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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1191: 93-102, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002924

RESUMEN

Several environmental risk factors such as early adverse childhood experiences, stress, and stressful life events are associated with anxiety disorders. Current approaches such as epigenetics and gene-environment interactions were used to identify candidate biomarkers for anxiety disorders to assess determinants of disease. In this chapter, in relation to gene-environment interactions, a variety of association studies regarding anxiety disorders were surveyed. We then showed supporting results from recent association studies such as human studies and animal models in terms of the epigenetic contribution to disease susceptibility to anxiety disorders. At last, future directions and limitations are highlighted. With the advances in multi-omics technologies, innovative ideas regarding disease prevention and drug responsiveness in anxiety disorders require further research in epigenetics and gene-environment interactions.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Ansiedad/genética , Epigénesis Genética , Interacción Gen-Ambiente , Animales , Epigenómica , Estudios de Asociación Genética , Humanos
2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1191: 169-184, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002929

RESUMEN

This chapter describes the various animal models that seem relevant to the development of anxiolytic drugs, as well as the human models of induced anxiety, or more precisely the panic inducers including cholecystokinin. It is also mentioned the theoretical model of Deakin and Graeff which seems to keep all its relevance. The knock animals are evoked as relevant tools as well as a new optogenetic technique that needs to be used in this field.


Asunto(s)
Ansiolíticos , Trastornos de Ansiedad/tratamiento farmacológico , Trastornos de Ansiedad/psicología , Ansiedad/tratamiento farmacológico , Ansiedad/psicología , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Descubrimiento de Drogas , Animales , Ansiolíticos/farmacología , Ansiolíticos/uso terapéutico , Colecistoquinina/efectos adversos , Humanos , Optogenética
4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032400

RESUMEN

The aim of this histologic, single-blind, parallel, randomized clinical trial was to compare vertical bone augmentation grafting with 100% autogenous bone (group AB) vs 50% deproteinized bovine bone matrix (DBBM)/50% autogenous bone (group BOAB) using the Fence Technique in a two-stage implant placement. A biopsy was performed in the regenerated area at implant insertion 6 months after the augmentation surgery. The results reflect a sample size of four patients treated per group. At implant placement, 6 months after grafting, no significant differences were evident in the histomorphometric comparisons, even if the percentage of residual graft was obviously greater in the BOAB group (P = .0314).


Asunto(s)
Aumento de la Cresta Alveolar , Sustitutos de Huesos , Animales , Matriz Ósea , Trasplante Óseo , Bovinos , Implantación Dental Endoósea , Humanos , Método Simple Ciego
5.
Oecologia ; 192(2): 311-321, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006182

RESUMEN

Prevalence of a parasite may be influenced by age of the habitat (= time available for hosts and parasites to colonize habitats), assemblage composition of host and non-host species, or biotic and abiotic habitat features. For a trophically transmitted parasite, the intermediate host may be consumed by both final hosts and 'dead-end' predators that are incompetent to host the parasite. We tested biotic and abiotic factors that might influence parasite prevalence in a freshwater host-parasite system using a dataset collected from 36 water bodies in the vicinity of Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. In this system, eggs of thorny-headed worms (Acanthocephala: Polymorphus spp.) are eaten by intermediate-host amphipods (Gammarus lacustris Sars), which are then consumed by final vertebrate hosts (certain aquatic birds and muskrats) and various non-host waterbird species. We found that acanthocephalan prevalence in amphipods was positively correlated with waterbody age and with abundance of final-host species. In contrast, abundance of the intermediate host G. lacustris was less important and was negatively correlated with parasite prevalence ('encounter-dilution effect'). Similarly, parasite prevalence showed a marginally significant and negative correlation with abundance of 'dead-end' Gammarus-eating birds. We conclude that in our study system, time available for colonization and abundance of final hosts are more important for parasite prevalence in intermediate hosts than is abundance of intermediate and dead-end hosts.


Asunto(s)
Acantocéfalos , Anfípodos , Parásitos , Alberta , Animales , Interacciones Huésped-Parásitos , Prevalencia
6.
Compend Contin Educ Dent ; 41(2): 92-101, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017587

RESUMEN

Gingival augmentation therapy is intended to create a healthy band of attached keratinized tissue to inhibit further gingival recession, facilitate plaque control, and improve patient comfort. Although an effective treatment for gingival augmentation procedures, the often-used autogenous epithelialized palatal graft has several drawbacks, including the need for a second surgical site to harvest the graft, the risk of such complications as damage to neurovascular tissue and poor healing of the donor site, and potential color and texture discrepancies of the grafted site. The use of a resorbable xenogeneic collagen-based matrix may be considered as a treatment alternative to augment soft tissue. The authors describe the application of such a graft that is made from purified porcine type I and type III collagen and processed without the addition of chemical cross-linkers. Two cases are presented that demonstrate the clinical advantages of this material compared to autogenous palatal grafts when augmenting the width and thickness of attached keratinized gingiva.


Asunto(s)
Encía , Recesión Gingival , Animales , Colágeno , Tejido Conectivo , Gingivoplastia , Humanos , Paladar (Hueso) , Porcinos
7.
Nature ; 577(7789): 172-173, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911678
8.
Anticancer Res ; 40(1): 53-66, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892552

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND/AIM: Medulloblastoma (MB) accounts for ~20% of pediatric malignant central nervous system tumors. Treatment strategies, including surgery, radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy, are effective, but recurrence and metastasis frequently occur. Therefore, novel therapies are required. Herein, the effects of fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors on MB cells lines were evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MB cell lines (UW228-3, DAOY, Med8a, D425, D283) were tested for sensitivity to FGFR (AZD4547) and PI3K (BEZ235 and BYL719) inhibitors by viability, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and proliferation assays. RESULTS: Single treatments with FGFR and PI3K inhibitors decreased viability and proliferation in a dose-dependent pattern in most cell lines. Combinination of the two type of drugs, increased sensitivity, especially of the most resistant cell line UW228-3. CONCLUSION: Combination treatments with FGFR and PI3K inhibitors were superior to single treatments with FGFR and PI3K inhibitors, especially with BEZ235, for MB cell lines.


Asunto(s)
Meduloblastoma/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinasa/metabolismo , Receptores de Factores de Crecimiento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Transducción de Señal/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Antineoplásicos/farmacología , Apoptosis/efectos de los fármacos , Caspasa 3/metabolismo , Línea Celular Tumoral , Proliferación Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Supervivencia Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Humanos , Meduloblastoma/patología , Inhibidores de Proteínas Quinasas/farmacología , Ensayos Antitumor por Modelo de Xenoinjerto
9.
Anticancer Res ; 40(1): 109-119, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892559

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND/AIM: Although molecular targeting therapy is an attractive treatment for cancer, resistance eventually develops in most cases. Here, we evaluated chemotherapeutic efficacy on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors mechanistically. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Antitumor effects of taxotere were evaluated using multiple models, including xenograft, and patient-derived models developed from adenocarcinoma cancer patients. Protein expressions were analyzed after drug treatment. RESULTS: Taxotere inhibited tumor growth of NSCLC cells harboring drug resistance, and reduced the expression of phosphorylated MET proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase (MET). A tumor-inhibitory effect of taxotere was also demonstrated in vivo in xenografts in mice, patient-derived primary lung tumor cells and patient-derived xenograft with concomitant repression of phosphorylated MET expression. Chemotherapeutic and MET-targeting drug exhibited a synergistic cell growth-inhibitory effect. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the anticancer drug taxane may be an adjuvant for lung tumors exhibiting enhanced signaling of MET networks.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos/farmacología , Docetaxel/farmacología , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogénicas c-met/metabolismo , Animales , Biomarcadores , Línea Celular Tumoral , Proliferación Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Humanos , Ratones , Neoplasias/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias/patología , Fosforilación , Inhibidores de Proteínas Quinasas/farmacología , Transducción de Señal , Ensayos Antitumor por Modelo de Xenoinjerto
10.
Anticancer Res ; 40(1): 161-168, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892564

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Arming of an oncolytic adenovirus (OAd) by inserting expression cassettes of therapeutic transgenes into the OAd genome is a promising approach to enhance the therapeutic effects of an OAd. Ideally, this approach would simultaneously promote the replication of an OAd in tumor cells and transgene product-mediated antitumor effects by expressing therapeutic transgenes. We previously demonstrated that knockdown of cullin 4A (CUL4A), which is an E3 ubiquitin ligase, significantly promoted adenovirus replication by increasing the c-JUN protein level. In addition, previous studies reported that CUL4A was highly expressed in various types of tumor, and was involved in tumor growth and metastasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, we developed a novel OAd expressing a short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) against CUL4A (OAd-shCUL4A). RESULTS: OAd-shCUL4 mediated higher levels of cytotoxic effects on various types of human tumor cell than a conventional OAd. Higher levels of OAd genome copy numbers were found in the tumor cells for OAd-shCUL4A, compared with a conventional OAd. CONCLUSION: OAd-shCUL4A showed efficient antitumor effects by both enhancing OAd replication and inhibiting tumor cell growth.


Asunto(s)
Adenoviridae/genética , Proteínas Cullin/genética , Vectores Genéticos/genética , Virus Oncolíticos/genética , ARN Interferente Pequeño/genética , Animales , Línea Celular Tumoral , Supervivencia Celular/genética , Expresión Génica , Técnicas de Silenciamiento del Gen , Humanos , Ratones , Viroterapia Oncolítica , Interferencia de ARN , Transducción Genética
11.
Anticancer Res ; 40(1): 169-176, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892565

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND/AIM: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are considered to be one of the causes of tumor recurrence after chemotherapy. The purpose of our study was to isolate CSCs from human colorectal cancer cell (CRC) lines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nine CRC lines were screened based on the expression level of potential CSC markers to identify putative CSCs. Tumor formation capacity in immunodeficient mice was compared with that of their counterparts. Stemness, differentiation potency and sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), in vitro, were also assessed. Microarray analysis was used to characterize the features of the putative CSCs. RESULTS: COLO 201 cells were separated into two populations based on CD44 expression. CD44 positive (CD44+) cells showed significantly higher tumor formation capacity than CD44- cells in immunodeficient mice. CD44+ cells also possessed stemness properties and lower sensitivity to 5-FU in vitro. Moreover, cancer stemness and chemoresistance-related genes were highly up-regulated in CD44+ cells. CONCLUSION: CD44+ COLO 201 cells possessed the features of CSCs; therefore, the present CSC model could serve as a valuable tool to accelerate CSC research.


Asunto(s)
Receptores de Hialuranos/metabolismo , Células Madre Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Animales , Biomarcadores , Biomarcadores de Tumor , Línea Celular Tumoral , Supervivencia Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Transformación Celular Neoplásica/genética , Transformación Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorrectales/genética , Neoplasias Colorrectales/metabolismo , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Citometría de Flujo , Fluorouracilo/farmacología , Xenoinjertos , Humanos , Receptores de Hialuranos/genética , Ratones
12.
Anticancer Res ; 40(1): 191-199, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892567

RESUMEN

AIM: To evaluate the feasibility of conducting studies of saliva circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) as a biomarker of metastasis or recurrence in our orthotopic head and neck cancer (HNC) mouse model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A mouse model of recurrence or metastasis after tongue cancer resection was developed. Blood and saliva were collected at baseline and at the establishment of recurrence or metastasis. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to quantify human long interspersed element (hLINE) in samples to assess the amount of ctDNA. RESULTS: In our model, salivary hLINE increased as the cancer developed and decreased after surgery. Plasma hLINE was significantly elevated in mice with metastasis. The presence of tongue cancer recurrence in mice was more correlated with hLINE concentration in saliva than in plasma. CONCLUSION: In our orthotopic model, salivary ctDNA better reflected tumor development and recurrence than did plasma ctDNA.


Asunto(s)
Biomarcadores de Tumor , ADN Tumoral Circulante , Neoplasias de Cabeza y Cuello/metabolismo , Saliva/metabolismo , Animales , Apoptosis/genética , Línea Celular Tumoral , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Femenino , Neoplasias de Cabeza y Cuello/patología , Xenoinjertos , Humanos , Elementos de Nucleótido Esparcido Largo , Ratones , Recurrencia
13.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 58(1): 30-34, 2020 Jan 02.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31905473

RESUMEN

Objective: To investigate the impact of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HIBI) on brain development in neonatal rats of different sexes. Methods: From January 1 to December 31, 2018, 60 7-day-old SD rats were randomly divided into HIBI-F group (20 rats), HIBI-M group (20 rats), and control group (20 rats, 10 females and 10 males). The animal model of HIBI was established with Rice-Vannucci method, with the rats' left common carotid artery double-ligated and severed. The rats were then placed in an incubator and exposed to a hypoxic gas mixture (8% O(2), 92% N(2)) for 90 minutes. No intervention was given to the control group. Two weeks after HIBI, the motor development was evaluated by footprint analysis, the residual brain volume was measured by brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and the damage of synaptic ultra structure was analyzed by transmission electron microscope. One-way ANOVA or χ(2) test was used for inter-group statistical analysis, and paired sample t test was used to compare the bilateral step length and toe distance of rats in the same group. Results: The mortality rate of HIBI-F was significantly higher than that of HIBI-M (20%(4/20) vs. 10%(2/20), χ(2)=40.000, P=0.001). The right step length and toe distance in HIBI-M group and HIBI-F group were significantly shorter than those in control group ((7.5±0.3) cm and (7.9±0.5) cm vs. (8.2±0.5) cm, F=9.605, P<0.01, (0.9±0.1) cm and (1.0±0.0) cm vs. (1.1±0.1) cm, F=71.437, P<0.01). Besides, according to above data, the right step length and toe distance in HIBI-M group were significantly shorter than those in the HIBI-F group (both P<0.01). Furthermore, the right step length was significantly shorter than the left step length ((8.3±0.4) and (8.3±0.5) cm, t=5.289 and 10.580, P=0.001 and 0.010, respectively) and toe distance ((1.1±0.1) and (1.1±0.1) cm, t=7.953 and 6.435, respectively, both P<0.01) in both HIBI-M group and HIBI-F group. Similarly, the synaptic gap of the left precentral gyrus neurons was longer in HIBI-M group and HIBI-F group than that in control group ((23.4±1.3) and (19.7±1.6) nm vs. (18.9±0.6) nm, F=71.719, P<0.01), and also longer in HIBI-M group than that in HIBI-F group (t=7.645, P<0.01). Likewise, the residual brain volume in HIBI-M group and HIBI-F group was significantly less than that in control group ((67±4)% and (75±5)% vs. 100%, F=406.122, P<0.01), and the residual brain volume in HIBI-M group was significantly less than that in HIBI-F group (t=-5.281, P<0.01). Conclusions: Male neonatal rats are more vulnerable to HIBI and have severer subsequent brain injury and hemiplegia. Different treatment strategies for HIBI patients of different sexes should be developed.


Asunto(s)
Hipoxia-Isquemia Encefálica , Animales , Animales Recién Nacidos , Encéfalo , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Femenino , Humanos , Hipoxia-Isquemia Encefálica/mortalidad , Masculino , Distribución Aleatoria , Ratas , Ratas Sprague-Dawley
14.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 100(1): 51-56, 2020 Jan 07.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914559

RESUMEN

Objective: To explore the feasibility of dynamic-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and blood oxygen level-dependent MRI (BOLD-MRI) in assessing the hemodynamics and tumor aggressiveness during treatment. Methods: The colon cancer xenograft model was established in BALB/C nude mice with HCT116 cell line. Sixteen nude mice were randomly divided into treatment and control groups (aged 6 to 8 weeks, weighted 15 to 18 g, Certificate No. 11400700325797), which were treated with bevacizumab and saline by intraperitoneal injection on the 1st, 4th, 7th, 10th and 13th day. DCE-MRI and BOLD-MRI were performed before and on the 3th, 6th, 9th, 12th, and 15th day after treatment. The vascular maturity and microenvironment hypoxia were confirmed by pathology. Results: The tumor volume of treatment group was significantly smaller than that of control group after 15 days ((712±43) vs (1 051±112) mm(3),P<0.01).The measurements of K(trans) were (0.135±0.005),(0.147±0.006),(0.175±0.009),(0.161±0.006), (0.140±0.005),(0.116±0.008)/min (F=81.386, P<0.01); K(ep) were (0.788±0.030),(0.804±0.036),(0.983±0.059), (1.105±0.091),(0.840±0.047),(0.786±0.041)/min(F=45.901,P<0.01);Ve were (0.652±0.006), (0.559±0.026), (0.466±0.016), (0.286±0.027), (0.363±0.020), (0.246±0.033) (F=384.290, P<0.01) and R2* values were (24.813±0.961), (24.675±1.070), (21.425±1.371), (17.850±0.885), (24.613±0.640), (27.013±0.734)/s (F=89.323, P<0.01) showed different trends with time in the treatment group, and the differences were statistically significant. The K(trans) values and tumor vessel maturity index (VMI) were higher than baseline values during 3-12 d after treatment. CD31 positive staining rate and VMI had the strongest correlations with K(trans) values (r=0.854 and 0.795), followed by AUC(180) (r=0.750 and 0.808), Ve (r=0.744 and 0.712) and K(ep) values (r=0.729 and 0.758), all P<0.05. R2* value positively correlated with the positive staining rate of HIF-1α and fibronectin (r=0.810 and 0.816), all P<0.05. Conclusion: DCE-MRI and BOLD-MRI are adequate to observe the tumor perfusion and hypoxia during anti-vascular treatment, and the R2* value can predict the tumor metastatic potential during the process of vascular normalization.


Asunto(s)
Medios de Contraste , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Animales , Xenoinjertos , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C , Ratones Desnudos
15.
J Vet Med Educ ; 47(1): 39-43, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31951799

RESUMEN

Mock board exams are common in residency programs across many disciplines. However, the value of mock board results in predicting success on the actual certifying examination is largely anecdotal and undocumented. The University of Tennessee anatomic pathology residency program has a long history of giving mock board exams twice a year during the course of the 3-year diagnostic training program. The mock exams give residents a sense of the types of questions that may appear on the actual certifying examination. The resulting scores serve to help identify improvement areas to focus additional study. In addition, by providing residents the mental and physical experiences designed to mimic the test day, we hope to better prepare these trainees for optimal performance on the certifying examination. This study correlated mock board results of 16 anatomic pathology residents, from July 2006 through January 2016, with their subsequent performance on the certifying exam. The results of these biannual exams were significantly correlated (p < .001) with results for the American College of Veterinary Pathologists Certifying Examination.


Asunto(s)
Certificación , Educación en Veterinaria , Evaluación Educacional , Patología , Animales , Certificación/estadística & datos numéricos , Educación en Veterinaria/estadística & datos numéricos , Evaluación Educacional/estadística & datos numéricos , Internado y Residencia , Patología/educación , Estados Unidos
16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31967209

RESUMEN

Rabies encephalitis is a fatal zoonotic viral disease transmitted to humans either by domestic animals like dogs and cats or by wild animals like bats, skunks and raccoons. We present the case of a 25-year-old woman admitted due to behavioral disorders, generalized paresthesiasand acute respiratory deterioration compatible with a respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) requiring orotracheal intubation, mechanical ventilation and empirical initiation of antibiotic and antiviral therapy. Chest tomography showed pneumomediastinum and changes suggestive of pulmonary infection. In the presence of neurological symptoms, a central nervous system (CNS) infection was suspected and the cerebrospinal fluid showed no pleocytosis, hiperproteinorrachy without glucose consumption; cranial CT scan was normal. During hospitalization, the family reported that the patient was bitten by a cat 30-day prior to the onset of rabies-like symptoms, and the animal was sacrificed. The patient had an unfavorable clinical evolution, with electroencephalographic activity dissociation evidenced by video telemetry. The zoonotic exposure led to the suspected diagnosis of rabies infection. The patient died and the suspected diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology, with presence of Negri bodies on cerebellum Purkinje cells and a positive immunofluorescence test for rabies virus. Both, initial extra-neural manifestations and late reporting of rabies exposure led to delayed diagnosis.


Asunto(s)
Mordeduras y Picaduras/complicaciones , Encefalitis/virología , Rabia/complicaciones , Adulto , Animales , Gatos , Resultado Fatal , Femenino , Humanos , Rabia/transmisión
17.
Microbes Environ ; 35(1)2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969530

RESUMEN

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of small non-coding RNAs that suppress the expression of target mRNAs. The seed sequence of miRNA plays a crucial role in recognizing the 3'-untranslated region of the target mRNA. Cells infected with a simian foamy virus (SFV) isolated from an African green monkey (Chlorocebus aethiops) (SFVcae) showed high expression levels of viral miRNAs encoded in the long terminal repeat of SFVcae. In the present study, we investigated the roles and expression of miRNAs derived from an SFV isolated from a Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) (SFVmfu) using next-generation sequencing technologies. The results obtained showed that SFVmfu also expressed viral miRNAs; however, the seed sequences of most miRNAs derived from SFVmfu differed from those reported previously from SFVcae. Cells persistently infected with SFVmfu strongly expressed an miRNA with the same seed sequence as the miR-1 microRNA precursor family. Luciferase reporter assays indicated that this miRNA down-regulates the expression of adenylyl cyclase-associated protein 1, which is up-regulated in several solid tumors. The present results suggest that SFVmfu utilizes viral miRNAs to establish long-term co-existence with the Japanese macaque.


Asunto(s)
Regulación de la Expresión Génica , MicroARNs/genética , ARN Viral/genética , Infecciones por Retroviridae/virología , Spumavirus/genética , Regiones no Traducidas 3' , Animales , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Línea Celular , Humanos , MicroARNs/metabolismo , ARN Viral/metabolismo , Infecciones por Retroviridae/genética
18.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 54(1): 71-87, 2020 Jan 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972071

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Diabetes type 2, metabolic syndrome or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are insulin resistance-related metabolic disorders, which lack a better prognosis before their full establishment. We studied the importance of the intracellular scaffold protein integrin linked kinaes (ILK) as a key modulator in the initial pathogenesis and the early progression of those insulin resistance- related disorders. METHODS: Adult mice with a global transgenic downregulation of ILK expression (cKD-ILK) and littermates without that depletion (CT) were fed with either standard (STD) or high fat (HFD) diets during 2 and 6 weeks. Weights, blood glucose and other systemic biochemical parameters were determined in animals under fasting conditions and after glucose or pyruvate intraperitoneal injections to test their tolerance. In RNA or proteins extracted from insulin-sensitive tissues, we determined by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR and western blot the expression of ILK, metabolites transporters and other metabolism and inflammatory markers. Glucose uptake capacity was studied in freshly isolated tissues. RESULTS: HFD feeding was able to early and progressively increase glycaemia, insulinemia, circulating glycerol, body weight gain, liver-mediated gluconeogenesis along this time lapse, but cKD-ILK have all these systemic misbalances exacerbated compared to CT in the same HFD time lapse. Interestingly, the tisular expression of ILK in HFD-fed CT was dramatically downregulated in white adipose tissue (WAT), skeletal muscle and liver at the same extent of the original ILK downregulation of cKD-ILK. We previously published that basal STD-fed cKD-ILK compared to basal STD-CT have different expression of glucose transporters GLUT4 in WAT and skeletal muscle. In the same STD-fed cKD-ILK, we observed here the increased expressions of hepatic GLUT2 and WAT pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and MCP-1. The administration of HFD exacerbated the expression changes in cKD-ILK of these and other markers related to the imbalanced metabolism observed, such as WAT lipolysis (HSL), hepatic gluconeogenesis (PCK-1) and glycerol transport (AQP9). CONCLUSION: ILK expression may be taken as a predictive determinant of metabolic disorders establishment, because its downregulation seems to correlate with the early imbalance of glucose and glycerol transport and the subsequent loss of systemic homeostasis of these metabolites.


Asunto(s)
Dieta Alta en Grasa/efectos adversos , Regulación hacia Abajo , Enfermedades Metabólicas/etiología , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinasas/genética , Animales , Femenino , Gluconeogénesis , Inflamación/etiología , Inflamación/genética , Resistencia a la Insulina , Lipólisis , Masculino , Enfermedades Metabólicas/genética , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C
19.
Bioresour Technol ; 301: 122757, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978700

RESUMEN

Various spectroscopic and electrochemical techniques combined was used to investigate the compositional changes of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and the difference in humification degree during full-scale cow dung vermicomposting. This study also investigated that whether the two techniques could be used as humification indices. The physicochemical characteristics of vermicompost were superior to those of the control, indicating that vermicomposting significantly accelerated the humification process, which was confirmed by spectroscopic and electrochemical analyses. Meanwhile, the changes of three components identified and electron transfer capacities in vermicomposting further revealed that vermicomposting resulted in significant compositional changes of DOM and higher humification degree. Partial least squares path modeling and redundancy analysis revealed that the two techniques could be used as humification indices for vermicomposting. These results of this study demonstrated that the combination of spectroscopy and electrochemistry was applicable to characterize the compositional changes of DOM and the humification degree of vermicomposting.


Asunto(s)
Estiércol , Suelo , Animales , Bovinos , Técnicas Electroquímicas , Heces , Femenino , Sustancias Húmicas , Espectrometría de Fluorescencia
20.
Bioresour Technol ; 301: 122721, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31986372

RESUMEN

The main aim of this work is focused towards possible reuse of both solid and liquid waste generated from the natural indigo dye production process. The solid waste (C/N:15.01) was utilized to produce stable compost with possible re-use in Indigofera cultivation. Among seven compost combinations (C1-C7) using jeevamrutha (JA) and cow-dung (CD) as inoculum, C4 with 8% JA showed higher biomass degradation (51%) and plant growth potential (GI > 125%). Whereas the undiluted liquid waste was treated using algal consortia, bacteria, and indigenous microbial population, achieved a maximum removal of 90% ammonia, 82% nitrate, and 88% phosphorus for its re-use in the dye production process. Hence, incorporation of suitable waste management strategies in natural indigo dye production could help to achieve a zero waste sustainable process.


Asunto(s)
Indigofera , Administración de Residuos , Animales , Biomasa , Bovinos , Colorantes , Femenino , Carmin de Índigo , Residuos Sólidos
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