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1.
Reprod Health ; 19(1): 6, 2022 Jan 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35022043

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Male partner's approval is a key determinant of contraceptive use for women living in Sub-Saharan Africa and improving men's support and couple communication is a cornerstone of family planning programs. However, approval is often only measured through the women's perception of their partner's opinion. METHODS: This study conducted in Kinshasa compares contraceptive approval variables from matched male and female partners (n = 252 couples) to establish the frequency of (in)accurate perceptions by the woman, then test their association with modern contraceptive use. Additional regressions estimate individual and couple variables associated with (in)correct perceptions. RESULTS: Results confirm women are poorly aware of their partner's opinion but indicate that perceived approval or disapproval by the woman is a much stronger determinant of modern contraceptive use than her partner's actual opinion. Higher educational achievement from the woman is the strongest driver of misunderstanding her partner's approval. CONCLUSIONS: Women's perceptions of partner's approval are much stronger determinant of contraceptive use than the latter's actual opinion, and stereotyping men's opinion of family planning is a common error of appreciation. However, findings also suggest these misunderstandings might serve women's capacity to negotiate contraceptive use.


Research indicates that women living in Sub-Saharan Africa may not use contraceptive methods if their partner disapproves. However, there are methodological gaps in how this relation has been measured so far. For example, women are often the only ones asked whether their partner approves of contraception and surveys rarely assess how women know of their partner's disapproval and how strongly it has been communicated to them, nor do they ask said partner for his actual opinion on the matter.In this study we address some of those questions by interviewing men and women from married couples separately and comparing their opinion of family planning use. The research uses a population-based survey conducted among couples living in military camps in the capital city of the Democratic Republic Congo, Kinshasa.The results show that women overall are poorly aware of their partner's actual opinion, but act based on those perceptions, nonetheless. In particular, women whose husband disapproves of family planning but (falsely) perceive his approval have some of the highest odds in our cohort for contraceptive use. Conversely, women in a "false negative" scenario (husband approves but they perceive disapproval) are less likely to use modern contraception. Additional analysis indicates that this latter scenario is more common among women who are more educated than their partner, possibly because they are stereotyping his family planning desires. The findings and the discussion also raise the possibility that women may however benefit from ignoring their partners' true wishes in order to fulfill their own contraceptive choice.


Asunto(s)
Anticonceptivos , Personal Militar , Anticoncepción , Conducta Anticonceptiva , República Democrática del Congo , Servicios de Planificación Familiar , Femenino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Esposos
3.
N C Med J ; 83(1): 58-66, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34980657

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND Although use of contraceptives has increased among young women in the United States, more than half of pregnancies remain unplanned. The goal of this study was to examine the association between insurance status and receipt of contraceptives among young women receiving care within a large integrated health care system in the Southeastern United States to better inform strategies for increasing access to contraception.METHODS This retrospective study used electronic medical record data from an integrated health care system based in Charlotte, North Carolina. Data were analyzed for 51,900 women aged 18-29 who lived in Mecklenburg County and had at least 1 primary care visit between 2014 and 2016. Contraceptive orders were identified by service and procedure codes and grouped into long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARC) and non-LARC categories. Adjusted multinomial logistic regression models were used to assess the association between receipt of contraceptives and insurance status.RESULTS Compared to non-Hispanic White women with commercial insurance, non-Hispanic Black (OR = 1.25; 95% CI, 1.13-1.38) and Hispanic (OR = 2.25; 95% CI, 1.93-2.61) women with Medicaid had higher odds of receiving LARC. Similar variations by insurance and race/ethnicity were observed for the non-LARC group.LIMITATIONS Data were limited to a single health care system and did not capture contraceptive orders by unaffiliated providers. Analyses used the most frequent payor and did not account for changes in insurance status.CONCLUSION Findings indicate an important role of race/ethnicity and insurance coverage in contraceptive care. Higher receipt of LARC among Black and Hispanic women also suggests that implicit biases may influence contraception counseling and promotion practices. Future study is warranted to further delineate these relationships.


Asunto(s)
Anticonceptivos , Femenino , Humanos , Cobertura del Seguro , North Carolina , Embarazo , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
4.
Reprod Health ; 19(1): 3, 2022 Jan 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34986848

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Multiple contraindications to combined hormonal contraceptives (CHC) use exist. The impact of these factors on contraceptive choice, particularly among women living with HIV (WLWH), is not well understood. We measured and compared the prevalence of contraceptive use and contraindications among WLWH and women not living with HIV (controls). METHODS: We examined cross-sectional survey and medical chart data from 83 WLWH and 62 controls, aged 16-49 and sexually active, from 2013-2017. We compared the age-adjusted prevalence and types of contraceptives used in the last month and the proportion of women with CHC contraindications, including drug interactions, medical comorbidities, and smoking at ≥ 35 years old. All WLWH received care at an interdisciplinary, women-centred HIV clinic. RESULTS: Compared to controls, WLWH were older (median [IQR)] 39 [34-43] vs 31 [23-41] years; p = 0.003), had less post-secondary education (37% vs 73%; p < 0.001), and more often had household income < $15,000/year (49% vs 30%; p = 0.006). WLWH trended to higher contraceptive prevalence than controls (80% vs 63%; p = 0.06 adjusted for age). Overall hormonal contraceptive use was similar. However, despite controlling for age, WLWH used CHC less (4% vs 18%; p = 0.006) than controls, and had more frequently undergone tubal ligation (12% vs 2%; p = 0.03). WLWH also experienced more CHC contraindications (54% vs 13%; p = 0.0001), including smoking at ≥ 35 years old (30% vs 6%; p = 0.0003) or a CHC-related drug interaction (all antiretroviral related) (25% vs 0%; p = 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: WLWH attending our interdisciplinary clinic used hormonal contraception at similar rates as controls, though with different types. Differences may reflect different distributions of CHC contraindications. CHC contraindications present barriers to accessing the full range of contraceptive choices for WLWH. Guidelines and education for care providers and WLWH regarding contraceptive choices and drug interactions are needed, especially when care is provided without the benefit of an interdisciplinary women-centered healthcare team.


BACKGROUND: There are many reasons why individuals cannot use combined hormonal contraceptives (CHC). The impact of these reasons on contraceptive choice for women living with HIV (WLWH) are poorly understood. We measured and compared the prevalence of contraceptive choice and factors that may preclude their use in WLWH. METHODS: We examined survey and medical chart data from 83 WLWH and 62 controls (women not living with HIV), aged 16­49 and sexually active, from 2013 to 2017. We compared the prevalence and types of contraceptives used in the last month and the proportion of women with factors that would not allow the use of CHC, including drug interactions, medical conditions, and smoking at ≥ 35 years old. All WLWH received care at a women-centred HIV clinic. RESULTS: Compared to controls, WLWH were older, had less post-secondary education, and more often had household income < $15,000/year. WLWH were more likely to use contraception than controls. Overall hormonal contraceptive use was similar. However, even when accounting for age, WLWH used CHC less than controls, and had more frequently undergone tubal ligation. WLWH also had more reasons that would preclude the use of CHC contraindications including smoking at ≥ 35 years old or a CHC-related drug interaction. CONCLUSIONS: WLWH attending our interdisciplinary clinic used combined hormonal contraception at similar rates as controls, though with different types. Differences may reflect the fact that WLWH more often have factors that do not allow the safe use of CHC. Guidelines and education for care providers and WLWH regarding contraceptive choices and drug interactions are needed.


Asunto(s)
Anticonceptivos , Infecciones por VIH , Adulto , Preescolar , Anticoncepción , Dispositivos Anticonceptivos , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos
5.
Midwifery ; 104: 103166, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34717242

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: the possibility of experiencing adverse reactions is an important aspect of contraceptive decision-making and information about this topic is highlighted as an essential aspect of contraceptive counseling. The aim of this study was to explore experiences of contraceptive counseling about potential adverse reactions of intrauterine contraception. DESIGN: exploratory qualitative study of messages in discussion boards, analyzed with inductive qualitative content analysis. SETTING: two large public Swedish web-based discussion boards about sexual and reproductive health. PARTICIPANTS: threads related to the aim were identified through searches in the discussion boards during 2019 and 2020, resulting in in 43 included posters who had written 140 messages in total. FINDINGS: the themes 'difficulties making an informed decision due to insufficient and untrustworthy information about adverse reactions' and 'feeling dismissed when communicating about experienced adverse reactions' illustrate the results. Posters emphasized the importance of sufficient information about adverse reactions. However, professionals were perceived as overly optimistic regarding intrauterine contraception and focusing on mild or common reactions. The importance of feeling that their adverse reactions were acknowledged was articulated, but posters felt that some professionals dismissed the reactions when being told about it, resulting in frustration and dissatisfaction with care. The discussion boards contained narratives describing a resistance among professionals to send in a formal report about the adverse reaction. KEY CONCLUSIONS: according to statements made by posters who have experience of adverse reactions of intrauterine contraception, contraceptive counseling have room for improvement in regard to inclusion of comprehensive information about adverse reactions. The findings illustrate the importance that clients who experience adverse reactions of intrauterine contraception feel they are acknowledged and offered adequate support. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: echoing guidelines for high-quality contraceptive counseling, the narratives provide further weight that professionals need to have adequate training and resources to offer comprehensive information about adverse reactions of intrauterine contraception. The findings call attention to the importance of follow-up services for clients who experience adverse reactions.


Asunto(s)
Anticoncepción , Servicios de Planificación Familiar , Anticonceptivos , Consejo , Humanos , Internet
6.
Aust Health Rev ; 45(6): 728-734, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34903325

RESUMEN

Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the Australian Contraceptive ChOice pRoject (ACCORd) intervention. Methods An economic evaluation compared the costs and outcomes of the ACCORd intervention with usual care (UC). Data from the ACCORd trial were used to estimate costs and efficacy in terms of contraceptive uptake and quality of life. Rates of contraceptive failure and pregnancy were sourced from the literature. Using a Markov model, within-trial results were extrapolated over 10 years and subjected to univariate sensitivity analyses. Model outputs were expressed as the cost per quality-adjusted life years (QALY) gained and cost per unintended pregnancy resulting in birth (UPB) avoided. Results Over 10 years, compared with UC, initiating contraception through the ACCORd intervention resulted in 0.02 fewer UPB and higher total costs (A$2505 vs A$1179) per woman. The incremental cost-effectiveness of the ACCORd intervention versus UC was A$1172 per QALY gained and A$7385 per UPB averted. If the start-up cost of the ACCORd intervention was removed, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was A$81 per QALY gained and A$511 per UPB averted. The results were most sensitive to the probability of contraceptive failure, the probability of pregnancy-related healthcare service utilisation or the inclusion of the costs of implementing the ACCORd intervention. Conclusions From a health system perspective, if implemented appropriately in terms of uptake and reach, and assuming an implicit willingness to pay threshold of A$50 000 the ACCORd intervention is cost-effective. What is known about the topic? The uptake of long-active reversible contraceptives (LARC) in Australia is low. The ACCORd trial assessed the efficacy of providing structured training to general practitioners (GPs) on LARC counselling, together with access to rapid referral to insertion clinics. What does this paper add? This study is the first to assess the cost-effectiveness of a complex intervention in the general practice setting aimed at increasing the uptake of LARC in Australia. What are the implications for practitioners? The results show that implementing a complex intervention in general practice involving GP education and the availability of rapid referral to LARC insertion clinics is a cost-effective approach to increase LARC use and its attending efficacy. If the majority of Australian GPs were able to deliver effectiveness-based contraceptive counselling and either insert LARC or use a rapid referral process to a LARC insertion clinic, the additional cost associated with the purchase of LARC products and their insertion would be offset by reductions to health system costs as a result of fewer UPB and abortions. Moreover, the benefits to women's physical and psychological health of avoiding such events is substantial.


Asunto(s)
Anticonceptivos , Medicina General , Australia , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Calidad de Vida
7.
JAMA ; 326(24): 2507-2518, 2021 Dec 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34962522

RESUMEN

Importance: Many women spend a substantial proportion of their lives preventing or planning for pregnancy, and approximately 87% of US women use contraception during their lifetime. Observations: Contraceptive effectiveness is determined by a combination of drug or device efficacy, individual fecundability, coital frequency, and user adherence and continuation. In the US, oral contraceptive pills are the most commonly used reversible method of contraception and comprise 21.9% of all contraception in current use. Pregnancy rates of women using oral contraceptives are 4% to 7% per year. Use of long-acting methods, such as intrauterine devices and subdermal implants, has increased substantially, from 6% of all contraceptive users in 2008 to 17.8% in 2016; these methods have failure rates of less than 1% per year. Estrogen-containing methods, such as combined oral contraceptive pills, increase the risk of venous thrombosis from 2 to 10 venous thrombotic events per 10 000 women-years to 7 to 10 venous thrombotic events per 10 000 women-years, whereas progestin-only and nonhormonal methods, such as implants and condoms, are associated with rare serious risks. Hormonal contraceptives can improve medical conditions associated with hormonal changes related to the menstrual cycle, such as acne, endometriosis, and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Optimal contraceptive selection requires patient and clinician discussion of the patient's tolerance for risk of pregnancy, menstrual bleeding changes, other risks, and personal values and preferences. Conclusions and Relevance: Oral contraceptive pills are the most commonly used reversible contraceptives, intrauterine devices and subdermal implants have the highest effectiveness, and progestin-only and nonhormonal methods have the lowest risks. Optimal contraceptive selection incorporates patient values and preferences.


Asunto(s)
Anticoncepción/métodos , Anticoncepción/efectos adversos , Anticonceptivos/efectos adversos , Dispositivos Anticonceptivos , Anticonceptivos Orales , Contraindicaciones , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
8.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260794, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34962913

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of peri-abortion contraceptive counseling interventions. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared the effect of different types of peri-abortion contraceptive counseling interventions and were published as original papers in scientific journals. The literature search was performed in June 2021 in PubMed, Central Cochrane Library (CENTRAL), Scopus, and Google Scholar; without restrictions in language or publication date. Two independent authors identified studies that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria and extracted the data. The risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane tool, and evidence certainty was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology. Whenever possible, meta-analyses were performed. The protocol was registered at PROSPERO (CRD42020187354). RESULTS: Eleven RCTs were eligible for inclusion (published from 2004 to 2017), from which nine compared enhanced versus standard counseling. Pooled estimates showed that, compared to standard counseling, enhanced counseling was associated with a higher incidence of effective contraceptive use (>3 months) (relative risk [RR], 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-1.16), although no significant difference was found in the incidence of long-acting reversible contraceptive use (RR, 1.25; 95% CI, 0.68-2.29), contraceptive uptake (RR, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.98-1.15), and obstetric event occurrence (RR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.57-1.47). Certainty of evidence was very low for all outcomes. In addition, two studies compared contraceptive counseling provided by physicians versus that provided by non-physicians, which did not show significant differences. CONCLUSIONS: Enhanced contraceptive counseling may favor effective contraceptive use but may not affect the rate of obstetric event occurrence. Also, the studies did not find a difference in the effects of counseling interventions given by different providers. Since evidence certainty was very low, future well-designed RCTs are needed to make informed decisions. REGISTRATION: The study protocol was registered at PROSPERO (CRD42020187354).


Asunto(s)
Aborto Inducido , Anticonceptivos , Consejo , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Humanos , Sesgo de Publicación , Riesgo
9.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353098

RESUMEN

Os contraceptivos intrauterinos contendo levonorgestrel, Mirena®, amplamente utilizados na ginecologia contemporânea como método eficaz de contracepção e controle de distúrbios menstruais, mostrou reduzir as taxas de câncer de endométrio. Além disso, complicações como perfuração e migração são raras, exigindo intervenção rápida. Descrição: Dois casos atípicos acerca do uso de dispositivo intrauterino hormonal, o primeiro trata de migração do dispositivo para a cavidade abdominal, após 1 ano e 8 meses da inserção, sem perfuração, com retirada videolaparoscópica. O segundo é um caso de câncer primário de endométrio em paciente com 3 anos de uso de Mirena®. Discussão: A migração do dispositivo intrauterino é uma complicação rara, pouco relatada na literatura, a abordagem videolaparoscópica é a preferencial e foi realizada no caso em questão. O dispositivo intrauterino hormonal também está relacionado à diminuição das taxas de câncer de endométrio e, inclusive, é usado como método preventivo em mulheres de alto risco. Após revisão de literatura, apenas seis casos similares foram descritos. Conclusão: O dispositivo hormonal intrauterino, apesar de seguro, pode implicar apresentações raras, como migração e perfuração, que exigem conhecimento e agilidade da equipe profissional. O segundo caso apresentado é um evento raro, que faz atentar para mulheres com padrão hemorrágico incomum em uso do Mirena®. (AU)


Intrauterine contraceptives containing levonorgestrel, Mirena®, widely used in contemporary gynecology as an effective method of contraception and control of menstrual disorders, have shown to reduce rates of endometrial cancer. In addition, complications such as perforation and migration are rare, requiring rapid intervention. Description: Two atypical cases about the use of intrauterine hormonal device, the first deals with migration of the device to the abdominal cavity, after 1 year and 8 months of insertion, without perforation, with videolaparoscopic withdrawal. The second is a case of primary endometrial cancer in a patient with 3 years of use of Mirena®. Discussion: Migration of the intrauterine device is a rare complication, little reported in the literature, the videolaparoscopic approach is the preferred one and was performed in the case in question. The hormonal intrauterine device is also related to the decreased rates of endometrial cancer and is also used as a preventive method in high-risk women. After reviewing the literature, only six similar cases were described. Conclusion: The intrauterine hormonal device, although safe, may imply rare presentations, such as migration and perforation, which require knowledge and agility of the professional team. The second case presented is a rare event, which makes it aware for women with an unusual hemorrhagic pattern to use Mirena®. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Adulto , Levonorgestrel , Neoplasias Endometriales , Anticoncepción , Anticonceptivos , Dispositivos Intrauterinos , Trastornos de la Menstruación
10.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(10): 4783-4794, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730663

RESUMEN

This article aims to evaluate the conformity between drug package inserts (DPIs) and evidence-based bibliographic sources regarding the presence of contraindications to the use of contraceptives and anti-infective agents during breastfeeding. Contraceptive and anti-infectives were selected, according to ATC, with the updated record in the ANVISA and present in the bibliographic sources Breastfeeding and Use of Medicines and Other Substances, Medications and Mother's Milk, LactMed®, Micromedex® and UpToDate®. Information was extracted from the DPI "Contraindications" and "Warnings and precautions" sections and compared with the information in the bibliographic sources. The contraindication of the drug during breastfeeding was evaluated. Contraindications were found in the DPIs of five (55.5%) of the nine contraceptives. The contraindication percentage ranged from 0 to 55.5% among the bibliographic sources, depending on the source. The percentage was 46.3% in the DPIs, ranging from 0 to 12.9% in the bibliographic sources for anti-infectives. There is an agreement between the DPIs and the bibliographic sources regarding contraceptives; regarding anti-infectives, the DPIs are more often contraindicated for use during breastfeeding.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos , Preparaciones Farmacéuticas , Lactancia Materna , Anticonceptivos , Etiquetado de Medicamentos , Femenino , Humanos
11.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 1215, 2021 Nov 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34753479

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Global pandemics like Zika (ZIKV) factor into pregnancy planning and avoidance, yet little is known about how primary care providers (PCPs) incorporate public health guidance into contraceptive counseling. Study objectives include: 1) determining the impact of the ZIKV pandemic on contraceptive counseling changes; and 2) assessing PCP knowledge and practice regarding contraception, ZIKV, and CDC ZIKV guidelines. METHODS: Study components included: (1) a retrospective review of electronic health records of non-pregnant, reproductive age women presenting for preventive health visits between 2014 and 2017 assessed using interrupted time series analyses (ITSA) to identify changes in documentation of ZIKV risk assessment and contraceptive counseling; and (2) a sequential, cross-sectional study with quantitative surveys and qualitative, semi-structured interviews of PCPs providing preventive care to non-pregnant patients at eight federally qualified health centers in Utah. We performed descriptive analyses on survey data and analyzed qualitative data for dominant themes using a modified Health Belief Model. RESULTS: We conducted 6634 chart reviews yielding 9840 visits. The ITSA did not reveal changes in ZIKV risk assessment or contraceptive counseling. Twenty-two out of 40 (55%) eligible providers participated in the provider component. Participants averaged 69 and 81% correct on contraceptive and ZIKV knowledge questions, respectively. Sixty-five percent reported counseling consistent with CDC ZIKV guidelines. Qualitative analysis found providers unlikely to prioritize ZIKV risk assessment in contraceptive counseling for non-pregnant patients. CONCLUSIONS: PCPs who care for non-pregnant women are knowledgeable about contraception and ZIKV; however, there was no change in ZIKV risk assessment or contraceptive counseling. This stresses the importance of developing strategies to improve guideline uptake.


Asunto(s)
Infección por el Virus Zika , Virus Zika , Anticoncepción , Anticonceptivos , Consejo , Estudios Transversales , Servicios de Planificación Familiar , Femenino , Humanos , Pandemias , Embarazo , Atención Primaria de Salud , Estudios Retrospectivos , Infección por el Virus Zika/epidemiología , Infección por el Virus Zika/prevención & control
12.
Reprod Health ; 18(1): 237, 2021 Nov 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34838040

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The choice of contraceptive method is a complex decision, and professionals should offer counselling based on the preferences, values and personal situation of the user(s). Some users are unsatisfied with the counselling received, which may, among other consequences, adversely affect method use adherence. In view of this situation, we propose exploring the experiences and needs of users and professionals for contraceptive counselling, in the context of creating a web-based contraceptive decision support tool. METHODS/DESIGN: Qualitative research was conducted through focus group discussions (64 users split into eight groups, and 19 professionals in two groups, in Tarragona, Spain) to explore the subjects' experiences and needs. The data were categorized and the categories were defined and classified based on the three-step protocol or framework for Quality on Contraceptive Counseling (QCC), created by experts, which reviews the quality of interactions between user and professional during the counselling process. RESULTS: In counselling, users demand more information about the different methods, in an environment of erroneous knowledge and misinformation, which lead to false beliefs and myths in the population that are not contrasted by the professional in counselling. They complain that the method is imposed on them and that their views regarding the decision are not considered. Professionals are concerned that their lack of training leads to counselling directed towards the methods they know best. They acknowledge that a paternalistic paradigm persists in the healthcare they provide, and decision support tools may help to improve the situation. CONCLUSIONS: Users feel unsatisfied and/or demand more information and a warmer, more caring approach. Professionals are reluctant to assume a process of shared decision-making. The use of a contraception DST website may solve some shortcomings in counselling detected in our environment.


Asunto(s)
Anticoncepción , Anticonceptivos , Consejo , Humanos , Internet , Investigación Cualitativa , España
13.
Reprod Health ; 18(1): 239, 2021 Nov 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34838097

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is substantial evidence that contraceptive side-effects are a major deterrent to consistent use of contraception but few studies in low- or middle-income countries explore the role of specific side-effects on contraceptive use dynamics. This study used population-based, longitudinal data to explore the effect of specific side-effects on contraceptive continuation, discontinuation, and switching in Uganda. METHODS: Data for this study come from two rounds of survey data collection in Uganda: PMA2020's sixth cross-sectional survey and a follow-up survey conducted 1 year later. The main outcomes of interest were discontinuation and switching among users of hormonal contraceptive methods (implants, injectables and oral pill) and the IUD at baseline (n = 560). Multivariable logistic regressions assessed the association of experiencing specific side-effects (more bleeding, less bleeding, irregular bleeding, increased dryness/reduced libido, and physical discomfort) with discontinuation and switching 1 year later, adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, type of method, and length of use. We also examined the differential effects of side-effects between discontinuation and switching risks. RESULTS: About 23% of hormonal and IUD contraceptive users reported experiencing side-effects at baseline survey. Overall, discontinuation and switching were higher among injectables and pill users, compared to IUD and implants users. Reporting more bleeding or less bleeding increased the odds of discontinuation and switching by 2.74 (95% CI 1.00-7.51) and 1.86 (1.04-3.34), respectively. There was no significant difference in discontinuation and switching by side-effects. CONCLUSIONS: Greater attention should be paid to understanding the unique contributions of side-effects to contraceptive behavior using population-based data. While about a quarter of women reported experiencing side effects, those who experienced bleeding specific side effects were at higher risk of contraceptive discontinuation and switching. Providing greater individualized care that includes information and counseling about common side-effects, how they may impact daily life, and how tolerable these effects may be is necessary.


Asunto(s)
Anticonceptivos , Dispositivos Anticonceptivos , Anticoncepción , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Uganda/epidemiología
14.
Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am ; 48(4): 723-735, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34756292

RESUMEN

Many sexually active, reproductive-aged persons capable of becoming pregnant use some method of contraception. To expand options for those desiring birth control, new choices include a vaginal ring, transdermal patch, progestin-only pill, and spermicide. Compared with currently available methods, additional technologies that are highly effective, easy to use, cost efficient, and well-tolerated lay on the horizon. During contraceptive counseling, patient choice, and reproductive autonomy should remain paramount.


Asunto(s)
Anticonceptivos , Dispositivos Anticonceptivos , Adulto , Anticoncepción , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo
15.
Sex Reprod Health Matters ; 29(1): 1985945, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34747352

RESUMEN

Quality family planning and contraceptive (FP/C) services result in positive outcomes such as client satisfaction and sustained use of contraceptives. While most assessments of quality in FP/C services are based on measurable reproductive health outcomes, there is limited consideration of the perspectives and experiences of health providers and community members. This study aimed to address this knowledge gap, by exploring health providers' and community perspectives on the elements of quality FP/C services in Kabwe district, Zambia. Fourteen focus group discussions and 10 in-depth interviews were conducted in October-December 2016, involving community members, key community stakeholders such as religious and political leaders, health committee members and frontline and managerial healthcare providers. Data were analysed using a thematic approach. According to study participants, quality FP/C services would include provision by skilled personnel with positive attitudes towards clients, availability of preferred methods and affordable products. Additional factors included appropriate infrastructure, especially counselling services spaces and adequate consultation time. Participants stressed the need for reduced waiting time and opportunity for self-expression. The efficiency and effectiveness of service delivery factors, such as information dissemination and community engagement, were also considered important elements of quality FP/C. This study underscores the value of considering both community and health provider perspectives in efforts to improve the quality of FP/C services, with the overall aim of increasing client satisfaction and sustained utilisation. However, service delivery processes must also be addressed in addition to providing for community participation, if quality is to be achieved in FP/C services.


Asunto(s)
Anticonceptivos , Servicios de Planificación Familiar , Participación de la Comunidad , Consejo , Humanos , Zambia
16.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258304, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34714856

RESUMEN

The annual assessment of Family Planning (FP) indicators, such as the modern contraceptive prevalence rate (mCPR), is a key component of monitoring and evaluating goals of global FP programs and initiatives. To that end, the Family Planning Estimation Model (FPEM) was developed with the aim of producing survey-informed estimates and projections of mCPR and other key FP indictors over time. With large-scale surveys being carried out on average every 3-5 years, data gaps since the most recent survey often exceed one year. As a result, survey-based estimates for the current year from FPEM are often based on projections that carry a larger uncertainty than data informed estimates. In order to bridge recent data gaps we consider the use of a measure, termed Estimated Modern Use (EMU), which has been derived from routinely collected family planning service statistics. However, EMU data come with known limitations, namely measurement errors which result in biases and additional variation with respect to survey-based estimates of mCPR. Here we present a data model for the incorporation of EMU data into FPEM, which accounts for these limitations. Based on known biases, we assume that only changes in EMU can inform FPEM estimates, while also taking inherent variation into account. The addition of this EMU data model to FPEM allows us to provide a secondary data source for informing and reducing uncertainty in current estimates of mCPR. We present model validations using a survey-only model as a baseline comparison and we illustrate the impact of including the EMU data model in FPEM. Results show that the inclusion of EMU data can change point-estimates of mCPR by up to 6.7 percentage points compared to using surveys only. Observed reductions in uncertainty were modest, with the width of uncertainty intervals being reduced by up to 2.7 percentage points.


Asunto(s)
Anticonceptivos , Servicios de Planificación Familiar/estadística & datos numéricos , Modelos Estadísticos , Bases de Datos como Asunto , Humanos , Prevalencia , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Incertidumbre
17.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 216, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34630828

RESUMEN

Introduction: in Burkina Faso, despite the strategies implemented to increase the use of contraceptives, the prevalence rate of modern contraceptives remains low. Religion is an important part of the socio-cultural fabric of many communities. Besides, religious leaders play an essential role in adopting and using contraceptive methods to support family health. The study objective was to explore the knowledge, beliefs and perceptions of religious leaders about modern contraceptives among women of childbearing age. Methods: data were collected in September 2018 from twenty-one religious' leaders of the urban municipality of Dori. Study participants were selected based on reasoned sampling with maximum variation (sex, religion, age, residence and level of education). We conducted semi-structured individual interviews, non-participant observations and documentary review. Results: religious leaders have a good knowledge of modern contraceptive methods, but they prefer traditional contraceptive methods and abstinence. They consider modern contraception as abortion and female sterilization and emphasize birth spacing. Furthermore, religious leaders lack training on contraception and have no real links and exchanges with sexual and reproductive health services. As a result, their assessment of the quality of these services is very mixed. Conclusion: religious leaders play a crucial role in improving modern contraceptive methods in Burkina Faso. Close collaboration with family planning services should, at all times, be maintained. The implementation of training and educational activities for religious leaders could help raise modern contraceptive use in Burkina Faso.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Anticonceptiva/estadística & datos numéricos , Anticoncepción/métodos , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Religión , Adulto , Anciano , Burkina Faso , Anticonceptivos/administración & dosificación , Femenino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Liderazgo , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Investigación Cualitativa
18.
Sex Reprod Health Matters ; 29(2): 1966983, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620041

RESUMEN

The unmet need for contraception is documented as a significant determinant of unintended pregnancies and high number of induced abortions. The period immediately after an abortion is recognised as a unique opportunity to offer contraceptive services. This paper explores the association between place of abortion and women's post-abortion contraceptive behaviour. The reproductive calendar data from the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4) (2015-16) was used for this study. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to understand factors associated with post-abortion method choices. Single decrement life-tables were built to examine rates of contraceptive discontinuation and proportional hazard models were employed to examine probability and correlates of method discontinuation. About 20% of women who underwent an abortion adopted a contraceptive method by the end of one month following an abortion. The decision to choose methods like sterilisation or intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCDs) was associated with the place of abortion, past contraceptive behaviour, number and sex of surviving children at the time of abortion, mass media exposure, and time of the abortion. Compared to women who underwent an abortion at private health facilities, women who sought abortion at public health facilities were more likely to choose permanent methods or IUCDs. Furthermore, women who opted for an IUCD were less likely to discontinue the method compared to those using short-acting modern methods. The lack of post-abortion contraceptive choices for women is evident in the low uptake of post-abortion contraceptives in private facilities and the predominant promotion of permanent methods and IUCDs in public health facilities.


Asunto(s)
Aborto Inducido , Anticonceptivos , Niño , Anticoncepción , Conducta Anticonceptiva , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Embarazo no Planeado
20.
Matern Child Health J ; 25(12): 1960-1971, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637063

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: State medicaid programs provide access to effective contraception for people with lower incomes. This study examined contraception use and pregnancy among reproductive-age women enrolled in the South Carolina Medicaid, by eligibility program and socio-demographic sub-groups. METHODS: A retrospective cohort of women aged 15-45 who were newly eligible for South Carolina Medicaid from 2012 to 2016 was examined. Log-binomial regression and average marginal effects assessed relationships between contraception use and pregnancies ending in live and non-live births. Contraception was categorized as permanent, long acting reversible contraception (LARC), short-acting hormonal contraception (SAC), or no contraceptive claims. Women with family planning or full-benefit medicaid coverage were included. RESULTS: Approximately 11% of women used LARC methods, 41% used SAC methods, and 46% had no evidence of contraceptive claims. Method utilization varied by eligibility program, race/ethnicity and age. The likelihood of pregnancy was lower among SAC users and lowest among LARC users compared to women with no evidence of contraception across all three programs (family planning APR = 0.44; 95% CI 0.41-0.49 and APR = 0.13, 95% CI 0.10-0.17; Low income families APR = 0.82; 95% CI 0.77-0.88 and APR = 0.33, 95% CI 0.28-0.38; Partners for Healthy Children APR = 0.72; 95% CI 0.68-0.77 and APR = 0.35, 95% CI 0.30-0.43, respectively). Non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic teens were less likely to experience a pregnancy than non-Hispanic white teens. CONCLUSIONS FOR PRACTICE: The likelihood of pregnancy was lower among women using SAC methods and markedly lower among women using LARC. Variation in contraceptive use among racial/ethnic groups was noted despite Medicaid coverage. As new policies and initiatives emerge, these findings provide important context for understanding the role of Medicaid programs in reducing financial barriers to contraceptive services and ensuring access to effective contraception, while fostering reproductive health autonomy among women.


Asunto(s)
Anticonceptivos , Medicaid , Adolescente , Niño , Anticoncepción , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Resultado del Embarazo , Estudios Retrospectivos , South Carolina , Estados Unidos
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