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1.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(1): e20191526, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787753

RESUMEN

The Environmental enrichment technique, although scientifically recognized for raising the level of animal welfare, has led to the questioning of its influence on the results of experimental research. Thus, the goal is to promote reflection about the need for standardization of these procedures. For that, documents and experimental analysis were done, in order to quantify and characterize the types of environmental enrichment used and to evaluate the effect of that in the social behavior of Rattus norvegicus. Data from the document review confirmed the hypothesis that the researchers have used a variety of methods, not demonstrating a concern for standardization and prior assessment of its effects on the search results. Demand was corroborated in the experimental study in which, although there was available a simple object acting as refuge promotes behavioral improvements, the presence of the co-specific, as well as characteristics of the micro and macro environment can compromise the homogeneity of the sample. The data from this study endorse the need for validation procedures of environmental enrichment for specific proposals, to investigative data comparison, are possible and contribute to the refinement of the search to reduce the number of animals targeted for this purpose.


Asunto(s)
Experimentación Animal , Crianza de Animales Domésticos , Bienestar del Animal , Animales , Animales de Laboratorio , Conducta Animal , Vivienda para Animales , Ratas , Conducta Social
2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1297: 97-109, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33537939

RESUMEN

The cannabinoids are a family of chemical compounds that can be either synthesized or naturally derived. These compounds have been shown to modulate a wide variety of biological processes. In this chapter, the studies detailing the effects of cannabinoids on sleep in laboratory animals are reviewed. Both exogenous and endogenous cannabinoids generally appear to decrease wakefulness and alter rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM sleep in animal models. In addition, cannabinoids potentiate the effects of sedative-hypnotic drugs. However, the individual contributions of each cannabinoid on sleep processes is more nuanced and may depend on the site of action in the central nervous system. Many studies investigating the mechanism of cannabinoid effects on sleep suggest that the effects of cannabinoids on sleep are mediated via cannabinoid receptors; however, some evidence suggests that some sleep effects may be elicited via non-cannabinoid receptor-dependent mechanisms. More research is necessary to fully elucidate the role of each compound in modulating sleep processes.


Asunto(s)
Agonistas de Receptores de Cannabinoides , Cannabinoides , Animales , Animales de Laboratorio , Agonistas de Receptores de Cannabinoides/farmacología , Cannabinoides/farmacología , Receptores de Cannabinoides , Sueño
4.
Educ. med. (Ed. impr.) ; 21(6): 383-385, nov.-dic. 2020. tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-198376

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The impact of animal death on surgeons during training in laparoscopic techniques is unknown. METHODS: Emotions and cognitive load were assessed depending on animal survival. RESULTS: Those exposed to animal death (n=14) had higher levels of sadness (1.3) and anxiety (2.4), and lower levels of happiness (6.1) on a one-to-ten scale, compared to the 56 that were non-exposed (1.0/2.0/7.5). Mean cognitive load was 68.21±12.865 in the exposed and 64.74±14.632 in the non-exposed (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Emotions and cognitive load among surgeons training in laparoscopic techniques were similar, regardless animal survival after the surgical procedure


INTRODUCCIÓN: Se desconoce el impacto de la muerte animal en los cirujanos durante el entrenamiento en técnicas laparoscópicas. MÉTODOS: Se evaluaron emociones y carga cognitiva dependiendo de la exposición a la muerte del animal. RESULTADOS: Los 14 expuestos tuvieron niveles de tristeza (1,3) y ansiedad (2,4) más altos, y de felicidad más bajos (6,1), que los 56 no expuestos (1,0/2,0/7,5). La carga cognitiva fue 68,21±12,865 en los expuestos y 64,74±14,632 en los no expuestos. (p > 0,05). CONCLUSIONES: Emociones y carga cognitiva de cirujanos durante el entrenamiento en técnicas laparoscópicas fueron similares independientemente de la supervivencia del animal


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Entrenamiento Simulado/métodos , Cognición/fisiología , Emociones/fisiología , Actitud Frente a la Muerte , Animales de Laboratorio , Laparoscopía/educación , Entrenamiento Simulado/normas , Evaluación Educacional , Educación Médica/métodos , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina , Estudiantes de Medicina/psicología
5.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13488, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33222366

RESUMEN

We investigated the relationship between litter size at birth and within-litter birth weight (BW) characteristics of laboratory mice as a pilot mammal for pig. We obtained records of number born alive (NBA) and total and mean litter BW (LWB, MWB), and maximum and minimum values of within-litter BW (MaxIWB, MinIWB), range and standard deviation (Range, SDIWB), skewness (Skew), and kurtosis (Kurt) of within-litter BW for 656 litters at first parity. Pearson's correlations of NBA were highly positive with LWB (0.92), weakly negative with MWB (-0.31), MaxIWB (-0.19), and MinIBW (-0.33), and those of MWB were negligible with Range, SDIWB, Skew, and Kurt (-0.10 to 0.06). Estimated heritabilities, treated as dam traits, were 0.32 for NBA, 0.39 for LWB, 0.24 for MWB, 0.28 for MaxIWB, 0.05 for MinIWB, 0.16 for Range, 0.17 for SDIWB, and 0.00 for Skew and Kurt. Estimated genetic correlation between NBA and LWB was high (0.95). Therefore, LWB could be promising for efficiently improving NBA. The estimated genetic correlation of NBA was negligible with MWB (0.00), positive with MaxIWB (0.10), Range (0.48), and SDIWB (0.36), and negative with MinIWB (-0.36), suggesting that selection for increased NBA brings larger SDIWB and lighter MinIWB.


Asunto(s)
Animales de Laboratorio/genética , Peso al Nacer/genética , Estudios de Asociación Genética , Tamaño de la Camada/genética , Ratones/genética , Porcinos , Animales , Cruzamiento , Femenino , Proyectos Piloto
6.
Arch Virol ; 165(12): 2847-2856, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034764

RESUMEN

Here, we investigated the fecal, oral, blood, and skin virome of 10 laboratory rabbits using a viral metagenomic method. In the oral samples, we detected a novel polyomavirus (RabPyV), and phylogenetic analysis based on the large T antigen, VP1 and VP2 regions indicated that the novel strain might have undergone a recombination event. Recombination analysis based on related genomes confirmed that RabPyV is a multiple recombinant between rodent-like and avian-like polyomaviruses. In fecal samples, three partial or complete genome sequences of viruses belonging to the families Picobirnaviridae, Parvoviridae, Microviridae and Coronaviridae were characterized, and phylogenetic trees were constructed based on the predicted amino acid sequences of viral proteins. This study increases the amount of genetic information on viruses present in laboratory rabbits.


Asunto(s)
Metagenoma , Poliomavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Conejos/virología , Proteínas Virales/genética , Virus/clasificación , Animales , Animales de Laboratorio/virología , Sangre/virología , Heces/virología , Genoma Viral , Boca/virología , Filogenia , Piel/virología , Virus/aislamiento & purificación , Secuenciación Completa del Genoma
7.
Nutr. hosp ; 37(5): 1012-1021, sept.-oct. 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-198017

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: recently, a relationship between diabetic complications and oxidative stress has been emphasized. There have been some studies showing the effect of olive leaf on hyperglycemia and diabetic complications due to its antioxidant properties. In many studies the effect of olive leaf on plasma total antioxidant level has been measured by different methods. Our study represents the first time it has been measured by a new method of total thiol disulfide homeostasis. OBJECTIVE: chronic exposure to hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia contributes to the pathogenesis of diabetic complications through oxidative stress mediators. Thiol is one of the most important antioxidant barriers in humans, and thiol disulfide homeostasis is a new oxidative stress marker. We aimed to investigate the effect of olive leaf extract (OLE) obtained from fresh leaves of Olea europaea, var oleaster on diabetic complications through their hypoglycemic and antioxidant effect in diabetic rats. METHODS: twenty-eight Wistar albino rats aged 12-13 weeks were used in the study. The rats were divided into a control group (C), a diabetic control group (DC), a diabetic group treated with 200 mg/kg OLE (D+200), and a diabetic group treated with 400 mg/kg OLE (D+400), having 7 rats in each group. The treatment groups received OLE by the gavage method for 21 days. At the end of the study, all rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Blood samples collected from the heart were centrifuged and glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, urea, uric acid, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH) level, and thiol-disulfide homeostasis were determined. The hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) analysis was performed on complete blood. In addition, a tail flick test and hot plate modeling were performed to indicate pain perception loss. RESULTS: it was observed that OLE had no effect on serum glucose and HbA1c levels. On the contrary, OLE reduced the levels of total cholesterol (p < 0.01), urea (p < 0.01) and hot plate latency (p < 0.01) in a significant manner. Also, OLE showed a tendency to reduce LOOH levels and to increase thiol levels in a dose-dependent manner (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: OLE supplementation for 21 days, at the amounts used, cannot protect against hyperglycemia but may be protective against hypercholesterolemia and tissue damage as caused by diabetes mellitus in rats


INTRODUCCIÓN: recientemente se ha resaltado la relación entre las complicaciones diabéticas y el estrés oxidativo. Se han realizado algunos estudios que muestran el efecto de la hoja de olivo sobre la hiperglucemia y las complicaciones diabéticas debido a sus propiedades antioxidantes. En muchos estudios, el efecto de la hoja de olivo sobre el nivel de antioxidantes totales en plasma se ha medido mediante diferentes métodos. En nuestro estudio se ha medido por primera vez mediante un nuevo método de homeostasis total de disulfuro de tiol. OBJETIVO: la exposición crónica a la hiperglucemia y la hiperlipidemia contribuye a la patogénesis de las complicaciones diabéticas a través de mediadores del estrés oxidativo. El tiol es una de las barreras antioxidantes más importantes de los seres humanos y la homeostasis del disulfuro de tiol es un nuevo marcador de estrés oxidativo. El objetivo fue0 investigar el efecto del extracto de hoja de olivo (OLE), obtenido de hojas frescas de Olea europaea var. Oleaster, sobre las complicaciones diabéticas a través del efecto hipoglucémico y antioxidante en ratas diabéticas. MÉTODOS: se utilizaron en el estudio veintiocho ratas albinas Wistar de 12-13 semanas de edad. Las ratas se agruparon en un grupo de control (C), un grupo de control diabético (DC), un grupo diabético tratado con 200 mg/kg de OLE (D+200) y un grupo diabético tratado con 400 mg/kg de OLE (D+400), teniendo 7 ratas en cada grupo. Los grupos de tratamiento recibieron OLE por el método del "gavage" durante 21 días. Al final del estudio, todas las ratas fueron sacrificadas por dislocación cervical. Las muestras de sangre recogidas del corazón se centrifugaron y se determinaron los niveles de glucosa, colesterol total, triglicéridos, urea, ácido úrico, creatinina, alanina-aminotransferasa (ALT), aspartato-aminotransferasa (AST), hidroperóxido de lípidos (LOOH) y homeostasis de tiol disulfuro. El análisis de la hemoglobina A1c (HbA1c) se realizó en sangre entera. Además, se realizaron pruebas de movimiento de la cola y modelado de placa caliente para indicar la pérdida de percepción del dolor. RESULTADOS: se observó que el OLE no tuvo efecto sobre los niveles de glucosa y HbA1c en el suero. Por el contrario, el OLE redujo los niveles de colesterol total (p < 0,01) y urea (p < 0,01), y la latencia de la placa caliente (p < 0,01) de manera significativa. Además, el OLE mostró tendencia a reducir el nivel de LOOH y a aumentar el nivel de tiol de manera dependiente de la dosis (p > 0,05). CONCLUSIÓN: la suplementación con OLE durante 21 días en las cantidades usadas no puede proteger contra la hiperglucemia pero sí puede proteger contra la hipercolesterolemia y el daño tisular causado por la diabetes mellitus en las ratas


Asunto(s)
Animales , Ratas , Hipoglucemiantes/uso terapéutico , Diabetes Mellitus/inducido químicamente , Diabetes Mellitus/veterinaria , Animales de Laboratorio , Olea/efectos de los fármacos , Tinturas Vegetales Frescas , Extractos Vegetales/metabolismo , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Ratas Wistar
8.
Croat Med J ; 61(4): 346-353, 2020 Aug 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881433

RESUMEN

AIM: To determine the changes in skin temperature and brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity throughout the estrous cycle as well as the regularity of the estrous cycle in mice. METHODS: We assessed the differences in the duration of the estrous cycle and its phases between 3- and 8-month-old female mice (n=18). Skin temperature and BAT activity were measured by infrared technology and compared with human menstrual cycle. RESULTS: Young and old female mice did not differ significantly in the estrous cycle length. However, young animals had longer diestrus and shorter proestrus phase. In contrast with women, mice showed age-dependent changes in body temperature and BAT activity during the estrus cycle. CONCLUSION: Establishing the pattern of temperature and BAT activity changes could be used to determine the estrous cycle phase before performing experiments without disturbing the animal. However, since the regulation of BAT activity during the estrous cycle was age-dependent, very complex, and varied significantly from women, further studies are needed to develop a non-invasive method for determining the phase of the estrous cycle.


Asunto(s)
Tejido Adiposo Pardo/metabolismo , Ciclo Estral/fisiología , Temperatura Cutánea/fisiología , Termografía/métodos , Animales , Animales de Laboratorio , Estro/fisiología , Femenino , Rayos Infrarrojos , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Proestro/fisiología
9.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238895, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898190

RESUMEN

Laboratory mice are the most frequently used animals in biomedical research. In accordance with guidelines for humane handling, several blood sampling techniques have been established. While the effects of these procedures on blood quality and histological alterations at the sampling site are well studied, their impact on the animals' welfare has not been extensively investigated. Therefore, our study aimed to compare three commonly used blood sampling techniques regarding their effects on different indicators of animal welfare, including physiological and behavioural response stress parameters, including pain measures, home-cage behaviour and nest-building as well as exploratory activity and neophobia. Male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to a single blood collection from either the vena facialis, the retrobulbar sinus or the tail vessel, or were allocated to the respective control treatment. While all blood sampling techniques led to an acute increase in plasma corticosterone levels, the response was strongest in animals that underwent sampling from the vena facialis and the retrobulbar sinus. Similar results were observed when the time-course of adrenocortical activity was monitored via corticosterone metabolites from faecal samples. Blood collection from the vena facialis and the retrobulbar sinus also decreased exploration of novel stimuli, resulted in decreased nest-building activity and induced higher scores in the Mouse Grimace Scale. Moreover, locomotor activity and anxiety-related behaviour were strongly affected after facial vein bleeding. Interestingly, tail vessel bleeding only induced little alterations in the assessed physiological and behavioural parameters. Importantly, the observed effects in all treatment groups were no longer detectable after 24 hours, indicating only short-term impacts. Thus, by also taking the animal's perspective and comprehensively assessing the severity of the particular sampling procedures, the results of our study contribute to Refinement within the 3R concept and allow researchers to objectively select the most appropriate and welfare-friendly blood sampling technique for a given experiment.


Asunto(s)
Corticoesteroides/sangre , Animales de Laboratorio/fisiología , Recolección de Muestras de Sangre/métodos , Bienestar del Animal , Animales , Animales de Laboratorio/metabolismo , Conducta Animal , Recolección de Muestras de Sangre/efectos adversos , Recolección de Muestras de Sangre/clasificación , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL
11.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236290, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785214

RESUMEN

High and variable pre-weaning mortality is a persistent problem in laboratory mouse breeding. Assuming a modest 15% mortality rate across mouse strains, means that approximately 1 million more pups are produced yearly in the EU to compensate for those which die. This paper presents the first large study under practical husbandry conditions to determine the risk factors associated with mouse pre-weaning mortality. We analysed historical records from 219,975 pups from two breeding facilities, collected as part of their management routine and including information on number of pups born and weaned per litter, parents' age and identification, and dates of birth and death of all animals. Pups were counted once in their first week of life and at weaning, and once every one or two weeks, depending on the need for cage cleaning. Dead pups were recorded as soon as these were found during the daily cage screening (without opening the cage). It was hypothesized that litter overlap (i.e. the presence of older siblings in the cage when new pups are born), a recurrent social configuration in trio-housed mice, is associated with increased newborn mortality, along with advanced dam age, large litter size, and a high number and age of older siblings in the cage. The estimated probability of pup death was two to seven percentage points higher in cages with litter overlap compared to those without. Litter overlap was associated with an increase in death of the entire litter of five and six percentage points, which represent an increase of 19% and 103% compared to non-overlapped litters in the two breeding facilities, respectively. Increased number and age of older siblings, advanced dam age, small litter size (less than four pups born) and large litter size (over 11 pups born) were associated with increased probability of pup death.


Asunto(s)
Animales de Laboratorio/fisiología , Cruzamiento/métodos , Ciencia de los Animales de Laboratorio/métodos , Tamaño de la Camada/fisiología , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL/fisiología , Factores de Edad , Animales , Femenino , Masculino , Edad Materna , Ratones , Embarazo , Reproducción/fisiología , Destete
12.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0232733, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764762

RESUMEN

Ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) are a valuable animal model used in biomedical research. Like many animals, ferrets undergo significant variation in body weight seasonally, affected by photoperiod, and these variations complicate the use weight as an indicator of health status. To overcome this requires a better understanding of these seasonal weight changes. We provide a normative weight data set for the female ferret accounting for seasonal changes, and also investigate the effect of fluid regulation on weight change. Female ferrets (n = 39) underwent behavioural testing from May 2017 to August 2019 and were weighed daily, while housed in an animal care facility with controlled light exposure. In the winter (October to March), animals experienced 10 hours of light and 14 hours of dark, while in summer (March to October), this contingency was reversed. Individual animals varied in their body weight from approximately 700 to 1200 g. However, weights fluctuated with light cycle, with animals losing weight in summer, and gaining weight in winter such that they fluctuated between approximately 80% and 120% of their long-term average. Ferrets were weighed as part of their health assessment while experiencing water regulation for behavioural training. Water regulation superimposed additional weight changes on these seasonal fluctuations, with weight loss during the 5-day water regulation period being greater in summer than winter. Analysing the data with a Generalised Linear Model confirmed that the percentage decrease in weight per week was relatively constant throughout the summer months, while the percentage increase in body weight per week in winter decreased through the season. Finally, we noted that the timing of oestrus was reliably triggered by the increase in day length in spring. These data establish a normative benchmark for seasonal weight variation in female ferrets that can be incorporated into the health assessment of an animal's condition.


Asunto(s)
Peso Corporal , Hurones/anatomía & histología , Crianza de Animales Domésticos , Animales , Animales de Laboratorio/anatomía & histología , Animales de Laboratorio/fisiología , Agua Corporal/fisiología , Estro/fisiología , Femenino , Hurones/fisiología , Modelos Lineales , Modelos Animales , Modelos Biológicos , Fotoperiodo , Valores de Referencia , Estaciones del Año
13.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(4): e20191517, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32844990

RESUMEN

Pathogenic microbial detection and control in laboratory animal facilities is essential to guarantee animal welfare, data validity and reproducibility. Helicobacter spp. are known to affect mice health, what may interfere with experimental outcomes. This study aimed to screen for Helicobacter spp. in mice from animal facilities in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil using a PCR-based method. Primers designed to specifically identify Helicobacter spp. were used to amplify feces or intestine DNA extracted of mice from four different animal facilities. The expected 375 base pairs (bp) amplicon was purified, sequenced and a similarity of 95% was observed when compared to deposited sequences of H. hepaticus and H. bilis. In our screening, Helicobacter spp. was detected in ~59% of fecal and ~70% of intestine samples. Our study is the first to screen for Helicobacter spp. in mouse facilities of a Rio de Janeiro University using a low cost, rapid molecular diagnostic test. Although Helicobacter spp. screening is not mandatory according to Brazilian animal welfare regulation it is recommended by institutional animal health monitoring programs guidelines worldwide, including ARRIVE, AAALAC and FELASA.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Helicobacter , Helicobacter , Animales , Animales de Laboratorio , Brasil , ADN Bacteriano , Helicobacter/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Helicobacter/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Helicobacter/veterinaria , Ratones , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Universidades
14.
Rev Chilena Infectol ; 37(1): 64-68, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730402

RESUMEN

We remember Lazaro Spallanzani (1729-1799) mainly for his controversy with Needham over spontaneous generation, but he was a man of multiple scientific activities in the fields of biology, mineralogy, physics, mathematics and… volcanology! Called "the biologist of biologists", he developed a series of investigations about reproduction of amphibian, in one of them -Experiences in service to the history of the generation of animals and plants- we have found horrific experiments with frogs, including severe and useless mutilation of males, in order to interrupt its copulation with females, acts he describes as "barbaric", and we estimate inadmissible in the ecclesiastic man he was, even in an epoch in which animals were considered "anima vili" (something without value). A brief review of the use of animals in laboratories shows significant advances in the ethical regulations for this practice, but we believe that these achievements are not enough.


Asunto(s)
Bienestar del Animal , Laboratorios , Bienestar del Animal/historia , Bienestar del Animal/normas , Animales , Animales de Laboratorio , Femenino , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Laboratorios/ética , Masculino , Reproducción/fisiología , Ciencia/ética , Ciencia/historia
15.
J Vis Exp ; (161)2020 07 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716384

RESUMEN

Ticks are obligatory blood feeding parasites at all stages of development (except eggs) and are recognized as vectors of various pathogens. The use of mouse models in tick research is critical for understanding their biology and tick-host-pathogen interactions. Here we demonstrate a non-laborious technique for the feeding of immature stages of hard ticks on laboratory mice. The benefit of the method is its simplicity, short duration, and the ability to monitor or collect ticks at different time points of an experiment. In addition, the technique allows attachment of two individual capsules on the same mouse, which is beneficial for a variety of experiments where two different groups of ticks are required to feed on the same animal. The non-irritating and flexible capsule is made from easily accessible materials and minimizes the discomfort of the experimental animals. Furthermore, euthanasia is not necessary, mice recover completely after the experiment and are available for re-use.


Asunto(s)
Animales de Laboratorio/parasitología , Ixodidae/fisiología , Modelos Teóricos , Animales , Ratones
16.
Parasitol Res ; 119(8): 2733-2740, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32617726

RESUMEN

Amebiasis is a worldwide parasitic zoonosis, with symptoms of abdominal discomfort, indigestion, diarrhea, and even death. However, limited information about the prevalence of Entamoeba spp. in experimental nonhuman primates (NHPs) in southwestern China is available. The objective of the current study was to investigate the frequency and species identity of Entamoeba to evaluate potential zoonotic risk factors for Entamoeba spp. infection in experimental NHPs. A total of 505 fecal samples were collected from NHPs (macaques) and analyzed by PCR analysis the small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) gene of Entamoeba spp. Forty-seven specimens were positive for Entamoeba spp., and the prevalence of Entamoeba spp. was 9.31% (47/505). Significant differences in the prevalence rates among the three breeds (P = 0.002 < 0.01, df = 2, χ2 = 12.33) and feed types (P = 0.001 < 0.01, df = 1, χ2 = 10.12) were observed. Altogether, four Entamoeba species, including E. dispar (57.44%), E. chattoni (29.78%), E. histolytica (6.38%), and E. coli (6.38%), were identified by DNA sequence analysis. The results suggested a low prevalence but high diversity of Entamoeba species in experimental NHPs in Yunnan Province, southwestern China. Results of this study contribute to the knowledge of the genetic characteristics of Entamoeba spp. in NHPs.


Asunto(s)
Entamoeba/genética , Entamebiasis/veterinaria , Macaca/parasitología , Infecciones Protozoarias en Animales/epidemiología , Infecciones Protozoarias en Animales/parasitología , Animales , Animales de Laboratorio , China/epidemiología , ADN Protozoario/genética , Entamoeba/clasificación , Entamoeba/aislamiento & purificación , Entamebiasis/epidemiología , Entamebiasis/parasitología , Entamebiasis/transmisión , Heces/parasitología , Epidemiología Molecular , Prevalencia , Infecciones Protozoarias en Animales/transmisión , ARN Ribosómico/genética , Subunidades Ribosómicas Pequeñas/genética , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN
17.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234922, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559221

RESUMEN

If a laboratory animal survives an experiment without lasting compromised welfare, its future must be negotiated. Rehoming may be a consideration. This paper reports on research findings that provide an indication of the uptake of animal rehoming by UK facilities and the associated moral, ethical, practical and regulatory considerations that inform decisions to rehome or not. This research addresses a widely acknowledged gap in the literature to understand both the numbers, and types of animals rehomed from UK research facilities, as well as the main motivations for engaging in the practice, and the barriers for those facilities not currently rehoming. From the ~160 UK research facilities in the UK, 41 facilities completed the questionnaire, giving a response rate of approximately 25%. Results suggest rehoming occurs routinely, yet the numbers are small; just 2322 animals are known to have been rehomed between 2015-2017. At least 1 in 10 facilities are rehoming. There exists a clear preference for the rehoming of some species (mainly cats, dogs and horses) over others (rodents, agricultural animals and primates). Indeed, although 94.15% of species kept in laboratories are rodents, they make up under a fifth (19.14%) of all animals known to be rehomed between 2015-2017. The primary motivation for rehoming is to boost staff morale and promote a positive ethical profile for the facility. Barriers include concern for the animal's welfare following rehoming, high scientific demand for animals that leaves few to be rehomed, and, finally, certain animals (mainly those genetically modified) are simply unsuited to rehoming. The findings of this research will support facilities choosing to rehome, as well as those that are not currently engaging in the practice. By promoting the practice, the benefits to rehoming in terms of improving laboratory animal's quality of life, helping facility staff to overcome the moral stress of killing, and addressing public concern regarding the fate of laboratory animals, can be attained. It is only once an understanding of rehoming from the perspective of UK research facilities has been ascertained, that appropriate policy and support can be provided.


Asunto(s)
Experimentación Animal/estadística & datos numéricos , Bienestar del Animal/estadística & datos numéricos , Animales de Laboratorio , Vivienda para Animales/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Experimentación Animal/ética , Experimentación Animal/normas , Bienestar del Animal/ética , Bienestar del Animal/normas , Animales , Vivienda para Animales/ética , Vivienda para Animales/normas , Humanos , Motivación , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Reino Unido
18.
Medicentro (Villa Clara) ; 24(2): 373-391, abr.-jun. 2020. graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124998

RESUMEN

RESUMEN El Laboratorio de Cirugía Experimental de la Universidad de Ciencia Médicas de Villa Clara cuenta con la tecnología necesaria para el montaje y desarrollo de técnicas y habilidades quirúrgicas y microquirúrgicas, las cuales son utilizadas por los profesionales y estudiantes en la docencia y la investigación biomédica. Se realizaron varias innovaciones con la recuperación de equipos, instrumentos y materiales en desuso; se creó el gimnasio quirúrgico conformado por modelos inanimados sintéticos, y se implementó el modelo «pollo¼, como técnica alternativa al uso de animales vivos en la experimentación animal. Se han desarrollado: importantes proyectos de investigación, entrenamientos de cirugía y microcirugía experimental, diversos programas docentes, y exitosos cursos internacionales con estudiantes y residentes. El laboratorio constituye un valioso aporte de alternativas éticas, económicas y sanitarias, que han favorecido la formación de recursos humanos y un servicio científico-técnico de calidad para la docencia y la investigación.


ABSTRACT The Laboratory of Experimental Surgery at the University of Medical Sciences of Villa Clara has the necessary technology for the assembly and development of skills, as well as, surgical and microsurgical techniques, which are used by professionals and students in teaching and biomedical research. Several innovations were made with the recovery of equipments, instruments and disused materials; the surgical gymnasium was made up of synthetic inanimate models, and the "chicken" model was implemented as an alternative technique to the use of live animals in animal experimentation. Important research projects, training in surgery and experimental microsurgery, diverse teaching programs, and successful international courses with students and residents have been developed. The laboratory constitutes a valuable contribution of ethical, economic and sanitary alternatives, which have favored the formation of human resources and a qualified scientific-technical service for teaching and research.


Asunto(s)
Equipo de Laboratorio , Experimento de Laboratorio , Animales de Laboratorio
19.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 8083, 2020 05 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32415102

RESUMEN

Research conducted on model organisms may be biased due to undetected pathogen infections. Recently, screening studies discovered high prevalence of the microsporidium Pseudoloma neurophilia in zebrafish (Danio rerio) facilities. This spore-forming unicellular parasite aggregates in brain regions associated with motor function and anxiety, and despite its high occurrence little is known about how sub-clinical infection affects behaviour. Here, we assessed how P. neurophilia infection alters the zebrafish´s response to four commonly used neurobehavioral tests, namely: mirror biting, open field, light/dark preference and social preference, used to quantify aggression, exploration, anxiety, and sociability. Although sociability and aggression remained unaltered, infected hosts exhibited reduced activity, elevated rates of freezing behaviour, and sex-specific effects on exploration. These results indicate that caution is warranted in the interpretation of zebrafish behaviour, particularly since in most cases infection status is unknown. This highlights the importance of comprehensive monitoring procedures to detect sub-clinical infections in laboratory animals.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Animal , Encéfalo/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Peces/parasitología , Microsporida/fisiología , Microsporidiosis/veterinaria , Pez Cebra/parasitología , Animales , Animales de Laboratorio , Enfermedades de los Peces/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Peces/patología , Microsporidiosis/parasitología , Microsporidiosis/patología , Microsporidiosis/transmisión
20.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0230516, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32453770

RESUMEN

Teaching practicals for receptor physiology/pharmacology in medical and veterinary schools have involved the use of in vitro experiments using tissues from laboratory animals, which have been killed for isolated vascular strip or ring preparations. However, the use of scavenged tissues has been advocated to reduce animal use. Utilising discarded tissues from routine surgical procedures, such as canine neutering, has not previously been investigated. Canine testicular and uterine tissues (discarded tissues) were obtained from routine neutering procedures performed by the veterinary team at a local animal neutering clinic for stray dogs. Rings of uterine and testicular artery were dissected and mounted on a Mulvany-Halpern wire myograph in order to characterize the adrenergic and serotonergic receptors mediating vasoconstriction. Cumulative contractile concentration-response curves were constructed for the alpha adrenoceptor agonists epinephrine (α1 and α2 receptors), phenylephrine (α1 selective) and UK14304 (α2 selective). Pre-treatment with the α1-selective antagonist, prazosin, was also investigated. The response to serotonin (5-HT) receptor agonists were also investigated, including 5-HT (acting at both 5-HT1 and 5-HT2 receptors), 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT; 5-HT1 selective) and α-methyl 5-HT (5-HT2 selective). A contractile response was observed in both canine uterine and testicular arteries to epinephrine and phenylephrine, and prazosin caused a dose-dependent parallel rightward shift in the phenylephrine dose-response curve (pA2 values of 7.97 and 8.39, respectively). UK14304 caused a contractile response in canine testicular arteries but very little appreciable contractile response in uterine arteries. The maximum responses produced by the uterine arteries to 5-HT was significantly lower than those of the testicular arteries. In the testicular artery, the 5-HT2 receptor selective agonist, α-methyl 5-HT, produced a similar contractile response to 5-HT but the administration of 5-CT failed to produce a response in either the testicular or uterine artery segments. These results validate the use of discarded tissue from routine canine neutering procedures as a useful source of vascular tissue for pharmacological teaching, for characterizing alpha and 5-HT receptor contractile responses.


Asunto(s)
Contracción Muscular/fisiología , Músculo Liso Vascular/fisiología , Enseñanza , Arteria Uterina/fisiología , Animales , Animales de Laboratorio , Perros , Epinefrina/farmacología , Contracción Muscular/efectos de los fármacos , Músculo Liso Vascular/anatomía & histología , Norepinefrina/farmacología , Arteria Uterina/anatomía & histología
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