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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e249664, 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345558

RESUMEN

Abstract The impact of antibiotics on growth, cocoon production was assessed in addition to isolation and characterization of bacteria associated with silkworm gut of infected larvae. Larval rearing was maintained at recommended conditions of temperature and humidity. Silkworm larvae showing abnormal symptoms were collected from the control group and dissected for gut collection. Bacteria were isolated from the gut content by spreading on agar plates and incubated at 37 °C for 48 hrs. Bacterial identification and phylogenetic analysis were carried out by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The isolated bacteria were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility test (disc diffusion methods) by using Penicillin (10 µg/mL), Tetracycline (30 µg/mL), Amoxicillin (25 µg/mL), Ampicillin (10 µg/mL), and Erythromycin (15 µg/mL). All isolated strains showed positive results for the catalase test. We isolated and identified bacterial strains (n = 06) from the gut of healthy and diseased silkworm larvae. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence, isolated bacteria showed close relation with Serratia, Bacillus, and Pseudomonas spp. Notably, 83.3% of strains were resistant to Penicillin, Tetracycline, Amoxicillin, Ampicillin, and Erythromycin but 16.6% showed antibiotic susceptibility to the above-mentioned commonly used antibiotics. Silkworm larvae fed on penicillin-treated leaves showed significant improvement in larval weight, larval length, and cocoon production. Significantly higher larval weight (6.88g), larval length (5.84cm), and cocoon weight (1.33g) were recorded for larvae fed on leaves treated with penicillin as compared to other antibiotics. Isolated bacterial strains showed close relation with Serratia spp., Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas spp.


Resumo O impacto dos antibióticos no crescimento e na produção do casulo foi avaliado, além do isolamento e caracterização das bactérias associadas ao intestino de larvas infectadas do bicho-da-seda. A criação das larvas foi mantida nas condições recomendadas de temperatura e umidade. As larvas do bicho-da-seda com sintomas anormais foram coletadas do grupo controle e dissecadas para coleta do intestino. As bactérias foram isoladas do conteúdo intestinal por espalhamento em placas de ágar e incubadas a 37° C durante 48 horas. A identificação bacteriana e a análise filogenética foram realizadas pelo sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA. As bactérias isoladas foram submetidas a teste de sensibilidade antimicrobiana (métodos de difusão em disco) com penicilina (10 µg / mL), tetraciclina (30 µg / mL), amoxicilina (25 µg / mL), ampicilina (10 µg / mL) e eritromicina (15 µg / mL). Todas as cepas isoladas apresentaram resultados positivos para o teste da catalase. Isolamos e identificamos cepas bacterianas (n = 06) do intestino de larvas de bicho-da-seda saudáveis e doentes. Com base na sequência do gene 16S rRNA, as bactérias isoladas mostraram estreita relação com Serratia, Bacillus e Pseudomonas spp. Notavelmente, 83,3% das cepas eram resistentes a penicilina, tetraciclina, amoxicilina, ampicilina e eritromicina, mas 16,6% mostraram suscetibilidade aos antibióticos comumente usados mencionados acima. As larvas do bicho-da-seda alimentadas com folhas tratadas com penicilina apresentaram melhora significativa no peso larval, comprimento larval e produção de casulo. Peso larval significativamente maior (6,88g), comprimento larval (5,84cm) e peso do casulo (1,33g) foram registrados para larvas alimentadas com folhas tratadas com penicilina, em comparação com outros antibióticos. Cepas bacterianas isoladas mostraram estreita relação com Serratia spp., Bacillus spp. e Pseudomonas spp.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Bombyx , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Filogenia , Bacterias/genética , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Larva
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e243332, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345537

RESUMEN

Abstract The present study was aimed to manifest the antibacterial and antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of Salix alba L. against seven Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial pathogens e.g. Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus (1), S. aureus (2), Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli (1), E. coli (2) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae and three fungal isolates from the air such as Aspergillus terreus, A. ornatus, and Rhizopus stolonifer. Two different serotypes of S. aureus and E. coli were used. The agar well-diffusion method results showed the dose-dependent response of plant extracts against bacterial and fungal strains while some organisms were found resistant e.g. E. coli (1), S. sonnei, A. terreus and R. stolonifer. The highest antibacterial activity was recorded at 17.000±1.732 mm from 100 mg/mL of leaves methanolic extracts against S. pyogenes while the activity of most of the pathogens decreased after 24 h of incubation. The highest antifungal activity was reported at 11.833±1.0 mm against A. ornatus at 50 mg/mL after 48 h of the incubation period. These experimental findings endorse the use of S. alba in ethnopharmacological formulations and suggest the use of methanolic extracts of the said plant to develop drugs to control the proliferation of resistant disease causing pathogenic microbes.


Resumo O presente estudo teve como objetivo manifestar a atividade antibacteriana e antifúngica de extratos metanólicos de Salix alba L. contra sete patógenos bacterianos Gram-positivos e Gram-negativos. Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus (1), S. aureus (2), Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli (1), E. coli (2) e Neisseria gonorrhoeae e três isolados de fungos do ar, como Aspergillus terreus, A. ornatus, e Rhizopus stolonifer. Dois sorotipos diferentes de S. aureus e E. coli foram usados. Os resultados do método de difusão em ágar mostraram a resposta dependente da dose de extratos de plantas contra cepas de bactérias e fungos, enquanto alguns organismos foram considerados resistentes, e.g. E. coli (1), S. sonnei, A. terreus e R. stolonifer. A maior atividade antibacteriana foi registrada em 17.000 ± 1.732 de 100 mg/mL de extratos metanólicos de folhas contra S. pyogenes, enquanto a atividade da maioria dos patógenos diminuiu após 24 h de incubação. A maior atividade antifúngica foi relatada em 11,833 ± 1,0 contra A. ornatus a 50 mg/mL após 48 h do período de incubação. Esses achados experimentais endossam o uso de S. alba em formulações etnofarmacológicas e sugerem o uso de extratos metanólicos da referida planta para o desenvolvimento de fármacos que controlem a proliferação de doenças resistentes que causam micróbios patogênicos.


Asunto(s)
Salix , Antifúngicos/farmacología , Aspergillus , Rhizopus , Staphylococcus aureus , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Metanol , Escherichia coli , Antibacterianos/farmacología
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249536, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345531

RESUMEN

Abstract Seaweeds are a major marine resource that can be explored to develop novel pharmaceutical molecules. The present study showed the presence of unique bioactive components in the petroleum ether extract (PEE) and methanolic extract (ME) of Sargassum tenerrimum. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis suggested that the PEE of S. tenerrimum contained antibacterial biomolecules: hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester, 17-pentatriacontene, dasycarpidan-1-methanol, and acetate (ester). However, the ME of S. tenerrimum exhibited better antibacterial effect than the PEE due to the presence of the bioactive compounds 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, diisooctyl ester, tetratetracontane, 1-docosene, 1,2-benzenediol, and benzoic acid. Thus, promising antibacterial molecules can be isolated from S. tenerrimum for better therapeutic use.


Resumo As algas marinhas são um importante recurso marinho que pode ser explorado para desenvolver novas moléculas farmacêuticas. O presente estudo mostrou a presença de componentes bioativos únicos no extrato etéreo de petróleo (PEE) e no extrato metanólico (ME) de Sargassum tenerrimum. A análise por cromatografia gasosa-espectrometria de massa sugeriu que o PEE de S. tenerrimum continha biomoléculas antibacterianas: ácido hexadecanoico, éster metílico, 17-pentatriaconteno, dasycarpidan-1-metanol e acetato (éster). Entretanto, o ME de S. tenerrimum exibiu melhor efeito antibacteriano do que o PEE devido à presença dos compostos bioativos ácido 1,2-benzenodicarboxílico, éster diisooctil, tetratetracontano, 1-docosene, 1,2-benzoenodiol e ácido benzoico. Assim, moléculas antibacterianas promissoras podem ser isoladas de S. tenerrimum para melhor uso terapêutico.


Asunto(s)
Sargassum , Arabia Saudita , Extractos Vegetales , Océano Índico , Antibacterianos/farmacología
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247016, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339416

RESUMEN

Abstract Pheretima posthuma (Vaillant, 1868), a native earthworm of Pakistan and Southeast Asia, has wide utilization in vermicomposting and bioremediation process. In this study, P. posthuma coelomic fluid (PCF) and body paste (PBP) was evaluated as antibacterial agent against ampicillin (AMP) resistant five Gram positive and four Gram negative clinical isolates. The antibacterial effect of different doses (i.e. 25-100 µg/ml) of PCF and PBP along with AMP and azithromycin (AZM) (negative and positive controls, respectively) were observed through disc diffusion and micro-dilution methods. All nine clinical isolates were noticed as AMP resistant and AZM sensitive. Antibacterial effects of PCF and PBP were dose dependent and zone of inhibitions (ZI) against all clinical isolates were between 23.4 ± 0.92 to 0 ± 00 mm. The sensitivity profile of PCF and PBP against clinical isolates was noticed as 44.44 and 55.56%, respectively. Both PCF and PBP showed bacteriostatic (BTS) action against S. aureus, S. pyogenes, K. pneumonia, N. gonorrhoeae. Moreover, the cumulative BTS potential of PCF and PBP against all isolates was 66.67 and 55.56%, respectively. The MICs of PCF and PBP were ranged from 50-200 µg/ml against selected isolates. The bacterial growth curves indicated that PCF and PBP inhibited the growth of all isolates at their specific MIC concentrations. However, PBP has better antibacterial potential compared to PCF against selected isolates. Therefore, it is concluded that both PCF and PBP of P. posthuma possess antibacterial and BTS potential against ampicillin resistant clinical isolates. This organism might be considered as a second choice of antibacterial agents and can further be utilized in pharmaceutical industries for novel drug manufacturing by prospecting bioactive potential agents.


Resumo Pheretima posthuma (Vaillant, 1868), uma minhoca nativa do Paquistão e sudeste da Ásia, tem ampla utilização em processos de vermicompostagem e biorremediação. Neste estudo, o fluido celômico de P. posthuma (PCF) e a pasta corporal (PBP) foram avaliados como agente antibacteriano contra cinco isolados clínicos Gram-positivos e quatro Gram-negativos resistentes à ampicilina (AMP). O efeito antibacteriano de diferentes doses (ou seja, 25-100 µg / ml) de PCF e PBP juntamente com AMP e azitromicina (AZM) (controles negativo e positivo, respectivamente) foi observado por meio de métodos de difusão em disco e microdiluição. Todos os nove isolados clínicos foram notados como resistentes a AMP e sensíveis a AZM. Os efeitos antibacterianos de PCF e PBP foram dependentes da dose e a zona de inibição (ZI) contra todos os isolados clínicos foi entre 23,4 ± 0,92 a 0 ± 00 mm. O perfil de sensibilidade do PCF e PBP contra isolados clínicos foi observado como 44,44% e 55,56%, respectivamente. Tanto o PCF quanto o PBP mostraram ação bacteriostática (BTS) contra S. aureus, S. pyogenes, K. pneumonia, N. gonorrhoeae. Além disso, o potencial BTS cumulativo de PCF e PBP contra todos os isolados foi de 66,67% e 55,56%, respectivamente. Os MICs de PCF e PBP variaram de 50-200 µg / ml contra isolados selecionados. As curvas de crescimento bacteriano indicaram que o PCF e o PBP inibiram o crescimento de todos os isolados em suas concentrações específicas de MIC. No entanto, PBP tem melhor potencial antibacteriano em comparação com PCF contra isolados selecionados. Portanto, conclui-se que tanto o PCF quanto o PBP de P. posthuma possuem potencial antibacteriano e BTS contra isolados clínicos resistentes à ampicilina. Esse organismo pode ser considerado como uma segunda escolha de agentes antibacterianos e pode ainda ser utilizado nas indústrias farmacêuticas para a fabricação de novos medicamentos por meio da prospecção de agentes com potencial bioativo.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Oligoquetos , Staphylococcus aureus , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Ampicilina/farmacología , Antibacterianos/farmacología
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245585, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339413

RESUMEN

Abstract Many soil microorganisms' i.e., bacteria and fungi produce secondary metabolites called antibiotics. These are used for the treatment of some of the bacterial, fungal and protozoal diseases of humans. There is a need for isolation of a broad spectrum of antibiotics from microorganisms due to the emergence of antibiotic resistance. In the present study two antibiotic producing bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae and Bacillus cereus were isolated from pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry of Hattar, Haripur Pakistan. Total 10 waste samples were collected from different industries (Marble, Ghee, Soap, Mineral, Steel, Poultry Feed, Pharmaceutical, Qarshi, Cosmetic and Glass). Thirty-three bacterial strains were isolated from industrial wastes of these ten different industries. Fourteen out of thirty-three bacterial strains exhibited antimicrobial activities against at least one of the test microbes considered in this study including Escherchia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi. The bacteria were isolated by standard serial dilution spread plate technique. Morphological characterization of the isolates was done by Gram staining. Nine bacterial isolates out of fourteen were initially identified as B. cereus and five as K. pneumoniae through biochemical characterization. The antibacterial activities were tested by well diffusion method. Maximum number of antibiotic producing bacteria were isolated from pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry based on the results of primary screening, the most potential isolates S9, S19, S20, S22 and S23 were selected for secondary screening. The maximum activity against E. coli and S. aureus was recorded by bacterial isolate S19 i.e zones of inhibition of 6.5mm and 9mm while S20 showed 7.5mm and 6mm zones respectively. Molecular identification was carried out on the basis of 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Finally, the isolates were identified as B. cereus accession number LC538271and K. pneumoniae accession number MT078679. Analysis of bacterial extract S20 through GC-MS indicated the presence of 8 compounds of diverse nature and structure. Present study suggests that wastes of pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry may have antibiotic producing bacteria. These bacteria could be utilized for the production of antibiotics. B. cereus and K. pneumoniae isolated from wastes of poultry feed and pharmaceutical industries have the potential to produce antibiotics and could be used to control the microbial growth.


Resumo Muitos microrganismos do solo, ou seja, bactérias e fungos produzem metabólitos secundários chamados antibióticos. Eles são usados ​​para tratamento de algumas doenças bacterianas, fúngicas e protozoárias em humanos. Há necessidade de isolamento de um amplo espectro de antibióticos de microrganismos devido ao surgimento de resistência aos antibióticos. No presente estudo, duas bactérias produtoras de antibióticos, Klebsiella pneumoniae e Bacillus cereus, foram isoladas da indústria farmacêutica e de ração avícola de Hattar, Haripur, Paquistão. Um total de 10 amostras de resíduos foi coletado de diferentes indústrias (mármore, ghee, sabão, mineral, aço, ração para aves, farmacêutica, Qarshi, cosmética e vidro). Trinta e três cepas bacterianas foram isoladas de resíduos industriais dessas dez diferentes indústrias. Quatorze das 33 cepas bacterianas exibiram atividades antimicrobianas contra pelo menos um dos micróbios de teste considerados neste estudo, incluindo Escherchia coli, Staphylococcus aureus e Salmonella typhi. As bactérias foram isoladas pela técnica de placa de diluição em série padrão. A caracterização morfológica dos isolados foi feita por coloração de gram. Nove isolados bacterianos de 14 foram inicialmente identificados como B. cereus e cinco como K. pneumoniae por meio de caracterização bioquímica. As atividades antibacterianas foram testadas pelo método de difusão em poço. O número máximo de bactérias produtoras de antibióticos foi isolado da indústria farmacêutica e de ração avícola com base nos resultados da triagem primária, os isolados mais potenciais S9, S19, S20, S22 e S23 foram selecionados para a triagem secundária. A atividade máxima contra E. coli e S. aureus foi registrada pelo isolado bacteriano S19, ou seja, zonas de inibição de 6,5 mm e 9 mm, enquanto S20 mostrou zonas de 7,5 mm e 6 mm, respectivamente. A identificação molecular foi realizada com base na análise da sequência 16S rRNA. Finalmente, os isolados foram identificados como B. cereus número de acesso LC538271 e K. pneumoniae número de acesso MT078679. A análise do extrato bacteriano S20 por meio de GC-MS indicou a presença de oito compostos de natureza e estrutura diversas. O presente estudo sugere que resíduos da indústria farmacêutica e de ração para aves podem conter bactérias produtoras de antibióticos. Essas bactérias podem ser utilizadas para a produção de antibióticos B. cereus e K. pneumoniae isolados de resíduos de rações de aves e indústrias farmacêuticas têm potencial para produzir antibióticos e podem ser usados ​​para controlar o crescimento microbiano.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus , Residuos Industriales , ARN Ribosómico 16S , Extractos Vegetales , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Escherichia coli , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Antibacterianos/farmacología
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e236649, 2023. tab
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339379

RESUMEN

Abstract Croton argyrophylloides Muell. Arg., from the Euphorbiaceae family, popularly known as marmeleiro prateado or sacatinga, is a plant from the Caatinga biome commonly found in Brazil's northeastern region. The present study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the species. The phytochemical study was performed through qualitative analysis of chemical constituents and quantitative determination of the total phenol content through the Folin-Ciocalteu test. The qualitative and quantitative antioxidant tests were performed using the DPPH method (2.2 diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazil) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by microdilution in 96-well plates. The ethanolic extract of the leaves of C. argyrophylloides manifested antioxidant action in the quantitative DPPH test with a significant bioactivity of 84.70 AAO% in 500 µg/mL, with an EC50 of 236.79. The content of total phenolic compounds was 946.06 mg of gallic acid equivalents/g of sample, and total flavonoids was 58.11 mg of quercetin equivalents/g of sample, the result obtained for FRAP was 15294.44 µM Trolox/g of sample and ABTS was 718 μM Trolox of sample. The prospecting of the chemical constituents of the leaves of C. argyrophylloides revealed the presence of the main compounds that manifests the antioxidant activity and it was proven by the DPPH method that there is antioxidant activity in the analyzed sample, in addition to demonstrating a significant content of phenolic compounds and total flavonoid content in the species, which corroborates the antioxidant activity of the plant sample. The leaf extracts presented growth inhibition halos of 10 and 12 mm upon Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923.


Resumo Croton argyrophylloides Muell. Arg., pertencente à família Euphorbiaceae, conhecida popularmente como marmeleiro prateado e sacatinga, é um vegetal do bioma caatinga comumente encontrado no Nordeste do Brasil. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a atividade antioxidante da espécie. O estudo fitoquímico foi realizado por meio de análise qualitativa dos constituintes químicos e determinação quantitativa do teor de fenóis totais pelo teste de Folin-Ciocalteu. Os testes antioxidantes qualitativos e quantitativos foram realizados pelo método do DPPH (2,2 difenil-1- picril-hidrazila) e redução do ferro (FRAP). A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) foi determinada por microdiluição em placas de 96 poços. O extrato etanólico das folhas de C. argyrophylloides apresentou ação antioxidante no teste DPPH quantitativo com uma significativa bioatividade de 84.70 AAO% em 500 µg/mL, apresentando um CE50 de 236.79. O teor de compostos fenólicos totais, foi de 946,06 mg equivalentes de ácido gálico/g de amostra, e de flavonoides totais de 58,11 mg equivalentes de quercetina/g da amostra, o valor encontrado para FRAP foi de 15294,44 µM Trolox/g da amostra e de ABTS foi 718 μM Trolox da amostra. A prospecção dos constituintes químicos das folhas de C. argyrophylloides revelou a presença dos principais compostos que caracterizam a atividade antioxidante e foi possível comprovar pelo método de DPPH que há atividade antioxidante na amostra analisada, além de demonstrar um resultado significativo de teor de compostos fenólicos e teor de flavonoides totais na espécie e o que corrobora com a atividade antioxidante da amostra vegetal. Os extratos das folhas apresentaram halos de inibição de crescimento de 10 e 12mm frente a Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923.


Asunto(s)
Euphorbiaceae , Croton , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Fitoquímicos , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Antioxidantes/farmacología
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e239323, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339341

RESUMEN

Abstract The β-lactam/lactamase inhibitors (BLBLIs) combination drugs are considered an effective alternative to carbapenems. However, there is a growing concern that the increased use of BLBLIs may lead to increased resistance. This study determined the temporal association between the consumption of BLBLI and the antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negative bacteria. In this retrospective study, electronic data on the Gram-negative bacterial isolates, including A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa, E. coli, and K. pneumoniae from in-patients and susceptibility testing results were retrieved from the medical records of the clinical laboratory. A linear regression and cross-correlation analysis were performed on the acquired data. Increasing trends (p<0.05) in the consumption of BIBLI and carbapenem with a median use of 27.68 and 34.46 DDD/1000 PD per quarter were observed, respectively. A decreased trend (p=0.023) in the consumption of fluoroquinolones with a median use of 29.13 DDD/1000 PD per quarter was observed. The resistance rate of K. pneumoniae was synchronized with the BIBLI and carbapenem consumptions with a correlation coefficient of 0.893 (p=0.012) and 0.951 (p=0.016), respectively. The cross-correlation analysis against the consumption of BIBLI and meropenem resistant K. pneumoniae was peaked at 0-quarter lag (r=951, p=0.016). There was an increasing trend in the consumption of BLBLI and carbapenems. The increasing trend in the rates of resistance to piperacillin/tazobactam, in line with the increasing consumption of BLBLI, suggests that BLBLI has to be used with caution and cannot be directly considered as a long-term alternative to carbapenems.


Resumo Os medicamentos combinados de β-lactâmicos / inibidores da lactamase (BLBLIs) são considerados uma alternativa eficaz aos carbapenêmicos. No entanto, existe uma preocupação crescente de que o aumento do uso de BLBLIs pode levar ao aumento da resistência. Este estudo determinou a associação temporal entre o consumo de BLBLI e a resistência antimicrobiana em bactérias gram-negativas. Neste estudo retrospectivo, os dados eletrônicos sobre as bactérias gram-negativas isoladas, incluindo A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa, E. coli e K. pneumoniae de pacientes internados e os resultados dos testes de suscetibilidade foram recuperados dos registros médicos do laboratório clínico. Uma regressão linear e análise de correlação cruzada foram realizadas nos dados adquiridos. Foram observadas tendências crescentes (p < 0,05) no consumo de BIBLI e carbapenem com uma mediana de uso de 27,68 e 34,46 DDD/1000 PD por trimestre, respectivamente. Foi observada uma tendência de diminuição (p = 0,023) no consumo de fluoroquinolonas com uma mediana de uso de 29,13 DDD/1000 PD por trimestre. A taxa de resistência de K. pneumoniae foi sincronizada com os consumos de BIBLI e carbapenem com coeficiente de correlação de 0,893 (p = 0,012) e 0,951 (p = 0,016), respectivamente. A análise de correlação cruzada contra o consumo de BIBLI e K. pneumoniae resistente ao meropenem atingiu o pico no intervalo de 0 quarto (r = 951, p = 0,016). Houve uma tendência de aumento no consumo de BLBLI e carbapenêmicos. A tendência crescente nas taxas de resistência a piperacilina/tazobactam, em linha com o consumo crescente de BLBLI, sugere que BLBLI deve ser usado com cautela e não pode ser considerado diretamente como alternativa de longo prazo aos carbapenêmicos.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Infecciones por Bacterias Gramnegativas , Infecciones por Bacterias Gramnegativas/epidemiología , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Estudios Retrospectivos , Escherichia coli , Bacterias Gramnegativas
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248063, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339340

RESUMEN

Abstract Persea lingue Ness is a tree species that lives mainly in temperate forests of south-central Chile. Its leaves are used in ethnomedicine, the fruit is a drupe similar to that of the avocado and has not been studied. The aim of this study was to determine the cytotoxicity in leukemia cell and antibacterial activity, along with some chemical content characteristics of P. lingue fruit and leaf extracts. The antibacterial activity was determined by the inhibition of bacterial growth in liquid medium assay against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The leukemia cell lines Kasumi-1 and Jurkat were used to evaluate the cytotoxic activity by using propidium iodide and AlamarBlue assays. Total phenolic, flavonoid, condensed tannin, alkaloid and lipid contents were evaluated in the fruit and in the leaf extracts. The antioxidant activity of both extracts were also elavaluated. Leaf extract presented the highest content of total phenols, condensed tannins and flavonoids, and also the highest antioxidant activity. While the fruit extract has a higher amount of lipids and alkaloids and the high antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus megaterium and Micrococcus luteus. The leaf extract only showed activity against M. luteus. Concerning the cytotoxic activity, only the fruit extract showed cytotoxicity against the cell lines Jurkat and Kasumi-1. P. lingue fruit extract is a potential source of biologically active molecules for the development of new drugs to be used in some types of leukemia, as well as antibacterial agent.


Resumo Persea lingue Ness é uma árvore que vive principalmente na floresta temperada do centro-sul do Chile. As folhas são usadas na etnomedicina. O fruto é uma drupa similar ao abacate e que nunca foi pesquisada anteriormente. O objetivo deste estudo foi o de avaliar a citotoxicidade em células leucêmicas e as atividades antibacterianas, assim como algumas características químicas do extrato de fruto e da folha do P. lingue. As atividades antibacterianas foram determinadas pelo método da inibição do crescimento bacteriano em meio líquido empregando-se bactérias Gram-positivas e Gram-negativas. As linhagens celulares leucêmicas, Kasumi-1 e Jurkat foram usadas para avaliar a atividade citotóxica em ensaios empregando-se iodeto de propídio e AlamarBlue. Foram avaliados os teores totais de fenóis, flavonóides, taninos condensados, alcalóides e lipídeos presentes nos extratos das folhas e dos frutos. As atividades antioxidantes de ambos os extratos também foram avaliadas. O extrato das folhas foi o que apresentou o maior conteúdo de fenóis, taninos condensados e flavonóides totais e a maior atividade antioxidante. Já o extrato de fruto apresentou a maior quantidade de lipídios e alcaloides e a melhor atividade antibacteriana contra Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus megaterium e Micrococcus luteus. Já o extrato das folhas apresentou apenas atividade contra M. luteus. Em relação à atividade citotóxica, apenas o extrato do fruto apresentou citotoxicidade contra as linhagens celulares Jurkat e Kasumi-1. Em resumo, o extrato do fruto de P. lingue é uma potencial fonte de moléculas com atividade biológica para o desenvolvimento de novos fármacos a serem utilizados em alguns tipos de leucemia, bem como agente antibacteriano.


Asunto(s)
Lauraceae , Persea , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Frutas , Bacterias Gramnegativas , Bacterias Grampositivas , Antibacterianos/farmacología
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242703, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285636

RESUMEN

Abstract Oral diseases caused by various microorganisms are common around the world. Scientific research has now been focusing on novel medicines to overcome bacterial resistance and antibiotics side effects; therefore, the current study was designed to assess the efficacy of certain antibiotics, toothpaste, and medicinal plant extracts (Ajuga bracteosa and Curcuma longa) versus the bacterial pathogens isolated from the human oral cavity. A total of 130 samples were collected from Khyber Teaching Hospital Peshawar, Pakistan, among those 27 species isolated, and eight bacterial species were identified from the samples. Among all the bacterial species, Staphylococcus aureus (29.62%) and Proteus mirabilis (22.2%) were found to be more prevalent oral pathogens. In comparison, the least pervasive microbes were Proteus vulgaris, Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli and Aeromonas hydrophila. The study also suggested that dental problems were more prevalent in males (41-50 years of age) than females. Among the eight antibiotics used in the study, the most promising results were shown by Foxicillin against A. hydrophila. The survey of TP1 revealed that it showed more potent antagonist activity against Proteus vulgaris as compared TP2 and TP3 that might be due to the high content of fluoride. The Curcuma longa showed more significant activity than Ajuga bracteosa (Stem, leaves and root) extracts. The data obtained through this study revealed that antibiotics were more effective for oral bacterial pathogens than toothpaste and plant extracts which showed moderate and low activity, respectively. Therefore, it is suggested that the active compounds in individual medicinal plants like Curcuma longa and Ajuga bracteosa could replace the antibiotics when used in daily routine as tooth cleansers or mouth rinses.


Resumo As doenças bucais causadas por vários microrganismos são comuns em todo o mundo. A pesquisa científica agora tem se concentrado em novos medicamentos para superar a resistência bacteriana e os efeitos colaterais dos antibióticos; portanto, o presente estudo foi desenhado para avaliar a eficácia de certos antibióticos, pasta de dente e extratos de plantas medicinais (Ajuga bracteosa e Curcuma longa) contra os patógenos bacterianos isolados da cavidade oral humana. No total, 130 amostras foram coletadas do Khyber Teaching Hospital Peshawar, Paquistão, entre essas, 27 espécies foram isoladas e oito espécies bacterianas foram identificadas a partir das amostras. Entre todas as espécies bacterianas, Staphylococcus aureus (29.62%) e Proteus mirabilis (22.2%) foram os patógenos orais mais prevalentes. Em comparação, os micróbios menos difundidos foram Proteus vulgaris, Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli e Aeromonas hydrophila. O estudo também sugeriu que os problemas dentários eram mais prevalentes em homens (41-50 anos de idade) do que em mulheres. Entre os oito antibióticos usados ​​no estudo, os resultados mais promissores foram mostrados pelo Foxicillin contra A. hydrophila. A pesquisa de TP1 revelou que ele mostrou atividade antagonista mais potente contra Proteus vulgaris em comparação a TP2 e TP3, o que pode ser devido ao alto teor de flúor. A Curcuma longa apresentou atividade mais significativa em relação aos extratos de Ajuga bracteosa (caule, folhas e raiz). Os dados obtidos neste estudo revelaram que os antibióticos foram mais eficazes para os patógenos bacterianos orais do que os dentifrícios e os extratos vegetais que apresentaram atividade moderada e baixa, respectivamente. Portanto, sugere-se que os compostos ativos em plantas medicinais individuais como Curcuma longa e Ajuga bracteosa possam substituir os antibióticos quando usados ​​na rotina diária como limpadores de dentes ou enxaguatórios bucais.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Pastas de Dientes , Fluoruros , Pakistán , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Antibacterianos
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244479, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285635

RESUMEN

Abstract The objective of the present study was to analyse the bioactive compounds of the leaves of Conocarpus lancifolius (C. lancifolius). The GC-MS analysis of the hot methanolic extract of the leaves (HMEL) of C. lancifolius exhibited the bioactive compounds such as 1-(3-Methoxy-2-nitrobenzyl) iso quinoline, morphin-4-ol-6,7-dione, 1-bromo-N-methyl-, phytol, hexadecanoic acid, 2,3-dihydroxypropyl ester, 2,2':4',2"-terthiophene, ethyl iso-allocholate, caryophyllene oxide, campesterol, epiglobulol, cholestan-3-ol, 2-methylene-, (3á,5à)-, dasycarpidan-1-methanol, acetate (ester) and oleic acid, eicosyl ester. The FT-IR analysis of HMEL of C. lancifolius showed a unique peak at 3184, 2413, 1657 cm-1 representing coumaric acid, chlorogenic acid and ferulic acid. The HMEL of C. lancifolius was actively inhibiting the proliferation of breast cancer cells MCF-7 ATCC at the concentration of 72.66 ± 8.21 µg/ml as IC50 value. The HMEL of C. lancifolius also revealed a good spectrum of activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial cultures screened in this work. The activity observed has shown more or less similar effects against screened bacteria. However, the magnitude of potentiality was significantly lesser compared to standard ciprofloxacin disc at p< 0.001 level (99% confidence intervals). Furthermore, the study demonstrating the bioactive compounds can be isolated from the leaves of C. lancifolius.


Resumo O objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar os compostos bioativos das folhas de Conocarpus lancifolius (C. lancifolius). A análise por GC-MS do extrato metanólico quente das folhas (HMEL) de C. lancifolius exibiu os compostos bioativos como 1- (3-Metoxi-2-nitrobenzil) isoquinolina, morfina-4-ol-6,7- diona, 1-bromo-N-metil-, fitol, ácido hexadecanoico, 2,3-di-hidroxipropil éster, 2,2 ': 4', 2 " - tertiofeno, isoalocolato de etil, óxido de cariofileno, campesterol, epiglobulol, colestano -3-ol, 2-metileno-, (3á, 5à) -, dasycarpidan-1-metanol, acetato (éster) e ácido oleico, éster eicosílico. A análise FT-IR de HMEL de C. lancifolius mostrou um pico único em 3184, 2413, 1657 cm-1 representando ácido cumarico, ácido clorogênico e ácido ferúlico. O HMEL de C. lancifolius inibiu ativamente a proliferação de células de câncer de mama MCF-7 ATCC na concentração de 72,66 ± 8,21 µg / ml como valor de IC50. O HMEL de C. lancifolius também revelou bom espectro de atividade contra culturas de bactérias Gram-positivas e Gram-negativas rastreadas neste trabalho. A atividade observada mostrou efeitos mais ou menos semelhantes contra bactérias rastreadas. No entanto, a magnitude da potencialidade foi significativamente menor em comparação com o disco de ciprofloxacina padrão em nível de p < 0,001 (intervalos de confiança de 99%). Além disso, o estudo demonstrando os compostos bioativos pode ser isolado das folhas de C. lancifolius.


Asunto(s)
Árboles , Hojas de la Planta , Arabia Saudita , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Espectroscopía Infrarroja por Transformada de Fourier , Antibacterianos/farmacología
11.
J Immunol Res ; 2022: 4126273, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35345778

RESUMEN

American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) is an herbal medicine with polysaccharides as its important active ingredient. The purpose of this research was to identify the effects of the polysaccharides of P. quinquefolius (WQP) on rats with antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD) induced by lincomycin hydrochloride. WQP was primarily composed of galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose, and arabinose. The yield, total sugar content, uronic acid content, and protein content were 6.71%, 85.2%, 31.9%, and 2.1%, respectively. WQP reduced the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the ileum and colon, reduced the IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-17A, and TNF-α levels, increased the levels of IL-4 and IL-10 in colon tissues, improved the production of acetate and propionate, regulated the gut microbiota diversity and composition, improved the relative richness of Lactobacillus and Bacteroides, and reduced the relative richness of Blautia and Coprococcus. The results indicated that WQP can enhance the recovery of the intestinal structure in rats, reduce inflammatory cytokine levels, improve short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) levels, promote recovery of the gut microbiota and intestinal mucosal barrier, and alleviate antibiotic-related side effects such as diarrhoea and microbiota dysbiosis caused by lincomycin hydrochloride. We found that WQP can protect the intestinal barrier by increasing Occludin and Claudin-1 expression. In addition, WQP inhibited the MAPK inflammatory signaling pathway to improve the inflammatory status. This study provides a foundation for the treatment of natural polysaccharides to reduce antibiotic-related side effects.


Asunto(s)
Panax , Animales , Antibacterianos/efectos adversos , Diarrea/inducido químicamente , Diarrea/tratamiento farmacológico , Diarrea/metabolismo , Lincomicina/farmacología , Lincomicina/uso terapéutico , Sistema de Señalización de MAP Quinasas , Panax/química , Polisacáridos/farmacología , Polisacáridos/uso terapéutico , Ratas
12.
Dermatol Ther ; 35(2): e15222, 2022 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34820982

RESUMEN

Atmospheric-pressure, non-thermal plasma destroys microorganisms by directly reacting with hydrocarbon molecules in the cell wall and/or by damaging the cytoplasmic membrane, proteins, and DNA with charged particles and reactive species. The aim of our study was to evaluate the antibacterial and anticandidal effects of atmospheric-pressure, non-thermal, nitrogen- and argon-plasma pulses on various pathogen preparations. The resultant antibacterial and anticandidal effects were assessed by evaluating percent and log reduction values for pathogen colonies. Nitrogen-plasma pulses emitted at an energy of 1.5 J and argon-plasma pulses generated at 0.5 J elicited remarkable antibacterial effects on Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and anticandidal effects on Candida albicans. Nitrogen-plasma pulses at a pulse count of five elicited remarkable antibacterial effects on Cutibacterium acnes at the energy settings of 1.75, 2.5, and 3 J, but not at 1 J. Meanwhile, argon-plasma pulses showed antibacterial effects on C. acnes at an energy of 0.5 and 0.65 J. Nitrogen- or argon-plasma pulses exert antibacterial and anticandidal effects on bacterial and fungal pathogens.


Asunto(s)
Staphylococcus aureus Resistente a Meticilina , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Argón/farmacología , Presión Atmosférica , Humanos , Nitrógeno/farmacología , Pseudomonas aeruginosa
13.
Trop Med Int Health ; 27(4): 454-462, 2022 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35189005

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: We investigated the characteristics of prophylactic antimicrobial use in clean and clean-contaminated surgical procedures and assessed the efficacy of a prophylactic antimicrobial stewardship intervention at Thong Nhat Hospital, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 354 patients who underwent either clean or clean-contaminated surgical procedures at Thong Nhat Hospital. Eligible patients were classified with respect to three periods of intervention from 2017 to 2020. Data collection included surgical procedures, patient characteristics, and prophylactic antimicrobial usage. We determined the efficacy of antimicrobial stewardship intervention based on comparisons among the primary outcome (the appropriateness of prophylactic antimicrobials) and secondary outcomes (postoperative antimicrobial prophylaxis (AP) prolongation, length of postoperative hospital stay, and cost of antimicrobials). RESULTS: The mean age of patients in periods 1, 2, and 3 was 54.5 ± 16.6, 50.2 ± 16.5, and 52.8 ± 17.3 years, respectively, with an overall male/female ratio of 1.1/1. No significant differences were detected in basic patient characteristics during the three periods. Majority of the surgical procedures were clean (56%-59%) and scheduled (85%-86%). Prophylactic antimicrobial stewardship intervention enhanced AP appropriateness (by 12.7%, 12.7%, and 39.0% in periods 1, 2, and 3, respectively, p < 0.001), decreased postoperative prophylactic antimicrobial duration [3.0 (0-6), 1.5 (0-5), and 0.0 (0-1) days, respectively, p < 0.001], and reduced average antimicrobial expenses (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The prophylactic antimicrobial stewardship interventions introduced at Thong Nhat Hospital had several positive impacts on the appropriateness of prophylactic antimicrobial use and treatment costs.


Asunto(s)
Programas de Optimización del Uso de los Antimicrobianos , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Profilaxis Antibiótica , Programas de Optimización del Uso de los Antimicrobianos/métodos , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Hospitales , Humanos , Masculino , Vietnam
14.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1207: 339799, 2022 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35491039

RESUMEN

As a "superbug", methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has long been one of the most ubiquitous drug-resistant bacteria inducing numerous nosocomial infections. To achieve effective diagnosis and following treatment decision of infectious diseases induced by MRSA, it is highly desired to establish rapid analysis and antibiotic susceptibility test methods for this pathogen. In this study, we successfully expressed a bifunctional protein by fusing green fluorescent protein and cellular wall-binding domain of bacteriophage P108. The bifunctional protein can be employed as a signal probe for broad-spectrum fluorimetry of MRSA strains because it can both bind with the target pathogen and emit intensive fluorescence. By using it as the signal probe and porcine IgG as the capture agent, MRSA can be analyzed within a dynamic range of 1.0 × 103-2.0 × 107 CFU mL-1 with a sandwich mode. The fluorimetry was also applied to test antibiotic susceptibility of this pathogen to five antibiotics, and all results are conformable with those obtained with a standard micro broth dilution method. The above results demonstrate the attractive perspective of the bifunctional protein for rapid diagnosis and effective medication of infectious diseases induced by MRSA.


Asunto(s)
Bacteriófagos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente a Meticilina , Infecciones Estafilocócicas , Animales , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Fluorometría , Proteínas Fluorescentes Verdes/genética , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Staphylococcus aureus , Porcinos
15.
J Oleo Sci ; 71(5): 701-708, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35491095

RESUMEN

The use of bacteria in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) emerges as an ecofriendly and exciting approach. In the present study, we reported the biosynthesis of AgNPs by using culture supernatant of the bacteria Bacillus licheniformis (MN900686). The biogenically synthesized AgNPs were confirmed by the change in the color of the culture filtrate from yellow to brown after the addition of AgNO3. Further characterization performed by means of UV vis-spectroscopy showed absorption peak at 414 nm which confirmed the formation of AgNPs. Fourier Transfer infrared (FTIR) confirmed the involvement of biological molecules in the formation of nanoparticles (NPs). The SEM revealed that the NPs have approximately 38 nm size. The agar well diffusion assay was used to determine antibacterial activity while tube dilution method was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The human pathogenic bacterial strains i.e., P. aeruginosa (MN900691) and B. subtilis (MN900684), were used as test strains. The anti-bacterial assay against test strains revealed that these NPs showed concentration dependent increased zone of inhibition (ZOI). The maximum ZOI at 25 µL of AgNPs was 20 mm against B. subtilis after 24 hours of incubation. One-way ANOVA test showed significant ZOI (p ≤ 0.05) against B. subtilis. The MIC was ranged from 4.3-6.6 µg/mL while MBC ranged from 8.3 to 6.6 µg/mL. Overall, this study suggested that the biogenically synthesized NPs are an effective alternative source of antimicrobials against pathogenic bacteria.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos , Bacillus licheniformis , Nanopartículas del Metal , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Antiinfecciosos/farmacología , Bacterias , Humanos , Nanopartículas del Metal/química , Plata/química , Plata/farmacología
16.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 142(5): 527-534, 2022.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35491159

RESUMEN

Antimicrobial stewardship (AS) intervention strategy is a critical process in promoting appropriate antibiotic use, thus preventing unnecessarily prolonged therapy and reducing antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Although limiting unnecessary carbapenem use by AS intervention is speculated to reduce AMR, there is a lack of specific data on the efficacy of AS team (AST) intervention regarding carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA). Consequently, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of our AS strategy on carbapenem use and CRPA. The AS intervention strategy was launched in July 2017 and consisted of daily audits and feedback on carbapenem use. We evaluated the 4-year prescription trend, including the rate of switching to other antimicrobials, and the rate of CRPA and the days of therapy required prior to and after the beginning of the AST intervention. The rate of switching to narrow-spectrum antibiotics and the discontinuation of carbapenem treatment were significantly higher in the pre-intervention period compared with the post-intervention period. (7.0% vs. 14.5%; p<0.001; 54.1% vs. 50.9%; p=0.027). However, there were no significant differences in the rate of CRPA prior to and after the beginning of the AST intervention. Furthermore, there was no correlation found between consumption and resistance rate (Pearson's r=0.123). Our results suggest that it is extremely important for AST to promote de-escalation and reduce unnecessary use, while the combination of process and outcome indicators other than antimicrobial consumption and resistance rate are required for the evaluation of the AS programs.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos , Programas de Optimización del Uso de los Antimicrobianos , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Programas de Optimización del Uso de los Antimicrobianos/métodos , Carbapenémicos/farmacología , Carbapenémicos/uso terapéutico , Pseudomonas aeruginosa
17.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 804611, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35493730

RESUMEN

Objectives: To investigate the potential impact of the syndromic multiplex FilmArray® Pneumonia plus Panel (FAPP) on the antimicrobial treatment guidance of patients with ventilated hospital-acquired pneumonia (VHAP). Methods: Respiratory fluids from 100 adult patients with VHAP, receiving invasive mechanical ventilation in three intensive care units from one French university hospital, were tested prospectively using FAPP. Conventional cultures were performed in parallel as routine practice. Clinicians were left blinded to the FAPP results. Antimicrobial therapies based on FAPP results were simulated by independent blinded experts according to a predefined algorithm and compared to 1) those prescribed in practice according to local guidelines (real-life), and 2) those that complied with the international ERS/ESICM/ESCMID/ALAT recommendations. The primary endpoint was the number of days of broad-spectrum antimicrobial therapy. Secondary endpoints were the rates of microbiological treatment failure and cost-effectiveness ratio. Results: The predicted median duration of broad-spectrum antibiotics was 0 [0-1.25] day in the FAPP-based simulation, versus 2 [0-6] days in real-life (p<0.0001) and 2 [2-3.25] days in the recommendations-based simulation (p<0.0001). Treatment failure was predicted in 3% of cases with FAPP results versus observed in 11% in real-life (p=0.08) and 6% with recommendations-based simulation (p=0.37). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was 1 121 € [-7021; 6794] to avoid one day of non-optimized antimicrobial therapy. Conclusions: Our results suggest that using FAPP in patients with VHAP has the potential to reduce the use of broad-spectrum antimicrobial therapy without increasing the risk of microbial treatment failure.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos , Neumonía Asociada a la Atención Médica , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Antiinfecciosos/uso terapéutico , Enfermedad Crítica , Neumonía Asociada a la Atención Médica/tratamiento farmacológico , Hospitales , Humanos , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa Multiplex
18.
Bone Joint J ; 104-B(5): 575-580, 2022 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35491584

RESUMEN

Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a difficult complication requiring a comprehensive eradication protocol. Cure rates have essentially stalled in the last two decades, using methods of antimicrobial cement joint spacers and parenteral antimicrobial agents. Functional spacers with higher-dose antimicrobial-loaded cement and antimicrobial-loaded calcium sulphate beads have emphasized local antimicrobial delivery on the premise that high-dose local antimicrobial delivery will enhance eradication. However, with increasing antimicrobial pressures, microbiota have responded with adaptive mechanisms beyond traditional antimicrobial resistance genes. In this review we describe adaptive resistance mechanisms that are relevant to the treatment of PJI. Some mechanisms are well known, but others are new. The objective of this review is to inform clinicians of the known adaptive resistance mechanisms of microbes relevant to PJI. We also discuss the implications of these adaptive mechanisms in the future treatment of PJI. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2022;104-B(5):575-580.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos , Artritis Infecciosa , Infecciones Relacionadas con Prótesis , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Antiinfecciosos/uso terapéutico , Artritis Infecciosa/tratamiento farmacológico , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Humanos , Infecciones Relacionadas con Prótesis/tratamiento farmacológico
19.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1662022 02 17.
Artículo en Holandés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35499506

RESUMEN

Lumbar bone marrow edema, also known as Modic type-1 endplate change, has a prevalence of 43% in low back pain populations and 6% in general populations. Besides mechanical factors and genetic predisposition it has been hypothesized that lumbar bone marrow edema is caused by a latent infection of low-virulence anaerobic bacteria in degenerated lumbar intervertebral discs. The hypothesis is supported by the observation that the presence of Cutibacterium acnes is more frequently found in samples of disci with Modic-1 than in discs without and by the positive effects of antibiotics in patients with back pain and Modic-1 as shown in placebo-controlled RCT's. Opponents of the hypothesis argue that the findings of bacteria are most likely a result of contamination during harvesting the samples. We conclude that time has come to make a start in the Netherlands with treatment with antibiotics of a small group of well-selected patients in well-selected clinics.


Asunto(s)
Disco Intervertebral , Dolor de la Región Lumbar , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Médula Ósea , Edema/complicaciones , Humanos , Dolor de la Región Lumbar/etiología , Vértebras Lumbares , Propionibacterium acnes
20.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1662022 03 14.
Artículo en Holandés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35499541

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Description of the changing patterns of antibiotic resistance in Helicobacter pylori infection in the Netherlands. DESIGN: Retrospective database study using the Dutch infectious disease surveillance information system-antibiotic resistance (ISIS-AR). METHOD: In the ISIS-AR database antibiotic resistance data are reported by 46 microbiologic laboratories in the Netherlands. For the present study, data from 16 centres were used with a 10 year period of reporting H. pylori resistance data, from 1 January 2010 till 1 January 2020, for amoxycillin, levofloxacin, claritrhromycin, tetracyclin and metronidazole. RESULTS: In 2019 Antimicrobial resistance rates in the Netherlands were 1% for tetracycline, 5% for amoxycillin, 23%% for levofloxacin, 46% for metronidazole and 47% for clarithromycin. The combined resistance rate for clarithromycin and metronidazole was 29%. Significantly higher resistance rates were found in female patients for amoxycillin (8% vs 1%), clarithromycin (53% vs 38%) and metronidazole (52% vs 38%). From 2010 to 2019, a significant rise in resistance rates was found for amoxycillin (0% - 5%), clarithromycin (7% - 40%), metronidazole (14% - 45%) and for the clarithromycin and metronidazole combination (2% - 29%). CONCLUSION: There was an important rise in antibiotic resistance rates in H. pylori in the Netherlands. For optimal H. pylori treatment bismuth-based therapies should become available again in the Netherlands. Treatment of H. pylori should be based on the individual antibiotic resistance profile and be in concordance with the principles of antibiotic stewardship. Guidelines for treatment of H. pylori in the Netherlands should be adapted and have a better correlation with International guidelines and best practices.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Amoxicilina , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Claritromicina/farmacología , Claritromicina/uso terapéutico , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Femenino , Infecciones por Helicobacter/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Helicobacter/epidemiología , Humanos , Levofloxacino , Metronidazol/farmacología , Metronidazol/uso terapéutico , Países Bajos/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos
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