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1.
Dan Med J ; 71(6)2024 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38847410

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: We aimed to investigate the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection and SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in parturient women and their newborns during the first Danish COVID-19 wave and to identify associations with maternal background characteristics, self-reported symptoms, and pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: In a single-centre, prospective cohort study from Denmark, we invited 1,883 women with singleton pregnancies giving live birth from 25 May 2020 to 2 November 2020. Hereof, 953 (50.6%) women were included. Nasopharyngeal swabs, maternal and umbilical cord blood samples, and questionnaires were collected. Medical records were available for participants and non-participants. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were found in 1.3% of the women. All newborns of seropositive women had SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in cord blood. No association was found between SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and pregnancy outcomes. Self-reported loss of smell correlated with seropositivity (p less-than 0.001). No women were hospitalised due to COVID-19 during pregnancy or had a positive nasopharyngeal swab intrapartum. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of COVID-19 in pregnancy was low during the first wave. Maternal SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were associated with antibodies in cord blood, loss of smell and positive SARS-CoV-2 swab during pregnancy, but not with any adverse pregnancy outcomes. FUNDING: Ferring Pharmaceuticals funded part of the study. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was approved by the Regional Committee on Health Research Ethics (H-20028002) and the Danish Data Protection Agency (P-2020-264).


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales , COVID-19 , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo , Resultado del Embarazo , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Embarazo , Femenino , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/inmunología , Dinamarca/epidemiología , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/epidemiología , Adulto , Estudios Prospectivos , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología , Recién Nacido , Sangre Fetal/inmunología , Prevalencia
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 24(1): 567, 2024 Jun 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38844850

RESUMEN

This study investigates the longitudinal dynamic changes in immune cells in COVID-19 patients over an extended period after recovery, as well as the interplay between immune cells and antibodies. Leveraging single-cell mass spectrometry, we selected six COVID-19 patients and four healthy controls, dissecting the evolving landscape within six months post-viral RNA clearance, alongside the levels of anti-spike protein antibodies. The T cell immunophenotype ascertained via single-cell mass spectrometry underwent validation through flow cytometry in 37 samples. Our findings illuminate that CD8 + T cells, gamma-delta (gd) T cells, and NK cells witnessed an increase, in contrast to the reduction observed in monocytes, B cells, and double-negative T (DNT) cells over time. The proportion of monocytes remained significantly elevated in COVID-19 patients compared to controls even after six-month. Subpopulation-wise, an upsurge manifested within various T effector memory subsets, CD45RA + T effector memory, gdT, and NK cells, whereas declines marked the populations of DNT, naive and memory B cells, and classical as well as non-classical monocytes. Noteworthy associations surfaced between DNT, gdT, CD4 + T, NK cells, and the anti-S antibody titer. This study reveals the changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of COVID-19 patients within 6 months after viral RNA clearance and sheds light on the interactions between immune cells and antibodies. The findings from this research contribute to a better understanding of immune transformations during the recovery from COVID-19 and offer guidance for protective measures against reinfection in the context of viral variants.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Citometría de Flujo , Leucocitos Mononucleares , ARN Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , COVID-19/inmunología , COVID-19/sangre , COVID-19/virología , Leucocitos Mononucleares/virología , Leucocitos Mononucleares/inmunología , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología , Masculino , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , ARN Viral/sangre , Adulto , Estudios Longitudinales , Análisis de la Célula Individual/métodos , Células Asesinas Naturales/inmunología , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Inmunofenotipificación , Anciano
3.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(6): e0012216, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38848311

RESUMEN

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) is a novel tick-borne viral pathogen that causes severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS). The disease was initially reported in central and eastern China, then later in Japan and South Korea, with a mortality rate of 13-30%. Currently, no vaccines or effective therapeutics are available for SFTS treatment. In this study, three monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting the SFTSV envelope glycoprotein Gn were obtained using the hybridoma technique. Two mAbs recognized linear epitopes and did not neutralize SFTSV, while the mAb 40C10 can effectively neutralized SFTSV of different genotypes and also the SFTSV-related Guertu virus (GTV) and Heartland virus (HRTV) by targeting a spatial epitope of Gn. Additionally, the mAb 40C10 showed therapeutic effect in mice infected with different genotypes of SFTSV strains against death by preventing the development of lesions and by promoting virus clearance in tissues. The therapeutic effect could still be observed in mice infected with SFTSV which were administered with mAb 40C10 after infection even up to 4 days. These findings enhance our understanding of SFTSV immunogenicity and provide valuable information for designing detection methods and strategies targeting SFTSV antigens. The neutralizing mAb 40C10 possesses the potential to be further developed as a therapeutic monoclonal antibody against SFTSV and SFTSV-related viruses.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Monoclonales , Anticuerpos Antivirales , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C , Phlebovirus , Phlebovirus/inmunología , Phlebovirus/genética , Animales , Anticuerpos Monoclonales/inmunología , Ratones , Anticuerpos Antivirales/inmunología , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/inmunología , Femenino , Síndrome de Trombocitopenia Febril Grave/inmunología , Síndrome de Trombocitopenia Febril Grave/virología , Epítopos/inmunología , Proteínas del Envoltorio Viral/inmunología , Proteínas del Envoltorio Viral/genética , Glicoproteínas/inmunología , Glicoproteínas/genética , Infecciones por Bunyaviridae/inmunología , Infecciones por Bunyaviridae/virología , Infecciones por Bunyaviridae/prevención & control , Humanos
4.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1386243, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38835757

RESUMEN

Introduction: Current vaccines against COVID-19 administered via parenteral route have limited ability to induce mucosal immunity. There is a need for an effective mucosal vaccine to combat SARS-CoV-2 virus replication in the respiratory mucosa. Moreover, sex differences are known to affect systemic antibody responses against vaccines. However, their role in mucosal cellular responses against a vaccine remains unclear and is underappreciated. Methods: We evaluated the mucosal immunogenicity of a booster vaccine regimen that is recombinant protein-based and administered intranasally in mice to explore sex differences in mucosal humoral and cellular responses. Results: Our results showed that vaccinated mice elicited strong systemic antibody (Ab), nasal, and bronchiole alveolar lavage (BAL) IgA responses, and local T cell immune responses in the lung in a sex-biased manner irrespective of mouse genetic background. Monocytes, alveolar macrophages, and CD103+ resident dendritic cells (DCs) in the lungs are correlated with robust mucosal Ab and T cell responses induced by the mucosal vaccine. Discussion: Our findings provide novel insights into optimizing next-generation booster vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 by inducing spike-specific lung T cell responses, as well as optimizing mucosal immunity for other respiratory infections, and a rationale for considering sex differences in future vaccine research and vaccination practice.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Inmunidad Mucosa , Inmunogenicidad Vacunal , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacunas de Subunidad , Animales , Femenino , Ratones , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/inmunología , COVID-19/prevención & control , COVID-19/inmunología , COVID-19/virología , Vacunas de Subunidad/inmunología , Vacunas de Subunidad/administración & dosificación , Masculino , Anticuerpos Antivirales/inmunología , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Pulmón/inmunología , Pulmón/virología , Linfocitos T/inmunología , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/inmunología , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Administración Intranasal , Factores Sexuales , Inmunoglobulina A/inmunología , Células Dendríticas/inmunología , Inmunización Secundaria , Inmunidad Humoral
5.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1361323, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38835763

RESUMEN

Introduction: Swine influenza viruses (SIVs) pose significant economic losses to the pig industry and are a burden on global public health systems. The increasing complexity of the distribution and evolution of different serotypes of influenza strains in swine herds escalates the potential for the emergence of novel pandemic viruses, so it is essential to develop new vaccines based on swine influenza. Methods: Here, we constructed a self-assembling ferritin nanoparticle vaccine based on the hemagglutinin (HA) extracellular domain of swine influenza A (H1N1) virus using insect baculovirus expression vector system (IBEVS), and after two immunizations, the immunogenicities and protective efficacies of the HA-Ferritin nanoparticle vaccine against the swine influenza virus H1N1 strain in mice and piglets were evaluated. Results: Our results demonstrated that HA-Ferritin nanoparticle vaccine induced more efficient immunity than traditional swine influenza vaccines. Vaccination with the HA-Ferritin nanoparticle vaccine elicited robust hemagglutinin inhibition titers and antigen-specific IgG antibodies and increased cytokine levels in serum. MF59 adjuvant can significantly promote the humoral immunity of HA-Ferritin nanoparticle vaccine. Furthermore, challenge tests showed that HA-Ferritin nanoparticle vaccine conferred full protection against lethal challenge with H1N1 virus and significantly decreased the severity of virus-associated lung lesions after challenge in both BALB/c mice and piglets. Conclusion: Taken together, these results indicate that the hemagglutinin extracellular-based ferritin nanoparticle vaccine may be a promising vaccine candidate against SIVs infection.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales , Ferritinas , Glicoproteínas Hemaglutininas del Virus de la Influenza , Subtipo H1N1 del Virus de la Influenza A , Vacunas contra la Influenza , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C , Nanopartículas , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae , Animales , Subtipo H1N1 del Virus de la Influenza A/inmunología , Ferritinas/inmunología , Vacunas contra la Influenza/inmunología , Porcinos , Ratones , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/prevención & control , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/inmunología , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/virología , Glicoproteínas Hemaglutininas del Virus de la Influenza/inmunología , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Anticuerpos Antivirales/inmunología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/prevención & control , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/inmunología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/virología , Femenino , Nanovacunas
6.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 18(6): e13312, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38837866

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To inform future response planning we aimed to assess SARS-CoV-2 trends in infection- and/or vaccine-induced immunity, including breakthrough infections, among (sub)groups, professions and regions in the Dutch population during the Variant of Concern (VOC)-era. METHODS: In this prospective population-based cohort, randomly selected participants (n = 9985) aged 1-92 years (recruited early-2020) donated home-collected fingerstick-blood samples at six timepoints in 2021/2022, covering waves dominated by Alpha, Delta, and multiple Omicron (sub-)variants. IgG antibody assessment against Spike-S1 and Nucleoprotein was combined with vaccination- and testing data to estimate infection-induced (inf) and total (infection- and vaccination-induced) seroprevalence. RESULTS: Nationwide inf-seroprevalence rose modestly from 12% (95% CI 11-13) since Alpha to 26% (95% CI 24-28) amidst Delta, while total seroprevalence increased rapidly to 87% (95% CI 85-88), particularly in elderly and those with comorbidities (i.e., vulnerable groups). Interestingly, highest infection rates were noticeable among low/middle educated elderly, non-Western, those in contact professions, adolescents and young adults, and in low-vaccination coverage regions. Following Omicron emergence, inf-seroprevalence elevated sharply to 62% (95% CI 59-65) and further to 86% (95% CI 83-90) in late-2022, with frequent breakthrough infections and decreasing seroprevalence dissimilarities between most groups. Whereas > 90% of < 60-year-olds had been infected at least once, 30% of vaccinated vulnerable individuals had still not acquired hybrid immunity. CONCLUSIONS: Groups identified to have been infected disproportionally during the acute phase of the pandemic require specific attention in evaluation of control measures and future response planning worldwide. Furthermore, ongoing tailored vaccination efforts and (sero-)monitoring of vulnerable groups may remain important.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/inmunología , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Países Bajos/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Niño , Preescolar , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología , Adulto Joven , Masculino , Femenino , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Lactante , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Estudios Prospectivos , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/inmunología , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/administración & dosificación , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos
7.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 18(6): e13332, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38838093

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Mozambique was one of many African countries with limited testing capacity for SARS-CoV-2. Serosurveys, an alternative to estimate the real exposure to understand the epidemiology and transmission dynamics, have been scarce in Mozambique. Herein, we aimed to estimate the age-specific seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in the general population of the Manhiça District, at four time points, for evaluating dynamics of exposure and the impact of vaccination. METHODS: We conducted four community-based seroepidemiological surveys separated by 3 months between May 2021 and June 2022 to assess the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. An age-stratified (0-19, 20-39, 40-59, and ≥ 60 years) sample of 4810 individuals was randomly selected from demographic surveillance database, and their blood samples were analyzed using WANTAI SARS-CoV-2 IgG + IgM ELISA. Nasopharyngeal swabs from a subsample of 2209 participants were also assessed for active infection by RT-qPCR. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence increased from 27.6% in the first survey (May 2021) to 63.6%, 91.2%, and 91.1% in the second (October 2021), third (January 2022), and fourth (May 2022) surveys, respectively. Seroprevalence in individuals < 18 years, who were not eligible for vaccination, increased from 23.1% in the first survey to 87.1% in the fourth. The prevalence of active infection was below 10.1% in all surveys. CONCLUSIONS: A high seroprevalence to SARS-CoV-2 was observed in the study population, including individuals not eligible for vaccination at that time, particularly after circulation of the highly transmissible Delta variant. These data are important to inform decision making on the vaccination strategies in the context of pandemic slowdown in Mozambique.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales , COVID-19 , Población Rural , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Mozambique/epidemiología , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/transmisión , COVID-19/prevención & control , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Adulto , Adolescente , Preescolar , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven , Niño , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología , SARS-CoV-2/aislamiento & purificación , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Femenino , Masculino , Lactante , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Recién Nacido , Anciano , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Inmunoglobulina M/sangre
8.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 20(1): 2356269, 2024 Dec 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38826029

RESUMEN

The influenza viruses cause seasonal respiratory illness that affect millions of people globally every year. Prophylactic vaccines are the recommended method to prevent the breakout of influenza epidemics. One of the current commercial influenza vaccines consists of inactivated viruses that are selected months prior to the start of a new influenza season. In many seasons, the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of these vaccines can be relatively low. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop an improved, more universal influenza vaccine (UIV) that can provide broad protection against various drifted strains in all age groups. To meet this need, the computationally optimized broadly reactive antigen (COBRA) methodology was developed to design a hemagglutinin (HA) molecule as a new influenza vaccine. In this study, COBRA HA-based inactivated influenza viruses (IIV) expressing the COBRA HA from H1 or H3 influenza viruses were developed and characterized for the elicitation of immediate and long-term protective immunity in both immunologically naïve or influenza pre-immune animal models. These results were compared to animals vaccinated with IIV vaccines expressing wild-type H1 or H3 HA proteins (WT-IIV). The COBRA-IIV elicited long-lasting broadly reactive antibodies that had hemagglutination-inhibition (HAI) activity against drifted influenza variants.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales , Glicoproteínas Hemaglutininas del Virus de la Influenza , Vacunas contra la Influenza , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae , Vacunas de Productos Inactivados , Vacunas contra la Influenza/inmunología , Vacunas contra la Influenza/administración & dosificación , Animales , Vacunas de Productos Inactivados/inmunología , Vacunas de Productos Inactivados/administración & dosificación , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Anticuerpos Antivirales/inmunología , Glicoproteínas Hemaglutininas del Virus de la Influenza/inmunología , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/prevención & control , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/inmunología , Ratones , Femenino , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C , Humanos , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Gripe Humana/inmunología , Eficacia de las Vacunas , Pruebas de Inhibición de Hemaglutinación
9.
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol ; 38: 3946320241260633, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38836458

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to assess the seroprevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) IgG antibodies against the spike (S) and nucleocapsid (NP) proteins, as well as neutralizing antibodies against the receptor-binding domain (RBD). Additionally, it aims to detect viral RNA of SARS-CoV-2 in pre-pandemic archival pediatric specimens collected before the announcement of the COVID-19 pandemic spread on March 20th, 2020, in Morocco. The objective is to investigate the existence of pre-pandemic immunity to SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study, to analyze IgG antibody levels in a cohort of 106 pre-pandemic pediatric participants. Using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), we measured the IgG levels against the S and NP proteins of SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, we staged a competitive ELISA assay to evaluate the neutralizing capability of these antibodies. We used reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) to detect viral NP and ORF1ab genes of SARS-CoV-2 in oropharyngeal swabs. Moreover, we conducted on the same specimens a multiplexed RT-PCR to detect RNA of the most common 27 pathogens involved in lower respiratory tract infections. RESULTS: Among the 106 serum samples, 13% (nn = =14) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies using ELISA. Temporal analysis indicated varying IgG positivity levels across 2019. Neutralizing antibodies were found in 21% of the 28 samples analyzed, including two with high inhibition rates (93%). The SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected using rRT-PCR in 14 samples. None of the samples tested positive for the other 27 pathogens associated with lower respiratory tract infections, using multiplexed RT-PCR. CONCLUSION: Our study addresses the possibility, that COVID-19 infections occurred in Morocco before the recognized outbreak. On the other hand, some of the cases might reflect cross-reactivity with other coronaviruses or be influenced by previous viral exposures or vaccinations. Understanding these factors is crucial to comprehending pediatric immune responses to newly emerging infectious diseases.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales , COVID-19 , Inmunoglobulina G , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología , Niño , Masculino , Femenino , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/inmunología , COVID-19/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Preescolar , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Inmunoglobulina G/inmunología , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/sangre , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/inmunología , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/inmunología , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Adolescente , Proteínas de la Nucleocápside de Coronavirus/inmunología , ARN Viral/sangre , Fiebre/inmunología , Fiebre/virología , Fiebre/diagnóstico , Marruecos/epidemiología , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Fosfoproteínas
10.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 12928, 2024 06 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38839918

RESUMEN

Coronaviruses have been confirmed to infect a variety of species, but only one case of associated winter dysentery of European bison has been described. The study aimed to analyze the prevalence, and define the impact on the species conservation, the source of coronavirus infection, and the role of the European bison in the transmission of the pathogen in Poland. Molecular and serological screening was performed on 409 European bison from 6 free-ranging and 14 captive herds over the period of 6 years (2017-2023). Presence of coronavirus was confirmed in one nasal swab by pancoronavirus RT-PCR and in 3 nasal swab samples by bovine coronavirus (BCoV) specific real time RT-PCR. The detected virus showed high (> 98%) homology in both RdRp and Spike genes to BCoV strains characterised recently in Polish cattle and strains isolated from wild cervids in Italy. Antibodies specific to BCoV were found in 6.4% of tested samples, all originating from free-ranging animals. Seroprevalence was higher in adult animals over 5 years of age (p = 0.0015) and in females (p = 0.09). Our results suggest that European bison play only a limited role as reservoirs of bovine-like coronaviruses. Although the most probable source of infections in the European bison population in Poland is cattle, other wild ruminants could also be involved. In addition, the zoonotic potential of bovine coronaviruses is quite low.


Asunto(s)
Bison , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Animales , Bison/virología , Polonia/epidemiología , Femenino , Masculino , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/veterinaria , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Prevalencia , Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus/clasificación , Coronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Bovinos , Coronavirus Bovino/genética , Coronavirus Bovino/aislamiento & purificación , Filogenia , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 24(1): 560, 2024 Jun 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38840046

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: China experienced an overwhelming COVID-19 pandemic from middle December 2022 to middle January 2023 after lifting the zero-COVID-19 policy on December 7, 2022. However, the infection rate was less studied. We aimed to investigate the SARS-CoV-2 infection rate in children shortly after discontinuation of the zero-COVID-19 policy. METHODS: From February 20 to April 10, 2023, we included 393 children aged 8 months to less than 3 years who did not receive COVID-19 vaccination and 114 children aged 3 to 6 years who received inactivated COVID-19 vaccines based on the convenience sampling in this cross-sectional study. IgG and IgM antibodies against nucleocapsid (N) and subunit 1 of spike (S1) of SARS-CoV-2 (anti-N/S1) were measured with commercial kits (Shenzhen YHLO Biotech, China). RESULTS: Of the 393 unvaccinated children (1.5 ± 0.6 years; 52.2% boys), 369 (93.9%) were anti-N/S1 IgG positive. Of the 114 vaccinated children (5.3 ± 0.9 years; 48.2% boys), 112 (98.2%) were anti-N/S1 IgG positive. None of the unvaccinated or vaccinated children was anti-N/S1 IgM positive. The median IgG antibody titers in vaccinated children (344.91 AU/mL) were significantly higher than that in unvaccinated children (42.80 AU/mL) (P < 0.0001). The positive rates and titers of anti-N/S1 IgG had no significant difference between boys and girls respectively. CONCLUSION: Vast majority of children were infected with SARS-CoV-2 shortly after ending zero-COVID-19 policy in China. Whether these unvaccinated infected children should receive COVID-19 vaccine merits further investigation.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Inmunoglobulina G , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , COVID-19/prevención & control , COVID-19/inmunología , COVID-19/epidemiología , China/epidemiología , Preescolar , Masculino , Femenino , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/inmunología , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/administración & dosificación , Niño , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología , Lactante , Estudios Transversales , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Inmunoglobulina M/sangre , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/inmunología
12.
Int J Epidemiol ; 53(3)2024 Apr 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38840559

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In Canada's largest COVID-19 serological study, SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in blood donors have been monitored since 2020. No study has analysed changes in the association between anti-N seropositivity (a marker of recent infection) and geographic and sociodemographic characteristics over the pandemic. METHODS: Using Bayesian multi-level models with spatial effects at the census division level, we analysed changes in correlates of SARS-CoV-2 anti-N seropositivity across three periods in which different variants predominated (pre-Delta, Delta and Omicron). We analysed disparities by geographic area, individual traits (age, sex, race) and neighbourhood factors (urbanicity, material deprivation and social deprivation). Data were from 420 319 blood donations across four regions (Ontario, British Columbia [BC], the Prairies and the Atlantic region) from December 2020 to November 2022. RESULTS: Seropositivity was higher for racialized minorities, males and individuals in more materially deprived neighbourhoods in the pre-Delta and Delta waves. These subgroup differences dissipated in the Omicron wave as large swaths of the population became infected. Across all waves, seropositivity was higher in younger individuals and those with lower neighbourhood social deprivation. Rural residents had high seropositivity in the Prairies, but not other regions. Compared to generalized linear models, multi-level models with spatial effects had better fit and lower error when predicting SARS-CoV-2 anti-N seropositivity by geographic region. CONCLUSIONS: Correlates of recent COVID-19 infection have evolved over the pandemic. Many disparities lessened during the Omicron wave, but public health intervention may be warranted to address persistently higher burden among young people and those with less social deprivation.


Asunto(s)
Teorema de Bayes , Donantes de Sangre , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/sangre , Donantes de Sangre/estadística & datos numéricos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Canadá/epidemiología , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Adulto Joven , Adolescente , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Factores Socioeconómicos , Características de la Residencia , Anciano
13.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0304262, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38843198

RESUMEN

The association between SARS-CoV-2 humoral immunity and post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (long COVID) remains uncertain. The objective of this population-based cohort study was to assess the association between SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity and symptoms consistent with long COVID. English and Spanish-speaking members ≥ 18 years old with SARS-CoV-2 serologic testing conducted prior to August 2021 were recruited from Kaiser Permanente Southern California and Kaiser Permanente Colorado. Between November 2021 and April 2022, participants completed a survey assessing symptoms, physical health, mental health, and cognitive function consistent with long COVID. Survey results were linked to SARS-CoV-2 antibody (Ab) and viral (RNA) lab results in electronic health records. Weighted descriptive analyses were generated for five mutually exclusive patient groups: (1) +Ab/+RNA; (2) +Ab/- or missing RNA; (3) -Ab/+RNA; (4a) -Ab/-RNA reporting no prior infection; and (4b) -Ab/-RNA reporting prior infection. The proportions reporting symptoms between the +Ab/+RNA and -Ab/+RNA groups were compared, adjusted for covariates. Among 3,946 participants, the mean age was 52.1 years old (SD 15.6), 68.3% were female, 28.4% were Hispanic, and the serologic testing occurred a median of 15 months prior (IQR = 12-18). Three quarters (74.5%) reported having had COVID-19. Among people with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, there was no association between antibody positivity (+Ab/+RNA vs. -Ab/+RNA) and any symptoms, physical health, mental health, or cognitive function. As expected, physical health, cognitive function, and fatigue were worse, and palpitations and headaches limiting the ability to work were more prevalent among people with laboratory-confirmed prior infection and positive serology (+Ab/+RNA) compared to those without reported or confirmed prior infection and negative serology (-Ab/-RNA/no reported COVID-19). Among people with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2 serology from practice settings were not associated with long COVID symptoms and health status suggesting limited utility of serology testing for long COVID.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Femenino , Masculino , COVID-19/inmunología , COVID-19/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología , Adulto , Anciano , Síndrome Post Agudo de COVID-19 , Colorado/epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , ARN Viral/sangre , California/epidemiología , Inmunidad Humoral
14.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0303450, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38843267

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The MIMIX platform is a novel microneedle array patch (MAP) characterized by slowly dissolving microneedle tips that deploy into the dermis following patch application. We describe safety, reactogenicity, tolerability and immunogenicity for MIMIX MAP vaccination against influenza. METHODOLOGY: The trial was a Phase 1, exploratory, first-in-human, parallel randomized, rater, participant, study analyst-blinded, placebo-controlled study in Canada. Forty-five healthy participants (18 to 39 years of age, inclusive) were randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive either 15 µg or 7.5 µg of an H1N1 influenza vaccine, or placebo delivered via MIMIX MAP to the volar forearm. A statistician used a computer program to create a randomization scheme with a block size of 3. Post-treatment follow-up was approximately 180 days. Primary safety outcomes included the incidence of study product related serious adverse events and unsolicited events within 180 days, solicited application site and systemic reactogenicity through 7 days after administration and solicited application site erythema and/or pigmentation 14, 28, 56 and 180 days after administration. Immunogenicity outcomes included antibody titers and percentage of seroconversion (SCR) and seroprotection (SPR) rates determined by the hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assay. Exploratory outcomes included virus microneutralization (MN) titers, durability and breadth of the immune response. The trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT06125717. FINDINGS: Between July 7, 2022 and March 13, 2023 45 participants were randomized to a treatment group. One participant was lost to follow up in the 15 µg group and 1 participant withdrew from the 7.5 µg dose group. Safety analyses included n = 15 per group, immunogenicity analyses included n = 14 for the 15 µg and 7.5 µg treatment groups and n = 15 for the placebo group. No SAEs were reported in any of the treatment groups. All treatment groups reported solicited local events within 7 days after vaccination, with mild (Grade 1) erythema being the most frequent symptom reported. Other local symptoms reported included mostly mild (Grade 1) induration/swelling, itching, pigmentation, skin flaking, and tenderness. Within 7 days after vaccination, 2 participants (4.4%) reported moderate (Grade 2) erythema, 1 participant (2.2%) reported moderate (Grade 2) induration/swelling, and 1 participant (2.2%) reported moderate (Grade 2) itching. There was an overall reduction in erythema and pigmentation reported on Days 15, 29, 57, and 180 among all treatment groups. Systemic symptoms reported within 7 days after vaccination, included mild (Grade 1) fatigue reported among all treatment groups, and mild (Grade 1) headache reported by 1 participant in the 7.5 µg treatment group. No study drug related severe symptoms were reported in the study. Group mean fold rises in HAI titers ranged between 8.7 and 12-fold, SCRs were >76% and SPRs were >92% for both VX-103 dose groups thereby fulfilling serological criteria established by the EMA and FDA for seasonal influenza vaccines. Longitudinal assessments demonstrate persistence of the immune response through at least Day 180. CONCLUSIONS: The MIMIX MAP platform is safe, well tolerated and elicits robust antibody responses.


Asunto(s)
Subtipo H1N1 del Virus de la Influenza A , Vacunas contra la Influenza , Gripe Humana , Humanos , Adulto , Vacunas contra la Influenza/inmunología , Vacunas contra la Influenza/efectos adversos , Vacunas contra la Influenza/administración & dosificación , Masculino , Femenino , Subtipo H1N1 del Virus de la Influenza A/inmunología , Adulto Joven , Adolescente , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Gripe Humana/inmunología , Agujas , Voluntarios Sanos , Vacunación/métodos , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Anticuerpos Antivirales/inmunología , Método Doble Ciego , Inmunogenicidad Vacunal
15.
PLoS Pathog ; 20(6): e1012177, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38843296

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a likely prerequisite for multiple sclerosis (MS) but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. We investigated antibody and T cell responses to EBV in persons with MS (pwMS), healthy EBV-seropositive controls (HC) and post-infectious mononucleosis (POST-IM) individuals up to 6 months after disease resolution. The ability of EBV-specific T cell responses to target antigens from the central nervous system (CNS) was also investigated. METHODS: Untreated persons with relapsing-remitting MS, POST-IM individuals and HC were, as far as possible, matched for gender, age and HLA-DRB1*15:01. EBV load was determined by qPCR, and IgG responses to key EBV antigens were determined by ELISA, immunofluorescence and Western blot, and tetanus toxoid antibody responses by multiplex bead array. EBV-specific T cell responses were determined ex vivo by intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) and cross-reactivity of in vitro-expanded responses probed against 9 novel Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) viruses expressing candidate CNS autoantigens. RESULTS: EBV load in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was unchanged in pwMS compared to HC. Serologically, while tetanus toxoid responses were unchanged between groups, IgG responses to EBNA1 and virus capsid antigen (VCA) were significantly elevated (EBNA1 p = 0.0079, VCA p = 0.0298) but, importantly, IgG responses to EBNA2 and the EBNA3 family antigens were also more frequently detected in pwMS (EBNA2 p = 0.042 and EBNA3 p = 0.005). In ex vivo assays, T cell responses to autologous EBV-transformed B cells and to EBNA1 were largely unchanged numerically, but significantly increased IL-2 production was observed in response to certain stimuli in pwMS. EBV-specific polyclonal T cell lines from both MS and HC showed high levels of autoantigen recognition by ICS, and several neuronal proteins emerged as common targets including MOG, MBP, PLP and MOBP. DISCUSSION: Elevated serum EBV-specific antibody responses in the MS group were found to extend beyond EBNA1, suggesting a larger dysregulation of EBV-specific antibody responses than previously recognised. Differences in T cell responses to EBV were more difficult to discern, however stimulating EBV-expanded polyclonal T cell lines with 9 candidate CNS autoantigens revealed a high level of autoreactivity and indicate a far-reaching ability of the virus-induced T cell compartment to damage the CNS.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales , Infecciones por Virus de Epstein-Barr , Herpesvirus Humano 4 , Humanos , Herpesvirus Humano 4/inmunología , Femenino , Masculino , Infecciones por Virus de Epstein-Barr/inmunología , Infecciones por Virus de Epstein-Barr/virología , Adulto , Anticuerpos Antivirales/inmunología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Reacciones Cruzadas/inmunología , Esclerosis Múltiple/inmunología , Esclerosis Múltiple/virología , Linfocitos T/inmunología , Esclerosis Múltiple Recurrente-Remitente/inmunología , Esclerosis Múltiple Recurrente-Remitente/virología , Antígenos Virales/inmunología , Carga Viral , Mononucleosis Infecciosa/inmunología , Mononucleosis Infecciosa/virología , Antígenos Nucleares del Virus de Epstein-Barr/inmunología , Inmunoglobulina G/inmunología
16.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 108(1): 355, 2024 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38822832

RESUMEN

Getah virus (GETV) is a re-emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus that is highly pathogenic, mainly to pigs and horses. There are no vaccines or treatments available for GETV in swine in China. Therefore, the development of a simple, rapid, specific, and sensitive serological assay for GETV antibodies is essential for the prevention and control of GETV. Current antibody monitoring methods are time-consuming, expensive, and dependent on specialized instrumentation, and these features are not conducive to rapid detection in clinical samples. To address these problem, we developed immunochromatographic test strips (ICTS) using eukaryotically expressed soluble recombinant p62-E1 protein of GETV as a labelled antigen, which has good detection sensitivity and no cross-reactivity with other common porcine virus-positive sera. The ICTS is highly compatible with IFA and ELISA and can be stored for 1 month at 37 °C and for at least 3 months at room temperature. Hence, p62-E1-based ICTS is a rapid, accurate, and convenient method for rapid on-site detection of GETV antibodies. KEY POINTS: • We established a rapid antibody detection method that can monitor GETV infection • We developed colloidal gold test strips with high sensitivity and specificity • The development of colloidal gold test strips will aid in the field serologic detection of GETV.


Asunto(s)
Alphavirus , Anticuerpos Antivirales , Oro Coloide , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Animales , Oro Coloide/química , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Anticuerpos Antivirales/inmunología , Alphavirus/inmunología , Porcinos , Cromatografía de Afinidad/métodos , Infecciones por Alphavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Alphavirus/inmunología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/diagnóstico , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/virología , Tiras Reactivas , China , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática/métodos
17.
J Health Popul Nutr ; 43(1): 74, 2024 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38824595

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Serological surveys offer the most direct measurement to define the immunity status for numerous infectious diseases, such as COVID-19, and can provide valuable insights into understanding transmission patterns. This study describes seroprevalence changes over time in the context of the Democratic Republic of Congo, where COVID-19 case presentation was apparently largely oligo- or asymptomatic, and vaccination coverage remained extremely low. METHODS: A cohort of 635 health care workers (HCW) from 5 health zones of Kinshasa and 670 of their household members was interviewed and sampled in 6 rounds between July 2020 and January 2022. At each round, information on risk exposure and a blood sample were collected. Serology was defined as positive when binding antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 spike and nucleocapsid proteins were simultaneously present. RESULTS: The SARS-CoV-2 antibody seroprevalence was high at baseline, 17.3% (95% CI 14.4-20.6) and 7.8% (95% CI 5.5-10.8) for HCW and household members, respectively, and fluctuated over time, between 9% and 62.1%. Seropositivity was heterogeneously distributed over the health zones (p < 0.001), ranging from 12.5% (95% CI 6.6-20.8) in N'djili to 33.7% (95% CI 24.6-43.8) in Bandalungwa at baseline for HCW. Seropositivity was associated with increasing rounds adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) 1.75 (95% CI 1.66-1.85), with increasing age aOR 1.11 (95% CI 1.02-1.20), being a female aOR 1.35 (95% CI 1.10-1.66) and being a HCW aOR 2.38 (95% CI 1.80-3.14). There was no evidence that HCW brought the COVID-19 infection back home, with an aOR of 0.64 (95% CI 0.46-0.91) of seropositivity risk among household members in subsequent surveys. There was seroreversion and seroconversion over time, and HCW had a lower risk of seroreverting than household members (aOR 0.60 (95% CI 0.42-0.86)). CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody levels were high and dynamic over time in this African setting with low clinical case rates. The absence of association with health profession or general risk behaviors and with HCW positivity in subsequent rounds in HH members, shows the importance of the time-dependent, and not work-related, force of infection. Cohort seroprevalence estimates in a 'new disease' epidemic seem insufficient to guide policy makers for defining control strategies.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales , COVID-19 , Personal de Salud , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/sangre , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , República Democrática del Congo/epidemiología , Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Persona de Mediana Edad , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Estudios de Cohortes , Adulto Joven , Composición Familiar , Adolescente , Niño , Anciano
18.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1374818, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38827738

RESUMEN

Activated lung ILC2s produce large quantities of IL-5 and IL-13 that contribute to eosinophilic inflammation and mucus production following respiratory syncytial virus infection (RSV). The current understanding of ILC2 activation during RSV infection, is that ILC2s are activated by alarmins, including IL-33, released from airway epithelial cells in response to viral-mediated damage. Thus, high levels of RSV neutralizing maternal antibody generated from maternal immunization would be expected to reduce IL-33 production and mitigate ILC2 activation. Here we report that lung ILC2s from mice born to RSV-immunized dams become activated despite undetectable RSV replication. We also report, for the first time, expression of activating and inhibitory Fcgamma receptors on ILC2s that are differentially expressed in offspring born to immunized versus unimmunized dams. Alternatively, ex vivo IL-33-mediated activation of ILC2s was mitigated following the addition of antibody: antigen immune complexes. Further studies are needed to confirm the role of Fcgamma receptor ligation by immune complexes as an alternative mechanism of ILC2 regulation in RSV-associated eosinophilic lung inflammation.


Asunto(s)
Interleucina-33 , Pulmón , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C , Infecciones por Virus Sincitial Respiratorio , Virus Sincitiales Respiratorios , Animales , Infecciones por Virus Sincitial Respiratorio/inmunología , Infecciones por Virus Sincitial Respiratorio/prevención & control , Ratones , Femenino , Pulmón/inmunología , Pulmón/virología , Interleucina-33/inmunología , Virus Sincitiales Respiratorios/inmunología , Linfocitos/inmunología , Inmunización , Receptores de IgG/inmunología , Receptores de IgG/metabolismo , Anticuerpos Antivirales/inmunología , Embarazo , Vacunas contra Virus Sincitial Respiratorio/inmunología
19.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1401728, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38827749

RESUMEN

Background: Immunity to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is now widespread; however, the degree of cross-immunity between SARS-CoV-2 and endemic, seasonal human coronaviruses (HCoVs) remains unclear. Methods: SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV cross-immunity was evaluated in adult participants enrolled in a US sub-study in the phase III, randomized controlled trial (NCT04516746) of AZD1222 (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) primary-series vaccination for one-year. Anti-HCoV spike-binding antibodies against HCoV-229E, HCoV-HKU1, HCoV-OC43, and HCoV-NL63 were evaluated in participants following study dosing and, in the AZD1222 group, after a non-study third-dose booster. Timing of SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion (assessed via anti-nucleocapsid antibody levels) and incidence of COVID-19 were evaluated in those who received AZD1222 primary-series by baseline anti-HCoV titers. Results: We evaluated 2,020/21,634 participants in the AZD1222 group and 1,007/10,816 in the placebo group. At the one-year data cutoff (March 11, 2022) mean duration of follow up was 230.9 (SD: 106.36, range: 1-325) and 94.3 (74.12, 1-321) days for participants in the AZD1222 (n = 1,940) and placebo (n = 962) groups, respectively. We observed little elevation in anti-HCoV humoral titers post study-dosing or post-boosting, nor evidence of waning over time. The occurrence and timing of SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion and incidence of COVID-19 were not largely impacted by baseline anti-HCoV titers. Conclusion: We found limited evidence for cross-immunity between SARS-CoV-2 and HCoVs following AZD1222 primary series and booster vaccination. Susceptibility to future emergence of novel coronaviruses will likely persist despite a high prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 immunity in global populations.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , COVID-19 , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Inmunidad Humoral , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , COVID-19/inmunología , COVID-19/prevención & control , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/inmunología , Adulto , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Anticuerpos Antivirales/inmunología , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología , Masculino , Femenino , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/inmunología , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/administración & dosificación , Persona de Mediana Edad , Inmunidad Humoral/efectos de los fármacos , Reacciones Cruzadas/inmunología , Estaciones del Año , Adulto Joven , Vacunación , Método Doble Ciego
20.
J Clin Virol ; 173: 105692, 2024 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38830304

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A global mpox outbreak occurred in 2022, and a domestic outbreak started in South Korea in April 2023. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics, viral shedding, and immune response of mpox in South Korea. METHODS: Patients hospitalized with mpox in the National Medical Center between September 2022 and June 2023 were included in this study. Oropharyngeal (OP), anogenital lesion (AL), and skin lesion (SL) swabs and blood samples were collected, and monkeypox virus (MPXV) DNA using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and culture assays were performed. Neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against MPXV A.2.1, B.1.1, and B.1.3 were detected using plaque reduction neutralization tests. RESULTS: Eighteen patients were enrolled, of whom 17 (94.4 %) were male, with a median (IQR) age of 32.5 (24-51) years. While nine (50 %) were HIV-infected individuals, none of them revealed CD4+ counts less than 200 cells/µL. MPXV DNA was detected in 87.3 % and 82.7 % of patient's ALs and SLs, respectively, until 2 weeks after symptom onset. While MPXV was isolated for up to 15 days in all three sample types, the culture positivity decreased to 53.8 % and 42.9 % in ALs and SLs after 10 days, respectively, and 28.6 % and 22.2 %, respectively, after 2 weeks from symptom onset. The NAb titers against MPXV A.2.1 were significantly lower than those against B.1.1 and B.1.3. CONCLUSIONS: Infectious MPXV was isolated from various anatomical sites up to 15 days after symptom onset. The MPXV NAb response was varied among different lineages, and this implies limited cross-lineage protection.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Neutralizantes , Anticuerpos Antivirales , Esparcimiento de Virus , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , República de Corea/epidemiología , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/sangre , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Brotes de Enfermedades , ADN Viral/sangre
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