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1.
Perfil de carga de enfermedad por diabetes 2023OPS/NMH/NV/23-0005.
Monografía en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-57827

RESUMEN

El propósito fundamental de esta serie de perfiles nacionales de la carga de enfermedad por diabetes y de enfermedad renal crónica debida a diabetes es apoyar a los países de la Región de las Américas en el seguimiento de las estrategias puestas en marcha para enfrentar la diabetes. Esta primera versión de los perfiles, que abarca el período comprendido entre el 2000 y el 2019, muestra la tendencia de la mortalidad, los años de vida perdidos por muerte prematura, los años vividos con discapacidad y los años de vida ajustados por discapacidad de ambas enfermedad. Se han elaborado con los últimos datos disponibles de las estimaciones mundiales de salud de la Organización Mundial de la Salud y tiene como objetivo convertirse en una herramienta útil para llevar a cabo el monitoreo de las estrategias conexas.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Enfermedades Renales , Perfiles Sanitarios , Antigua y Barbuda
2.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 59(7)2023 Jun 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37512042

RESUMEN

Background and objectives: Cervical cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women. Human papilloma virus (HPV) is known to cause cervical cancer. The incidence and mortality of cervical cancer has drastically reduced due to effective vaccination against HPV in developed countries. The projected rise in cervical cancer cases in Latin American and Caribbean countries necessitates a study to evaluate awareness about HPV, cervical cancer, the HPV vaccine, and prevention among women in Antigua and Barbuda. Materials and methods: This was an observational, cross-sectional study. The participants were women aged between 18 and 65 years, residing in Antigua and Barbuda. The study was conducted over the period of February to April 2023. After taking informed consent electronically, sociodemographic and behavioral data was collected through questionnaires sent out as links and QR-codes and were analyzed by QualtricsXM. The association between the demographic groups and awareness about HPV, cervical cancer, the HPV vaccine, and prevention was analyzed by a Chi-square test. Results: In total, 467 women were included in the study. The percentage of participants aware of HPV was 91.6% (n = 412). A total of 70.7% (n = 318) and 56.7% (n = 255) women were aware that cervical cancer is caused by HPV and is sexually transmitted, respectively. Although 70.6% (n = 315) of participants were aware that the vaccine protects against HPV, only 12.8% (n = 57) were vaccinated. Of the participants, 49.7% (n = 192) were willing to get vaccinated. The percentage of participants aware of the Papanicolaou (Pap) smear procedure was 98.9% (n = 435) and 87.8% (n = 382) had a Pap smear within the last 10 years while 12.2% (n = 53) never had a Pap smear screening. The willingness to know more information about HPV and the HPV vaccine among the participants was 77% (n = 335). Conclusions: The overall awareness among women in Antigua and Barbuda about HPV, cervical cancer, the HPV vaccine, and prevention was high. We recommend a national health education program and vaccine drive to complement our findings.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Papillomavirus , Vacunas contra Papillomavirus , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino , Femenino , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Masculino , Virus del Papiloma Humano , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/epidemiología , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/prevención & control , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/diagnóstico , Frotis Vaginal , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/prevención & control , Antigua y Barbuda , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Vacunas contra Papillomavirus/uso terapéutico
3.
PeerJ ; 11: e15487, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37304864

RESUMEN

Background: Land use is a major factor determining stream water physicochemistry. However, most streams move from one land use type to another as they drain their watersheds. Here, we studied three land use scenarios in a tropical cloud forest zone in Mexico. We addressed three main goals, to: (1) assess how land use scenarios generate different patterns in stream physicochemical characteristics; (2) explore how seasonality (i.e., dry, dry-to-wet transition, and wet seasons) might result in changes to those patterns over the year; and (3) explore whether physicochemical patterns in different scenarios resulted in effects on biotic components (e.g., algal biomass). Methods: We studied Tropical Mountain Cloud Forest streams in La Antigua watershed, Mexico. Streams drained different three scenarios, streams with (1) an upstream section draining forest followed by a pasture section (F-P), (2) an upstream section in pasture followed by a forest section (P-F), and (3) an upstream forest section followed by coffee plantation (F-C). Physicochemistry was determined at the upstream and downstream sections, and at the boundary between land uses. Measurements were seasonal, including temperature, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, and pH. Water was analyzed for suspended solids, alkalinity, silica, chloride, sulfate, magnesium, sodium, and potassium. Nutrients included ammonium, nitrate, and phosphorus. We measured benthic and suspended organic matter and chlorophyll. Results: Streams presented strong seasonality, with the highest discharge and suspended solids during the wet season. Scenarios and streams within each scenario had distinct physicochemical signatures. All three streams within each scenario clustered together in ordination space and remained close to each other during all seasons. There were significant scenario-season interactions on conductivity (F = 9.5, P < 0.001), discharge (F = 56.7, P < 0.001), pH (F = 4.5, P = 0.011), Cl- (F = 12.2, P < 0.001), SO42- (F = 8.8, P < 0.001) and NH4+ (F = 5.4, P = 0.005). Patterns within individual scenarios were associated with stream identity instead of land use. Both P-F and F-C scenarios had significantly different physicochemical patterns from those in F-P in all seasons (Procrustes analysis, m12 = 0.05-0.25; R = 0.86-0.97; P < 0.05). Chlorophyll was significantly different among scenarios and seasons (F = 5.36, P = 0.015, F = 3.81, P = 0.42, respectively). Concentrations were related to physicochemical variables more strongly during the transition season. Conclusion: Overall, land use scenarios resulted in distinctive water physicochemical signatures highlighting the complex effects that anthropogenic activities have on tropical cloud forest streams. Studies assessing the effect of land use on tropical streams will benefit from assessing scenarios, rather than focusing on individual land use types. We also found evidence of the importance that forest fragments play in maintaining or restoring stream water physicochemistry.


Asunto(s)
Efectos Antropogénicos , Cloruros , Antigua y Barbuda , Biomasa , Clorofila , Bosques , Halógenos
4.
Zootaxa ; 4941(3): zootaxa.4941.3.3, 2021 Mar 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756930

RESUMEN

The island of Barbuda was recently surveyed for the presence of Haplaxius crudus to establish the risk of Lethal Yellowing to palms on the island. After extensive collecting, H. crudus was not found on the island. A new species of Patara Westwood was found on coconut palms on the southwest portion of Barbuda. Herein, we describe the new species as Patara cooki sp. n. and provide DNA sequence data for cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and 18S genes for it and Patara guttata Westwood. Patara cooki differed from Patara guttata sp. n. by 1.8% for 18S and 7.8% for COI, similar to intrageneric differences reported for other taxa. A phylogenetic analysis of available Otiocerinae near Patara using found Patara cooki sp. n. nested among other Patara species. We also offer commentary regarding the interpretation of forewing venation in Patara.


Asunto(s)
Cocos , Hemípteros , Animales , Antigua y Barbuda , Hemípteros/genética , Islas , Filogenia
6.
Parasitol Int ; 80: 102220, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33137503

RESUMEN

Whipworms are responsible for up to 500 million cases of trichuriasis worldwide, with higher endemicity in tropical and sub-tropical countries. In non-endemic countries, trichuriasis can be accidentally diagnosed upon colonoscopy, often in the presence of negative microscopy. Here, we describe an incidental diagnosis of trichuriasis in an HIV patient residing in a non-endemic area (i.e., Turin, Italy), six months after his return from Antigua. The species-level diagnosis was made thanks to PCR-based molecular identification of Trichuris sp. following optical microscopy detection. Overall, this case highlights the importance of improving parasitic diseases diagnosis through cutting-edge clinical and laboratory diagnostic tools alongside advanced training of specialists in the area of parasitology.


Asunto(s)
Tricuriasis/diagnóstico , Trichuris/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Antigua y Barbuda , Secuencia de Bases , Citocromos b/análisis , Endoscopía , Infecciones por VIH , Proteínas del Helminto/análisis , Humanos , Italia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Alineación de Secuencia , Turismo , Tricuriasis/parasitología , Trichuris/genética
7.
Integr Zool ; 16(3): 379-389, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166046

RESUMEN

Redonda is a small volcanic Caribbean island that is home to at least 4 endemic lizard species, including the Critically Endangered ground lizard (Pholidoscelis atratus). Black rats (Rattus rattus) and domestic goats (Capra hircus) were introduced to the island at some time after its discovery by Europeans in the late 1500s. They had a devastating effect on the island, resulting in the loss of nearly all trees and most of the ground vegetation. Point count surveys of P. atratus in 2012 indicated low densities, and the invasive rats were observed hunting and preying on the lizards. Both populations of rats and goats were successfully removed in 2017 as part of an ecological restoration program, and native vegetation and invertebrate populations have increased rapidly since. Population surveys in 2017, 2018, and 2019 show the lizard population has increased by more than sixfold. In 2017, as rats and goats were being removed, we evaluated the morphology and escape behavior of this species and repeated these measurements 1 year later. We observed that P. atratus had become bolder, with a reduced flight distance. We also detected changes in limb morphology related to locomotion and suggest possible explanations that will need to be further investigated in the future. These results show how the removal of invasive species can rapidly affect lizard population recovery and behavior, potentially restoring island ecosystems to their pre-human interference dynamics.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos , Lagartos/fisiología , Densidad de Población , Animales , Antigua y Barbuda , Conducta Animal , Especies en Peligro de Extinción , Femenino , Cabras , Especies Introducidas , Lagartos/anatomía & histología , Masculino , Dinámica Poblacional , Ratas
9.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(6): 2268-2277, 2020 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901608

RESUMEN

Investigations leading to a WHO-validated declaration of elimination of schistosomiasis transmission are contemplated for several countries, including Caribbean island nations. With assistance from the Pan American Health Organization, we undertook freshwater snail surveys in two such nations, Antigua and Barbuda, and Montserrat in September and October 2017. Historically, the transmission of Schistosoma mansoni supported by the Neotropical vector snail Biomphalaria glabrata occurred in both countries. Transmission on the islands is thought to have been interrupted by the treatment of infected people, improved sanitation, introduction of competitor snails, and on Montserrat with the eruption of the Soufrière volcano which decimated known B. glabrata habitats. Guided by the available literature and local expertise, we found Biomphalaria snails in seven of 15 and one of 14 localities on Antigua and Montserrat, respectively, most of which were identified anatomically and molecularly as Biomphalaria kuhniana. Two localities on Antigua harbored B. glabrata, but no schistosome infections in snails were found. For snail-related aspects of validation of elimination, there are needs to undertake basic local training in medical malacology, be guided by historical literature and recent human schistosomiasis surveys, improve and validate sampling protocols for aquatic habitats, enlist local expertise to efficiently find potential transmission sites, use both anatomical and molecular identifications of schistosomes or putative vector snail species found, if possible determine the susceptibility of recovered Biomphalaria spp. to S. mansoni, publish survey results, and provide museum vouchers of collected snails and parasites as part of the historical record.


Asunto(s)
Biomphalaria/parasitología , Reservorios de Enfermedades/parasitología , Schistosoma mansoni/fisiología , Esquistosomiasis mansoni/prevención & control , Animales , Antigua y Barbuda/epidemiología , Biomphalaria/clasificación , Biomphalaria/genética , Erradicación de la Enfermedad , Geografía , Humanos , Filogenia , Esquistosomiasis mansoni/parasitología , Esquistosomiasis mansoni/transmisión , Indias Occidentales/epidemiología
10.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 2): 27, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33623552

RESUMEN

The emergence of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a global public health emergency and the pandemic has forced the healthcare givers to organise their work differently to provide the same level of care to their patients. Meticulous planning and implementation of robust infection control, proper triage of patients, patient education and awareness and establishment of good command structure has become the norm. In this article we illustrate how the COVID-19 pandemic has affected the oncology department in a tertiary centre in the Caribbean country of Antigua & Barbuda. We describe the changes in treatment decisions for outpatient and inpatient services along with a look at the ethical considerations and the well-being of the oncology team.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/prevención & control , Control de Infecciones/métodos , Neoplasias/terapia , Grupo de Atención al Paciente/organización & administración , Antigua y Barbuda , Humanos , Grupo de Atención al Paciente/ética , Educación del Paciente como Asunto/métodos , Centros de Atención Terciaria , Triaje/métodos
12.
Zootaxa ; 4688(3): zootaxa.4688.3.10, 2019 Oct 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719444

RESUMEN

A new species of Elaphidion, E. antiguensis sp. nov. is described from Antigua (West Indies). The host plants and larval biology of E. antiguensis are described and compared to those of E. excelsum, Gahan.


Asunto(s)
Escarabajos , Animales , Antigua y Barbuda , Guadalupe , Larva , Indias Occidentales
13.
PLoS One ; 13(1): e0189355, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29309413

RESUMEN

To inform a community-based ocean zoning initiative, we conducted an intensive ecological assessment of the marine ecosystems of Barbuda, West Indies. We conducted 116 fish and 108 benthic surveys around the island, and measured the abundance and size structure of lobsters and conch at 52 and 35 sites, respectively. We found that both coral cover and fish biomass were similar to or lower than levels observed across the greater Caribbean; live coral cover and abundance of fishery target species, such as large snappers and groupers, was generally low. However, Barbuda lacks many of the high-relief forereef areas where similar work has been conducted in other Caribbean locations. The distribution of lobsters was patchy, making it difficult to quantify density at the island scale. However, the maximum size of lobsters was generally larger than in other locations in the Caribbean and similar to the maximum size reported 40 years ago. While the lobster population has clearly been heavily exploited, our data suggest that it is not as overexploited as in much of the rest of the Caribbean. Surveys of Barbuda's Codrington Lagoon revealed many juvenile lobsters, but none of legal size (95 mm carapace length), suggesting that the lagoon functions primarily as nursery habitat. Conch abundance and size on Barbuda were similar to that of other Caribbean islands. Our data suggest that many of the regional threats observed on other Caribbean islands are present on Barbuda, but some resources-particularly lobster and conch-may be less overexploited than on other Caribbean islands. Local management has the potential to provide sustainability for at least some of the island's marine resources. We show that a rapid, thorough ecological assessment can reveal clear conservation opportunities and facilitate rapid conservation action by providing the foundation for a community-driven policymaking process at the island scale.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Biología Marina , Océanos y Mares , Animales , Antigua y Barbuda , Biodiversidad , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales
15.
Geneva; World Health Organization; 2018. (WHO/CCU/18.02/Antigua and Barbuda).
en Inglés | WHO IRIS | ID: who-272539
16.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 119(2): 204-213, 2017 Jun 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28434667

RESUMEN

This study examines sediment texture, geochemistry and sediment accumulation in cores from four sites in the Veracruz shelf area of the Gulf of Mexico, to assess the inputs of heavy metal(loid)s (and their potential biological impacts) in this carbonate-dominated shelf system, and to examine the rate of sedimentation near to the mouths of the La Antigua and Jamapa Rivers. The use of different pollution indices showed enrichment with Pb in all cores studied, although based on sediment quality guidelines As was the only element that has potential to occasionally cause damage to the benthic organisms present in the area. Heavy metal(loid) and sediment input from terrestrial and coastal sources is limited compared to more proximal, near-shore areas. The sediment core data presented however give a baseline dataset for heavy metal(loid) concentrations in the Veracruz shelf, against which future anthropogenic inputs can be assessed.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Metales Pesados/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Animales , Antigua y Barbuda , Sedimentos Geológicos , Golfo de México , Metales Pesados/toxicidad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad
17.
s.l; PAHO; 2017. 61 p. tab.
No convencional en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1425327

RESUMEN

The twin island state of Antigua and Barbuda lies in the eastern arc of the Leeward Islands of the Lesser Antilles, separating the Atlantic Ocean from the Caribbean Sea. Antigua is 650 km southeast of Puerto Rico and Barbuda lies 48 km due north of Antigua. Low-lying and volcanic in origin, they are part of the Leeward Islands group in the northeast Caribbean. Antigua has an area of 108 sq miles and Barbuda 62 sq miles. The terrain is mostly low-lying limestone and coral islands, with some higher volcanic areas. The sandy soil on much of the islands has only scrub vegetation. Some parts of Antigua are more fertile­most notably the central plain­due to the volcanic ash in the soil. These areas support some tropical vegetation and agricultural uses The climate is characterized as tropical maritime with little seasonal temperature variation. Rainfall averages 990 mm (39 in) per year, with the amount varying widely from season to season. The islands generally experience low humidity and recurrent droughts.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Anciano , Estrategias de Salud Nacionales , Dinámica Poblacional , Indicadores de Salud , Envejecimiento Saludable , Antigua y Barbuda
18.
Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed) ; 69(11): 1051-1060, 2016 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27553287

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Heart failure is a major public health concern. The aim of this review was to estimate the burden of heart failure in Latin America. METHODS: Systematic review and meta-analysis following a search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, and CENTRAL for articles published between January 1994 and June 2014, with no language restrictions. We included experimental and observational studies with at least 50 participants aged ≥ 18 years. RESULTS: In total, 143 of the 4792 references retrieved were included in the study. Most studies had been conducted in South America (92%), and mainly in Brazil (64%). The mean age of the patients was 60 ± 9 years, and mean ejection fraction was 36% ± 9%. The incidence of heart failure in the single population study providing this information was 199 cases per 100000 person-years. The prevalence of heart failure was 1% (95% confidence interval [95%CI], 0.1%-2.7%); hospital readmission rates were 33%, 28%, 31%, and 35% at 3, 6, 12, and 24 to 60 months of follow-up, respectively; and the median duration of hospitalization was 7.0 days. The 1-year mortality rate was 24.5% (95%CI, 19.4%-30.0%). In-hospital mortality was 11.7% (95%CI, 10.4%-13.0%), and the rate was higher in patients with a reduced ejection fraction, ischemic heart disease, or Chagas disease. CONCLUSIONS: Few studies have evaluated the incidence and prevalence of heart failure in Latin America. High mortality and hospitalization rates were found, and the main limitation was heterogeneity between studies. The results presented provide useful epidemiologic information for decision-making related to this disease. Further studies with standardized methods and representative populations are needed in this line.


Asunto(s)
Insuficiencia Cardíaca/epidemiología , Antigua y Barbuda/epidemiología , Argentina/epidemiología , Brasil/epidemiología , Cardiomiopatía Chagásica/epidemiología , Chile/epidemiología , Colombia/epidemiología , Cuba/epidemiología , Insuficiencia Cardíaca/mortalidad , Insuficiencia Cardíaca/fisiopatología , Mortalidad Hospitalaria , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Incidencia , Jamaica/epidemiología , América Latina/epidemiología , Tiempo de Internación/estadística & datos numéricos , México/epidemiología , Mortalidad , Readmisión del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Perú/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Volumen Sistólico , Uruguay/epidemiología
19.
s.l; Ministry of Health and the Environment; Mar. 29, 2016. 72 p.
No convencional en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1426276

RESUMEN

Government has accepted the fact that HEALTH is much more than the prevention or reduction of disease, but is a resource for national productivity and development. As such investments in ensuring, a healthy population is an asset for national development. It is for this reason that Government re-affirms its strong commitment to providing better health care to all Grenadians. The National Strategic Plan for Health 2016-2025 provides the framework that will guide the efforts of the Ministry of Health and Social Security (MOHSSSSSS) and its partners over the next ten years. It reflects the Ministry's fundamental belief that health is a basic human right and as a result no one should be denied access to health care. Consequently, one of the overarching goals of this strategic plan is ensure that health services are made available, accessible and affordable to all people without discrimination. Like many other developing countries, Grenada continues to be challenged by meeting the demands for health care services to its citizens. Chronic non-communicable diseases are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Life style and food choices are the main contributing factors of the disease profile and pose a significant challenge to the delivery of secondary care due to the escalating cost associated with the management of these diseases. This requires the Ministry of Health to place greater emphasis on prevention and health promotion. Notwithstanding the fact, every citizen must however accept responsibility for his/her individual health outcomes. Recently, Grenada has also been experiencing the outbreaks of new and re-emerging communicable diseases, which have been linked to climate change factors. It behooves us therefore to take necessary steps to protect and maintain our environment for our future generations. The Plan further reflects the belief that health fundamentally affects individual productivity and is therefore a critical input for long-term development of the country. To this end, we have set out our major priorities and therefore in concert with the private sector, we will heighten our focus and continue to promote health and wellness among our citizens.


Asunto(s)
Estrategias de Salud Nacionales , Gestión en Salud , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud , Promoción de la Salud , Inversiones en Salud , Antigua y Barbuda
20.
J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care ; 15(5): 385-91, 2016 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26253513

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the implementation of community-based voluntary HIV counseling and testing (CBVCT) in the Eastern Caribbean. METHODS: A total of 9782 unique HIV testing events performed through a national program of CBVCT in Antigua and Barbuda (2009-2012) were analyzed. The authors describe testers' demographic characteristics and assess demographic (education, housing, marital status, nationality, and age) and sexual exposure (partner gender, transactional sex, and multiple partners) factors associated with testing HIV-positivity and with condom use. RESULTS: Older men and men having sex with women and women with higher education, of Antiguan nationality, and having sex with men were less likely to test positive for HIV. Younger, educated, and unmarried men and women with multiple partners were more likely to report using condoms. CONCLUSION: The CBVCT model can be successfully implemented in Eastern Caribbean. Demographic differences persist in HIV testing, risk behavior, and infection among vulnerable populations and should be considered in HIV prevention intervention design.


Asunto(s)
Servicios de Salud Comunitaria/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Tamizaje Masivo/estadística & datos numéricos , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Conducta Sexual/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Antigua y Barbuda/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Factores de Riesgo , Adulto Joven
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