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1.
An. psicol ; 40(1): 31-37, Ene-Abri, 2024. tab, ilus
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-229024

RESUMEN

Background/Objective: The Dark Future Scale (DFS) is a self-report instrument which assesses the tendency to think about the future with anxiety, fear, and uncertainty. Although it has been applied in different populations, instrumental studies are scarce, and there is no validated Spanish version. The aim was therefore to develop a Spanish version of the scale (DFS-S) and to analyze its psychometric properties in a sample of young adults. Method: Participants were 1,019 individuals aged from 18 to 24 years. They completed the DFS-S and the IPIP-BFM-20. Validity evidence based on the internal structure, including measurement invariance across gender, as well as on relationships with personality traits was obtained. Reliability and gender differences in DFS-S scores were also examined. Results: Results supported a single-factor structure, χ2(5) = 10.79, CFI = .999, RMSEA = .034, SRMR = .016, that was invariant across gender. Reliability of test scores was satisfactory (ω = .92). In the correlation analysis, future anxiety showed a strong positive correlation with neuroticism (.42) and a moderate negative correlation with extraversion (-.25). Females scored higher than males on future anxiety. Conclusions: The DFS-S has satisfactory psychometric properties and it is an adequate tool for measuring future anxiety among young adults.(AU)


Antecedentes/Objetivo: La Dark Future Scale (DFS) evalúa la ten-dencia a pensar en el futuro con ansiedad, miedo e incertidumbre. Aunque ha sido usadaen diferentes poblaciones, los estudios instrumentales son es-casos y no hay una versión adaptada al español. El objetivo del estudio fue adaptarla al español (DFS-S) y analizar sus propiedades psicométricas en una muestra de adultos jóvenes. Método:Participaron 1.019 jóvenes entre 18 y 24 años. Completaron la DFS-S y el IPIP-BFM-20. Se analizan evidencias de validez basadas en la estructura interna, incluyendo la invarianza de me-dida según el género, y basadas en las relaciones con rasgos de personali-dad, así como análisis de la fiabilidad y de las diferencias de género. Resulta-dos:Los resultados apoyaron una estructura de un solo factor, χ2(5) = 10.79, CFI = .999, RMSEA = .034, SRMR = .016, con invarianza respecto al gé-nero, y con coeficiente de fiabilidad satisfactorio (ω= .92). Se encontró co-rrelación positiva fuerte entre ansiedad futura y neuroticismo (.42) y una correlación negativa moderada con extraversión (-.25). Las puntuaciones en ansiedad futura fueron mayores en las mujeres. Conclusiones:Los resultados muestran propiedades psicométricas satisfactorias delaDFS-S, siendo un instrumento adecuado para medir la ansiedad futura en adultos jóvenes.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto Joven , Escala de Ansiedad ante Pruebas , Psicometría , Incertidumbre , Miedo , España , Salud Mental , Ansiedad , Psicología , Psicología Social
2.
An. psicol ; 40(1): 69-75, Ene-Abri, 2024. tab, ilus
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-229028

RESUMEN

Para frenar la propagación del COVID-19, el gobierno español aplicó medidas restrictivas, como el cierre escolar. Aunque los efectos de la pandemia en el bienestar emocional de los niños han sido estudiados, faltan estudios que examinen la adaptación escolar tras la pandemia y el papel que la infección ha tenido en el proceso de adaptación. El objetivo es analizar la relación entre los eventos estresantes relacionados con la escuela y la adaptación escolar después del confinamiento, incluyendo la ansiedad como mediadora. Los participantes fueron 219 padres de niños y adolescentes españoles de entre 3 y 18 años que completaron encuestas sobre la ansiedad de sus hijos (Spanish Brief Child Version of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale), los eventos estresantes vividos relacionados con la escuela (Stressful Eventos relacionados con el Inventario de Pandemia), y la adaptación escolar (Escala de Ajuste de los Niños después del Cierre Escolar de la Pandemia). Los resultados mostraron mayor prevalencia en el evento estresante distancia social (87%). Tener COVID-19 y sufrir acoso escolar se relacionó directamente con una mayor ansiedad. Los niños que disminuyeron el contacto social y sufrieron acoso escolar mostraron peor adaptación escolar, siendo la ansiedad un mediador indirecto. Los hallazgos destacan la importancia de supervisar la adaptación escolar y promover estrategias para prevenir problemas emocionales en jóvenes expuestos a situaciones estresantes.(AU)


Aiming to mitigate the COVID-19 spread, the government of Spain applied restrictive measures, like schools’ closure. Although the ef-fects of the pandemic on children's emotional well-being have been stud-ied, there is a lack of studies examining school adjustment following the pandemic and the role that the infection has played in the adjustment pro-cess. The objective is to analyze the relationship between stressful events related to school experienced by children and their adjustment to school after the home confinement, including anxiety as a mediator variable. Par-ticipants were the parentsof 219 Spanish children and adolescents aged 3 and 18 years who completed a survey about their children’s anxiety (Span-ish Brief Child Version of the Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale), the stress-ful events experienced related to school (Stressful Events related to Pan-demic Inventory), and the adjustment to school (Adjustment of Children after Pandemic School Closure Scale). Results showed that social distance was the most reported stressful event (87%). Having COVID-19 and expe-riencing bullying were directly related to a high level of anxiety. Children ́s who decreased social contact and experienced bullying showed a worse ad-justment to school. Anxiety was an indirect mediator of this relationship. Findings highlight the importance of supervising school adaptation and promoting strategies to prevent emotional problems when the youths are exposed to stressful situations.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Adolescente , /psicología , Adaptación Psicológica , Salud del Estudiante , Estrés Psicológico , Instituciones Académicas , Ansiedad , /epidemiología , Psicología , Salud Mental , Psicología Social , Ajuste Social , Psicología Educacional
3.
An. psicol ; 40(1): 103-109, Ene-Abri, 2024. ilus, tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-229032

RESUMEN

Objetivos: Con frecuencia se ha informado que la adicción al teléfono móvil (MPA) está correlacionada con trastornos psicológicos como la depresión, el estrés y la ansiedad entre la población joven. Sin embargo, el grado en que estos factores se correlacionan con el AMP y el mecanismo potencial subyacente a esas relaciones son concluyentes. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar la asociación entre el nivel de AMP y la ansiedad social entre adolescentes chinos y examinó el efecto de mediación de los problemas interpersonales entre ellos. Métodos: Una muestra de 1027 estudiantes escolares seleccionados mediante un método de muestreo aleatorio por conglomerados estratificados respondió a cuestionarios sobre el índice MPA, la escala de ansiedad por interacción social, el inventario de problemas interpersonales y variables demográficas. Se realizaron análisis de correlación de Spearman y de regresión lineal múltiple para investigar el alcance de la asociación entre la AMP y la ansiedad social, y la prueba de Sobel y el muestreo de arranque confirmaron el papel mediador de los problemas interpersonales. Resultados: De todos los estudiantes de nuestro estudio, el 5,9% tenían AMP, y la puntuación de AMP se correlacionó positivamente con la ansiedad social después de controlar las variables demográficas en el modelo ajustado. El análisis de regresión de mediación múltiple reveló que el problema interpersonal era un mediador parcial significativo entre la AMP y la ansiedad social. Conclusión: Los adolescentes del AMP fueron un subgrupo de población que necesita prestar más atención para prevenir la ansiedad social. Mejorar los problemas interpersonales podría ser un enfoque eficaz para abordar la ansiedad social inducida por el AMP en los adolescentes.(AU)


Objectives:Mobile phone addiction (MPA) has frequently report-ed to be correlated with psychological disorders such as depression, stress and anxiety among young population. However, the extent to which these factors are correlated with MPA and the potential mechanism underlying those relationships are conclusive. This study aimed to investigate the as-sociation between MPA level and social anxiety among Chinese adoles-cents, and examined the mediation effect of interpersonal problems be-tween them.Methods:A sample of 1027 school-based students selected by a stratified-cluster random sampling method responded to questionnaires re-garding MPA Index, Social Interaction Anxiousness Scale, Interpersonal Problems Inventory, and demographic variables. Spearman correlation and multiple linear regression analyses were performed to investigate the extent of the association between MPA and social anxiety, and Sobel test and bootstrapping sampling confirmed the mediating role ofinterpersonal problems.Results:Of all students in our study, 5.9% were MPA, and MPA score was positively correlated with social anxiety after controlled for de-mographic variables in the adjusted model. Multiple mediation regression analysis revealed that the interpersonal problem was a significant partial mediator between MPA and social anxiety.Conclusion:The MPA adoles-cents were a subgroup population who need to pay more attention to pre-vent social anxiety. Improving interpersonal problems might be aneffec-tive approach to deal with MPA-induced social anxiety in adolescents.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Ansiedad , Relaciones Interpersonales , Depresión , Estrés Psicológico , Psicología del Adolescente , China , Psicología , Psicología Social
4.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 24(1): [100416], Ene-Mar, 2024. tab, ilus
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-230355

RESUMEN

Background: Experiences of childhood psychological maltreatment have been found to be associated with various mental health outcomes, and this association persists into adulthood.Objective: This study investigated whether some types of psychological maltreatment are more harmful than others; whether the harms associated with different types of psychological maltreatment are generalized or specific to particular domains of psychopathology; and whether the associations vary by gender. Method: Participants (N = 544, 63.9 % mother as primary caregiver) were Chinese adults from various regions in China. Participants completed measures of childhood psychological maltreatment experiences perpetrated by their primary caregiver and the mental health outcomes of depression, anxiety, anger, physical aggression, and hostility. The data were analyzed in a hierarchical model in which depression and anxiety were defined as indicators of an internalizing factor, while anger, physical aggression, and hostility were defined as indicators of an externalizing factor. Internalizing and externalizing then defined a higher-order general psychopathology factor. The results suggested equivalent harms of psychological abuse and psychological neglect. Further, the associations between psychological maltreatment and mental health were not unique to specific symptom domains but showed broadband associations with general psychopathology. Results: These findings suggest that trans-diagnostic interventions may be the most effective approach for addressing the mental health impacts of psychological maltreatment. Conclusion: Childhood psychological maltreatment may pose a broadband risk for any and all forms of psychopathology.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Maltrato a los Niños , Experiencias Adversas de la Infancia , Depresión , Ansiedad , Hostilidad , China , Psicología Clínica , Salud Mental , Psicopatología
5.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 24(1): [100418], Ene-Mar, 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-230357

RESUMEN

Background/Objective: The aim was to investigate the extent and longitudinal determinants of post-traumatic growth (PTG) in cancer survivors. Methods: A sample of 1316 cancer survivors with various cancer types was examined using the EORTC QLQ-FA12 to assess fatigue, the EORTC QLQ-C30 pain items to assess pain and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-4) to assess emotional distress two years after diagnosis (t0). Additionally, patients rated how well they felt informed about fatigue at t0. PTG was assessed with the 21-item PTG-Inventory four years after diagnosis (t1) comprising the five subdimensions appreciation of life, relation to others, personal strengths, new possibilities and spiritual change. Results: Regarding the extent of PTG, most positive developments were experienced in the PTG subdimension appreciation of life whereas the subdimension spiritual change was the least pronounced domain. Fatigue, pain and emotional distress were longitudinal but non-linear predictors of long-term PTG. Additionally, poor informedness about fatigue was associated with less PTG. Conclusions: PTG can be perceived even years after a traumatic cancer event and is longitudinally associated with common cancer side effects like fatigue, emotional distress and pain. Further research into the role of individuals' informedness contributing to PTG is needed.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Crecimiento Psicológico Postraumático , Supervivientes de Cáncer/psicología , Fatiga , Dimensión del Dolor , Ansiedad/psicología , Psicología Clínica , Salud Mental , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Psicooncología
6.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 24(1): [100422], Ene-Mar, 2024. tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-230360

RESUMEN

Background/Objective: WazzUp Mama© is a remotely delivered web-based tailored intervention to prevent and reduce perinatal emotional distress, originally developed in the Netherlands. The current study aimed to evaluate the adapted WazzUp Mama© intervention in a Flemish (Dutch-speaking part of Belgium) perinatal population. Methods: A 1:3 nested case-control study was performed. A data set including 676 participants (169 cases/507 controls) was composed based on core characteristics. Using independent t-test and chi-square, the two groups were compared for mean depression, self and perceived stigma, depression literacy scores, and for positive Whooley items and heightened depression scores. The primary analysis was adjusted for covariates. Results: The number of positive Whooley items, the above cut-off depression scores, mean depression, perceived stigma, and depression literacy scores showed statistically significant differences between cases and controls, in favor of the intervention group. When adjusting for the covariates, the statistically significant differences between cases and controls remained for depression, perceived stigma, and depression literacy, for the positive Whooley items and for above cut-off depression scores. Conclusion: WazzUp Mama© indicates to have a moderate to large positive effect on optimizing perinatal emotional wellbeing, to positively change perceived stigma and to increase depression literacy.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Ansiedad , Depresión , Alfabetización Digital , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Psicología Clínica , Psicología , Salud de la Mujer
7.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 24(1): [100434], Ene-Mar, 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-230373

RESUMEN

Background: This study aims to (1) investigate the prevalence of anxiety, depression and severe fear of cancer recurrence or progression in gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) patients treated in a curative or palliative setting, (2) compare their prevalence with a norm population, (3) identify factors associated with anxiety, depression and severe fear, and (4) study the impact of these psychological symptoms on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Methods: In a cross-sectional study, GIST patients completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Cancer Worry Scale, and EORTC QLQ-C30. Results: Of the 328 patients, 15% reported anxiety, 13% depression, and 43% had severe fear. Anxiety and depression levels were comparable between the norm population and patients in the curative setting, but significantly higher for patients in the palliative setting. Having other psychological symptoms was associated with anxiety, while current TKI treatment and anxiety were associated with depression. Severe fear was associated with age, female sex, palliative treatment setting, anxiety, and GIST-related concerns. Conclusion: GIST patients treated in a palliative setting are more prone to experience psychological symptoms, which can significantly impair their HRQoL. These symptoms deserve more attention in clinical practice, in which regular screening can be helpful, and appropriate interventions should be offered.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Miedo , Ansiedad , Depresión , Tumores del Estroma Gastrointestinal , Prevalencia , Pacientes/psicología , Países Bajos , Estudios Transversales , Escala de Ansiedad ante Pruebas , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Psicología Clínica , Medición de Resultados Informados por el Paciente
8.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 24(1): [100443], Ene-Mar, 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-230382

RESUMEN

Background/Objective: (1) Examine the role of exercise intensity on mental health symptoms in a community-based sample of older adults. (2) Explore the moderating role of genetic variation in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and apolipoprotein E (APOE) on the effects of exercise on mental health symptoms. Method: This study is a secondary analysis of a three-arm randomized controlled trial, comparing the effects of 6 months of high-intensity aerobic training vs. moderate-intensity aerobic training vs. a no-contact control group on mental health symptoms assessed using the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS). The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and APOE ε4 carrier status were explored as genetic moderators of exercise effects on mental health symptoms. Results: The exercise intervention did not influence mental health symptoms. The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism did not moderate intervention effects on mental health symptoms. APOE ε4 carrier status moderated the effect of intervention group on perceived stress over 6 months, such that APOE ε4 carriers, but not non-carriers, in the high-intensity aerobic training group showed a decline in perceived stress over 6 months. Conclusions: APOE ε4 carrier status may modify the benefits of high-intensity exercise on perceived stress such that APOE ε4 carriers show a greater decline in stress as a result of exercise relative to non-APOE ε4 carriers.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Salud Mental , /psicología , Cognición , Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual , Ansiedad , Estrés Psicológico , Psiquiatría , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Ejercicio Físico
9.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 30(2): e14562, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38334239

RESUMEN

AIMS: This systematic review and meta-regression aimed to examine available literature reporting measures of physical function, anxiety, and/or depression and whether any relationships exist between these measures in individuals with Parkinson's disease. METHODS: MEDLINE, CINAHL, AMED, and APA PsychInfo databases were systematically searched. Screening, quality assessment, and data extraction were completed alongside meta-regression analysis. RESULTS: Of 1175 studies retrieved, 40 were selected for analysis with only one study assessing the relationship between physical and psychological outcomes within their cohort. A total of 27 studies were also eligible for meta-regression analysis-a total sample of 1211 participants. Meta-regressions of five combinations of paired physical and psychological outcomes showed a significant moderating effect of symptoms of depression (Beck Depression Inventory) on mobility (Timed-Up-and-Go test; coefficient = 0.37, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.65, p = 0.012) and balance (Berg Balance Score) scores (coefficient = -1.25, 95% CI -1.77 to -0.73, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Although physical and psychological outcomes of interest were used in all included studies, only one examined their relationship. Our analysis suggests that symptoms of depression may influence measures of mobility and balance. Specifically, as the severity of symptoms of depression increases, performance on measures of mobility and balance worsens.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Parkinson , Humanos , Equilibrio Postural , Estudios de Tiempo y Movimiento , Ansiedad , Calidad de Vida
10.
West J Nurs Res ; 46(3): 192-200, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38343034

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Understanding the relationship between mental health and COVID-19 prevention practices is crucial but challenging considering COVID-19's impact on mental well-being. Liberia, a West African country, had well-documented rates of depression and anxiety prior to COVID-19. Liberia responded aggressively to COVID-19 while case counts remained low; thus, it is an ideal setting to study the relationship of mental health and COVID-19 prevention practices. METHODS: A validated cross-sectional survey was administered to 250 randomly selected residents of Montserrado county, Liberia in June 2021, asking about their mental health and adherence to COVID-19 prevention practices. The survey included the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 to assess for anxiety and depression, respectively. Responses were analyzed using Spearman correlation and regression. RESULTS: Scores indicative of depression were present in 43% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 37-49) of participants; scores indicative of anxiety were present in 41% (95% CI: 34-47). Self-reported adherence to COVID-19 prevention practices was middling and varied greatly by behavior. Higher scores for depression and anxiety were significantly associated with lower adherence to COVID-19 prevention practices. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate that while the spread of COVID-19 has certainly affected mental health, it is likely that pre-existing mental health conditions affected the spread of COVID-19 through lower adherence to prevention practices. Policymakers should consider investing in mental health services as an important step in managing future epidemics, and the needs of people with poor mental health when designing epidemic responses, particularly in low-income countries where the burdens of adherence are likely to be greater.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Depresión/epidemiología , Depresión/prevención & control , Liberia/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , SARS-CoV-2 , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Ansiedad/prevención & control , Trastornos de Ansiedad
11.
J Occup Health ; 66(1)2024 Jan 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38348494

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To assess the stress level, the impact of stress factors, and discrepancies between fourth- and fifth-year undergraduate clinical students at the University of Jordan. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the academic year 2022/2023. The study group included fourth- and fifth-year dental students at the University of Jordan (n = 382) who were asked to voluntarily fill in an online dental environment stress (DES) questionnaire. Analysis was conducted using Mann-Whitney U test, independent t-test, χ2 test, and Spearman ρ rank correlations. Statistical significance was inferred when P < .05. RESULTS: Fourth-year students reported higher levels of nervousness before treating patients for the first time. Fifth-year students faced more difficulty, higher stress, and/or fear regarding the amount of assigned work, provided treatment, completed requirements, failing the course, time to finish assignments, patient comprehensive care, and financial expenses of the course. Comparison between groups revealed that the fifth-year students scored higher levels of stress on the total DES score and all partial DES scores. Furthermore, the total DES questionnaire scores were significantly correlated with grade point average (GPA) among the total study sample and the prosthodontics clinical course marks among the fourth-year students' group. CONCLUSIONS: The stress level among students in clinical courses was influenced by their academic performance, gender, year level, and the type and time needed for the provided treatment. Completing course requirements was among the most commonly faced stressors. Future research endeavors might be considered to study each clinical factor, its impact on students' stress level, and how to manage and positively improve these factors.


Asunto(s)
Estrés Psicológico , Estudiantes de Odontología , Humanos , Estudios Transversales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Ansiedad
12.
BMJ Ment Health ; 27(1)2024 Feb 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38351099

RESUMEN

QUESTION: Depression is highly prevalent and associated with numerous adverse consequences for both individuals and society. Due to low uptake of direct treatment, interventions that target related, but less stigmatising problems, such as perceived stress, have emerged as a new research paradigm.This individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis examines if a web-based stress management intervention can be used as an 'indirect' treatment of depression. STUDY SELECTION AND ANALYSIS: Bayesian one-stage models were used to estimate pooled effects on depressive symptom severity, minimally important improvement and reliable deterioration. The dose-response relationship was examined using multilevel additive models, and IPD network meta-analysis was employed to estimate the effect of guidance. FINDINGS: In total, N=1235 patients suffering from clinical-level depression from K=6 randomised trials were included. Moderate-to-large effects were found on depressive symptom severity at 7 weeks post-intervention (d=-0.65; 95% credibility interval (CrI): -0.84 to -0.48) as measured with the Center for Epidemiological Studies' Depression Scale. Effects were sustained at 3-month follow-up (d=-0.74; 95% CrI: -1.01 to -0.48). Post-intervention symptom severity was linearly related to the number of completed sessions. The incremental impact of guidance was estimated at d=-0.25 (95% CrI: -1.30 to 0.82), with a 35% posterior probability that guided and unguided formats produce equivalent effects. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that web-based stress management can serve as an indirect treatment, yielding effects comparable with direct interventions for depression. Further research is needed to determine if such formats can indeed increase the utilisation of evidence-based treatment, and to corroborate the favourable effects for human guidance. STUDY REGISTRATION: Open material repository: osf.io/dbjc8, osf.io/3qtbe. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: German Clinical Trial Registration (DRKS): DRKS00004749, DRKS00005112, DRKS00005384, DRKS00005687, DRKS00005699, DRKS00005990.


Asunto(s)
Depresión , Psicoterapia , Humanos , Depresión/terapia , Teorema de Bayes , Psicoterapia/métodos , Ansiedad/terapia , Internet , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
13.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 30(2): e14614, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38358062

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) is a crucial neuromodulation therapy for depression, yet its molecular mechanism remains unclear. Here, we aim to unveil the underlying mechanisms of antidepression by systematically evaluating the change of gene expression in different brain regions (i.e., hippocampus, anterior cingulate cortex, and medial prefrontal cortex). METHODS: The adolescent depression rat model was established by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), followed by the taVNS treatment for 3 weeks. The open field test (OFT), forced swimming test (FST), elevated plus maze test (EPM), and new object recognition (NOR) test were used to evaluate depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors. Gene expression analysis of three brain regions was conducted by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and further bioinformatics methods. RESULTS: The depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors in CUMS-exposed rats were manifested by decreased spontaneous locomotor activity of OFT, increased immobility time of FST, increased entries and time in the closed arms of EPM, and decreased new object index of NOR. Furthermore, CUMS exposure also led to alterations in gene expression within the hippocampus (HIP), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), suggesting a potential link between adolescent stress and pathological changes within these brain regions. TaVNS could significantly ameliorate depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors. Its effects on these three brain regions were found related to regulation of the metabolism, and there were some brain region-specific findings. Compared with ACC and mPFC, taVNS has a more concrete effect on HIP by regulating the inflammation response and glycolysis. CONCLUSION: taVNS is capable of ameliorating adolescent depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors by regulating plenty of genes in the three brain regions. Suppressed level of inflammatory response and enhanced glycolysis manifests the dominant role of taVNS in HIP, which provides a theoretical foundation and data support for the molecular mechanism of antidepression by taVNS.


Asunto(s)
Estimulación del Nervio Vago , Ratas , Animales , Encéfalo , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Ansiedad/terapia , Nervio Vago , Inflamación/terapia , Inflamación/metabolismo
14.
Gut Microbes ; 16(1): 2319844, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38404132

RESUMEN

Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including ulcerative colitis (UC), show an increased incidence of anxiety and depression; however, the association between UC-associated psychiatric disorders and the gut microbiota is unclear. This study aimed to examine whether gut microbiota from patients with UC can alter colonic gene expression, leading to anxiety- and depression-like behavior in mice receiving fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). RNA sequencing transcriptome analyses revealed a difference in colonic gene expression between mice receiving FMT from patients with UC (UC-FMT mice) and those receiving FMT from healthy controls (HC-FMT mice). Gene ontology analysis revealed the downregulation of neuropeptide signaling pathways, including neuropeptide Y (NPY) expression, in the colons of UC-FMT mice. The protein levels of NPY also decreased in the colon and plasma of UC-FMT mice compared to those in HC-FMT mice. The oral administration of Enterococcus mundtii (EM), a bacterium isolated from the feces of patients with UC, reduced NPY expression in the colons of mice and induced intestinal inflammation, anxiety, and depression-like behavior. Reduced NPY protein levels were also observed in the plasma and hippocampus of EM-treated mice. Intraperitoneal administration of NPY significantly alleviated anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors induced by EM in mice. Capsular polysaccharide in EM was associated with EM-induced NPY downregulation in the colon. Analysis of Gene Expression Omnibus datasets showed markedly reduced NPY expression in the inflamed colons of patients with UC compared with that in the colons of healthy controls. In summary, EM-induced reduction in the colonic expression of NPY may be associated with a decrease in hippocampal NPY and anxiety- and depression-like behavior in mice.


Asunto(s)
Colitis Ulcerosa , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Colitis Ulcerosa/microbiología , Neuropéptido Y/genética , Depresión , Trasplante de Microbiota Fecal , Heces/microbiología , Ansiedad
15.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0299462, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38408056

RESUMEN

Health anxiety, which is defined as fear of having or contracting serious physical illness, is particularly salient in light of the COVID-19 pandemic. We conducted a mixed methods study in which 578 narrative samples were analyzed using Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) software to determine linguistic markers from six LIWC categories relevant to cognitive-behavioral features of health anxiety. Broad linguistic predictors were analyzed through three backward elimination regression models in order to inform subcategory predictors of each area of health anxiety. Thus, both broad and specific linguistic predictors of general health anxiety, virus-relevant body vigilance, and fears of viral contamination were examined. Greater use of affective category words in written narratives predicted general health anxiety, as well as body vigilance and viral contamination fears. These findings represent the first direct demonstration of linguistic analysis of health anxiety and provide nuanced information about the nature and etiology of health anxiety.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , Lingüística , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Trastornos de Ansiedad
16.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1333997, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38414900

RESUMEN

Introduction: The COVID-19 outbreak and the community mitigation strategies implemented to reduce new SARS-CoV-2 infections can be regarded as powerful stressors with negative consequences on people's mental health. Although it has been shown that negative emotional symptoms subside during lockdown, it is likely the existence of inter-individual differences in stress, anxiety and depression trajectories throughout lockdown. Objectives: We aimed to cluster participants' according to their trajectories of stress, anxiety and depression scores throughout lockdown, and identify the sociodemographic, clinical, and lifestyle factors that may distinguish the subjects included in the different clusters. Methods: From March 23, 2020, to May 31, 2020, participants completed weekly online questionnaires on sociodemographic information (age, sex, education level, and employment status), psychological functioning (DASS-21, NEO-FFI-20), and clinical data (psychiatric disorders, psychiatric medication, physical disorders). Data regarding smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and time spent daily looking for COVID-19-related information were also collected. Stress, anxiety and depression trajectories were determined using latent class mixed models. Results: A total of 2040 participants answered the survey at baseline and 603 participants answered all surveys. Three groups ("Resilient," "Recovered," and "Maladaptive") with distinct mental health trajectories were identified. Younger participants, women, participants with lower education level, not working, studying, diagnosed with a mental disorder, taking psychiatric medication, smokers, those who spent more time consuming COVID-19-related information and those with higher neuroticism tended to cluster in the "Maladaptive" group, placing them at higher risk of persistent negative emotional symptoms during compulsory confinement. Conclusion: Accordingly, a tailored approach to emotional suffering for vulnerable subjects during the COVID-19 and future pandemics must be devised.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Humanos , Femenino , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/psicología , Pandemias , Depresión/epidemiología , Depresión/psicología , Portugal/epidemiología , SARS-CoV-2 , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Ansiedad/psicología
17.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 60(2)2024 Jan 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38399503

RESUMEN

Background and Objectives: Evidence shows that throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, nurses suffered from emotional symptoms, yet in spite of this, few studies within "positive psychology" have analyzed the emergence/promotion of positive traits, such as hardiness. In this context, the present study aimed to test a model regarding the mediating role of self-efficacy between anxiety experienced at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic and hardiness assessed six months later among nurses in critical care units (CCU) in Spain. Materials and Methods: An observational, descriptive, prospective longitudinal study with two data collection periods: (1) from the 1 to the 21 June 2020 (final phase of the state of alarm declared in Spain on 14 March) in which socio-demographic and occupational variables, anxiety (Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale, DASS-21), self-efficacy (General Self-Efficacy Scale, GSES) and basal resilience (Resilience Scale-14, RS-14) were assessed, and (2) a follow-up 6 months later (January-March 2021) in which hardiness (Occupational Hardiness Questionnaire, OHQ) was evaluated. To analyze the data, multivariate regressions were performed using the PROCESS macro (simple mediation, model 4). Results: A total of 131 Spanish nurses from CCUs, with a mean age of 40.54 years (88.5% women) participated in the study. Moderate and severe levels of anxiety were observed in 19.1% of the sample. Significant and positive correlations were observed between self-efficacy, hardiness and resilience (all p < 0.001). Significant negative correlations were observed between anxiety and self-efficacy (p < 0.001), hardiness (p = 0.027) and resilience (p = 0.005). The indirect effect of anxiety on hardiness through self-efficacy was significant (Effect (SE) = -0.275 (0.100); LLCI = -0.487, ULCI = -0.097), contributing to 28% of the variance, including resilience (p = 0.015), age (p = 0.784), gender (p = 0.294) and years of experience (p = 0.652) as covariates. A total mediation was observed (non-significant anxiety-hardiness direct effect; Effect (SE) = -0.053 (0.215), t = 0.248, p = 0.804, LLCI = -0.372, ULCI = 0.479). Conclusions: The results suggest that in Spanish CCU nurses, anxiety experienced at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic may contribute to the development of hardiness through positive resources such as self-efficacy.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Resiliencia Psicológica , Humanos , Femenino , Adulto , Masculino , Autoeficacia , Pandemias , Estudios Longitudinales , Estudios Prospectivos , Ansiedad/epidemiología
18.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 60(2)2024 Feb 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38399548

RESUMEN

Background and Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a prevalent chronic condition that has been associated with mental disorders like depression and anxiety. This study intends to provide a practical overview of the most relevant self-reported and self-rating scales that assess depression and anxiety in OSA patients. Materials and Methods: A search for articles was performed using PubMed, Google Scholar, and Semantic Scholar using a combination of words for obstructive sleep apnea, depression, anxiety, and scales. The tools were ordered by type (screening and rating) and arranged chronologically according to the year of publication. Results: Three scales were identified for assessing depression, which were the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D), and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). For rating depression, two scales were discussed: the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), which has three versions (the BDI, the BDI-II, and the Fast Screen (BDI-FS)). For assessing anxiety, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) scale was identified. Two scales were reviewed for rating anxiety: the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Each scale is accompanied by a brief description of its practicality and psychometric qualities and an analysis of its strengths and limitations. Conclusions: The findings of this review will contribute to the understanding of the importance of assessing mental health comorbidities in the context of OSA, ultimately guiding clinical practice and future research in this area.


Asunto(s)
Depresión , Apnea Obstructiva del Sueño , Adulto , Humanos , Depresión/diagnóstico , Depresión/etiología , Autoinforme , Ansiedad/diagnóstico , Trastornos de Ansiedad , Apnea Obstructiva del Sueño/diagnóstico , Apnea Obstructiva del Sueño/complicaciones , Escalas de Valoración Psiquiátrica
19.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 60(2)2024 Feb 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38399572

RESUMEN

Chronic stress and chronic pain share neuro-anatomical, endocrinological, and biological features. However, stress prepares the body for challenging situations or mitigates tissue damage, while pain is an unpleasant sensation due to nociceptive receptor stimulation. When pain is chronic, it might lead to an allostatic overload in the body and brain due to the chronic dysregulation of the physiological systems that are normally involved in adapting to environmental challenges. Managing stress and chronic pain (CP) in neurorehabilitation presents a significant challenge for healthcare professionals and researchers, as there is no definitive and effective solution for these issues. Patients suffering from neurological disorders often complain of CP, which significantly reduces their quality of life. The aim of this narrative review is to examine the correlation between stress and pain and their potential negative impact on the rehabilitation process. Moreover, we described the most relevant interventions used to manage stress and pain in the neurological population. In conclusion, this review sheds light on the connection between chronic stress and chronic pain and their impact on the neurorehabilitation pathway. Our results emphasize the need for tailored rehabilitation protocols to effectively manage pain, improve treatment adherence, and ensure comprehensive patient care.


Asunto(s)
Dolor Crónico , Humanos , Neuroendocrinología , Calidad de Vida , Ansiedad
20.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 60(2)2024 Feb 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38399579

RESUMEN

Background and Objectives: Chronic pain is a prevalent condition that is frequently complicated by mood and anxiety disorders. The purpose of the present article is to identify differences in the management of patients with chronic pain and anxiety/mood disorders depending on the physiotherapists' gender. Materials and Methods: An ad hoc questionnaire was developed and sent to 327 physiotherapists by e-mail. The two groups identified by gender were compared by unpaired-sample t tests for continuous variables and χ2 tests for qualitative ones. A binary logistic regression was then performed with factors resulting as statistically significant in univariate analyses as independent variables and gender as a dependent one. Results: Female physiotherapists exhibited a higher level of confidence than male physiotherapists in administering continued physiotherapy for patients affected by Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) (p = 0.01), as well as for individuals who had previously engaged with a mental health professional (p = 0.01). Furthermore, female physiotherapists believed that pharmacotherapy was less associated with motor side effects (p < 0.01) and more frequently recognized the importance of training to identify affective disorders (p = 0.01) and the need for more education in mental health (p = 0.01). The binary logistic regression model confirmed that female professionals were less likely to work = freelance (p = 0.015) and were more confident in the receival of physiotherapy by patients with GAD (p = 0.05). Conclusions: Female physiotherapists compared to male ones seem to be more comfortable with patients affected by mental conditions and to be more aware of the need for training on mental health. Further studies are needed to confirm the results of the present study.


Asunto(s)
Dolor Crónico , Fisioterapeutas , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Dolor Crónico/terapia , Depresión/complicaciones , Depresión/terapia , Ansiedad/terapia , Comorbilidad
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