondly, we found that even a seemingly comprehensive GWHS can feature pronounced information gaps, with underrepresentation of common or easily recognizable diseases, blind spots in non-hunted species and only a fraction of discovered carcasses being submitted. Thirdly, we found that substantial amounts of wildlife health data may be available at local hunting administrations or disease specialist centers, but outside the reach of the GWHS and its processes. In conclusion, we recommend that fragmented and federalist GWHS programs like the one addressed require a central, consistent and accessible collection of wildlife health data. Also, considering the growing role of citizen observers in environmental research, we recommend using online reporting systems to harness decentrally available information and fill wildlife health information gaps.


Asunto(s)
Animales Salvajes , Animales , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Salud Única , Vigilancia de la Población/métodos
12.
PeerJ ; 12: e17384, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38784402

RESUMEN

Plastic pollution in terrestrial wildlife represents a new conservation challenge, with research in this area, especially within protected areas (PAs), being scant. This study documents the accumulation of microplastics (MPs) in terrestrial wildlife both inside and outside PAs in western Thailand. Carcasses of road-killed vertebrates in good condition, as well as live tadpoles, were collected to examine their exposure to plastic pollution. The digestive tracts of the vertebrate carcasses and the entire bodies of tadpoles were analyzed for MPs, which were identified if they measured over 50 µm. A total of 136 individuals from 48 vertebrate species were examined. The sample comprised snakes (44.12%), birds (11.03%), lizards (5.15%), tadpoles (32.25%), amphibians (5.88%), and mammals (1.47%). In total, 387 MPs were found in 44 species (91.67%), with an average occurrence of 3.25 ± 3.63 MPs per individual or 0.05 ± 0.08 MPs per gram of body weight. The quantities of MPs significantly varied among the animal groups, both in terms of number per individual (p < 0.05) and number per gram of body weight (p < 0.01). Furthermore, a significant difference in MP quantities was observed between specimens collected inside and outside PAs on an individual basis (p < 0.05), but not on a body weight basis (p = 0.07). Most MPs were fibers (77%), followed by fragments (22.22%), with only a minimal presence of film (0.52%) and foam (0.26%). Of all the MPs identified, 36.84% were confirmed as plastics or fibers made from natural materials, and 31.58% were plastics, including Polyethylene (PE), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polypropylene (PP), Polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC), and polyester (PES). Additionally, fibers made of cotton, and those containing polyurethane (PU), rayon, PES, and combinations of rayon and PU, were identified. The quantities of MPs were significantly influenced by animal body weight, factors associated with human settlement/activity, and land use types. Our findings highlight the prevalence of plastic pollution in terrestrial vertebrates within Thai PAs. Further toxicological studies are required to establish plastic pollution standards. It is proposed that snakes, obtained from road kills, could serve as a non-invasive method for monitoring plastic pollution, thus acting as an indicator of the pollution threat to species within terrestrial ecosystems. There is an urgent need for the standardization of solid waste management at garbage dump sites in remote areas, especially within PAs. Conservation education focusing on MP occurrence, potential sources, and impacts could enhance awareness, thereby influencing changes in behaviors and attitudes toward plastic waste management at the household level.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Microplásticos , Animales , Tailandia , Microplásticos/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Contaminantes Ambientales/análisis , Animales Salvajes , Aves
13.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(5): e0012159, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38739673

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Rodents are recognized as the hosts of many vector-borne bacteria and protozoan parasites and play an important role in their transmission and maintenance. Intensive studies have focused on their infections in vectors, especially in ticks, however, vector-borne bacterial and protozoan infections in rodents are poorly understood although human cases presenting with fever may due to their infection have been found. METHODS: From May to October 2019, 192 wild rodents were trapped in wild environment of Guangxi Province, and the spleen samples were collected to reveal the presence of vector-borne bacterial and protozoan infections in them. The microorganisms in rodents were identified by detecting their DNA using (semi-)nested PCR. All the PCR products of the expected size were subjected to sequencing, and then analyzed by BLASTn. Furthermore, all the recovered sequences were subjected to nucleotide identity and phylogenetic analyses. RESULTS: As a result, 192 rodents representing seven species were captured, and Bandicota indica were the dominant species, followed by Rattus andamanensis. Based on the (semi-)nested PCR, our results suggested that Anaplasma bovis, Anaplasma capra, Anaplasma ovis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis", "Candidatus E. hainanensis", "Candidatus E. zunyiensis", three uncultured Ehrlichia spp., Bartonella coopersplainsensis, Bartonella tribocorum, Bartonella rattimassiliensis, Bartonella silvatica, two uncultured Bartonella spp., Babesia microti and diverse Hepatozoon were identified in six rodent species. More importantly, six species (including two Anaplasma, two Bartonella, "Ca. N. mikurensis" and Bab. microti) are zoonotic pathogens except Anaplasma bovis and Anaplasma ovis with zoonotic potential. Furthermore, dual infection was observed between different microorganisms, and the most common type of co-infection is between "Ca. N. mikurensis" and other microorganisms. Additionally, potential novel Bartonella species and Hepatozoon species demonstrated the presence of more diverse rodent-associated Bartonella and Hepatozoon. CONCLUSIONS: The results in this work indicated great genetic diversity of vector-borne infections in wild rodents, and highlighted the potential risk of human pathogens transmitted from rodents to humans through vectors.


Asunto(s)
Variación Genética , Roedores , Animales , China/epidemiología , Roedores/microbiología , Roedores/parasitología , Filogenia , Animales Salvajes/parasitología , Animales Salvajes/microbiología , Anaplasma/genética , Anaplasma/aislamiento & purificación , Anaplasma/clasificación , Enfermedades Transmitidas por Vectores/transmisión , Enfermedades Transmitidas por Vectores/microbiología , Enfermedades Transmitidas por Vectores/parasitología , Enfermedades Transmitidas por Vectores/epidemiología , Bartonella/genética , Bartonella/aislamiento & purificación , Bartonella/clasificación , Bacterias/genética , Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Bacterias/clasificación , Ratas
14.
Reprod Fertil Dev ; 362024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38744493

RESUMEN

Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a prominent class of persistent synthetic compound. The widespread use of these substances in various industrial applications has resulted in their pervasive contamination on a global scale. It is therefore concerning that PFAS have a propensity to accumulate in bodily tissues whereupon they have been linked with a range of adverse health outcomes. Despite this, the true extent of the risk posed by PFAS to humans, domestic animals, and wildlife remains unclear. Addressing these questions requires a multidisciplinary approach, combining the fields of chemistry, biology, and policy to enable meaningful investigation and develop innovative remediation strategies. This article combines the perspectives of chemists, soil scientists, reproductive biologists, and health policy researchers, to contextualise the issue of PFAS contamination and its specific impact on reproductive health. The purpose of this article is to describe the challenges associated with remediating PFAS-contaminated soils and waters and explore the consequences of PFAS contamination on health and reproduction. Furthermore, current actions to promote planetary health and protect ecosystems are presented to instigate positive social change among the scientific community.


Asunto(s)
Animales Salvajes , Contaminantes Ambientales , Fluorocarburos , Salud Reproductiva , Animales , Humanos , Fluorocarburos/toxicidad , Fluorocarburos/efectos adversos , Fluorocarburos/análisis , Ganado , Reproducción/efectos de los fármacos , Contaminación Ambiental/efectos adversos , Contaminación Ambiental/análisis , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/efectos adversos
15.
Vet Res ; 55(1): 64, 2024 May 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38773649

RESUMEN

Zoonotic diseases represent a significant societal challenge in terms of their health and economic impacts. One Health approaches to managing zoonotic diseases are becoming more prevalent, but require novel thinking, tools and cross-disciplinary collaboration. Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is one example of a costly One Health challenge with a complex epidemiology involving humans, domestic animals, wildlife and environmental factors, which require sophisticated collaborative approaches. We undertook a scoping review of multi-host bTB epidemiology to identify trends in species publication focus, methodologies, and One Health approaches. We aimed to identify knowledge gaps where novel research could provide insights to inform control policy, for bTB and other zoonoses. The review included 532 articles. We found different levels of research attention across episystems, with a significant proportion of the literature focusing on the badger-cattle-TB episystem, with far less attention given to tropical multi-host episystems. We found a limited number of studies focusing on management solutions and their efficacy, with very few studies looking at modelling exit strategies. Only a small number of studies looked at the effect of human disturbances on the spread of bTB involving wildlife hosts. Most of the studies we reviewed focused on the effect of badger vaccination and culling on bTB dynamics with few looking at how roads, human perturbations and habitat change may affect wildlife movement and disease spread. Finally, we observed a lack of studies considering the effect of weather variables on bTB spread, which is particularly relevant when studying zoonoses under climate change scenarios. Significant technological and methodological advances have been applied to bTB episystems, providing explicit insights into its spread and maintenance across populations. We identified a prominent bias towards certain species and locations. Generating more high-quality empirical data on wildlife host distribution and abundance, high-resolution individual behaviours and greater use of mathematical models and simulations are key areas for future research. Integrating data sources across disciplines, and a "virtuous cycle" of well-designed empirical data collection linked with mathematical and simulation modelling could provide additional gains for policy-makers and managers, enabling optimised bTB management with broader insights for other zoonoses.


Asunto(s)
Tuberculosis Bovina , Zoonosis , Animales , Tuberculosis Bovina/prevención & control , Tuberculosis Bovina/epidemiología , Bovinos , Zoonosis/prevención & control , Humanos , Animales Salvajes , Salud Única , Mustelidae/fisiología
16.
Sci Justice ; 64(3): 314-321, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38735668

RESUMEN

Hair is a commonly encountered trace evidence in wildlife crimes involving mammals and can be used for species identification which is essential for subsequent judicial proceedings. This proof of concept study aims, to distinguish the black guard hair of three wild cat species belonging to the genus Panthera i.e. Royal Bengal Tiger (Panthera tigris tigris), Indian Leopard (Panthera pardus fusca), and Snow Leopard (Panthera uncia) using a rapid and non-destructive ATR-FTIR spectroscopic technique in combination with chemometrics. A training dataset including 72 black guard hair samples of three species (24 samples from each species) was used to construct chemometric models. A PLS2-DA model successfully classified these three species into distinct classes with R-Square values of 0.9985 (calibration) and 0.8989 (validation). VIP score was also computed, and a new PLS2DA-V model was constructed using variables with a VIP score ≥ 1. External validation was performed using a validation dataset including 18 black guard hair samples (6 samples per species) to validate the constructed PLS2-DA model. It was observed that PLS2-DA model provides greater accuracy and precision compared to the PLS2DA-V model during cross-validation and external validation. The developed PLS2-DA model was also successful in differentiating human and non-human hair with R-Square values of 0.99 and 0.91 for calibration and validation, respectively. Apart from this, a blind test was also carried out using 10 unknown hair samples which were correctly classified into their respective classes providing 100 % accuracy. This study highlights the advantages of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy associated with PLS-DA for differentiation and identification of the Royal Bengal Tiger, Indian Leopard, and Snow Leopard hairs in a rapid, accurate, eco-friendly, and non-destructive way.


Asunto(s)
Cabello , Panthera , Animales , Espectroscopía Infrarroja por Transformada de Fourier/métodos , Cabello/química , Ciencias Forenses/métodos , Análisis Discriminante , Especificidad de la Especie , Análisis de los Mínimos Cuadrados , Animales Salvajes
18.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 30(6): 1285-1288, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38703022

RESUMEN

We isolated novel reassortant avian influenza A(H5N6) viruses containing genes from clade 2.3.4.4b H5N1 virus and low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses in carcasses of whooper swans and bean geese in South Korea during December 2023. Neuraminidase gene was from a clade 2.3.4.4b H5N6 virus infecting poultry and humans in China.


Asunto(s)
Animales Salvajes , Aves , Virus de la Influenza A , Gripe Aviar , Filogenia , Animales , Gripe Aviar/virología , Gripe Aviar/epidemiología , República de Corea/epidemiología , Animales Salvajes/virología , Virus de la Influenza A/genética , Virus de la Influenza A/clasificación , Aves/virología , Virus Reordenados/genética , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Neuraminidasa/genética
19.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0293441, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38696505

RESUMEN

SARS-CoV-2 infections in animals have been reported globally. However, the understanding of the complete spectrum of animals susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 remains limited. The virus's dynamic nature and its potential to infect a wide range of animals are crucial considerations for a One Health approach that integrates both human and animal health. This study introduces a bioinformatic approach to predict potential susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 in both domestic and wild animals. By examining genomic sequencing, we establish phylogenetic relationships between the virus and its potential hosts. We focus on the interaction between the SARS-CoV-2 genome sequence and specific regions of the host species' ACE2 receptor. We analyzed and compared ACE2 receptor sequences from 29 species known to be infected, selecting 10 least common amino acid sites (LCAS) from key binding domains based on similarity patterns. Our analysis included 49 species across primates, carnivores, rodents, and artiodactyls, revealing complete consistency in the LCAS and identifying them as potentially susceptible. We employed the LCAS similarity pattern to predict the likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 infection in unexamined species. This method serves as a valuable screening tool for assessing infection risks in domestic and wild animals, aiding in the prevention of disease outbreaks.


Asunto(s)
Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina 2 , COVID-19 , Filogenia , SARS-CoV-2 , Animales , Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina 2/genética , Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina 2/química , SARS-CoV-2/genética , COVID-19/virología , Humanos , Animales Salvajes/virología , Animales Domésticos/virología , Biología Computacional/métodos
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 931: 172739, 2024 Jun 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38697537

RESUMEN

Accurate prediction of fluctuations of wildlife local number of individuals is crucial for effective population management to minimise human-wildlife conflicts. Climate, habitat, food availability, and density dependence are among the main factors influencing mammalian population dynamics. In southern Europe, precipitation and temperature, particularly during summer have been suggested as key factors affecting wild boar (Sus scrofa L.). However, there is uncertainty regarding the role of these factors and the mechanisms driving population fluctuations. This study utilized long-term data of wild boar populations from 14 study sites collected for 23 years in Catalonia, Spain, to analyse the factors that drive population density and growth rate. Generalized Additive Mixed Models (GAMM) explained respectively, 94 % and 65 % of the density and growth rate variability. Spring precipitation in both current and previous year, female weight, and forest cover (particularly above 60 %) were directly associated with higher wild boar densities and population growth rates. The interaction between crop cover and total annual precipitation also played a significant role in determining population density. Higher densities were linked to lower population growth in the following year, likely due to a density-dependent process. These results suggest that the expected decrease in rainfall linked with global warming may limit the availability of natural resources and potentially slow wild boar population growth. Nevertheless, wild boar can exploit alternative anthropogenic food sources, potentially leading to an increase of human-wildlife conflicts. Therefore, incorporating management policies aimed at restricting wild boar access to human food sources is key for controlling their reproductive output. Additionally, landscape management strategies targeted at diminishing refuge and resource availability in regions experiencing high wild boar impact are essential for contributing to sustainable coexistence between wild boars and human populations.


Asunto(s)
Densidad de Población , Crecimiento Demográfico , Sus scrofa , Animales , España , Ecosistema , Dinámica Poblacional , Animales Salvajes , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales
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