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1.
J Clin Virol ; 173: 105692, 2024 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38830304

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A global mpox outbreak occurred in 2022, and a domestic outbreak started in South Korea in April 2023. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics, viral shedding, and immune response of mpox in South Korea. METHODS: Patients hospitalized with mpox in the National Medical Center between September 2022 and June 2023 were included in this study. Oropharyngeal (OP), anogenital lesion (AL), and skin lesion (SL) swabs and blood samples were collected, and monkeypox virus (MPXV) DNA using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and culture assays were performed. Neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against MPXV A.2.1, B.1.1, and B.1.3 were detected using plaque reduction neutralization tests. RESULTS: Eighteen patients were enrolled, of whom 17 (94.4 %) were male, with a median (IQR) age of 32.5 (24-51) years. While nine (50 %) were HIV-infected individuals, none of them revealed CD4+ counts less than 200 cells/µL. MPXV DNA was detected in 87.3 % and 82.7 % of patient's ALs and SLs, respectively, until 2 weeks after symptom onset. While MPXV was isolated for up to 15 days in all three sample types, the culture positivity decreased to 53.8 % and 42.9 % in ALs and SLs after 10 days, respectively, and 28.6 % and 22.2 %, respectively, after 2 weeks from symptom onset. The NAb titers against MPXV A.2.1 were significantly lower than those against B.1.1 and B.1.3. CONCLUSIONS: Infectious MPXV was isolated from various anatomical sites up to 15 days after symptom onset. The MPXV NAb response was varied among different lineages, and this implies limited cross-lineage protection.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Neutralizantes , Anticuerpos Antivirales , Esparcimiento de Virus , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , República de Corea/epidemiología , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/sangre , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Brotes de Enfermedades , ADN Viral/sangre
2.
J Gen Virol ; 105(6)2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38861287

RESUMEN

Increased human-to-human transmission of monkeypox virus (MPXV) is cause for concern, and antibodies directed against vaccinia virus (VACV) are known to confer cross-protection against Mpox. We used 430 serum samples derived from the Scottish patient population to investigate antibody-mediated cross-neutralization against MPXV. By combining electrochemiluminescence immunoassays with live-virus neutralization assays, we show that people born when smallpox vaccination was routinely offered in the United Kingdom have increased levels of antibodies that cross-neutralize MPXV. Our results suggest that age is a risk factor of Mpox infection, and people born after 1971 are at higher risk of infection upon exposure.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Neutralizantes , Anticuerpos Antivirales , Monkeypox virus , Mpox , Vacuna contra Viruela , Humanos , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Anticuerpos Antivirales/inmunología , Vacuna contra Viruela/inmunología , Vacuna contra Viruela/administración & dosificación , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Monkeypox virus/inmunología , Adulto Joven , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/sangre , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/inmunología , Mpox/inmunología , Mpox/prevención & control , Femenino , Adolescente , Anciano , Masculino , Protección Cruzada/inmunología , Escocia , Factores de Edad , Pruebas de Neutralización , Niño , Vacunación , Viruela/prevención & control , Viruela/inmunología , Preescolar , Reacciones Cruzadas , Anciano de 80 o más Años
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(25): e2316376121, 2024 Jun 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38861603

RESUMEN

Human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) is a major pediatric respiratory pathogen lacking available vaccines or antiviral drugs. We generated live-attenuated HPIV3 vaccine candidates by codon-pair deoptimization (CPD). HPIV3 open reading frames (ORFs) encoding the nucleoprotein (N), phosphoprotein (P), matrix (M), fusion (F), hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN), and polymerase (L) were modified singly or in combination to generate 12 viruses designated Min-N, Min-P, Min-M, Min-FHN, Min-L, Min-NP, Min-NPM, Min-NPL, Min-PM, Min-PFHN, Min-MFHN, and Min-PMFHN. CPD of N or L severely reduced growth in vitro and was not further evaluated. CPD of P or M was associated with increased and decreased interferon (IFN) response in vitro, respectively, but had little effect on virus replication. In Vero cells, CPD of F and HN delayed virus replication, but final titers were comparable to wild-type (wt) HPIV3. In human lung epithelial A549 cells, CPD F and HN induced a stronger IFN response, viral titers were reduced 100-fold, and the expression of F and HN proteins was significantly reduced without affecting N or P or the relative packaging of proteins into virions. Following intranasal infection in hamsters, replication in the nasal turbinates and lungs tended to be the most reduced for viruses bearing CPD F and HN, with maximum reductions of approximately 10-fold. Despite decreased in vivo replication (and lower expression of CPD F and HN in vitro), all viruses induced titers of serum HPIV3-neutralizing antibodies similar to wt and provided complete protection against HPIV3 challenge. In summary, CPD of HPIV3 yielded promising vaccine candidates suitable for further development.


Asunto(s)
Codón , Virus de la Parainfluenza 3 Humana , Vacunas Atenuadas , Replicación Viral , Animales , Virus de la Parainfluenza 3 Humana/inmunología , Virus de la Parainfluenza 3 Humana/genética , Humanos , Vacunas Atenuadas/inmunología , Vacunas Atenuadas/genética , Codón/genética , Cricetinae , Infecciones por Respirovirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Respirovirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Respirovirus/virología , Chlorocebus aethiops , Células Vero , Sistemas de Lectura Abierta/genética , Mesocricetus , Anticuerpos Antivirales/inmunología , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Vacunas Virales/inmunología , Vacunas Virales/genética , Proteínas Virales/inmunología , Proteínas Virales/genética , Vacunas contra la Parainfluenza/inmunología , Vacunas contra la Parainfluenza/genética
4.
Immunohorizons ; 8(6): 397-403, 2024 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38864816

RESUMEN

One of the goals of vaccination is to induce long-lived immunity against the infection and/or disease. Many studies have followed the generation of humoral immunity to SARS-CoV-2 after vaccination; however, such studies typically varied by the duration of the follow-up and the number of time points at which immune response measurements were done. How these parameters (the number of time points and the overall duration of the follow-up) impact estimates of immunity longevity remain largely unknown. Several studies, including one by Arunachalam et al. (2023. J. Clin. Invest. 133: e167955), evaluated the humoral immune response in individuals receiving either a third or fourth dose of mRNA COVID-19 vaccine; by measuring Ab levels at three time points (prior to vaccination and at 1 and 6 mo), Arunachalam et al. found similar half-life times for serum Abs in the two groups and thus suggested that additional boosting is unnecessary to prolong immunity to SARS-CoV-2. I demonstrate that measuring Ab levels at these three time points and only for 6 mo does not allow one to accurately evaluate the long-term half-life of vaccine-induced Abs. By using the data from a cohort of blood donors followed for several years, I show that after revaccination with vaccinia virus, vaccinia virus-specific Abs decay biphasically, and even the late decay rate exceeds the true slow loss rate of humoral memory observed years prior to the boosting. Mathematical models of Ab response kinetics, parameterized using preliminary data, should be used for power analysis to determine the most appropriate timing and duration of sampling to rigorously determine the duration of humoral immunity after vaccination.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Inmunidad Humoral , Memoria Inmunológica , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacunación , Humanos , COVID-19/inmunología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Anticuerpos Antivirales/inmunología , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/inmunología , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/administración & dosificación , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología , Memoria Inmunológica/inmunología , Estudios de Seguimiento , Inmunización Secundaria
5.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1401728, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38827749

RESUMEN

Background: Immunity to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is now widespread; however, the degree of cross-immunity between SARS-CoV-2 and endemic, seasonal human coronaviruses (HCoVs) remains unclear. Methods: SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV cross-immunity was evaluated in adult participants enrolled in a US sub-study in the phase III, randomized controlled trial (NCT04516746) of AZD1222 (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) primary-series vaccination for one-year. Anti-HCoV spike-binding antibodies against HCoV-229E, HCoV-HKU1, HCoV-OC43, and HCoV-NL63 were evaluated in participants following study dosing and, in the AZD1222 group, after a non-study third-dose booster. Timing of SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion (assessed via anti-nucleocapsid antibody levels) and incidence of COVID-19 were evaluated in those who received AZD1222 primary-series by baseline anti-HCoV titers. Results: We evaluated 2,020/21,634 participants in the AZD1222 group and 1,007/10,816 in the placebo group. At the one-year data cutoff (March 11, 2022) mean duration of follow up was 230.9 (SD: 106.36, range: 1-325) and 94.3 (74.12, 1-321) days for participants in the AZD1222 (n = 1,940) and placebo (n = 962) groups, respectively. We observed little elevation in anti-HCoV humoral titers post study-dosing or post-boosting, nor evidence of waning over time. The occurrence and timing of SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion and incidence of COVID-19 were not largely impacted by baseline anti-HCoV titers. Conclusion: We found limited evidence for cross-immunity between SARS-CoV-2 and HCoVs following AZD1222 primary series and booster vaccination. Susceptibility to future emergence of novel coronaviruses will likely persist despite a high prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 immunity in global populations.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , COVID-19 , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Inmunidad Humoral , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , COVID-19/inmunología , COVID-19/prevención & control , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/inmunología , Adulto , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Anticuerpos Antivirales/inmunología , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología , Masculino , Femenino , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/inmunología , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/administración & dosificación , Persona de Mediana Edad , Inmunidad Humoral/efectos de los fármacos , Reacciones Cruzadas/inmunología , Estaciones del Año , Adulto Joven , Vacunación , Método Doble Ciego
6.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 12928, 2024 06 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38839918

RESUMEN

Coronaviruses have been confirmed to infect a variety of species, but only one case of associated winter dysentery of European bison has been described. The study aimed to analyze the prevalence, and define the impact on the species conservation, the source of coronavirus infection, and the role of the European bison in the transmission of the pathogen in Poland. Molecular and serological screening was performed on 409 European bison from 6 free-ranging and 14 captive herds over the period of 6 years (2017-2023). Presence of coronavirus was confirmed in one nasal swab by pancoronavirus RT-PCR and in 3 nasal swab samples by bovine coronavirus (BCoV) specific real time RT-PCR. The detected virus showed high (> 98%) homology in both RdRp and Spike genes to BCoV strains characterised recently in Polish cattle and strains isolated from wild cervids in Italy. Antibodies specific to BCoV were found in 6.4% of tested samples, all originating from free-ranging animals. Seroprevalence was higher in adult animals over 5 years of age (p = 0.0015) and in females (p = 0.09). Our results suggest that European bison play only a limited role as reservoirs of bovine-like coronaviruses. Although the most probable source of infections in the European bison population in Poland is cattle, other wild ruminants could also be involved. In addition, the zoonotic potential of bovine coronaviruses is quite low.


Asunto(s)
Bison , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Animales , Bison/virología , Polonia/epidemiología , Femenino , Masculino , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/veterinaria , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Prevalencia , Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus/clasificación , Coronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Bovinos , Coronavirus Bovino/genética , Coronavirus Bovino/aislamiento & purificación , Filogenia , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 24(1): 560, 2024 Jun 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38840046

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: China experienced an overwhelming COVID-19 pandemic from middle December 2022 to middle January 2023 after lifting the zero-COVID-19 policy on December 7, 2022. However, the infection rate was less studied. We aimed to investigate the SARS-CoV-2 infection rate in children shortly after discontinuation of the zero-COVID-19 policy. METHODS: From February 20 to April 10, 2023, we included 393 children aged 8 months to less than 3 years who did not receive COVID-19 vaccination and 114 children aged 3 to 6 years who received inactivated COVID-19 vaccines based on the convenience sampling in this cross-sectional study. IgG and IgM antibodies against nucleocapsid (N) and subunit 1 of spike (S1) of SARS-CoV-2 (anti-N/S1) were measured with commercial kits (Shenzhen YHLO Biotech, China). RESULTS: Of the 393 unvaccinated children (1.5 ± 0.6 years; 52.2% boys), 369 (93.9%) were anti-N/S1 IgG positive. Of the 114 vaccinated children (5.3 ± 0.9 years; 48.2% boys), 112 (98.2%) were anti-N/S1 IgG positive. None of the unvaccinated or vaccinated children was anti-N/S1 IgM positive. The median IgG antibody titers in vaccinated children (344.91 AU/mL) were significantly higher than that in unvaccinated children (42.80 AU/mL) (P < 0.0001). The positive rates and titers of anti-N/S1 IgG had no significant difference between boys and girls respectively. CONCLUSION: Vast majority of children were infected with SARS-CoV-2 shortly after ending zero-COVID-19 policy in China. Whether these unvaccinated infected children should receive COVID-19 vaccine merits further investigation.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Inmunoglobulina G , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , COVID-19/prevención & control , COVID-19/inmunología , COVID-19/epidemiología , China/epidemiología , Preescolar , Masculino , Femenino , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/inmunología , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/administración & dosificación , Niño , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología , Lactante , Estudios Transversales , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Inmunoglobulina M/sangre , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/inmunología
8.
Int J Epidemiol ; 53(3)2024 Apr 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38840559

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In Canada's largest COVID-19 serological study, SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in blood donors have been monitored since 2020. No study has analysed changes in the association between anti-N seropositivity (a marker of recent infection) and geographic and sociodemographic characteristics over the pandemic. METHODS: Using Bayesian multi-level models with spatial effects at the census division level, we analysed changes in correlates of SARS-CoV-2 anti-N seropositivity across three periods in which different variants predominated (pre-Delta, Delta and Omicron). We analysed disparities by geographic area, individual traits (age, sex, race) and neighbourhood factors (urbanicity, material deprivation and social deprivation). Data were from 420 319 blood donations across four regions (Ontario, British Columbia [BC], the Prairies and the Atlantic region) from December 2020 to November 2022. RESULTS: Seropositivity was higher for racialized minorities, males and individuals in more materially deprived neighbourhoods in the pre-Delta and Delta waves. These subgroup differences dissipated in the Omicron wave as large swaths of the population became infected. Across all waves, seropositivity was higher in younger individuals and those with lower neighbourhood social deprivation. Rural residents had high seropositivity in the Prairies, but not other regions. Compared to generalized linear models, multi-level models with spatial effects had better fit and lower error when predicting SARS-CoV-2 anti-N seropositivity by geographic region. CONCLUSIONS: Correlates of recent COVID-19 infection have evolved over the pandemic. Many disparities lessened during the Omicron wave, but public health intervention may be warranted to address persistently higher burden among young people and those with less social deprivation.


Asunto(s)
Teorema de Bayes , Donantes de Sangre , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/sangre , Donantes de Sangre/estadística & datos numéricos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Canadá/epidemiología , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Adulto Joven , Adolescente , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Factores Socioeconómicos , Características de la Residencia , Anciano
9.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0304262, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38843198

RESUMEN

The association between SARS-CoV-2 humoral immunity and post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (long COVID) remains uncertain. The objective of this population-based cohort study was to assess the association between SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity and symptoms consistent with long COVID. English and Spanish-speaking members ≥ 18 years old with SARS-CoV-2 serologic testing conducted prior to August 2021 were recruited from Kaiser Permanente Southern California and Kaiser Permanente Colorado. Between November 2021 and April 2022, participants completed a survey assessing symptoms, physical health, mental health, and cognitive function consistent with long COVID. Survey results were linked to SARS-CoV-2 antibody (Ab) and viral (RNA) lab results in electronic health records. Weighted descriptive analyses were generated for five mutually exclusive patient groups: (1) +Ab/+RNA; (2) +Ab/- or missing RNA; (3) -Ab/+RNA; (4a) -Ab/-RNA reporting no prior infection; and (4b) -Ab/-RNA reporting prior infection. The proportions reporting symptoms between the +Ab/+RNA and -Ab/+RNA groups were compared, adjusted for covariates. Among 3,946 participants, the mean age was 52.1 years old (SD 15.6), 68.3% were female, 28.4% were Hispanic, and the serologic testing occurred a median of 15 months prior (IQR = 12-18). Three quarters (74.5%) reported having had COVID-19. Among people with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, there was no association between antibody positivity (+Ab/+RNA vs. -Ab/+RNA) and any symptoms, physical health, mental health, or cognitive function. As expected, physical health, cognitive function, and fatigue were worse, and palpitations and headaches limiting the ability to work were more prevalent among people with laboratory-confirmed prior infection and positive serology (+Ab/+RNA) compared to those without reported or confirmed prior infection and negative serology (-Ab/-RNA/no reported COVID-19). Among people with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2 serology from practice settings were not associated with long COVID symptoms and health status suggesting limited utility of serology testing for long COVID.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Femenino , Masculino , COVID-19/inmunología , COVID-19/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología , Adulto , Anciano , Síndrome Post Agudo de COVID-19 , Colorado/epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , ARN Viral/sangre , California/epidemiología , Inmunidad Humoral
10.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0303450, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38843267

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The MIMIX platform is a novel microneedle array patch (MAP) characterized by slowly dissolving microneedle tips that deploy into the dermis following patch application. We describe safety, reactogenicity, tolerability and immunogenicity for MIMIX MAP vaccination against influenza. METHODOLOGY: The trial was a Phase 1, exploratory, first-in-human, parallel randomized, rater, participant, study analyst-blinded, placebo-controlled study in Canada. Forty-five healthy participants (18 to 39 years of age, inclusive) were randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive either 15 µg or 7.5 µg of an H1N1 influenza vaccine, or placebo delivered via MIMIX MAP to the volar forearm. A statistician used a computer program to create a randomization scheme with a block size of 3. Post-treatment follow-up was approximately 180 days. Primary safety outcomes included the incidence of study product related serious adverse events and unsolicited events within 180 days, solicited application site and systemic reactogenicity through 7 days after administration and solicited application site erythema and/or pigmentation 14, 28, 56 and 180 days after administration. Immunogenicity outcomes included antibody titers and percentage of seroconversion (SCR) and seroprotection (SPR) rates determined by the hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assay. Exploratory outcomes included virus microneutralization (MN) titers, durability and breadth of the immune response. The trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT06125717. FINDINGS: Between July 7, 2022 and March 13, 2023 45 participants were randomized to a treatment group. One participant was lost to follow up in the 15 µg group and 1 participant withdrew from the 7.5 µg dose group. Safety analyses included n = 15 per group, immunogenicity analyses included n = 14 for the 15 µg and 7.5 µg treatment groups and n = 15 for the placebo group. No SAEs were reported in any of the treatment groups. All treatment groups reported solicited local events within 7 days after vaccination, with mild (Grade 1) erythema being the most frequent symptom reported. Other local symptoms reported included mostly mild (Grade 1) induration/swelling, itching, pigmentation, skin flaking, and tenderness. Within 7 days after vaccination, 2 participants (4.4%) reported moderate (Grade 2) erythema, 1 participant (2.2%) reported moderate (Grade 2) induration/swelling, and 1 participant (2.2%) reported moderate (Grade 2) itching. There was an overall reduction in erythema and pigmentation reported on Days 15, 29, 57, and 180 among all treatment groups. Systemic symptoms reported within 7 days after vaccination, included mild (Grade 1) fatigue reported among all treatment groups, and mild (Grade 1) headache reported by 1 participant in the 7.5 µg treatment group. No study drug related severe symptoms were reported in the study. Group mean fold rises in HAI titers ranged between 8.7 and 12-fold, SCRs were >76% and SPRs were >92% for both VX-103 dose groups thereby fulfilling serological criteria established by the EMA and FDA for seasonal influenza vaccines. Longitudinal assessments demonstrate persistence of the immune response through at least Day 180. CONCLUSIONS: The MIMIX MAP platform is safe, well tolerated and elicits robust antibody responses.


Asunto(s)
Subtipo H1N1 del Virus de la Influenza A , Vacunas contra la Influenza , Gripe Humana , Humanos , Adulto , Vacunas contra la Influenza/inmunología , Vacunas contra la Influenza/efectos adversos , Vacunas contra la Influenza/administración & dosificación , Masculino , Femenino , Subtipo H1N1 del Virus de la Influenza A/inmunología , Adulto Joven , Adolescente , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Gripe Humana/inmunología , Agujas , Voluntarios Sanos , Vacunación/métodos , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Anticuerpos Antivirales/inmunología , Método Doble Ciego , Inmunogenicidad Vacunal
11.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1396603, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38846944

RESUMEN

Background: The Coronaviridae family comprises seven viruses known to infect humans, classified into alphacoronaviruses (HCoV-229E and HCoV-NL63) and betacoronaviruses (HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-HKU1), which are considered endemic. Additionally, it includes SARS-CoV (severe acute respiratory syndrome), MERS-CoV (Middle East respiratory syndrome), and the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, responsible for COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 induces severe respiratory complications, particularly in the elderly, immunocompromised individuals and those with underlying diseases. An essential question since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic has been to determine whether prior exposure to seasonal coronaviruses influences immunity or protection against SARS-CoV-2. Methods: In this study, we investigated a cohort of 47 couples (N=94), where one partner tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection via real-time PCR while the other remained negative. Plasma samples, collected at least 30 days post-PCR reaction, were assessed using indirect ELISA and competition assays to measure specific antibodies against the receptor-binding domain (RBD) portion of the Spike (S) protein from SARS-CoV-2, HCoV-229E, HCoV-NL63, HCoV-OC43, and HCoV-HKU1. Results: IgG antibody levels against the four endemic coronavirus RBD proteins were similar between the PCR-positive and PCR-negative individuals, suggesting that IgG against endemic coronavirus RBD regions was not associated with protection from infection. Moreover, we found no significant IgG antibody cross-reactivity between endemic coronaviruses and SARS-CoV-2 RBDs. Conclusions: Taken together, results suggest that anti-RBD antibodies induced by a previous infection with endemic HCoVs do not protect against acquisition of COVID-19 among exposed uninfected individuals.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales , COVID-19 , Inmunoglobulina G , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus , Humanos , COVID-19/inmunología , COVID-19/prevención & control , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología , Inmunoglobulina G/inmunología , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Masculino , Femenino , Anticuerpos Antivirales/inmunología , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/inmunología , Coronavirus/inmunología , Enfermedades Endémicas , Reacciones Cruzadas/inmunología
12.
Arch Virol ; 169(7): 139, 2024 Jun 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38849620

RESUMEN

Amdoparvoviruses infect various carnivores, including mustelids, canids, skunks, and felids. Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) belongs to the prototypical species Amdoparvovirus carnivoran1. Here, we identified a novel amdoparvovirus in farmed Asian badgers (Meles meles), and we named this virus "Meles meles amdoparvovirus" (MMADV). A total of 146 clinical samples were collected from 134 individual badgers, and 30.6% (41/134) of the sampled badgers tested positive for amdoparvovirus by PCR. Viral DNA was detected in feces, blood, spleen, liver, lung, and adipose tissue from these animals. Viral sequences from eight samples were determined, five of which represented nearly full-length genome sequences (4,237-4,265 nt). Six serum samples tested positive by PCR, CIEP, and IAT, four of which had high antibody titers (> 512) against AMDV-G. Twenty-six of the 41 amdoparvovirus-positive badgers showed signs of illness, and necropsy revealed lesions in their organs. Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis of the viral NS1 and VP2 genes of these badger amdoparvoviruses showed that their NS1 proteins shared 62.6%-88.8% sequence identity with known amdoparvoviruses, and they clustered phylogenetically into two related clades. The VP2 proteins shared 76.6%-97.2% identity and clustered into two clades, one of which included raccoon dog and arctic fox amdoparvovirus (RFAV), and the other of which did not include other known amdoparvoviruses. According to the NS1-protein-based criterion for parvovirus species demarcation, the MMADV isolate from farm YS should be classified as a member of a new species of the genus Amdoparvovirus. In summary, we have discovered a novel MMADV and other badger amdoparvoviruses that naturally infect Asian badgers and are possibly pathogenic in badgers.


Asunto(s)
Virus de la Enfermedad Aleutiana del Visón , Mustelidae , Filogenia , Animales , Mustelidae/virología , Virus de la Enfermedad Aleutiana del Visón/genética , Virus de la Enfermedad Aleutiana del Visón/aislamiento & purificación , Virus de la Enfermedad Aleutiana del Visón/clasificación , ADN Viral/genética , Genoma Viral/genética , Infecciones por Parvoviridae/veterinaria , Infecciones por Parvoviridae/virología , Enfermedad Aleutiana del Visón/virología , Enfermedad Aleutiana del Visón/epidemiología , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre
13.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1386243, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38835757

RESUMEN

Introduction: Current vaccines against COVID-19 administered via parenteral route have limited ability to induce mucosal immunity. There is a need for an effective mucosal vaccine to combat SARS-CoV-2 virus replication in the respiratory mucosa. Moreover, sex differences are known to affect systemic antibody responses against vaccines. However, their role in mucosal cellular responses against a vaccine remains unclear and is underappreciated. Methods: We evaluated the mucosal immunogenicity of a booster vaccine regimen that is recombinant protein-based and administered intranasally in mice to explore sex differences in mucosal humoral and cellular responses. Results: Our results showed that vaccinated mice elicited strong systemic antibody (Ab), nasal, and bronchiole alveolar lavage (BAL) IgA responses, and local T cell immune responses in the lung in a sex-biased manner irrespective of mouse genetic background. Monocytes, alveolar macrophages, and CD103+ resident dendritic cells (DCs) in the lungs are correlated with robust mucosal Ab and T cell responses induced by the mucosal vaccine. Discussion: Our findings provide novel insights into optimizing next-generation booster vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 by inducing spike-specific lung T cell responses, as well as optimizing mucosal immunity for other respiratory infections, and a rationale for considering sex differences in future vaccine research and vaccination practice.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Inmunidad Mucosa , Inmunogenicidad Vacunal , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacunas de Subunidad , Animales , Femenino , Ratones , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/inmunología , COVID-19/prevención & control , COVID-19/inmunología , COVID-19/virología , Vacunas de Subunidad/inmunología , Vacunas de Subunidad/administración & dosificación , Masculino , Anticuerpos Antivirales/inmunología , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Pulmón/inmunología , Pulmón/virología , Linfocitos T/inmunología , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/inmunología , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Administración Intranasal , Factores Sexuales , Inmunoglobulina A/inmunología , Células Dendríticas/inmunología , Inmunización Secundaria , Inmunidad Humoral
14.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1361323, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38835763

RESUMEN

Introduction: Swine influenza viruses (SIVs) pose significant economic losses to the pig industry and are a burden on global public health systems. The increasing complexity of the distribution and evolution of different serotypes of influenza strains in swine herds escalates the potential for the emergence of novel pandemic viruses, so it is essential to develop new vaccines based on swine influenza. Methods: Here, we constructed a self-assembling ferritin nanoparticle vaccine based on the hemagglutinin (HA) extracellular domain of swine influenza A (H1N1) virus using insect baculovirus expression vector system (IBEVS), and after two immunizations, the immunogenicities and protective efficacies of the HA-Ferritin nanoparticle vaccine against the swine influenza virus H1N1 strain in mice and piglets were evaluated. Results: Our results demonstrated that HA-Ferritin nanoparticle vaccine induced more efficient immunity than traditional swine influenza vaccines. Vaccination with the HA-Ferritin nanoparticle vaccine elicited robust hemagglutinin inhibition titers and antigen-specific IgG antibodies and increased cytokine levels in serum. MF59 adjuvant can significantly promote the humoral immunity of HA-Ferritin nanoparticle vaccine. Furthermore, challenge tests showed that HA-Ferritin nanoparticle vaccine conferred full protection against lethal challenge with H1N1 virus and significantly decreased the severity of virus-associated lung lesions after challenge in both BALB/c mice and piglets. Conclusion: Taken together, these results indicate that the hemagglutinin extracellular-based ferritin nanoparticle vaccine may be a promising vaccine candidate against SIVs infection.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales , Ferritinas , Glicoproteínas Hemaglutininas del Virus de la Influenza , Subtipo H1N1 del Virus de la Influenza A , Vacunas contra la Influenza , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C , Nanopartículas , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae , Animales , Subtipo H1N1 del Virus de la Influenza A/inmunología , Ferritinas/inmunología , Vacunas contra la Influenza/inmunología , Porcinos , Ratones , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/prevención & control , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/inmunología , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/virología , Glicoproteínas Hemaglutininas del Virus de la Influenza/inmunología , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Anticuerpos Antivirales/inmunología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/prevención & control , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/inmunología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/virología , Femenino , Nanovacunas
15.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 18(6): e13312, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38837866

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To inform future response planning we aimed to assess SARS-CoV-2 trends in infection- and/or vaccine-induced immunity, including breakthrough infections, among (sub)groups, professions and regions in the Dutch population during the Variant of Concern (VOC)-era. METHODS: In this prospective population-based cohort, randomly selected participants (n = 9985) aged 1-92 years (recruited early-2020) donated home-collected fingerstick-blood samples at six timepoints in 2021/2022, covering waves dominated by Alpha, Delta, and multiple Omicron (sub-)variants. IgG antibody assessment against Spike-S1 and Nucleoprotein was combined with vaccination- and testing data to estimate infection-induced (inf) and total (infection- and vaccination-induced) seroprevalence. RESULTS: Nationwide inf-seroprevalence rose modestly from 12% (95% CI 11-13) since Alpha to 26% (95% CI 24-28) amidst Delta, while total seroprevalence increased rapidly to 87% (95% CI 85-88), particularly in elderly and those with comorbidities (i.e., vulnerable groups). Interestingly, highest infection rates were noticeable among low/middle educated elderly, non-Western, those in contact professions, adolescents and young adults, and in low-vaccination coverage regions. Following Omicron emergence, inf-seroprevalence elevated sharply to 62% (95% CI 59-65) and further to 86% (95% CI 83-90) in late-2022, with frequent breakthrough infections and decreasing seroprevalence dissimilarities between most groups. Whereas > 90% of < 60-year-olds had been infected at least once, 30% of vaccinated vulnerable individuals had still not acquired hybrid immunity. CONCLUSIONS: Groups identified to have been infected disproportionally during the acute phase of the pandemic require specific attention in evaluation of control measures and future response planning worldwide. Furthermore, ongoing tailored vaccination efforts and (sero-)monitoring of vulnerable groups may remain important.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/inmunología , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Países Bajos/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Niño , Preescolar , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología , Adulto Joven , Masculino , Femenino , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Lactante , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Estudios Prospectivos , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/inmunología , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/administración & dosificación , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos
16.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 18(6): e13332, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38838093

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Mozambique was one of many African countries with limited testing capacity for SARS-CoV-2. Serosurveys, an alternative to estimate the real exposure to understand the epidemiology and transmission dynamics, have been scarce in Mozambique. Herein, we aimed to estimate the age-specific seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in the general population of the Manhiça District, at four time points, for evaluating dynamics of exposure and the impact of vaccination. METHODS: We conducted four community-based seroepidemiological surveys separated by 3 months between May 2021 and June 2022 to assess the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. An age-stratified (0-19, 20-39, 40-59, and ≥ 60 years) sample of 4810 individuals was randomly selected from demographic surveillance database, and their blood samples were analyzed using WANTAI SARS-CoV-2 IgG + IgM ELISA. Nasopharyngeal swabs from a subsample of 2209 participants were also assessed for active infection by RT-qPCR. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence increased from 27.6% in the first survey (May 2021) to 63.6%, 91.2%, and 91.1% in the second (October 2021), third (January 2022), and fourth (May 2022) surveys, respectively. Seroprevalence in individuals < 18 years, who were not eligible for vaccination, increased from 23.1% in the first survey to 87.1% in the fourth. The prevalence of active infection was below 10.1% in all surveys. CONCLUSIONS: A high seroprevalence to SARS-CoV-2 was observed in the study population, including individuals not eligible for vaccination at that time, particularly after circulation of the highly transmissible Delta variant. These data are important to inform decision making on the vaccination strategies in the context of pandemic slowdown in Mozambique.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales , COVID-19 , Población Rural , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Mozambique/epidemiología , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/transmisión , COVID-19/prevención & control , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Adulto , Adolescente , Preescolar , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven , Niño , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología , SARS-CoV-2/aislamiento & purificación , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Femenino , Masculino , Lactante , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Recién Nacido , Anciano , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Inmunoglobulina M/sangre
17.
Vopr Virusol ; 69(2): 187-192, 2024 May 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38843024

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is one of the most common human viral infections and has a double-stranded DNA genome belonging to the Herpesviridae family. Smoking is one of the leading causes of disease and premature death worldwide, responsible for the death of up to six million people annually. The purpose of the current study was to determine the seroprevalence of HSV-1 infection among smokers. Methods. The search strategy was conducted in the period from December 2022 to January 2023. The study included a random sample of 94 (88 males, and 6 females) healthy participants, aged between ≤ 20 to ≥ 60 years, with 50 participants as the control group. The HSV serological testing consisted of detecting antibodies to HSV-1 IgG with the help of ELISA. RESULTS: Most participants were university students, consisting of 45.7% males and 5.3% females, followed by employed smokers, consisting of 0.2% males and 1.1% females. The number of females was much lower than that of males reaching 6.4 and 93.6% respectively, due to customs and traditions. The seroprevalence was 24.47, 22.3 and 2.1% in males and females respectively. The seroprevalence rate was 13.8% in hookah and cigarette smokers, 9% in cigarette smokers and 1.1% in hookah smokers exclusively. The highest rate was observed in the age groups of 21-30 and 31-40 years with 12.80% and 7.40% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The study revealed that the seroprevalence of HSV-1 IgG was 24.47%, and was higher among hookah and cigarette smokers compared to those who exclusively smoked cigarettes or hookah.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales , Herpes Simple , Herpesvirus Humano 1 , Fumadores , Humanos , Masculino , Herpesvirus Humano 1/inmunología , Herpesvirus Humano 1/genética , Herpesvirus Humano 1/aislamiento & purificación , Femenino , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Herpes Simple/epidemiología , Herpes Simple/virología , Herpes Simple/sangre , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Adulto Joven , Fumar/epidemiología , Anciano , Adolescente
18.
Dan Med J ; 71(6)2024 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38847410

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: We aimed to investigate the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection and SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in parturient women and their newborns during the first Danish COVID-19 wave and to identify associations with maternal background characteristics, self-reported symptoms, and pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: In a single-centre, prospective cohort study from Denmark, we invited 1,883 women with singleton pregnancies giving live birth from 25 May 2020 to 2 November 2020. Hereof, 953 (50.6%) women were included. Nasopharyngeal swabs, maternal and umbilical cord blood samples, and questionnaires were collected. Medical records were available for participants and non-participants. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were found in 1.3% of the women. All newborns of seropositive women had SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in cord blood. No association was found between SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and pregnancy outcomes. Self-reported loss of smell correlated with seropositivity (p less-than 0.001). No women were hospitalised due to COVID-19 during pregnancy or had a positive nasopharyngeal swab intrapartum. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of COVID-19 in pregnancy was low during the first wave. Maternal SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were associated with antibodies in cord blood, loss of smell and positive SARS-CoV-2 swab during pregnancy, but not with any adverse pregnancy outcomes. FUNDING: Ferring Pharmaceuticals funded part of the study. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was approved by the Regional Committee on Health Research Ethics (H-20028002) and the Danish Data Protection Agency (P-2020-264).


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales , COVID-19 , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo , Resultado del Embarazo , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Embarazo , Femenino , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/inmunología , Dinamarca/epidemiología , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/epidemiología , Adulto , Estudios Prospectivos , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología , Recién Nacido , Sangre Fetal/inmunología , Prevalencia
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 24(1): 567, 2024 Jun 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38844850

RESUMEN

This study investigates the longitudinal dynamic changes in immune cells in COVID-19 patients over an extended period after recovery, as well as the interplay between immune cells and antibodies. Leveraging single-cell mass spectrometry, we selected six COVID-19 patients and four healthy controls, dissecting the evolving landscape within six months post-viral RNA clearance, alongside the levels of anti-spike protein antibodies. The T cell immunophenotype ascertained via single-cell mass spectrometry underwent validation through flow cytometry in 37 samples. Our findings illuminate that CD8 + T cells, gamma-delta (gd) T cells, and NK cells witnessed an increase, in contrast to the reduction observed in monocytes, B cells, and double-negative T (DNT) cells over time. The proportion of monocytes remained significantly elevated in COVID-19 patients compared to controls even after six-month. Subpopulation-wise, an upsurge manifested within various T effector memory subsets, CD45RA + T effector memory, gdT, and NK cells, whereas declines marked the populations of DNT, naive and memory B cells, and classical as well as non-classical monocytes. Noteworthy associations surfaced between DNT, gdT, CD4 + T, NK cells, and the anti-S antibody titer. This study reveals the changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of COVID-19 patients within 6 months after viral RNA clearance and sheds light on the interactions between immune cells and antibodies. The findings from this research contribute to a better understanding of immune transformations during the recovery from COVID-19 and offer guidance for protective measures against reinfection in the context of viral variants.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Citometría de Flujo , Leucocitos Mononucleares , ARN Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , COVID-19/inmunología , COVID-19/sangre , COVID-19/virología , Leucocitos Mononucleares/virología , Leucocitos Mononucleares/inmunología , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología , Masculino , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , ARN Viral/sangre , Adulto , Estudios Longitudinales , Análisis de la Célula Individual/métodos , Células Asesinas Naturales/inmunología , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Inmunofenotipificación , Anciano
20.
Cancer Med ; 13(11): e7304, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38826094

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The surge in omicron variants has caused nationwide breakthrough infections in mainland China since the December 2022. In this study, we report the neutralization profiles of serum samples from the patients with breast cancer and the patients with liver cancer who had contracted subvariant breakthrough infections. METHODS: In this real-world study, we enrolled 143 COVID-19-vaccinated (81 and 62 patients with breast and liver cancers) and 105 unvaccinated patients with cancer (58 and 47 patients with breast and liver cancers) after omicron infection. Anti-spike receptor binding domain (RBD) IgGs and 50% pseudovirus neutralization titer (pVNT50) for the preceding (wild type), circulating omicron (BA.4-BA.5, and BF.7), and new subvariants (XBB.1.5) were comprehensively analyzed. RESULTS: Patients with liver cancer receiving booster doses had higher levels of anti-spike RBD IgG against circulating omicron (BA.4-BA.5, and BF.7) and a novel subvariant (XBB.1.5) compared to patients with breast cancer after breakthrough infection. Additionally, all vaccinated patients produced higher neutralizing antibody titers against circulating omicron (BA.4-BA.5, and BF.7) compared to unvaccinated patients. However, the unvaccinated patients produced higher neutralizing antibody against XBB.1.5 than vaccinated patients after Omicron infection, with this trend being more pronounced in breast cancer than in liver cancer patients. Moreover, we found that there was no correlation between anti-spike RBD IgG against wildtype virus and the neutralizing antibody titer, but a positive correlation between anti-spike RBD IgG and the neutralizing antibody against XBB.1.5 was found in unvaccinated patients. CONCLUSION: Our study found that there may be differences in vaccine response and protective effect against COVID-19 infection in patients with liver and breast cancer. Therefore, we recommend that COVID-19 vaccine strategies should be optimized based on vaccine components and immunology profiles of different patients with cancer.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Neutralizantes , Anticuerpos Antivirales , Neoplasias de la Mama , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Neoplasias Hepáticas , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Femenino , COVID-19/inmunología , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , COVID-19/virología , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virología , Neoplasias Hepáticas/inmunología , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiología , Neoplasias de la Mama/inmunología , Neoplasias de la Mama/epidemiología , Neoplasias de la Mama/virología , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/sangre , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/inmunología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Anticuerpos Antivirales/inmunología , China/epidemiología , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/inmunología , Adulto , Anciano , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/inmunología , Masculino , Brotes de Enfermedades , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Inmunoglobulina G/inmunología
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