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1.
GM Crops Food ; 12(1): 47-56, 2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862762

RESUMEN

The sugarcane (Saccharum X officinarum) is one of the most important crops used to produce sugar and raw material for biofuel in the world. One of the main causes for sucrose content and yield losses is the attack by insect. In this investigation, cry1Ac gene was introduced into sugarcane variety GT54-9(C9) using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation method for transgenic sugarcane production presenting insect-resistance. The A. tumefaciens strain GV1303 including pARTcry1Ac vector was used for the production of transformed sugarcane. The Bacillus thuringiensis cry gene were successfully used to produce transgenic plants used for the improvement of both agronomic efficiency and product quality by acquiring insect resistance. PCR and Southern hybridization techniques were used to confirm the cry1Ac gene incorporation into sugarcane genome. Transformation percentage was 22.2% using PCR analysis with specific primers for cry1Ac and npt-II (Neomycin phosphotransferase) genes. The expression of cry1Ac gene was determined using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), QuickStix test, and insect bioassays. Bioassays for transformed sugarcane plants showed high level of toxicity to Sesamia cretica giving 100% mortality of the larvae. Sugarcane insect resistance was improved significantly by using cry1Ac gene transformation.


Asunto(s)
Saccharum/genética , Agrobacterium , Animales , Proteínas Bacterianas/genética , Endotoxinas , Proteínas Hemolisinas/genética , Plantas Modificadas Genéticamente
2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1287: 1-7, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034022

RESUMEN

The evolutionary conserved Notch pathway that first developed in metazoans and that was first discovered in fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) governs fundamental cell fate decisions and many other cellular key processes not only in embryonic development but also during initiation, promotion, and progression of cancer. On a first look, the Notch pathway appears remarkably simple, with its key feature representing a direct connection between an extracellular signal and transcriptional output without the need of a long chain of protein intermediaries as known from many other signaling pathways. However, on a second, closer look, this obvious simplicity exerts surprising complexity. There is no doubt that the enormous scientific progress in unraveling the functional mechanisms that underlie this complexity has recently greatly increased our knowledge about the role of Notch signaling for pathogenesis and progression of many types of cancer. Moreover, these new scientific findings have shown promise in opening new avenues for cancer prevention and therapy, although this goal is still challenging. Vol. III of the second edition of the book Notch Signaling in Embryology and Cancer, entitled Notch Signaling in Cancer, summarizes important recent developments in this fast-moving and fascinating field. Here, we give an introduction to this book and a short summary of the individual chapters that are written by leading scientists, covering the latest developments in this intriguing research area.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias/prevención & control , Neoplasias/terapia , Receptores Notch/metabolismo , Transducción de Señal , Animales , Diferenciación Celular , Humanos , Neoplasias/patología
3.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1287: 31-46, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034024

RESUMEN

The endosomal pathway plays a pivotal role upon signal transduction in the Notch pathway. Recent work on lethal (2) giant discs (lgd) points to an additional critical role in avoiding uncontrolled ligand-independent signalling during trafficking of the Notch receptor through the endosomal pathway to the lysosome for degradation. In this chapter, we will outline the journey of Notch through the endosomal system and present an overview of the current knowledge about Lgd and its mammalian orthologs Lgd1/CC2D1b and Lgd2/CC2D1a. We will then discuss how Notch is activated in the absence of lgd function in Drosophila and ask whether there is evidence that a similar ligand-independent activation of the Notch pathway can also happen in mammals if the orthologs are inactivated.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas de Unión al ADN/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Receptores Notch/metabolismo , Proteínas Represoras/metabolismo , Transducción de Señal , Proteínas Supresoras de Tumor/metabolismo , Animales , Endosomas/metabolismo , Humanos
4.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1287: 105-122, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034029

RESUMEN

The NOTCH pathway is critical for the development of many cell types including the squamous epithelium lining of cutaneous and mucosal surfaces. In genetically engineered mouse models, Notch1 acts as one of the first steps to commit basal keratinocytes to terminally differentiate. Similarly, in human head and neck squamous cell cancers (HNSCCs), NOTCH1 is often lost consistent with its essential tumor-suppressive role for initiating keratinocyte differentiation. However, constitutive NOTCH1 activity in the epithelium results in expansion of the spinous keratinocyte layers and impaired terminal differentiation is consistent with the role of NOTCH1 as an oncogene in other cancers, especially in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. We have previously observed that NOTCH1 plays a dual role as both a tumor suppressor and oncogene, depending on the mutational context of the tumor. Namely, gain or loss or NOTCH1 activity promotes the development of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers. The additional HPV oncogenes likely disrupt the tumor-suppressive activities of NOTCH and enable the oncogenic pathways activated by NOTCH to promote tumor growth. In this review, we detail the role of NOTCH pathway in head and neck cancers with a focus on HPV-associated cancers.


Asunto(s)
Carcinogénesis , Neoplasias de la Boca/metabolismo , Neoplasias de la Boca/virología , Papillomaviridae/patogenicidad , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/metabolismo , Receptores Notch/metabolismo , Transducción de Señal , Animales , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/virología , Humanos , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/virología
5.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1287: 123-154, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034030

RESUMEN

Since many decades, nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSCs) is the most common malignancy worldwide. Basal cell carcinomas (BCC) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) are the major types of NMSCs, representing approximately 70% and 25% of these neoplasias, respectively. Because of their continuously rising incidence rates, NMSCs represent a constantly increasing global challenge for healthcare, although they are in most cases nonlethal and curable (e.g., by surgery). While at present, carcinogenesis of NMSC is still not fully understood, the relevance of genetic and molecular alterations in several pathways, including evolutionary highly conserved Notch signaling, has now been shown convincingly. The Notch pathway, which was first developed during evolution in metazoans and that was first discovered in fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster), governs cell fate decisions and many other fundamental processes that are of high relevance not only for embryonic development, but also for initiation, promotion, and progression of cancer. Choosing NMSC as a model, we give in this review a brief overview on the interaction of Notch signaling with important oncogenic and tumor suppressor pathways and on its role for several hallmarks of carcinogenesis and cancer progression, including the regulation of cancer stem cells, tumor angiogenesis, and senescence.


Asunto(s)
Carcinogénesis , Células Madre Neoplásicas/patología , Neovascularización Patológica , Receptores Notch/metabolismo , Transducción de Señal , Neoplasias Cutáneas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutáneas/patología , Animales , Carcinoma Basocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Basocelular/patología , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patología , Humanos , Neoplasias Cutáneas/irrigación sanguínea
6.
GM Crops Food ; 12(1): 115-124, 2021 Jan 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33084486

RESUMEN

Transgenic crops that produce Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins are effective tools for controlling lepidopteran pests. However, the degree of susceptibility to Bt toxins differs among various pest species due to relatively narrow spectrum and high selectivity of such toxins. Bt corn hybrids for Chinese market were designed to target Asian corn borer Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), while their efficacy against other lepidopteran pests are not well defined, such as Conogethes punctiferalis (Guenée), Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), Agrotis ypsilon (Rottemberg), and Mythimna separata (Walker), which are also important lepidopteran pests on corn in the Huang-Huai-Hai Summer Corn Region of China. To determine what type of Bt corn is suitable for this region, the efficacy of five Bt toxins, i.e., Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry1F, Cry2Ab, and Vip3A, to these five lepidopteran species was evaluated in laboratory. Both O. furnacalis and C. punctiferalis showed similar high susceptibility to all five Bt toxins. A. ypsilon and M. separate were less sensitive to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac than the other species. H. armigera, A. ypsilon and M. separate were less sensitive to Cry1F than O. furnacalis and C. punctiferalis. H. armigera was more sensitive to Cry2Ab than other tested species. All five species were equally sensitive to Vip3A, though their LC50s were all relatively higher. These findings suggest that the first generation Bt corn expressing single Cry1 toxin should not be the first choice because of the potential risk of control failure or less efficacy against H. armigera, A. ypsilon or M. separate. The second-generation Bt corn expressing Cry1 and Cry2 toxins, or the third generation Bt corn expressing Cry1, Cry2 and Vip3A toxins might produce better protection of corn in the Huang-Huai-Hai Summer Corn Region of China.


Asunto(s)
Bacillus thuringiensis , Animales , Bacillus thuringiensis/genética , China , Productos Agrícolas , Factores de Transcripción , Zea mays/genética
7.
GM Crops Food ; 12(1): 1-17, 2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762312

RESUMEN

A biophysical survey was conducted in 15 cotton-growing districts of Pakistan. Four hundred cotton growers were approached and inquired about the production technology of Bt cotton. Further, 25 strip tests using combo strips (Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab, Vip3Aa and Cp4, EPSPS gene) were performed at each farmer's field. Out of 10,000 total-tested samples, farmers claimed 9682 samples as Bt and 318 samples as non-Bt. After performing a strip test, 1009 and 87 samples were found false negative and false positive, respectively. Only 53 samples were found positive for Cry2Ab, 214 for EPSPS and none for Vip3Aa gene. Quantification of Cry endotoxin and bioassay studies were performed by taking leaves from upper, middle, and lower canopies, and fruiting parts at approximately 80 days after sowing from 89 varieties. Expression was highly variable among different canopies and fruiting parts. Moreover, Cry endotoxin expression and insect mortality varied significantly among varieties from 0.26 µg g-1 to 3.54 µg g-1 with mortality ranging from 28 to 97%, respectively. Highest Cry1Ac expression (3.54 µg g-1) and insect mortality (97%) were observed for variety FH-142 from DG Khan. Cry endotoxin expression varied significantly across various plant parts, i.e., IUB-13 variety from upper canopy documented 0.34 µg g-1 expression with 37% insect mortality in Layyah to 3.42 µg g-1 expression and 96% insect mortality from DG Khan. Lethal dose, LD95 (2.20 µg g-1) of Cry1Ac endotoxin was optimized for effective control of H. armigera. Our results provided evidence of practical resistance in H. armigera and way forward.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas Hemolisinas/genética , Mariposas Nocturnas , Animales , Proteínas Bacterianas/genética , Endotoxinas , Gossypium , Resistencia a los Insecticidas , Larva , Pakistán , Plantas Modificadas Genéticamente
8.
GM Crops Food ; 12(1): 18-24, 2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787504

RESUMEN

Since 1996 till 2018, the global area cultivated with GM crops has increased 113-fold, making biotech crops one of the fastest adopted crop technology in the past decades. In the European Union, only two countries still cultivate one available transgenic crop event on minor hectarage. Moreover, the number of notifications for confined field trials has dramatically dropped in the last decade. All these are happening while the EU legislation on GM crops has come under severe criticism. The percentage of EU citizens concerned about the presence of GMOs in the environment has decreased from 30% (in 2002) to 19% (in 2011), while the level of concern about the use of GM ingredients in food or drinks has decreased from 63% (in 2005) to 27% (in 2019). The steadily increasing acceptance of the EU citizens of GMOs in the environment and food, as it was recorded by Eurobarometers, should additionally ease the way and support a positive change of the legal framework that regulates the GM crops' testing and commercial cultivation in the EU.


Asunto(s)
Biotecnología , Productos Agrícolas/genética , Animales , Animales Modificados Genéticamente , Unión Europea , Plantas Modificadas Genéticamente
9.
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (50): 425-438, nov. 2020.
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-191366

RESUMEN

La crisis sanitaria global que es la COVID-19 arroja al pensamiento hacia lugares incómodos. En el presente manuscrito sugiero que la filosofía pospandémica, de ahora en adelante, no puede ni podrá desentenderse del fenómeno de lo viviente, específicamente del viviente animal no humano. Precisamente, producto de la indiferencia de la cuestión animal, la filosofía ha creído por pretérita la tesis cartesiana del animal-máquina. Muy por el contrario, en este texto propongo que dicha comprensión del animal no tiene nada de arcaica, y que, provocada por el contexto pandémico, podría dar a lugar a lo que tentativamente es posible denominar "cartesianismo distópico". Ante esta consumación, cuya cristalización es el devenir (total) máquina del animal no humano, una bioética animal podría servir como vía para contravenir el cartesianismo distópico


The global health crisis that is the COVID-19 throws the thinking into uncomfortable places. In the present manuscript I suggest that post-pandemic philosophy, from now on, cannot and will not ignore the phenomenon of the living, specifically the living non-human animal. Precisely, as a result of the indifference of the animal question, philosophy has believed in the past the Cartesian thesis of the animal-machine. On the contrary, in this text we propose that such understanding of the animal is not archaic at all, and that, triggered by the pandemic context, could give rise to what can tentatively be called "dystopian Cartesianism". In front of this consummation, whose crystallization is the (total) machine becoming of the non-human animal, an animal bioethics could serve as a way to contravene the dystopian Cartesianism


La crisi sanitària global que és la COVID-19 llança el pensament cap a llocs incòmodes. En el present manuscrit suggereixo que la filosofia postpandèmica, d'ara endavant, no es pot ni es podrà desentendre del fenòmen del que és viu, específicament del vivent animal no humà. Precisament, producte de la indiferència de la qüestió animal, la filosofia ha cregut per pretèrita la tesi cartesiana de l'animal-màquina. Molt al contrari, en aquest text proposo que aquesta comprensió de l'animal no té res d'arcaica, I que, provocada pel context pandèmic, podria donar a lloc al que temptativament és possible anomenar "cartesianisme distòpic". Davant d'aquesta consumació, la cristal·lització del qual és l'esdevenir (total) màquina de l'animal no humà, una bioètica animal podria servir com a via per contravenir el cartesianisme distòpic


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Animales , Discusiones Bioéticas , Modelos Animales , Experimentación Animal/ética , Animales Domésticos , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Comités de Atención Animal
10.
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (50): 19-35, nov. 2020.
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-191344

RESUMEN

La pandemia de COVID-19 tiene un origen zoonótico: fue transmitida de los animales a los humanos. Lo mismo ha sucedido con otras epidemias recientes (como las causadas por los virus SARS-CoV-1 y H7N9, entre otros). Estas epidemias surgieron en un contexto de explotación animal: el comercio de animales silvestres. Mucha gente ha pedido la prohibición total de la venta de animales silvestres en mercados. Sin embargo, la prohibición puede ser contraproducente y tener peores consecuencias tanto para los animales como para la salud pública. Este artículo argumenta en contra de una prohibición total y a favor de una regulación progresiva que tome en cuenta el bienestar de los animales, pero que tenga como finalidad última la desaparición del comercio de animales silvestres


The COVID-19 pandemic has a zoonotic origin: it was transmitted from animals to humans. The same has happened with other recent epidemics (such as those caused by the virus SARS-CoV-1 and H7N9, among others). These epidemics arose in a context of animal exploitation: the trade in wildlife. Many people have asked for a blanket ban of wildlife trade in wet markets. However, a blanket ban may be counterproductive and have worse consequences both for the animals and for public health. This paper argues against a blanket ban and argues for a progressive regulation that takes into account the welfare of animals, but that has as its final goal the disappearance of trade in wildlife


La pandèmia de la COVID-19 té un origen zoonòtic: es va transmetre dels animals als humans. El mateix ha passat amb altres epidèmies recents (com les causades pels virus SARS-CoV-1 I H7N9, entre d'altres). Aquestes epidèmies van sorgir en un context d'explotació animal: el comerç d'animals silvestres. Molta gent ha demanat la prohibició total de la venda d'animals silvestres en mercats. No obstant això, la prohibició pot ser contraproduent I tenir pitjors conseqüències tant per als animals com per a la salut pública. Aquest article argumenta en contra d'una prohibició total I a favor d'una regulació progressiva que tingui en compte el benestar dels animals, però que tingui com a finalitat última la desaparició del comerç d'animals silvestres


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Animales , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Pandemias , Zoonosis/epidemiología , Animales Salvajes/virología , Comercio/legislación & jurisprudencia
11.
Curr Opin Ophthalmol ; 31(6): 514-520, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002989

RESUMEN

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ocular manifestations of leprosy do occur despite advances in the areas of leprosy research. Understanding the nuances in the domain shall guide the clinician for effective patient-centered care. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite the existence of microbiologic cure for leprosy, ocular manifestations of this disease do occur. Advances in genetic and genomic studies have better characterized the interaction that the bacteria has with the host. The ocular features vary with the spectrum of the disease. Its careful correlation can help to predict the bacillary load of the patient. Investigations are particularly relevant in multibacillary cases. The WHO suggests a treatment duration longer than the 2 years in ocular involvement. SUMMARY: The isolation of lepra bacilli from the iris biopsy in negative skin smear patients and multidrug therapy completion highlights the potential role of bactericidal agents in the planned intraocular treatment. Lepra reactions need careful titration of oral steroids and appropriate antibacterial agents. Advances in phacoemulsification with in the bag implantation of intraocular lenses is a game changer in the management of the most common cause of blindness of leprosy. Advances in vaccine research in leprosy are promising.


Asunto(s)
Oftalmopatías , Lepra , Animales , Biopsia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Oftalmopatías/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Lentes Intraoculares , Leprostáticos/uso terapéutico , Lepra/tratamiento farmacológico , Lepra/microbiología , Lepra/patología , Facoemulsificación
12.
Curr Opin Ophthalmol ; 31(6): 462-468, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009077

RESUMEN

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder is an autoimmune disease that causes optic neuritis and transverse myelitis. Attacks can cause severe neurological damage leading to blindness and paralysis. Understanding of the immunopathogenesis of this disease has led to major breakthroughs in diagnosis and treatment. In the past 18 months, three successful phase 3 clinical trials have been published using targeted approaches to preventing relapses. RECENT FINDINGS: Updates in epidemiology, imaging, quality of life and treatment for acute relapse and prevention have been published in the past 18 months. Epidemiology studies are distinguishing patients based on their antigen specificity for aquaporin-4 and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein, which are increasingly recognized as separate immunological conditions. Imaging by MRI and optical coherence tomography continue to be developed as tools to distinguish neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) from other diseases. This is especially relevant as the recent clinical trials showed differences in response between aquaporin-4 seropositive and seronegative patients. The three drugs that were tested for prevention of NMOSD relapses were eculizumab, inebilizumab, and satralizumab. All of the trials were worldwide, placebo-controlled, double-masked studies that demonstrated a clear benefit with each approach. SUMMARY: Recent research in NMOSD has resulted in improved diagnosis and approved treatments.


Asunto(s)
Neuromielitis Óptica , Animales , Acuaporina 4/inmunología , Humanos , Neuromielitis Óptica/diagnóstico , Neuromielitis Óptica/inmunología , Neuromielitis Óptica/patología , Neuritis Óptica , Calidad de Vida , Recurrencia , Prevención Secundaria
13.
Curr Opin Ophthalmol ; 31(6): 475-482, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009079

RESUMEN

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent studies have increased our understanding of the biochemical and structural bases of visual hallucinations in patients with a variety of underlying causes. RECENT FINDINGS: Visual hallucinations may be related to disruption of functional connectivity networks, with underlying biochemical dysfunction such as decreased in cholinergic activity. Structural abnormalities in primary and higher order visual processing areas also have been found in patients with visual hallucinations. The occurrence of visual hallucinations after vision loss, the Charles Bonnet syndrome, may have more functional similarity to psychiatric and neurodegenerative causes than previously suspected despite retained insight into the unreal nature of the phenomena. SUMMARY: Visual hallucinations are common, and patients may not report them if specific inquiries are not made. Presence or absence of hallucinations may be of diagnostic and therapeutic importance, especially in patients with neurodegenerative conditions that have overlapping features. Treatment of visual hallucinations remains challenging and must be tailored to each patient based on the underlying cause and comorbid conditions.


Asunto(s)
Alucinaciones , Animales , Cognición , Alucinaciones/diagnóstico , Alucinaciones/etiología , Alucinaciones/psicología , Alucinaciones/terapia , Humanos , Cuerpos de Lewy , Visión Ocular
14.
Curr Opin Ophthalmol ; 31(6): 489-494, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009081

RESUMEN

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide a summary of the neuro-ophthalmic manifestations of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), documented in the literature thus far. RECENT FINDINGS: A small but growing literature documents cases of new onset neuro-ophthalmic disease, in the setting of COVID-19 infection. Patients with COVID-19 have experienced acute onset vision loss, optic neuritis, cranial neuropathies, and Miller Fisher syndrome. In addition, COVID-19 increases the risk of cerebrovascular diseases that can impact the visual system. SUMMARY: The literature on COVID-19 continues to evolve. Although COVID-19 primarily impacts the respiratory system, there are several reports of new onset neuro-ophthalmic conditions in COVID-infected patients. When patients present with new onset neuro-ophthalmic issues, COVID-19 should be kept on the differential. Testing for COVID-19 should be considered, especially when fever or respiratory symptoms are also present. When screening general patients for COVID-19-associated symptoms, frontline physicians can consider including questions about diplopia, eye pain, pain with extraocular movements, decreased vision, gait issues, and other neurologic symptoms. The presence of these symptoms may increase the overall probability of viral infection, especially when fever or respiratory symptoms are present. More research is needed to establish a causal relationship between COVID-19 and neuro-ophthalmic disease, and better understand pathogenesis.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/complicaciones , Neumonía Viral/complicaciones , Animales , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Diplopía/etiología , Dolor Ocular/etiología , Humanos , Neuritis Óptica/etiología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico
15.
Curr Opin Ophthalmol ; 31(6): 538-548, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009087

RESUMEN

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review provides a historic perspective of the impact that major pandemics have had on human and their relationship with ophthalmology. The novel coronavirus epidemic is also analyzed, highlighting the relevance of the eye as a possible source of transmission, infection, and prognosis for the disease. RESULTS: Smallpox is suspected to be present for more than 12 000 years. However, trachoma seems to be the first recorded ophthalmological infectious disease. The deadliest pandemics include the bubonic plague, smallpox, and Spanish flu. The CoVID-19 epidemic is still developing and measures need to be implemented to prevent further escalation of the crisis. SUMMARY: Understanding the current facts in light of earlier historical evidence may help us prepare better to minimize the spread of infections in the future.


Asunto(s)
Oftalmopatías/epidemiología , Pandemias , Animales , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Humanos , Influenza Pandémica, 1918-1919 , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Gripe Humana/transmisión , Neumonía Viral
16.
Can Vet J ; 61(10): 1092-1100, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012826

RESUMEN

As a result of the various restrictions associated with the current COVID-19 pandemic, the practice of veterinary telehealth is likely to grow substantially. One area in which high quality care can be maintained while respecting physical distancing is teleconsulting, which describes the relationship between an attending and off-site consulting veterinarian. This guide uses a dentistry case to illustrate the provision of real-time anesthesia consulting, with a focus on the technological considerations central to facilitating live, 2-way video-communication. Case selection, teamwork, and patient safety are also discussed.


Asunto(s)
Anestesia , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Telemedicina , Anestesia/efectos adversos , Anestesia/veterinaria , Animales , Betacoronavirus
17.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(11): 681, 2020 Oct 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025312

RESUMEN

Genotypic diversity among multi-drug-resistant (MDR) aquatic E. coli isolated from different sites of Yamuna River was analyzed using repetitive element PCR (rep-PCR) methods viz. ERIC-PCR and (GTG)5-PCR and compared with the MDR animal fecal isolates. The 97 E. coli isolates belonging to different serotypes, phylogroups, and multi-drug resistance patterns were analyzed. High genetic diversity was observed by both the methods; however, (GTG)5 typing showed higher discriminating potential. Combination of ERIC types (E1-E32) and (GTG)5 types (G1-G46) generated 77 genotypes. The frequency of genotypes ranged from 0.013 to 0.065. The genotype composition of E. coli isolates was highly diverse at all the sampling sites across Yamuna River except at its entry site in Delhi. The sampling sites under the influence of high anthropogenic activities showed an increase in number of unique genotype isolates. These sites also exhibited high multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) indexes (above 0.25) suggesting high risk of contamination. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) showed limited clustering of genotypes based on the sampling sites. The most frequent genotypes were grouped in the positive zone of both the principal coordinates (PC1 and PC2). The genotypes of most of the animal fecal isolates were unique and occupied a common space in the negative PC1 area forming a separate cluster. High genotypic diversity among the aquatic E. coli and the drain isolates, discharging the untreated municipal waste in the river, was observed, suggesting that the sewage effluents contribute substantially to contamination of this river system than animal feces. The presence of such a high diversity among the MDR E. coli isolates in the natural river systems is of great public health significance and highlights the need of an efficient surveillance system for better management of Indian natural water bodies.


Asunto(s)
Escherichia coli , Ríos , Animales , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Escherichia coli/genética , Heces , Genotipo , India , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa
18.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 21(6): 640-644, 2020 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025933

RESUMEN

AIM: The purpose of this research was to survey the effect of low-level laser irradiation time on socket healing in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This randomized nonblinded animal study was done on 24 male rats that were divided into four groups. First maxillary molars of rats were extracted through general anesthesia, and laser was used in all four groups: first group with zero radiation time, second group with 3 minutes, third group with 5 minutes, and fourth group with 10 minutes of radiation by the diode laser (power: 100 mW, wavelength: 980 nm). Half of the rats (three rats) were sacrificed on the 3rd day and another half of rats were sacrificed on the 7th day. Then, the presence of angiogenesis, bone trabeculae, fibroblasts, neutrophil cells, macrophage cells, and lymphocyte cells was assessed. Data were analyzed by SPSS (version 21) using parametric tests. RESULTS: Among 24 rats, on the 3rd day, the percentage of macrophage and bone trabecula increased significantly in the 5 minute group (p = 0.041 and p < 0.01, respectively). Other changes in days 3 and 7 were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Low-level laser radiation can accelerate the process of tooth socket healing, which was particularly noticeable in the 5 minute radiation over 3 days. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Using a low-level laser can be helpful in accelerating the healing of the tooth socket and reduce the complications after tooth extraction.


Asunto(s)
Láseres de Semiconductores , Terapia por Luz de Baja Intensidad , Animales , Láseres de Semiconductores/uso terapéutico , Masculino , Ratas , Extracción Dental , Alveolo Dental , Cicatrización de Heridas
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