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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(3): e24304, 2021 Jan 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546057

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Drugs that affect the renin-angiotensin system, such as angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors are not typically recommended for pregnant women because of their potential fetal toxicity. CASE STUDY: A 32-year-old pregnant woman with nephrotic syndrome lasting more than 5 years became pregnant for the first time. She had been taking losartan tablets before and during pregnancy. Ultrasound at 24+2 weeks of pregnancy showed oligohydramnios, and the maximum vertical depth of amniotic fluid volume was 1.4 cm. Follow-up ultrasound examinations every 2 weeks showed persistent oligohydramnios [amniotic fluid volume: 1.1-3.4 cm, amniotic fluid index 1.9-6.9 cm]. B-ultrasound at 30+2 weeks showed slightly enhanced fetal renal cortex echo. The patient was treated at 32+2 weeks of pregnancy at our hospital. DIAGNOSES: Nephrotic syndrome and oligohydramnios. INTERVENTIONS: Losartan was discontinued and replaced by nifedipine controlled-release tablets to lower blood pressure. The amount of amniotic fluid gradually increased to normal levels within 8 days. The patient was discharged at 33+2 weeks of pregnancy for follow-up. At 34+4 weeks, blood pressure had increased to 177/113 mm Hg and the patient was re-hospitalized with nephrotic syndrome complicated by preeclampsia. Due to progression of severe preeclampsia, elective cesarean section was performed at 35+3 weeks. After delivery, losartan and nifedipine were prescribed to continue lowering blood pressure. The patient was discharged 4 days after surgery. OUTCOMES: Losartan use was terminated at 32+2 weeks of pregnancy. Amniotic fluid returned to normal after 8 days and the baby was delivered after 22 days. At last follow-up, the infant was 24 months old and healthy. CONCLUSION: Although ARBs are effective for treating hypertension, they should be replaced by other classes of anti-hypertensive drugs in pregnant women. Pregnant women who elect to continue using ARBs should be informed about risks, they should be carefully monitored during pregnancy, and their pregnancy should be allowed to proceed as long as clinically feasible in order to optimize maternal and infant outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efectos adversos , Oligohidramnios/etiología , Complicaciones del Embarazo/etiología , Adulto , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapéutico , Femenino , Humanos , Losartán/efectos adversos , Losartán/uso terapéutico , Síndrome Nefrótico/tratamiento farmacológico , Síndrome Nefrótico/fisiopatología , Oligohidramnios/diagnóstico por imagen , Embarazo , Complicaciones del Embarazo/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Prenatal/métodos , Ultrasonografía/métodos
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 175, 2021 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588797

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: While hypertension is the most common comorbid condition in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Korea, there is a lack of studies investigating risk factors in COVID-19 patients with hypertension in Korea. In this study, we aimed to examine the effects risk factors in hypertensive Korean COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We selected patients from the database of the project #OpenData4Covid19. This information was linked to their 3-year historical healthcare data. The severity of the disease was classified into five levels. We also clustered the levels into two grades. RESULTS: The risk factors associated with COVID-19 severity were old age, diabetes mellitus, cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), malignancy, and renal replacement therapy. The use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) both before and after a diagnosis of COVID-19 were not associated with COVID-19 severity. A multivariate analysis revealed that old age, male sex, diabetes mellitus, and renal replacement therapy were risk factors for severe COVID-19. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that in hypertensive patients with COVID-19, older age, male sex, a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, and renal replacement therapy were risk factors for a severe clinical course. In addition, the use of ARBs and ACEIs before or after COVID-19 infection did not affect a patient's risk of contracting COVID-19 nor did it contribute to a worse prognosis for the disease. These results highlighted that precautions should be considered for hypertensive patients with those risk factors and do not support discontinuation of ARBs and ACEIs during COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efectos adversos , Inhibidores de la Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina/efectos adversos , /patología , Anciano , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapéutico , Inhibidores de la Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina/uso terapéutico , /epidemiología , Diabetes Mellitus/patología , Femenino , Humanos , Hipertensión/complicaciones , Hipertensión/patología , Masculino , Anamnesis , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efectos de los fármacos , República de Corea/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , /fisiología
3.
BMJ Open ; 11(2): e043625, 2021 02 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33593784

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Whether ACE inhibitors (ACEi) or angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) therapy should be continued, initiated or ceased in patients with COVID-19 is uncertain. Given the widespread use of ACEi/ARBs worldwide, guidance on the use of these drugs is urgently needed. This prospective meta-analysis aims to pool data from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) to assess the safety and efficacy of ACEi/ARB therapy in adults infected with SARS-CoV-2. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: RCTs will be eligible if they compare patients with COVID-19 randomised to ACEi/ARB continuation or commencement versuss no ACEi/ARB therapy; study duration ≥14 days; recruitment completed between March 2020 and May 2021. The primary outcome will be all-cause mortality at ≤30 days. Secondary outcomes will include mechanical ventilation, admission to intensive care or cardiovascular events at short-term follow-up (≤30 days) and all-cause mortality at longer-term follow-up (>1 month). Prespecified subgroup analyses will assess the effect of sex; age; comorbidities; smoking status; ethnicity; country of origin on all-cause mortality. A search of ClinicalTrials.gov has been performed, which will be followed by a formal search of trial registers, preprint servers, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to identify RCTs that meet inclusion criteria. To date, a search of ClinicalTrials.gov identified 21 potentially eligible trials for this meta-analysis. We will request trial investigators/sponsors to contribute standardised grouped tabular outcome data. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval and informed consent will be the responsibility of the individual RCTs. Dissemination of results will occur by peer-reviewed publication. The results of our analysis can inform public health policy and clinical decision making regarding ACEi/ARB use in patients with COVID-19 on a global scale.


Asunto(s)
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapéutico , Inhibidores de la Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina/uso terapéutico , Metaanálisis como Asunto , Humanos , Estudios Prospectivos , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina , Proyectos de Investigación
4.
Epidemiol Health ; 43: e2021004, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33445824

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Recent evidence has shown no harm associated with the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We sought to further clarify the possible association between ACEI/ARB use and the risk of poor clinical outcomes of COVID-19. METHODS: From the completely enumerated COVID-19 cohort in Korea, we identified 1,290 patients with hypertension, of whom 682 had and 603 did not have records of ACEI/ARB use during the 30-day period before their COVID-19 diagnosis. Our primary endpoint comprised clinical outcomes, including all-cause mortality, use of mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit admission, and sepsis. We used inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) to mitigate selection bias, and a Poisson regression model to estimate the relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for comparing outcomes between ACEI/ARB users and non-users. RESULTS: Compared to non-use, ACEI/ARB use was associated with lower clinical outcomes (IPTW-adjusted RR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.42 to 0.85; p=0.005). For individual outcomes, ACEI/ARB use was not associated with all-cause mortality (IPTW-adjusted RR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.35 to 1.09; p=0.097) or respiratory events (IPTW-adjusted RR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.84 to 1.17; p=0.904). Subgroup analysis showed a trend toward a protective role of ACEIs and ARBs against overall outcomes in men (IPTW-adjusted RR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.69 to 1.03; pinteraction=0.008) and patients with pre-existing respiratory disease (IPTW-adjusted RR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.60 to 0.92; pinteraction=0.002). CONCLUSIONS: We present clinical evidence to support continuing ACE/ARB use in COVID-19 patients with hypertension based on the completely enumerated Korean cohort.


Asunto(s)
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapéutico , Inhibidores de la Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina/uso terapéutico , Hipertensión/tratamiento farmacológico , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , República de Corea/epidemiología , Resultado del Tratamiento
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(1): e24280, 2021 Jan 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429839

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is one of the most common arrhythmias, and is high relative to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. AF-related complications and treatment costs bring about huge health burden, therefore the prevention recurrence of AF is imperative. "Upstream therapy" refers to the use of non-antiarrhythmic drugs (non-AADs) that modify the atrial substrate or target-specific mechanisms of AF to prevent the occurrence or recurrence of the arrhythmia. RAAS Blockers, aldosterone receptor antagonists and statins have an effect on preventing recurrence of atrial fibrillation. This protocol is designed for systematic review and network meta-analysis, which will assess comparative effects and safety of various non-antiarrhythmic drugs in preventing recurrence of atrial fibrillation. METHODS: The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, ClinicalTrials.gov will be searched from inception to Aug 31, 2020 to identify relevant studies. The Cochrane "Risk of bias" tool will be used to assess the methodological quality of eligible studies. The pair-wise meta-analysis will be performed by STATA 14.0 software. The network meta-analysis will be implemented in a Bayesian framework using Win BUGS 1.4.3 and the package "gemtc" V.0.8.1 of R-3.6.2 software. The network plots will be drawn using STATA 14.0 software. A comparison-adjusted funnel plot will be used to assess the publication bias using STATA 14.0 software. Quality of evidence will be assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. RESULTS: The results of this network meta-analysis will determine the preventive effect and rank ordering of these interventions for recurrence of AF. The report will follow the PRISMA checklist for network meta-analysis. CONCLUSION: This network meta-analysis will provide comprehensive evidence-based information in clinical practice. INPLASY REGISTRATION NUMBER: INPLASY202090004.


Asunto(s)
Fibrilación Atrial/tratamiento farmacológico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapéutico , Inhibidores de la Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina/uso terapéutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Inhibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Reductasas/uso terapéutico
8.
Hypertension ; 77(3): 833-842, 2021 03 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33423528

RESUMEN

After initially hypothesizing a positive relationship between use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors and risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), more recent evidence suggests negative associations. We examined whether COVID-19 risk differs according to antihypertensive drug class in patients treated by ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) compared with calcium channel blockers (CCBs). Three exclusive cohorts of prevalent ACE inhibitors, ARB and CCB users, aged 18 to 80 years, from the French National Health Insurance databases were followed from February 15, 2020 to June 7, 2020. We excluded patients with a history of diabetes, known cardiovascular disease, chronic renal failure, or chronic respiratory disease during the previous 5 years, to only consider patients treated for uncomplicated hypertension and to limit indication bias. The primary end point was time to hospitalization for COVID-19. The secondary end point was time to intubation/death during a hospital stay for COVID-19. In a population of almost 2 million hypertensive patients (ACE inhibitors: 566 023; ARB: 958 227; CCB: 358 306) followed for 16 weeks, 2338 were hospitalized and 526 died or were intubated for COVID-19. ACE inhibitors and ARBs were associated with a lower risk of COVID-19 hospitalization compared with CCBs (hazard ratio, 0.74 [95% CI, 0.65-0.83] and 0.84 [0.76-0.93], respectively) and a lower risk of intubation/death. Risks were slightly lower for ACE inhibitor users than for ARB users. This large observational study may suggest a lower COVID-19 risk in hypertensive patients treated over a long period with ACE inhibitors or ARBs compared with CCBs. These results, if confirmed, tend to contradict previous hypotheses and raise new hypotheses.


Asunto(s)
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efectos adversos , Inhibidores de la Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina/efectos adversos , Antihipertensivos/efectos adversos , Hipertensión/tratamiento farmacológico , Pandemias , Receptores Virales/efectos de los fármacos , /fisiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapéutico , Inhibidores de la Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina/uso terapéutico , Antihipertensivos/uso terapéutico , Bloqueadores de los Canales de Calcio/efectos adversos , Bloqueadores de los Canales de Calcio/uso terapéutico , Comorbilidad , Susceptibilidad a Enfermedades , Utilización de Medicamentos , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Francia/epidemiología , Mortalidad Hospitalaria , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Intubación Intratraqueal/estadística & datos numéricos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Adulto Joven
9.
Molecules ; 26(3)2021 Jan 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33504092

RESUMEN

The octapeptide hormone angiotensin II is one of the most studied peptides with the aim of designing and synthesizing non-peptide mimetics for oral administration. To achieve this, cyclizations at different positions within the peptide molecule has been a useful strategy to define the active conformation. These studies on angiotensin II led to the discovery of Sarmesin, a type II angiotensin II antagonist, and the breakthrough non-peptide mimetic Losartan, the first in a series of sartans marketed as a new generation of anti-hypertensive drugs in the 1990s. Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBS) and angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) were recently reported to protect hypertensive patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors reduce excess angiotensin II and increase antagonist heptapeptides alamandine and aspamandine which counterbalance angiotensin II and maintain homeostasis and vasodilation.


Asunto(s)
Angiotensina II/uso terapéutico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapéutico , /tratamiento farmacológico , /virología , Humanos , Hipertensión/tratamiento farmacológico , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efectos de los fármacos , /aislamiento & purificación
10.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(1): 523-526, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33506944

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, millions of people have been infected with thousands of deaths. Few data regarding factors that increase the risk of infection are available. Our study aimed to evaluate all people living in retirement homes (PLRNH) and identify factors that could increase infection risk in a close community. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study enrolling all PLRNH, where at least one SARS-CoV-2 infected person was present. Variables were compared with Student's t-test or Pearson chi-square test as appropriate. Uni- and multivariate analyses were conducted to evaluate variables' influence on the infection. RESULTS: We included 452 PLRNH; 144 (31.7%) were male, with a mean age of 82.2±8.6 years. People with a positive swab for SARS-CoV-2 were 306 (67.4%). A significant difference between SARS-CoV-2 infected and not infected was observed in the percentage of those receiving chronic treatment with Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) (18.6% vs. 9.5%, p=0.012). On the contrary, there was no difference in the proportion of those receiving ACE inhibitors (ACE-I) (21.2% vs. 23.6%, p=0.562). At multivariate analysis, people with mental illness and cancer had an increased risk of being infected. Furthermore, receiving ARBs as a chronic treatment was an independent predictor of infection risk [OR 1.95 (95% CI 1.03-3.72) p=0.041]. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that, in close communities, such as retirement nursing homes, the receipt of ARBs increased the risk of acquiring SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, before changing an important chronic treatment in a fragile population, such as the elderly living in retirement nursing homes, clinicians should carefully evaluate the risk-benefit ratio.


Asunto(s)
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapéutico , Inhibidores de la Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina/uso terapéutico , /epidemiología , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/administración & dosificación , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efectos adversos , Inhibidores de la Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina/administración & dosificación , Inhibidores de la Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina/efectos adversos , Utilización de Medicamentos , Femenino , Hogares para Ancianos/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Casas de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Pandemias , Estudios Retrospectivos , Medición de Riesgo
11.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 219: 108486, 2021 02 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421802

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 community mitigation measures (e.g., stay-at-home orders) may worsen mental health and substance use-related harms such as opioid use disorder and overdose and limit access to medications for these conditions. We used nationally-representative data to assess dispensing of select substance use and mental health medications during the pandemic in the U.S. METHODS: IQVIA Total Patient Tracker data were used to calculate U.S. monthly numbers of unique patients dispensed buprenorphine, extended-release (ER) intramuscular naltrexone, naloxone, selective serotonin or serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, benzodiazepines, and for comparison, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) between January 2019-May 2020. Forecasted estimates of number of unique patients dispensed medications, generated by exponential smoothing statistical forecasting, were compared to actual numbers of patients by month to examine access during mitigation measures (March 2020-May 2020). RESULTS: Between March 2020-May 2020, numbers of unique patients dispensed buprenorphine and numbers dispensed naloxone were within forecasted estimates. Numbers dispensed ER intramuscular naltrexone were significantly below forecasted estimates in March 2020 (-1039; 95 %CI:-1528 to -550), April 2020 (-2139; 95 %CI:-2629 to -1650), and May 2020 (-2498; 95 %CI:-2987 to -2009). Numbers dispensed antidepressants and benzodiazepines were significantly above forecasted estimates in March 2020 (977,063; 95 %CI:351,384 to 1,602,743 and 450,074; 95 % CI:189,999 to 710,149 additional patients, respectively), but were within forecasted estimates in April 2020-May 2020. Dispensing patterns for statins and ARBs were similar to those for antidepressants and benzodiazepines. CONCLUSIONS: Ongoing concerns about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on substance use and mental health underscore the need for innovative strategies to facilitate continued access to treatment.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Utilización de Medicamentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapéutico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapéutico , Antidepresivos/uso terapéutico , Benzodiazepinas/uso terapéutico , Buprenorfina/uso terapéutico , Predicción , Humanos , Inhibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Reductasas/uso terapéutico , Naloxona/uso terapéutico , Naltrexona/uso terapéutico , Trastornos Relacionados con Opioides/tratamiento farmacológico , Pandemias , Estados Unidos
12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33461698

RESUMEN

Irbesartan, (2-butyl-3-({4-[2-(2H-1,2,3,4-tetrazol-5-yl)phenyl]phenyl}methyl)-1,3-diazaspiro[4.4]non-1-en-4-one), is a member of non-peptide angiotensin II receptor antagonists used worldwide in the treatment of hypertension and diabetic nephropathy in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes, elevated serum creatinine, and proteinuria. Irbesartan can be used alone or in combination with other antihypertensive agents (e.g., hydrochlorothiazide). These combination products are indicated for hypertension in patients with uncontrolled hypertension with monotherapy or first line in patients not expected to be well controlled with monotherapy. Irbesartan is also indicated for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension, an elevated serum creatinine, and proteinuria. Irbesartan exerts its action mainly via a selective blockade action on AT1 receptors and the consequent reduced pressor effect of angiotensin II. This article discusses, by a critical comprehensive review of the literature on irbesartan in terms of its description, names, formulae, elemental composition, appearance, and therapeutic uses. The article also discusses the methods for preparation of irbesartan, its physical-chemical properties, analytical methods for its determination, pharmacological-toxicological properties, and dosing information.


Asunto(s)
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/farmacología , Nefropatías Diabéticas/tratamiento farmacológico , Hipertensión , Irbesartán/farmacología , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapéutico , Antihipertensivos/farmacología , Antihipertensivos/uso terapéutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Humanos , Hipertensión/tratamiento farmacológico , Irbesartán/uso terapéutico
13.
Biosci Rep ; 41(2)2021 02 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33442728

RESUMEN

The outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a global catastrophe. The elderly and people with comorbidity are facing a serious complication of the disease. The entry and infection strategy of SARS-CoV-2 in a host cell is raised by an amazing way of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) 2 (ACE2) receptor recognition and imbalance of ACE/ACE2 in various organs, especially in the lungs. Here it has been discussed the role of interferon and protease during the receptor recognition (begining of infection) and followed by the impact of cytokine and hypoxia in the context of the balance of ACE/ACE2. It has also very concisely delineated the biochemistry and mechanism of ACE/ACE2 balance in different stages of infection and its role in comorbidity.


Asunto(s)
/sangre , /etiología , Peptidil-Dipeptidasa A/sangre , /patogenicidad , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapéutico , Inhibidores de la Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina/uso terapéutico , Comorbilidad , Citocinas/metabolismo , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno , Humanos , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/fisiología , Internalización del Virus
14.
South Med J ; 114(1): 51-56, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398362

RESUMEN

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the virus responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has been proven to be used by SARS-CoV-2 for host cell entry. Considering that angiotensin receptor blockers and ACE inhibitors (ACEIs) upregulate the expression of ACE2 in animal studies, there may be a concern about whether these drugs may increase COVID-19 susceptibility and severity. Recently, there has been a debate among clinicians about whether to continue or to stop ACEIs and angiotensin receptor blockers in the context of COVID-19. Also, some media outlets and health systems have called for the discontinuation of these drugs in the context of suspected COVID-19. This has necessitated an urgent release of guidance on the use of such medications in COVID-19 patients. To date, multiple theories relating to the pure effects of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors on COVID-19 infections have been postulated. Favorable effects include blocking the ACE2 receptors, preventing viral entry into the heart and lungs, and protecting against lung injury in COVID-19. Adverse effects include a possible retrograde feedback mechanism that upregulates ACE2 receptors. This review provides greater insight into the role of the RAAS axis in acute lung injury and the effects of RAAS inhibitors on SARS-CoVs. The hypothesis that RAAS inhibitors facilitate viral insertion and the alternative hypothesis of the beneficial role of these drugs are discussed. Up-to-date published data concerning the RAAS inhibitors and COVID-19 are summarized.


Asunto(s)
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapéutico , Inhibidores de la Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina/uso terapéutico , Pandemias , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/fisiología , Animales , /metabolismo , Humanos , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efectos de los fármacos
15.
JAMA ; 325(3): 254-264, 2021 01 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33464336

RESUMEN

Importance: It is unknown whether angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) have a positive, neutral, or negative effect on clinical outcomes in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Objective: To determine whether discontinuation compared with continuation of ACEIs or ARBs changed the number of days alive and out of the hospital through 30 days. Design, Setting, and Participants: A randomized clinical trial of 659 patients hospitalized in Brazil with mild to moderate COVID-19 who were taking ACEIs or ARBs prior to hospitalization (enrolled: April 9-June 26, 2020; final follow-up: July 26, 2020). Interventions: Discontinuation (n = 334) or continuation (n = 325) of ACEIs or ARBs. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the number of days alive and out of the hospital through 30 days. Secondary outcomes included death, cardiovascular death, and COVID-19 progression. Results: Among 659 patients, the median age was 55.1 years (interquartile range [IQR], 46.1-65.0 years), 14.7% were aged 70 years or older, 40.4% were women, and 100% completed the trial. The median time from symptom onset to hospital admission was 6 days (IQR, 4-9 days) and 27.2% of patients had an oxygen saturation of less than 94% of room air at baseline. In terms of clinical severity, 57.1% of patients were considered mild at hospital admission and 42.9% were considered moderate. There was no significant difference in the number of days alive and out of the hospital in patients in the discontinuation group (mean, 21.9 days [SD, 8 days]) vs patients in the continuation group (mean, 22.9 days [SD, 7.1 days]) and the mean ratio was 0.95 (95% CI, 0.90-1.01). There also was no statistically significant difference in death (2.7% for the discontinuation group vs 2.8% for the continuation group; odds ratio [OR], 0.97 [95% CI, 0.38-2.52]), cardiovascular death (0.6% vs 0.3%, respectively; OR, 1.95 [95% CI, 0.19-42.12]), or COVID-19 progression (38.3% vs 32.3%; OR, 1.30 [95% CI, 0.95-1.80]). The most common adverse events were respiratory failure requiring invasive mechanical ventilation (9.6% in the discontinuation group vs 7.7% in the continuation group), shock requiring vasopressors (8.4% vs 7.1%, respectively), acute myocardial infarction (7.5% vs 4.6%), new or worsening heart failure (4.2% vs 4.9%), and acute kidney failure requiring hemodialysis (3.3% vs 2.8%). Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients hospitalized with mild to moderate COVID-19 and who were taking ACEIs or ARBs before hospital admission, there was no significant difference in the mean number of days alive and out of the hospital for those assigned to discontinue vs continue these medications. These findings do not support routinely discontinuing ACEIs or ARBs among patients hospitalized with mild to moderate COVID-19 if there is an indication for treatment. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04364893.


Asunto(s)
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapéutico , Inhibidores de la Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina/uso terapéutico , Alta del Paciente , Privación de Tratamiento , Anciano , /diagnóstico , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Femenino , Insuficiencia Cardíaca/epidemiología , Hospitalización , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Infarto del Miocardio/epidemiología , Oportunidad Relativa , Respiración Artificial/estadística & datos numéricos , Insuficiencia Respiratoria/etiología , Insuficiencia Respiratoria/terapia , Tamaño de la Muestra , Choque/tratamiento farmacológico , Factores de Tiempo , Resultado del Tratamiento
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 114, 2021 Jan 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33494713

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To investigate the effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) administration to hypertension patients with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) induced pneumonia. METHODS: We recorded the recovery status of 67 inpatients with hypertension and COVID-19 induced pneumonia in the Raytheon Mountain Hospital in Wuhan during February 12, 2020 and March 30, 2020. Patients treated with ACEI or ARBs were categorized in group A (n = 22), while patients who were not administered either ACEI or ARBs were categorized into group B (n = 45). We did a comparative analysis of various parameters such as the pneumonia progression, length-of-stay in the hospital, and the level of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), serum creatinine (Cr), and creatine kinase (CK) between the day when these patients were admitted to the hospital and the day when the treatment ended. RESULTS: These 67 hypertension cases counted for 33.17% of the total COVID-19 patients. There was no significant difference in the usage of drug treatment of COVID-19 between groups A and B (p > 0.05). During the treatment, 1 case in group A and 3 cases in group B progressed from mild pneumonia into severe pneumonia. Eventually, all patients were cured and discharged after treatment, and no recurrence of COVID-2019 induced pneumonia occurred after the discharge. The length of stays was shorter in group A as compared with group B, but there was no significant difference (p > 0.05). There was also no significant difference in other general parameters between the patients of the groups A and B on the day of admission to the hospital (p > 0.05). The ALT, CK, and Cr levels did not significantly differ between groups A and B on the day of admission and the day of discharge (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: To treat the hypertension patients with COVID-19 caused pneumonia, anti-hypertensive drugs (ACEs and ARBs) may be used according to the relative guidelines. The treatment regimen with these drugs does not need to be altered for the COVID-19 patients.


Asunto(s)
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapéutico , Inhibidores de la Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina/uso terapéutico , Hipertensión/tratamiento farmacológico , Anciano , Alanina Transaminasa/sangre , Antihipertensivos , Creatina Quinasa/sangre , Creatinina/sangre , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Femenino , Hospitalización , Humanos , Hipertensión/complicaciones , Tiempo de Internación/estadística & datos numéricos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mortalidad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad
17.
J Hypertens ; 39(1): 190-195, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33273364

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The Covid-19 pandemic caused a shutdown of healthcare systems in many countries. We explored the impact on hypertension care in the Excellence Center (EC) network of the European Society of Hypertension. METHODS: We conducted a 17-question electronic survey among ECs. RESULTS: Overall, 52 ECs from 20 European and three non-European countries participated, providing hypertension service for a median of 1500 hypertensive patients per center per year. Eighty-five percent of the ECs reported a shutdown lasting for 9 weeks (range 0-16). The number of patients treated per week decreased by 90%: from a median of 50 (range 10-400) before the pandemic to a median of 5.0 (range 0-150) during the pandemic (P < 0.0001). 60% of patients (range 0-100%) declared limited access to medical consultations. The majority of ECs (57%) could not provide 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring, whereas a median of 63% (range 0-100%) of the patients were regularly performing home BP monitoring. In the majority (75%) of the ECs, hypertension service returned to normal after the first wave of the pandemic. In 66% of the ECs, the physicians received many questions regarding the use of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockers. Stopping RAS-blocker therapy (in a few patients) either by patients or physicians was reported in 27 and 36.5% of the ECs. CONCLUSION: Patient care in hypertension ECs was compromised during the Covid-19-related shutdown. These data highlight the necessity to develop new strategies for hypertension care including virtual clinics to maintain services during challenging times.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Instituciones de Salud , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Hipertensión/tratamiento farmacológico , Pandemias , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapéutico , Inhibidores de la Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina/uso terapéutico , Antihipertensivos/uso terapéutico , Monitoreo Ambulatorio de la Presión Arterial , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Humanos , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
18.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(3): e019669, 2021 02 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33307964

RESUMEN

Background Previous reports suggest that the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) may upregulate angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptors and increase severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infectivity. We evaluated the association between ACEI or ARB use and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection among patients with hypertension. Methods and Results We identified patients with hypertension as of March 1, 2020 (index date) from Kaiser Permanente Southern California. Patients who received ACEIs, ARBs, calcium channel blockers, beta blockers, thiazide diuretics (TD), or no therapy were identified using outpatient pharmacy data covering the index date. Outcome of interest was a positive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction test for COVID-19 between March 1 and May 6, 2020. Patient sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were identified within 1 year preindex date. Among 824 650 patients with hypertension, 16 898 (2.0%) were tested for COVID-19. Of those tested, 1794 (10.6%) had a positive result. Overall, exposure to ACEIs or ARBs was not statistically significantly associated with COVID-19 infection after propensity score adjustment (odds ratio [OR], 1.06; 95% CI, 0.90-1.25) for ACEIs versus calcium channel blockers/beta blockers/TD; OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.91-1.31 for ARBs versus calcium channel blockers/beta blockers/TD). The associations between ACEI use and COVID-19 infection varied in different age groups (P-interaction=0.03). ACEI use was associated with lower odds of COVID-19 among those aged ≥85 years (OR, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.12-0.77). Use of no antihypertensive medication was significantly associated with increased odds of COVID-19 infection compared with calcium channel blockers/beta blockers/TD (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.11-1.56). Conclusions Neither ACEI nor ARB use was associated with increased likelihood of COVID-19 infection. Decreased odds of COVID-19 infection among adults ≥85 years using ACEIs warrants further investigation.


Asunto(s)
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapéutico , Inhibidores de la Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina/uso terapéutico , Bloqueadores de los Canales de Calcio/uso terapéutico , Prestación Integrada de Atención de Salud/métodos , Hipertensión/tratamiento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Comorbilidad , Femenino , Humanos , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
19.
J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst ; 21(4): 1470320320981321, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33325306

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The clinical use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARB) in patients with COVID-19 infection remains controversial. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis on the effects of ACEI/ARB on disease symptoms and laboratory tests in hypertensive patients infected with COVID-19 virus and those who did not use ACEI/ARB. METHODS: We systematically searched the relevant literatures from Pubmed, Embase, EuropePMC, CNKI, and other databases during the study period of 31 December 2019 (solstice, 15 March 2020), and analyzed the differences in symptoms and laboratory tests between patients with COVID-19 and hypertension who used ACEI/ARB drugs and those who did not. All statistical analyses were performed with REVMAN5.3. RESULTS: We included a total of 1808 patients with hypertension diagnosed with COVID-19 in six studies. Analysis results show that ACEI/ARB drugs group D-dimer is lower (SMD = -0.22, 95%CI: -0.36 to -0.06), and the chances of getting fever is lower (OR = 0.74, 95%CI: 0.55 to 0.98). Meanwhile, laboratory data and symptoms were not statistical difference, but creatinine tends to rise (SMD = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.04 to 0.41). CONCLUSION: We found that the administration of ACEI/ARB drugs had positive effect on reducing D-dimer and the number of people with fever. Meanwhile it had no significant effect on other laboratory tests (creatinine excepted) or symptoms in patients with COVID-19, while special attention was still needed in patients with renal insufficiency.


Asunto(s)
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapéutico , Inhibidores de la Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina/uso terapéutico , /fisiología , Anciano , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/farmacología , Inhibidores de la Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina/farmacología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Sesgo de Publicación , Resultado del Tratamiento
20.
Probl Endokrinol (Mosk) ; 66(1): 35-46, 2020 08 04.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351311

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Data on the national level and worldwide show a higher rate of mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) due to COVID-19, which determines the high relevance of risk factor analysis for outcomes in DM patients to substantiate the strategy for this category of patients. AIM: To assess the effect of clinical and demographic parameters (age, gender, body mass index (BMI), glycemic control (HbA1c), and antidiabetic and antihypertensive drugs, including ACE inhibitors and ARBs) on clinical outcomes (recovery or death) in patients with type 2 DM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the Russian Register of Diabetes database was performed, including patients with type 2 DM (n=309) who suffered pneumonia/COVID-19 in the period from 01.02.2020 to 27.04.2020 and the indicated outcome of the disease (recovery or death) RESULTS: The percentage of lethality was determined to be 15.2% (47 of 309 people). The degree of lethality was found to be significantly higher in males (OR=2.08; 95% CI 1.1–3.9; p=0.022) and in patients on insulin therapy (OR=2.67; 95% CI; 1.42–5.02; p=0.002), while it was significantly lower in patients with an age <65 years (OR=0.34; 95% CI 0.18–0.67; p=0.001) and in patients receiving metformin (OR=0.26; 95% CI 0.14–0,5; p<0.0001), antihypertensive therapy (OR=0.43; 95% CI 0.22–0.82; p=0.009), β-blockers (OR=0.26; 95% CI 0.08–0.86; p=0.018), diuretics (OR=0.4; 95% CI 0.17–0.93; p=0.028) and renin-angiotensin system blockers (ACE inhibitors or ARBs) (OR=0.36; 95% CI 0.18–0.74; p=0.004). A tendency to an increase in lethality at higher rates of HbA1c and BMI was present, but it did not reach a statistical significance. Differences between patients receiving insulin therapy and those who were not receiving the insulin therapy were observed as follows: a significantly longer duration of type 2 DM (13.4 vs. 6.8 years, respectively; p<0.0001), worse overall glyacemic control (HbA1c: 8.1% vs. 7.0%, resp.; p<0.0001), and three times more frequent failure to achieve the HbA1c goal by more than 2.5% (14.7% vs. 5.9%, resp.; p=0.04). CONCLUSION: The identified risk factors for lethality in patients with type 2 DM indicate that good glycemic control and previous treatment with metformin and antihypertensive drugs (including RAS blockers) could reduce the frequency of deaths. In patients on insulin therapy, a higher lethality degree was associated with worse glycemic control.


Asunto(s)
/mortalidad , Complicaciones de la Diabetes/mortalidad , Diabetes Mellitus/mortalidad , Hipertensión/mortalidad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapéutico , Inhibidores de la Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina/efectos adversos , Inhibidores de la Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina/uso terapéutico , Antihipertensivos/efectos adversos , Antihipertensivos/uso terapéutico , /tratamiento farmacológico , Complicaciones de la Diabetes/tratamiento farmacológico , Complicaciones de la Diabetes/virología , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamiento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/virología , Diuréticos/efectos adversos , Diuréticos/uso terapéutico , Femenino , Humanos , Hipertensión/complicaciones , Hipertensión/tratamiento farmacológico , Hipertensión/virología , Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Metformina/efectos adversos , Metformina/uso terapéutico , Federación de Rusia/epidemiología , /patogenicidad
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