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1.
Curr Microbiol ; 81(3): 88, 2024 Feb 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38311656

RESUMEN

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) stand as a promising alternative to conventional pesticides, leveraging a multifaceted approach to combat plant pathogens. This study focuses on identifying and characterizing the AMP produced by Lactiplantibacillus argentoratensis strain IT, demonstrating potent antibacterial activity against various harmful microorganisms. Evaluation of AMPs' antibacterial activity was conducted through an agar well diffusion assay, a reliable method for assessing secondary metabolite antimicrobial efficacy. The study unveils the antimicrobial potential of the purified extract obtained from Lactiplantibacillus argentoratensis IT, isolated from goat milk. Notably, the AMP exhibited robust antibacterial activity against phytopathogens affecting solanaceous crops, including the Gram-negative Ralstonia solanacearum. Expression conditions and purification methods were optimized to identify the peptide's mass and sequence, utilizing LC-MS and SDS-PAGE. This paper underscores the application potential of Lactiplantibacillus spp. IT as a biocontrol agent for managing bacterial infectious diseases in plants. Results indicate optimal AMP production at 37 °C, with a culture broth pH of 5 during fermentation. The obtained peptide sequence corresponded to peaks at 842.5 and 2866.4 m/z ratio, with a molecular weight of approximately 5 kDa according to tricine SDS-PAGE analysis. In conclusion, this study lays the foundation for utilizing Lactiplantibacillus spp. IT derived AMPs in plant biocontrol strategies, showcasing their efficacy against bacterial phytopathogens. These findings contribute valuable insights for advancing sustainable agricultural practices.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos , Péptidos , Bacterias , Antibacterianos , Secuencia de Aminoácidos , Plantas/microbiología
2.
Acta Cir Bras ; 39: e390424, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38324800

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To conduct a systematic literature review with meta-analysis to identify whether antibiotic prophylaxis after removal of the indwelling urinary catheter reduces posterior infections. METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted in the databases PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, Google Scholar, and Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature, using the keywords "antibiotics" AND "prostatectomy" AND "urinary catheter." RESULTS: Three articles were identified having the scope of our review, with 1,040 patients, which were subjected to our meta-analysis revealing a marginally significant decrease in the risk of urinary infection after indwelling urinary catheter removal (odds ratio-OR = 0.51; 95% confidence interval-95%CI 0.27-0.98; p = 0.04; I2 = 0%). No difference was found regarding the presence of bacteriuria (OR = 0.39; 95%CI 0.12-1.24; p = 0.11; I2 = 73%). CONCLUSIONS: In our meta-analysis, there was a significant decrease in urinary tract infection with antibiotic prophylaxis after indwelling urinary catheter removal following radical prostatectomy.


Asunto(s)
Profilaxis Antibiótica , Infecciones Urinarias , Humanos , Masculino , Cateterismo Urinario/efectos adversos , Infecciones Urinarias/etiología , Infecciones Urinarias/prevención & control , Infecciones Urinarias/tratamiento farmacológico , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Catéteres de Permanencia/efectos adversos , Prostatectomía/efectos adversos
3.
PLoS Biol ; 22(2): e3002205, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38300958

RESUMEN

Cells must access resources to survive, and the anatomy of multicellular structures influences this access. In diverse multicellular eukaryotes, resources are provided by internal conduits that allow substances to travel more readily through tissue than they would via diffusion. Microbes growing in multicellular structures, called biofilms, are also affected by differential access to resources and we hypothesized that this is influenced by the physical arrangement of the cells. In this study, we examined the microanatomy of biofilms formed by the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa and discovered that clonal cells form striations that are packed lengthwise across most of a mature biofilm's depth. We identified mutants, including those defective in pilus function and in O-antigen attachment, that show alterations to this lengthwise packing phenotype. Consistent with the notion that cellular arrangement affects access to resources within the biofilm, we found that while the wild type shows even distribution of tested substrates across depth, the mutants show accumulation of substrates at the biofilm boundaries. Furthermore, we found that altered cellular arrangement within biofilms affects the localization of metabolic activity, the survival of resident cells, and the susceptibility of subpopulations to antibiotic treatment. Our observations provide insight into cellular features that determine biofilm microanatomy, with consequences for physiological differentiation and drug sensitivity.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos , Infecciones por Pseudomonas , Humanos , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/metabolismo , Biopelículas , Infecciones por Pseudomonas/microbiología , Fimbrias Bacterianas
4.
Theranostics ; 14(3): 1181-1194, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38323312

RESUMEN

Rationale: Antimicrobial peptide LL-37 has been recognized as a favorable alternative to antibiotics due to its broad antibacterial spectrum, low resistance development and diverse biological activities. However, its high manufactory cost, poor proteolytic stability, and unpredictable cytotoxicity seriously hindered its medical translation. Methods: To push the frontiers of its clinical application, all-hydrocarbon stapling strategy was exploited here for the structural modification of KR-12, the core and minimal fragment of LL-37. Results: Based on a library of KR-12 derivatives that designed and synthesized to be stapled at positions of either i, i+4 or i, i+7, structure to activity relationship was investigated. Among them, KR-12(Q5, D9) with the glutamine and aspartic acid residues stapled displayed increased helical content and positive charge. The reinforced α-helical conformation not only protected it from proteolytic hydrolysis but also improved its antibacterial efficacy via effective membrane perturbation and anti-inflammatory efficacy via compact LPS binding. Besides, the increased positive charge endowed it with an enhanced therapeutic index. On infected wound mouse model, it was demonstrated to eliminate bacteria and promote wound closure and regeneration effectively. Conclusion: Overall, the all-hydrocarbon stapling was proven to lay the foundation for the future development of antibacterial agents. KR-12(Q5, D9) could serve as a lead compound for the clinical treatment of bacterial infections.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos , Péptidos Catiónicos Antimicrobianos , Animales , Ratones , Antibacterianos/química , Péptidos Catiónicos Antimicrobianos/química , Hidrocarburos , Bacterias , Antiinflamatorios
5.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 24(1): 56, 2024 Feb 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317063

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To report the microbiological isolates, aetiology, complications, antibiotic susceptibilities, and clinical remission of dacryocystitis and canaliculitis in a prominent tertiary ophthalmic teaching and referral hospital located in northern China and to offer appropriate recommendations for preventing and formulating drug treatment strategies. METHODS: This prospective study recruited a total of 477 participants who had been diagnosed with either dacryocystitis or canaliculitis. The cohort comprised 307 patients with chronic dacryocystitis, 111 patients with acute dacryocystitis, and 59 patients with canaliculitis. Purulent discharge from the lacrimal duct was collected using a sterile swab and immediately subjected to microbial culture. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted following established protocols. All participants were scheduled for follow-up visits within 14 days after receiving antibiotic therapy. RESULTS: The present findings indicated that women exhibited a higher susceptibility to the condition, as evidenced by the occurrence of 367 cases in comparison to 110 cases among men. Among the 477 patients, definitive causes were established in 59 individuals, accounting for 12.4% of the patients. Additionally, ocular complications were reported by 132 patients, representing 27.7% of the total. Monocular involvement was observed in the majority of cases, with 402 out of 477 patients (84.3%) affected, while binocular involvement was present in 75 patients (15.7%). In total, 506 microbiological strains were recovered from 552 eyes, with Staphylococcus epidermidis (16.4%) being the most prevalent microorganism. Other predominant isolates included Corynebacterium macginleyi (9.1%), Staphylococcus aureus (5.1%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (4.9%), Haemophilus (4.4%), Propionibacterium acnes (3.5%), and Eikenella corrodens (3.1%). Among the 12 isolated fungi, Candida parapsilosis accounted for 66.7%. The susceptibility to antimicrobial agents tested in gram-negative bacilli (79.5%) was observed to be higher than that of anaerobic bacteria (76.7%) and gram-positive cocci (55.4%). With pharmacological therapy, the remission rate of acute dacryocystitis (72.7%) was found to be higher than that of canaliculitis (53.3%) and chronic dacryocystitis (42.3%). CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the microbial spectrum of dacryocystitis and canaliculitis, particularly C.macginleyi, E.corrodens and C.parapsilosis, which are also more frequently isolated. Vancomycin and imipenem may be more effective treatment options. Most cases have an unknown aetiology, and essential preventive measures involve postoperative cleansing of the lacrimal passage following eye and nasal surgeries, as well as the proactive management of rhinitis.


Asunto(s)
Canaliculitis , Dacriocistitis , Aparato Lagrimal , Masculino , Humanos , Femenino , Estudios Prospectivos , Dacriocistitis/tratamiento farmacológico , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Hospitales de Enseñanza
6.
BMC Microbiol ; 24(1): 49, 2024 Feb 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317090

RESUMEN

As antibiotics cannot inhibit multidrug-resistant bacteria (MDR), continuous research is mandatory to find other antibacterials from natural resources. Native legume proteins and their modified forms exhibited broad spectra of high antimicrobial activities. Sixteen bacterial isolates were mapped for antibiotic resistance, showing resistance in the range of (58-92%) and (42-92%) in the case of the Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, respectively. White native Phaseolus vulgaris protein (NPP) was isolated from the seeds and methylated (MPP). The MIC range of MPP against 7 MDR bacteria was 10-25 times lower than NPP and could (1 MIC) considerably inhibit their 24 h liquid growth. MPP showed higher antibacterial effectiveness than Gentamycin, the most effective antibiotic against Gram-positive bacteria and the second most effective against Gram-negative bacteria. However, MPP recorded MICs against the seven studied MDR bacteria in the 1-20 µg/mL range, the same for Gentamycin. The combination of Gentamycin and MPP produced synergistic effects against the seven bacteria studied, as confirmed by the Transmission Electron Microscopic images. The antimicrobial activity of MPP against the seven MDR bacteria remained stable after two years of cold storage at 8-10 °C as contrasted to Gentamycin, which lost 20-72% of its antimicrobial effectiveness.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Bacterianas , Phaseolus , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Infecciones Bacterianas/tratamiento farmacológico , Bacterias , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple , Bacterias Gramnegativas , Bacterias Grampositivas , Gentamicinas/farmacología , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 24(1): 161, 2024 Feb 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317132

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Bloodstream infection of Klebsiella pneumoniae (BSI-KP) were associated with increased mortality. Klebsiella pneumoniae was tested to susceptible to colistin by E-test and broth microdilution method in clinical laboratory. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of colistin versus tigecycline, carbapenem monotherapy and combination in the treatment of BSI-KP. METHODS: Electronic databases such as PubMed, Web of Science and Embase were searched. The last search was in November 24th, 2022, addressing the colistin, carbapenems and tigecycline monotherapy and combination treatments in patients with BSI-KP. The primary outcomes were 30-day or 28-day mortality. OR where available with 95% CI were pooled in random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: Following the outlined search strategy, a total of 658 articles were identified from the initial database searching. Six studies, 17 comparisons were included. However, they all were observational design, lacking high-quality randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Moderate or low-quality evidences suggested that colistin monotherapy was associated with an OR = 1.35 (95% CI = 0.62-2.97, P = 0.45, Tau2 = 0.00, I2 = 0%) compared with tigecycline monotherapy, OR = 0.81 (95% CI = 0.27-2.45, P = 0.71, Tau2 = 0.00, I2 = 0%) compared with carbapenem monotherapy. Compared with combination with tigecycline or carbapenem, Colistin monotherapy resulted in OR of 3.07 (95% CI = 1.34-7.04, P = 0.008, Tau2 = 0.00, I2 = 0%) and 0.98 (95%CI = 0.29-3.31, P = 0.98, Tau2 = 0.00, I2 = 0% ), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Colistin, carbapenem and tigecycline monotherapy showed similar treatment effects in patients who suffered from BSI-KP. Compared with colistin monotherapy, colistin combined tigecycline therapy might play the synergism effects. TRIAL REGISTRATION: retrospectively registered.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Klebsiella , Sepsis , Humanos , Colistina/uso terapéutico , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Tigeciclina/uso terapéutico , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Carbapenémicos/uso terapéutico , Sepsis/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Klebsiella/tratamiento farmacológico , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana
8.
Respir Res ; 25(1): 69, 2024 Feb 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317197

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Although multidrug-resistant bacteria (MDR) are common in patients undergoing prolonged weaning, there is little data on their impact on weaning and patient outcomes. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of consecutive patients who underwent prolonged weaning and were at a university weaning centre from January 2018 to December 2020. The influence of MDR colonisation and infection on weaning success (category 3a and 3b), successful prolonged weaning from invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) with or without the need for non-invasive ventilation (NIV) compared with category 3c (weaning failure 3cI or death 3cII) was investigated. The pathogen groups considered were: multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria (MDRGN), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp. (VRE). RESULTS: A total of 206 patients were studied, of whom 91 (44.2%) showed evidence of MDR bacteria (32% VRE, 1.5% MRSA and 16% MDRGN), with 25 patients also meeting the criteria for MDR infection. 70.9% of the 206 patients were successfully weaned from IMV, 8.7% died. In 72.2% of cases, nosocomial pneumonia and other infections were the main cause of death. Patients with evidence of MDR (infection and colonisation) had a higher incidence of weaning failure than those without evidence of MDR (48% vs. 34.8% vs. 21.7%). In multivariate analyses, MDR infection (OR 4.9, p = 0.004) was an independent risk factor for weaning failure, along with male sex (OR 2.3, p = 0.025), Charlson Comorbidity Index (OR 1.2, p = 0.027), pH (OR 2.7, p < 0.001) and duration of IMV before admission (OR 1.01, p < 0.001). In addition, MDR infection was the only independent risk factor for death (category 3cII), (OR 6.66, p = 0.007). CONCLUSION: Patients with MDR infection are significantly more likely to die during the weaning process. There is an urgent need to develop non-antibiotic approaches for the prevention and treatment of MDR infections as well as clinical research on antibiotic stewardship in prolonged weaning as well as in ICUs.


Asunto(s)
Staphylococcus aureus Resistente a Meticilina , Respiración Artificial , Humanos , Masculino , Respiración Artificial/efectos adversos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Desconexión del Ventilador , Bacterias , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico
9.
Crit Care ; 28(1): 40, 2024 Feb 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317262

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) due to wild-type AmpC-producing Enterobacterales (wtAE) is frequent in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Despite a low level of evidence, definitive antimicrobial therapy (AMT) with third generation cephalosporins (3GCs) or piperacillin is discouraged. METHODS: Observational prospective study including consecutive wtAE VAP patients in 20 French ICUs. The primary objective was to assess the association of the choice of definitive AMT, i.e. piperacillin ± tazobactam (PTZ), 3GCs or other molecule (4GCs, carbapenems, quinolones, cotrimoxazole; control group), with treatment success at day-7. Recurrence of infection was collected as a secondary outcome, and analyzed accounting for the competing risk of death. RESULTS: From February 2021 to June 2022, 274 patients were included. Enterobacter cloacae was the most prevalent specie (31%). Seventy-eight patients (28%) had PTZ as definitive AMT while 44 (16%) had 3GCs and 152 (56%) were classified in the control group. Day-7 success rate was similar between the 3 groups (74% vs. 73% vs. 68% respectively, p = 0.814). Recurrence probability at day-28 was 31% (95% CI 21-42), 40% (95% CI 26-55) and 21% (95% CI 15-28) for PTZ, 3GCs and control groups (p = 0.020). In multivariable analysis, choice of definitive AMT was not associated with clinical success, but definitive AMT with 3GCs was associated with recurrence at day-28 [csHR(95%CI) 10.9 (1.92-61.91)]. CONCLUSION: Choice of definitive antimicrobial therapy was not associated with treatment success at day 7. However, recurrence of pneumonia at day-28 was higher in patients treated with third generation cephalosporins with no differences in mortality or mechanical ventilation duration.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos , Neumonía Asociada al Ventilador , Humanos , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Estudios Prospectivos , Neumonía Asociada al Ventilador/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedad Crítica/terapia , Piperacilina/uso terapéutico , Combinación Piperacilina y Tazobactam/uso terapéutico , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos
10.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3011, 2024 02 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321059

RESUMEN

Axillary odor is a malodor produced by bacterial metabolism near the apocrine glands, which often causes discomfort in an individual's daily life and social interactions. A deodorant is a personal care product designed to alleviate or mask body odor. Currently, most deodorants contain antimicrobial chemicals and fragrances for odor management; however, direct application to the underarm skin can result in irritation or sensitivity. Therefore, there is a growing interest in technologies that enable disinfection and odor control without the antiperspirants or perfumes. The cold atmospheric plasma temporally generates reactive radicals that can eliminate bacteria and surrounding odors. In this study, cultured Staphylococcus hominis and Corynebacterium xerosis, the causative bacteria of axillary bromhidrosis, were killed after 90% plasma exposure for 3 min. Moreover, the electronic nose system indicated a significant reduction of approximately 51% in 3-hydroxy-3-methylhexanoic acid and approximately 34% in 3-methyl-3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol, the primary components of axillary odor, following a 5-min plasma exposure. These results support the dual function of our deodorant in eliminating bacteria and axillary odors without the chemical agents. Therefore, cold atmospheric plasma-applied deodorant devices have great potential for the treatment and management of axillary odors as a non-contact approach without chemical use in daily life.


Asunto(s)
Desodorantes , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Odorantes , Piel , Glándulas Apocrinas , Bacterias , Axila/microbiología
11.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3022, 2024 02 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321071

RESUMEN

The numbers of infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) that produce extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) and those that are carbapenem resistant, especially Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae), are increasing, and these infections are becoming a global public health problem. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of infections caused by ESBL-producing and carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli in patients hospitalized at An-Najah National University Hospital in Nablus, Palestine, and to provide healthcare workers with valuable information on the treatment of these infections. A retrospective cross-sectional investigation was conducted at a large tertiary care teaching hospital. The study included patients admitted to the hospital between January and December 2021, from whom ESBL-producing and carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli were isolated. The patients' clinical and demographic information was obtained from the hospital information system. In addition, information regarding the bacterial isolates and antibiotic resistance was obtained from the hospital's microbiology laboratory. This study included a total of 188 patients-91 males (48.4%) and 97 females (51.6%). The general surgical ward accounted for the highest proportion of infections (30.9%), followed by the surgical ICU (12.2%). The most common infections were caused by ESBL-producing E. coli, which accounted for 62.8% of the cases. Among them, urinary tract infections caused by this microorganism were the most prevalent (44.7% of patients). Over 50% of the patients (54.2%) had a history of antibiotic use, and 77.8% had been hospitalized within the past three months. ESBL-producing E. coli was significantly isolated from blood cultures (p-value = 0.000), and CR-K. pneumoniae was significantly isolated from endotracheal isolates (p-value = 0.001). This study emphasizes the concerning frequency of healthcare-acquired infections caused by ESBL-producing and carbapenem-resistant GNB in a tertiary care hospital. The substantial prevalence of antibiotic resistance presents considerable obstacles to the successful administration of routinely employed antibiotics. The results highlight the immediate need for improved antimicrobial stewardship and the implementation of infection control strategies to reduce the effects of multidrug-resistant GNB on patient well-being and public health.


Asunto(s)
Escherichia coli , beta-Lactamasas , Masculino , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Centros de Atención Terciaria , Estudios Transversales , beta-Lactamasas/farmacología , Bacterias Gramnegativas , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Carbapenémicos/farmacología , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Atención a la Salud , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana
12.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3031, 2024 02 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321082

RESUMEN

This innovative work aims to develop highly biocompatible and degradable nanoparticles by encapsulating haemoglobin (Hb) within poly-ε-caprolactone for novel biomedical applications. We used a modified double emulsion solvent evaporation method to fabricate the particles. A Scanning electron microscope (SEM) characterized them for surface morphology. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopies (UV-visible) elucidated preserved chemical and biological structure of encapsulated haemoglobin. The airproof equilibrium apparatus obtained the oxygen-carrying capacity and P50 values. The DPPH assay assessed free radical scavenging potential. The antibacterial properties were observed using four different bacterial strains by disk diffusion method. The MTT assay investigates the cytotoxic effects on mouse fibroblast cultured cell lines (L-929). The MTT assay showed that nanoparticles have no toxicity over large concentrations. The well-preserved structure of Hb within particles, no toxicity, high oxygen affinity, P50 value, and IC50 values open the area of new research, which may be used as artificial oxygen carriers, antioxidant, and antibacterial agents, potential therapeutic agents as well as drug carrier particles to treat the cancerous cells. The novelty of this work is the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of developed nanoparticles are not been reported yet. Results showed that the prepared particles have strong antioxidant and antibacterial potential.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes , Nanopartículas del Metal , Animales , Ratones , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Oxígeno , Polímeros , Nanopartículas del Metal/química , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Hemoglobinas , Espectroscopía Infrarroja por Transformada de Fourier , Extractos Vegetales/química
13.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 93, 2024 Feb 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321418

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Acacia species are economically significant as medicinal plants that have been utilized since ancient times. Acacia modesta has been reported to possess potent antibacterial and antioxidant properties, but its growth rate is slow. In this study, we hypothesized that inducing callus in vitro from A. modesta could enhance the production of antibacterial and antioxidant secondary metabolites, thereby circumventing the issues of slow growth and excessive harvesting of the plant. RESULTS: The callus was induced from axillary buds on MS medium supplemented with 1 mg/L of 2,4-D and 1 mg/L of BAP. The secondary metabolites, volatile compounds, antibacterial activity, and antioxidant activity of the callus and parent plant leaf extracts were evaluated. The results revealed that the content of phenolics and flavonoids, the number of volatile compounds, and the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the callus extract were significantly enhanced (P ≤ 0.05) compared to the leaf extract. The antibacterial and antioxidant effects were strongly correlated with the total phenolic and flavonoid content in the extracts. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that in vitro callus culture increases the production of phenolics, flavonoids, and volatile compounds. This subsequently enhances the antibacterial and antioxidant properties of A. modesta.


Asunto(s)
Acacia , Antioxidantes , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Acacia/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Fenoles/metabolismo
14.
BMC Womens Health ; 24(1): 94, 2024 02 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321435

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Uncomplicated urinary tract infections (uUTIs) are one of the most common community-acquired infections, particularly among women. Common symptoms of UTI include dysuria, urinary urgency and increased frequency, and lower abdominal pain. With appropriate treatment, symptoms may resolve in a few days. However, there is a lack of research on the emotional impact of this disease. We conducted a qualitative, interview-based study to gain a greater understanding of the emotional impact of uUTIs in women in China and Japan. METHODS: A qualitative, exploratory, in-depth, interview-based study was conducted between 19 November 2020 and 25 February 2021. Women aged ≥ 18 years who experienced ≥ 1 uUTI and received antibiotic treatment in the past year were eligible for inclusion. Participants must have experienced ≥ 1 of the following symptoms during a uUTI episode: urinary urgency, frequency, dysuria, or lower abdominal/suprapubic pain. Participants who reported back pain or fever (indicative of complicated UTI) were excluded. Participants with recurrent or sporadic UTIs were included, with specific screening criteria used to ensure capture of both groups. Following a screening call, a structured, in-depth telephone interview (~ 30 min in duration) was conducted by three female external moderators trained in qualitative interviewing, assisted by an interview guide. Interviews were analysed individually and thematically, with the results presented within the identified themes. RESULTS: A total of 65 women with uUTI completed the in-depth telephone interview: 40 (62%) from China and 25 (38%) from Japan. Participants reported that the symptoms of uUTI affected multiple aspects of their lives, and described feelings of embarrassment, frustration, guilt, dread, and loneliness associated with symptoms that interfered with relationships, work and daily activities, and sleep. Participants reported seeking healthcare from several different points of contact, from local pharmacies to hospitals. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis highlights the profound emotional impact of uUTIs in women in China and Japan, and the journey these participants take before their initial interaction with a healthcare professional. These insights emphasise the need to better understand the full impact of uUTI, and the role of healthcare professionals in improved patient education and support.


Asunto(s)
Disuria , Infecciones Urinarias , Femenino , Humanos , Disuria/complicaciones , Disuria/tratamiento farmacológico , Japón , Infecciones Urinarias/diagnóstico , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , China
15.
BMC Biotechnol ; 24(1): 8, 2024 Feb 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321442

RESUMEN

Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) have a unique mode of action as antibacterial agents in addition to their anticancer and antioxidant properties. In this study, microbial nanotechnology is employed to synthesize Ag-NPs using the cell filtrate of Streptomyces enissocaesilis BS1. The synthesized Ag-NPs are confirmed by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Also, the effects of different factors on Ag-NPs synthesis were evaluated to set the optimum synthesis conditions. Also, the antibacterial, antibiofilm, and anticancer activity of Ag-NPs was assessed. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the crystalline nature of the sample and validated that the crystal structure under consideration is a face-centered cubic (FCC) pattern. The TEM examination displayed the spherical particles of the Ag-NPs and their average size, which is 32.2 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed significant changes in functionality after silver nanoparticle dispersion, which could be attributed to the potency of the cell filtrate of Streptomyces enissocaesilis BS1 to act as both a reducing agent and a capping agent. The bioactivity tests showed that our synthesized Ag-NPs exhibited remarkable antibacterial activity against different pathogenic strains. Also, when the preformed biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027, Salmonella typhi ATCC 12023, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6598 were exposed to Ag NPs 50 mg/ml for 24 hours, the biofilm biomass was reduced by 10.7, 34.6, 34.75, and 39.08%, respectively. Furthermore, the Ag-NPs showed in vitro cancer-specific sensitivity against human breast cancer MCF-7 cell lines and colon cancer cell line Caco-2, and the IC50 was 0.160 mg/mL and 0.156 mg/mL, respectively. The results of this study prove the ease and efficiency of the synthesis of Ag-NPs using actinomycetes and demonstrate the significant potential of these Ag-NPs as anticancer and antibacterial agents.


Asunto(s)
Nanopartículas del Metal , Plata , Streptomyces , Humanos , Plata/química , Nanopartículas del Metal/química , Espectroscopía Infrarroja por Transformada de Fourier , Células CACO-2 , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Escherichia coli , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Biopelículas , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana
16.
Crit Care ; 28(1): 42, 2024 Feb 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321472

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Sepsis guidelines suggest immediate start of resuscitation for patients with quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) 2 or 3. However, the interpretation of qSOFA 1 remains controversial. We investigated whether measurements of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) may improve risk detection when qSOFA is 1. METHODS: The study had two parts. At the first part, the combination of suPAR with qSOFA was analyzed in a prospective cohort for early risk detection. At the second part, the double-blind, randomized controlled trial (RCT) SUPERIOR evaluated the efficacy of the suPAR-guided medical intervention. SUPERIOR took place between November 2018 and December 2020. Multivariate stepwise Cox regression was used for the prospective cohort, while univariate and multivariate logistic regression was used for the RCT. Consecutive admissions at the emergency department (ED) with suspected infection, qSOFA 1 and suPAR ≥ 12 ng/mL were allocated to single infusion of placebo or meropenem. The primary endpoint was early deterioration, defined as at least one-point increase of admission Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score the first 24 h. RESULTS: Most of the mortality risk was for patients with qSOFA 2 and 3. Taking the hazard ratio (HR) for death of patients with qSOFA = 1 and suPAR < 12 ng/mL as reference, the HR of qSOFA = 1 and suPAR ≥ 12 ng/mL for 28-day mortality was 2.98 (95% CI 2.11-3.96). The prospective RCT was prematurely ended due to pandemia-related ED re-allocations, with 91 patients enrolled: 47 in the placebo and 44 in the meropenem arm. The primary endpoint was met in 40.4% (n = 19) and 15.9% (n = 7), respectively (difference 24.5% [5.9-40.8]; odds ratio 0.14 [0.04-0.50]). One post hoc analysis showed significant median changes of SOFA score after 72 and 96 h equal to 0 and - 1, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Combining qSOFA 1 with the biomarker suPAR improves its prognostic performance for unfavorable outcome and can help decision for earlier treatment. Trial registration EU Clinical Trials Register (EudraCT, 2018-001008-13) and Clinical-Trials.gov (NCT03717350). Registered 24 October 2018.


Asunto(s)
Puntuaciones en la Disfunción de Órganos , Sepsis , Humanos , Receptores del Activador de Plasminógeno Tipo Uroquinasa , Meropenem , Pronóstico , Antibacterianos , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital , Mortalidad Hospitalaria , Curva ROC , Estudios Retrospectivos
17.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 396, 2024 02 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321479

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Public health campaigns with a well-defined outcome behaviour have been shown to successfully alter behaviour. However, the complex nature of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) creates challenges when evaluating campaigns aimed at raising awareness and changing behaviour. AIMS: To determine what campaigns have been conducted and which reported being effective at improving awareness of antimicrobial resistance and changing behaviour around antimicrobial use in members of the public. It also sought to determine the outcome measures studies have used to assess campaign effectiveness. METHODS: A systematic search of Ovid MEDLINE and Embase, was conducted in October 2022 using a predefined search strategy. Studies which were published between 2010 and September 2022 that outlined a campaign or invention aimed at the public and focusing on AMR or antibiotic usage were eligible for inclusion and studies which solely targeted healthcare professionals (HCP) were excluded. RESULTS: Literature searches retrieved 6961 results. De-duplication and screening removed 6925 articles, five articles from grey literature and reference screening were included, giving a total of 41 studies and 30 unique interventions. There was a distribution of campaigns globally with the majority run in Europe (n = 15) with most campaigns were conducted nationally (n = 14). Campaigns tended to focus on adult members of the public (n = 14) or targeted resources towards both the public and HCPs (n = 13) and predominately assessed changes in knowledge of and/or attitudes towards AMR (n = 16). Campaigns where an improvement was seen in their primary outcome measure tended to use mass media to disseminate information, targeted messaging towards a specific infection, and including the use of HCP-patient interactions. DISCUSSION: This review provides some evidence that campaigns can significantly improve outcome measures relating to AMR and antibiotic usage. Despite a lack of homogeneity between studies some common themes emerged between campaigns reported as being effective. However, the frequent use of observational study designs makes it difficult to establish causation between the campaign and changes seen in the studies outcome measures. It is important that clear evaluation processes are embedded as part of the design process for future campaigns; a campaign evaluation framework for use by campaign developers may facilitate this.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Adulto , Humanos , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Europa (Continente) , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Estudios Observacionales como Asunto
18.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 55(1): 198-203, 2024 Jan 20.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38322510

RESUMEN

Objective: To establish and evaluate a microbial sensitivity test method for Neisseria gonorrhoeae based on resazurin coloration. Methods: Based on the broth microdilution method, resazurin was added as a live bacteria indicator. WHO G, a WHO gonococcal reference strain, was used to optimize the incubation time for resazurin-stained bacteria and the color change was visually observed to obtain the results. Agar dilution method (the gold standard) and resazurin-based microdilution assay were used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of azithromycin, ceftriaxone, and spectinomycin for 3 reference strains and 32 isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The results were analyzed based on essential agreement (EA), which reflected the consistency of the MIC values, category agreement (CA), which reflected the consistency in the determination of drug resistance, intermediary, and sensitivity, very major error (VME), which reflected false sensitivity, and major error (ME), which reflected pseudo drug resistance, to evaluate the accuracy of resazurin-based microdilution assay as a microbial sensitivity test of of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. CA and EA rates≥90% and VME and ME rates≤3% were found to be the acceptable performance rates. Results: The results obtained 6 hours after resazurin was added were consistent with those of the agar dilution method and the resazurin-based microdilution assay was established accordingly based on this parameter. The EA of resazurin-based microdilution assay for measuring the MIC results of azithromycin, ceftriaxone, and spectinomycin was 97.1%, 91.5%, and 94.3%, respectively, and the CA was 88.6%, 94.3%, and 94.3%, respectively. The VME was 0% for all three antibiotics, while the ME was 11.4%, 5.7%, and 5.7%, respectively. Conclusion: The resazurin-based microdilution assay established in this study showed good agreement with agar dilution method for measuring the MIC of antibiotics against Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Moreover, the sensitivity results of this method were highly reliable and could be easily obtained through naked eye observation. Nonetheless, the results of drug resistance should be treated with caution and the optimization of parameters should be continued.


Asunto(s)
Azitromicina , Neisseria gonorrhoeae , Oxazinas , Xantenos , Azitromicina/farmacología , Ceftriaxona/farmacología , Espectinomicina , Agar , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana
19.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 55(1): 190-197, 2024 Jan 20.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38322514

RESUMEN

Objective: To create a novel chitosan antibacterial hemostatic sponge (NCAHS) and to evaluate its material and biological properties. Methods: Chitosan, a polysaccharide, was used as the sponge substrate and different proportions of sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP), glycerol, and phenol sulfonyl ethylamine were added to prepare the sponges through the freeze-drying method. The whole-blood coagulation index (BCI) was used as the screening criterion to determine the optimal concentrations of chitosan and the other additives and the hemostatic sponges were prepared accordingly. Zein/calcium carbonate (Zein/CaCO3) composite microspheres loaded with ciprofloxacin hydrochloride were prepared and added to the hemostatic sponges to obtain NCAHS. Scanning electron microscope was used to observe the microscopic morphology and porosity of the NCAHS. The water absorption rate, in vitro antibacterial susceptibility rate against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli), in vitro coagulation performance, and hemocompatibility of NCAHS were examined. The coagulation performance of NCAHS was evaluated by using rabbit liver injury and rabbit auricular artery hemorrhageear models and commercial hemostatic sponge (CHS) was used as a control. The in vivo biocompatibility, including such aspects as cytotoxicity, skin irritation in animals, and acute in vivo toxicity, of the NCAHS extracts was examined by using as a reference the national standards for biological evaluation of medical devices. Results: The NCAHS prepared with 1.5% chitosan (W/V), 0.01% STPP (W/V), 0% glycerol (V/V), 0.15% phenol-sulfonyl-ethylamine (V/V), Zein and CaCO3 at the mixing ratio of 5∶1 (W/W), Zein at the final mass concentration of 2.5 g/L, and ethanol at the final concentration of 17.5% (V/V) were fine and homogeneous, possessing a honeycomb-like porous structure with a pore size of about 200 µm. The NCAHS thus prepared had the lowest BCI value. The water absorption ([2362.16±201.15] % vs. [1102.56±91.79]%) and in vitro coagulation performance (31.338% vs. 1.591%) of NCAHS were significantly better than those of CHS (P<0.01). Tests with the in vivo auricular artery hemorrhage model ([36.00±13.42] s vs. [80.00±17.32] s) and rabbit liver bleeding model ([30.00±0] s vs. [70.00±17.32] s) showed that the hemostasis time of NCAHS was significantly shorter than that of CHS (P<0.01). NCAHS had significant inhibitory ability against S. aureus and E. coli. In addition, NCAHS showed good in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility. Conclusion: NCAHS is a composite sponge that shows excellent antimicrobial properties, hemostatic effect, and biocompatibility. Therefore, its extensive application in clinical settings is warranted.


Asunto(s)
Quitosano , Hemostáticos , Zeína , Animales , Conejos , Quitosano/química , Hemostáticos/farmacología , Escherichia coli , Glicerol/farmacología , Staphylococcus aureus , Zeína/farmacología , Hemostasis , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Hemorragia , Agua/farmacología , Etilaminas/farmacología , Fenoles/farmacología
20.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 55(1): 204-209, 2024 Jan 20.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38322538

RESUMEN

Objective: To analyze the distribution of ocular bacterial pathogens and their antibiotic resistance status at a tertiary-care hospital and to provide a reference for the appropriate use of antibiotics. Methods: Retrospective analysis was conducted with bacteria isolated from the ophthalmic samples sent for lab analysis at a tertiary-care hospital from 2012 to 2021. The suspected bacterial strains were identified with automated systems for microbial identification and susceptibility analysis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer. VITEK 2 Compact, an automated microbial identification and antibiotic susceptibility analysis system, was used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Results: A total of 1556 ophthalmology bacteria culture samples were collected, 574 of which showed bacterial growth, presenting an overall positive rate of 36.89%. Of the isolated bacteria, Gram-positive cocci, Gram-positive bacilli, Gram-negative bacilli, and Gram-negative cocci accounted for 63.15% (377/597), 18.76% (112/597), 17.09% (102/597), and 1.00% (6/597), respectively. Among the bacteria isolated in different years over the course of a decade, Gram-positive cocci always turned out to be the main cause of eye infections. Of the Gram-positive cocci, 73.47% (277/377) were isolated from patients with endophthalmitis, with the most important species being Staphylococcus epidermidis, which was followed by Streptococcus viridans. The rest, or 26.53% (100/377), of the Gram-positive cocci were isolated from patients with external eye infections, with the main isolated strains being Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus viridans, and Staphylococcus aureus. More than 70% of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from both endophthalmitis and external eye infections were resistant to methicillin. No strains resistant to vancomycin, linezolid, or tigecycline were detected. Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from patients with external eye infections had a low rate of resistance to levofloxacin (2/27 or 7.41%), whereas those isolated from patients with endophthalmitis had a higher resistance rate (43/127 or 33.86%). The difference in drug resistance rate between the two groups was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion: The chief ocular bacterial pathogens identified in a tertiary-care hospital were Gram-positive cocci, among which, Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most common species. The Staphylococcus epidermidis identified in the hospital had a high rate of resistance to oxacillin, but remained highly sensitive to vancomycin, linezolid, and tigecycline. The endophthalmitis caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis in the hospital can be treated empirically with vancomycin and then the treatment plan can be further adjusted according to the results of the drug susceptibility test. However, the establishment of the breakpoint of drug susceptibility test is mainly based on the model of bloodstream infection and has limited reference value for the treatment of eye infection. The required drug distribution concentration at the infection site can be achieved by dose increase or local administration.


Asunto(s)
Endoftalmitis , Infecciones del Ojo , Humanos , Centros de Atención Terciaria , Vancomicina , Tigeciclina , Linezolid , Estudios Retrospectivos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Staphylococcus aureus , Bacterias Gramnegativas
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