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1.
West Afr J Med ; 38(3): 213-221, 2021 03 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33764727

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial use plays a key role in development and spread of antimicrobial resistance. Following the global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the report of the first confirmed case in Nigeria, several states embarked on either a full or partial lockdown as a measure to prevent or curtail the spread of the virus with its attendant challenges. This survey was designed to provide a snapshot of public antimicrobial use and common perception related to antimicrobial use for COVID-19 related symptoms among Nigerian populace. METHODS: We developed and tested a 29-question electronic questionnaire with Google forms asking respondents about their antimicrobial use and perceptions regarding appropriate antimicrobial use for real or perceived symptoms during the outbreak period. Respondents aged 18 years and above were recruited through crowd sourcing and they received the link to the survey tool through emails and social media including WhatsApp, Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn, and Instagram. All data analysis was performed using SPSS version 26.0. RESULTS: A total of 410 responses were received from the six geopolitical zones in Nigeria comprising 200 (48.8%) females and 210 (51.2%) males. Majority (62.9%) of the respondents had taken antimicrobials in the 3 months period preceding the survey, while less than half (46.8%) received prescription for it. Previous intake of antimicrobial for similar illness was a predictor of antimicrobial intake (OR: 0.55, 95%CI: 0.30-1.01). The most consumed antimicrobial was antimalarial drugs, specifically Artemisinin-based combination therapy (43.4%), followed by antibiotics [Ciprofloxacin (20.2%)]. CONCLUSION: There was high levels of antimicrobial use for COVID-19 related symptoms by the Nigerian public. This is likely to escalate the already high prevalence of antimicrobial use previously reported and may further fuel the emergence of antimicrobial resistance.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos , Adolescente , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Antiinfecciosos/uso terapéutico , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigeria/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
2.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(5): 1026-1033, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787093

RESUMEN

Due to worldwide abuse of chemical antibiotics and continuous emergence of "superbugs", the harm of bacterial drug resistance to human beings has become more and more serious. Therefore, it is of great significance to look for green antibiotics with a wide range of sources, broad antibacterial spectrum, non-toxicity or low toxicity, environmentally friendliness, diverse active components and low drug resistance. The volatile oil of traditional Chinese medicine is a kind of volatile oily liquid that exists in plants and can be distilled with steam and immiscible with water. Because of its good potential to resist drug-resistant pathogens, it is widely used in food, medicine and other fields. This paper summarized the antibacterial advantages and characteristics of volatile oil of traditional Chinese medicine, and the antibacterial effect and antibacterial mechanism of combined application of volatile oil of traditional Chinese medicine, in order to provide some theoretical basis and study ideas for solving the problem of bacterial drug resistance and developing natural and green antibiotics.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos , Aceites Volátiles , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/farmacología , Humanos , Medicina China Tradicional , Aceites Volátiles/farmacología
3.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 1757-1773, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33688190

RESUMEN

Background: NiO nanoparticles have attracted much attention due to their unique properties. They have been synthesized using chemical and physical techniques that often need toxic chemicals. These toxic chemicals cannot easily be removed from the nanoparticle's surface, make them less biocompatible, and limit their biological applications. Instead, plants based green synthesis of nanoparticles uses phytomolecules as reducing and capping agents. These phytomolecules are biologically active with no or less toxic effects. Materials and Methods: Phytomolecules-coated NiO nanoparticles were synthesized employing a green route using Abutilon indicum leaf extract. For comparative study, we also have synthesized NiO nanoparticles using the co-precipitation method. Synthesized nanoparticles were successfully characterized using different spectroscopic techniques. The synthesized nanoparticles were evaluated for antibacterial activity with agar well diffusion assay against different bacteria compared to standard drug and plant extract. They are also examined for anticancer potential using MTT assay against HeLa cancer cells, and further, their antioxidant potential was determined using DPPH assay. Biocompatibility of the synthesized nanoparticles was assessed against fibroblast cells. Results: Phytomolecules-coated NiO nanoparticles were demonstrated superior antibacterial and anticancer performance against bacteria (E. coli, B. bronchiseptica, B. subtilis, and S. aureus) by presenting highest zone of inhibitions (18 ± 0.58 mm, 21 ± 0.45 mm, 22 ± 0.32 mm, and 23 ± 0.77 mm) and HeLa cancer cells by exhibiting the least cell viability percentage (51.74 ± 0.35%) compared to plant extract and chemically synthesized NiO nanoparticles but were comparable to standard antibiotic and anticancer drugs, respectively. Phytomolecules-coated NiO nanoparticles were also demonstrated excellent antioxidant activity (79.87 ± 0.43% DPPH inhibition) and biocompatibility (> 90% cell viability) with fibroblast cells. Conclusion: Nanoparticle synthesis using the Abutilon indicum leaf extract is an efficient and economical method, produces biocompatible and more biologically active nanoparticles, which can be an excellent candidate for therapeutic applications.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos/farmacología , Antineoplásicos/farmacología , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Malvaceae/química , Nanopartículas del Metal/química , Fitoquímicos/química , Extractos Vegetales/química , Hojas de la Planta/química , Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Compuestos de Bifenilo/química , Fibroblastos/efectos de los fármacos , Tecnología Química Verde , Células HeLa , Humanos , Peroxidación de Lípido/efectos de los fármacos , Masculino , Nanopartículas del Metal/ultraestructura , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Picratos/química , Espectrometría por Rayos X , Espectrofotometría Ultravioleta , Espectroscopía Infrarroja por Transformada de Fourier , Electricidad Estática , Difracción de Rayos X
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1500, 2021 03 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33686077

RESUMEN

Diphtheria is a respiratory disease caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Although the development of a toxin-based vaccine in the 1930s has allowed a high level of control over the disease, cases have increased in recent years. Here, we describe the genomic variation of 502 C. diphtheriae isolates across 16 countries and territories over 122 years. We generate a core gene phylogeny and determine the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes and variation within the tox gene of 291 tox+ isolates. Numerous, highly diverse clusters of C. diphtheriae are observed across the phylogeny, each containing isolates from multiple countries, regions and time of isolation. The number of antimicrobial resistance genes, as well as the breadth of antibiotic resistance, is substantially greater in the last decade than ever before. We identified and analysed 18 tox gene variants, with mutations estimated to be of medium to high structural impact.


Asunto(s)
Corynebacterium diphtheriae/genética , Toxina Diftérica/genética , Difteria/microbiología , Difteria/prevención & control , Antiinfecciosos/farmacología , Corynebacterium diphtheriae/efectos de los fármacos , Toxoide Diftérico , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana/genética , Variación Genética , Genoma Bacteriano , Genómica , Humanos , India , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple
5.
Food Chem ; 351: 129316, 2021 Jul 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647701

RESUMEN

This study aimed to understand how the microstructure of gelled foods impacts the diffusion of a volatile antimicrobial compound and its efficacy at different depths from the surface. Carvacrol-loaded polylactic acid film was used to inhibit the growth of Pseudomonas fluorescens in WPI-carrageenan gels during storage at 4 °C. The diffusion of antimicrobials was increased in gels having larger average pore size. The antimicrobial efficacy of the antimicrobial packaging was dependent on the diffusion of carvacrol within the gels. The final concentration of carvacrol in the top layer was more than 4 fold higher than that in the middle layer and more than 13-fold higher than that in the bottom layer, resulting in a more effective inhibition in the top layer than those in the middle and bottom layers. Our study demonstrates the importance of considering the diffusion of antimicrobials in solid/semi-solid foods in the antimicrobial packaging design.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos/química , Cimenos/química , Conservación de Alimentos/métodos , Carragenina/química , Difusión , Geles , Porosidad
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668523

RESUMEN

Genus Aspergillus represents a widely spread genus of fungi that is highly popular for possessing potent medicinal potential comprising mainly antimicrobial, cytotoxic and antioxidant properties. They are highly attributed to its richness by alkaloids, terpenes, steroids and polyketons. This review aimed to comprehensively explore the diverse alkaloids isolated and identified from different species of genus Aspergillus that were found to be associated with different marine organisms regarding their chemistry and biology. Around 174 alkaloid metabolites were reported, 66 of which showed important biological activities with respect to the tested biological activities mainly comprising antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, cytotoxic, antioxidant and antifouling activities. Besides, in silico studies on different microbial proteins comprising DNA-gyrase, topoisomerase IV, dihydrofolate reductase, transcriptional regulator TcaR (protein), and aminoglycoside nucleotidyl transferase were done for sixteen alkaloids that showed anti-infective potential for better mechanistic interpretation of their probable mode of action. The inhibitory potential of compounds vs. Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) as an important therapeutic target combating COVID-19 infection and its complication was also examined using molecular docking. Fumigatoside E showed the best fitting within the active sites of all the examined proteins. Thus, Aspergillus species isolated from marine organisms could afford bioactive entities combating infectious diseases.


Asunto(s)
Alcaloides/química , Alcaloides/farmacología , Antiinfecciosos/química , Antiinfecciosos/farmacología , Aspergillus/química , /tratamiento farmacológico , /metabolismo , Animales , Antivirales/química , Antivirales/farmacología , Descubrimiento de Drogas , Humanos , Simulación del Acoplamiento Molecular , /fisiología
7.
Anatol J Cardiol ; 25(3): 184-190, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690133

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The effects of treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with a triple combination composed of hydroxychloroquine, an an-tiviral, and an antibiotic on electrocardiography (ECG) parameters in patients with mild-to-moderate symptoms are not wholly understood. We aimed to explore the changes in ECG parameters after treatment with triple combination therapy in patients with mild-to-moderate symptomatic COVID-19. METHODS: This retrospective, single-center case series analyzed 91 patients with mild-to-moderate symptomatic COVID-19 at Ankara Gazi Mus-tafa Kemal State Hospital of Ankara City, Turkey, from April 1, 2020, to April 30, 2020. Forty-three patients were treated with hydroxychloroquine+oseltamivir+azithromycin (Group 1) and 48 patients were treated with hydroxychloroquine+oseltamivir+levofloxacin (Group 2). Heart rate, P wave duration, P wave dispersion, PR interval, QRS duration, corrected QT interval (QTc), QTc dispersion (QTD), delta QTc, Tp-e, Tp-e dispersion, and Tp-e/QTc ratio were all calculated from the baseline and posttreatment 12-lead ECG recordings. RESULTS: The QTc, QRS duration, Tp-e, PR interval, and P wave duration were significantly increased after treatment (p<0.001; p<0.001; p<0.001; p=0.001; p=0.001). The posttreatment C-reactive protein level was significantly lower than at baseline in Group 1 (p=0.014). At admission, 30% of patients had QT prolongation, and 4.3% of them had a QT duration >500 ms. Both Group 1 and Group 2 showed significant prolongation of the QTc interval (Group 1; p<0.001 vs. Group 2; p<0.001), QRS duration (Group 1; p=0.006 vs. Group 2; p=0.014), Tp-e (Group 1; p=0.036 vs. Group 2; p<0.001), and PR interval (Group 1; p=0.002 vs. Group2; p=0.05). The QTD was significantly decreased in Group 1 (p<0.001). None of the patients experienced any overt ventricular arrhythmia. CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate QT prolongation in a population of COVID-19 patients treated with triple combination therapy. We found that there was a significant decrease in the QTD after the treatment in patients who were taking triple therapy including azithromycin.


Asunto(s)
/tratamiento farmacológico , Síndrome de QT Prolongado/inducido químicamente , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Antiinfecciosos/administración & dosificación , Antiinfecciosos/efectos adversos , Antivirales/administración & dosificación , Antivirales/efectos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Electrocardiografía , Femenino , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/administración & dosificación , Hidroxicloroquina/efectos adversos , Levofloxacino/administración & dosificación , Levofloxacino/efectos adversos , Síndrome de QT Prolongado/fisiopatología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Oseltamivir/administración & dosificación , Oseltamivir/efectos adversos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
8.
Recenti Prog Med ; 112(3): 219-224, 2021 03.
Artículo en Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33687361

RESUMEN

The pandemic period has generated major problems in the pharmacies of hospitals and local health care companies regarding the distribution of drugs to patients undergoing treatment with chronic drugs. This is because the patient, during the lockdown, was forced to leave the house and go several miles away to reach the place where the drug was dispensed. Moreover, very often, the place was placed in covid-19 hospitals, like the one in Perugia, and was also a risk for the patient himself. The logistical organization allows, in addition to the advantages of traceability, efficiency and savings, with the arrival of the drug at home, a very high patient compliance that also translates into greater security in a pandemic period. To the Usl Umbria 1 of Perugia (Italy) has been centralized the activity of warehouse for all the South area that includes three hospitals and four sanitary districts. Such warehouse, through computerized procedure, guarantees the direct distribution with sending of the medicines directly to the district of belonging of the patient. In this way the patient was not forced to make long and risky trips to continue their chronic therapies. Moreover, this logistic warehouse has also allowed to cope with the correct management of many medicinal specialties that have been used against the SARS-CoV-2 virus avoiding their temporary deficiency for patients already on therapy according to the normal therapeutic indications (anti-inflammatory, antiretroviral and immunomodulatory). This paper aims to demonstrate how logistical organization is of vital importance for a National Health System that has to face increasing costs, ensure the traceability of all processes and, last but not least, survive a worldwide pandemic period.


Asunto(s)
Almacenaje de Medicamentos , Pandemias , Preparaciones Farmacéuticas/provisión & distribución , Antiinfecciosos/provisión & distribución , Antiinfecciosos/uso terapéutico , Antiinflamatorios/provisión & distribución , Antiinflamatorios/uso terapéutico , Antihipertensivos/provisión & distribución , Antihipertensivos/uso terapéutico , Antineoplásicos/provisión & distribución , Antineoplásicos/uso terapéutico , Antivirales/provisión & distribución , Antivirales/uso terapéutico , Áreas de Influencia de Salud , Costos de los Medicamentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Reposicionamiento de Medicamentos , Almacenaje de Medicamentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Factores Inmunológicos/provisión & distribución , Factores Inmunológicos/uso terapéutico , Italia , Organización y Administración , Preparaciones Farmacéuticas/economía , Servicio de Farmacia en Hospital/organización & administración
9.
Chemosphere ; 271: 129818, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736217

RESUMEN

The use of carbohydrates, as a part of surface-active compounds, has been studied due to their biodegradability and nontoxic profile. A series of alkyl glycosides containing d-lyxose and l-rhamnose with alkyl chains of 8-12 carbon atoms were investigated. The effects of structural variations on their physico-chemical and biological properties have been evaluated for a detailed understanding of their properties. Alkyl glycosides were tested on their toxicity against bacterial cells of the genus Pseudomonas (MTT assay), microbiological adhesion to hydrocarbons (MATH assay), cell surface hydrophobicity (Congo red assay), cell membrane permeability (crystal violet assay), and bacterial biofilm formation. Furthermore, their antifungal activity against two pathogenic microorganisms Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger was investigated using the disc diffusion method. Toxicological studies revealed that compounds could reduce the metabolic activity of bacterial cells only moderately but they increased the hydrophobicity of cell surface in Pseudomonas strains. In addition, alkyl glycosides changed the permeability of the cell membranes to the level of 30-40% for this strain. The compounds with an even number of carbon atoms in their alkyl chain promoted stronger bacterial biofilm formation on the glass surface. All studied derivatives demonstrated very strong antifungal activity against fungus A. niger but very small effect against C. albicans. Overall, the results showed that long-chain alkyl glycosides could be considered as inexpensive, biocompatible, nontoxic agents, and serve for the surface design to avoid bacterial adhesion as an alternative solution to antibiotic treatment.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos , Tensoactivos , Antibacterianos/toxicidad , Antiinfecciosos/toxicidad , Antifúngicos/toxicidad , Candida albicans , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Tensoactivos/toxicidad
10.
Vopr Virusol ; 66(1): 47-54, 2021 03 07.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33683065

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Interferons are produced in response to the presence of pathogens in cells and are responsible for the proper formation of immune reaction. Preliminary data obtained in studies of properties of recombinant interferon gamma (IFN-γ) that involved patients with community-acquired pneumonia (including bacterial), acute respiratory viral infection (ARVI), influenza and new coronavirus infection have shown promising results.The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of subcutaneous administration of IFN-γ in patients with viral pneumonia on the changes of vital signs and the duration of hospital stay. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An open-label, randomized, low-interventional study included patients with moderate new coronavirus infection COVID-19 over 18 years of age of both sexes. IFN-γ 500,000 IU was administered s/c, daily, once a day, during 5 days. RESULTS: IFN-y in addition to complex therapy of the disease resulted in more favorable changes in the stabilization of vital signs, as well as in reduced length of fever and hospital stay by 2 days what allows suggesting a positive effect of this substance on the recovery processes in patients with moderate COVID-19. Special emphasis should be made to the fact that patients who received recombinant IFN- γ experienced no progression of respiratory failure and required no transfer to intensive care unit. DISCUSSION: This study confirms earlier obtained data on the positive effect of IFN-y on the rate of clinical stabilization and recovery of patients with community-acquired pneumonia and viral infections. Presented results are limited to a small number of patients; further study of drug properties in post-marketing studies is required. CONCLUSION: Progress in the treatment of patients with moderate COVID-19 by adding recombinant IFN-γ to the complex therapy may reasonably expand the range of existing treatment options for this infection.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos/uso terapéutico , Anticoagulantes/uso terapéutico , Factores Inmunológicos/uso terapéutico , Interferón gamma/uso terapéutico , Anciano , Ampicilina/uso terapéutico , Azitromicina/uso terapéutico , Presión Sanguínea/efectos de los fármacos , /patología , Enoxaparina/uso terapéutico , Femenino , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapéutico , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Distribución Aleatoria , /patogenicidad , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Resultado del Tratamiento , Vancomicina/uso terapéutico
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5626, 2021 03 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33707476

RESUMEN

Mitigating the risk of acquiring coronaviruses including SARS-CoV-2 requires awareness of the survival of virus on high-touch environmental surfaces (HITES) and skin, and frequent use of targeted microbicides with demonstrated efficacy. The data on stability of infectious SARS-CoV-2 on surfaces and in suspension have been put into perspective, as these inform the need for hygiene. We evaluated the efficacies of formulated microbicidal actives against alpha- and beta-coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2. The coronaviruses SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, human coronavirus 229E, murine hepatitis virus-1, or MERS-CoV were deposited on prototypic HITES or spiked into liquid matrices along with organic soil loads. Alcohol-, quaternary ammonium compound-, hydrochloric acid-, organic acid-, p-chloro-m-xylenol-, and sodium hypochlorite-based microbicidal formulations were evaluated per ASTM International and EN standard methodologies. All evaluated formulated microbicides inactivated SARS-CoV-2 and other coronaviruses in suspension or on prototypic HITES. Virucidal efficacies (≥ 3 to ≥ 6 log10 reduction) were displayed within 30 s to 5 min. The virucidal efficacy of a variety of commercially available formulated microbicides against SARS-CoV-2 and other coronaviruses was confirmed. These microbicides should be useful for targeted surface and hand hygiene and disinfection of liquids, as part of infection prevention and control for SARS-CoV-2 and emerging mutational variants, and other emerging enveloped viruses.


Asunto(s)
Alphacoronavirus , Antiinfecciosos , Animales , Semivida , Humanos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Porcinos
12.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e232434, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33681895

RESUMEN

Many pathogenic strains have acquired multidrug-resistant patterns in recent a year, which poses a major public health concern. The growing need for effective antimicrobial agents as novel therapies against multidrug-resistant pathogens has drawn scientist attention toward nanotechnology. Silver nanoparticles are considered capable of killing multidrug-resistant isolates due to their oligo-dynamic effect on microorganisms. In this research study NPs were synthesized using the gram-positive bacteria Lactobacillus bulgaricus and its activity against selected pathogenic strains. Lactobacillus bulgaricus pure cultures were isolated from raw milk and grown in "De Man, Rogasa, and Sharp" broth for synthesis of nanoparticles. Lactobacillus bulgaricus culture was centrifuged and Cell- free supernatant of it was employed with aqueous silvery ions and evaluated their antibacterial activities against bacterial strains i.e. Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Salmonella typhi using agar well diffusion assay. Antibiotic profiling against selected pathogenic strains were also conducted using disc diffusion method. The synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles were monitored primarily by the conversion of the pale-yellow color of the mixture into a dark-brown color and via ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy and Scanning electron microscopy respectively. The result showed that that AgNPs with size (30.65-100 nm) obtained from Lactobacillus bulgaricus were found to exhibit antibacterial activities against selected bacterial strains. Taken together, these findings suggest that Lactobacillus bulgaricus has great potential for the production of AgNPs with antibacterial activities and highly effective in comparison to tested antibiotics.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos , Lactobacillus delbrueckii , Nanopartículas del Metal , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Plata/farmacología
13.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(2): 541-560, 2021 Feb 25.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645154

RESUMEN

Nano-metallic materials are playing an important role in the application of medicine, catalysis, antibacterial and anti-toxin due to their obvious advantages, including nanocrystalline strengthening effect, high photo-absorptivity, high surface energy and single magnetic region performance. In recent years, with the increasing consumption of global petrochemical resources and the aggravation of environmental pollution, nanomaterials based on bio-based molecules have aroused great concern. Bio-based molecules refer to small molecules and macromolecules directly or indirectly derived from biomass. They usually have good biocompatibility, low toxicity, degradability, wide source and low price. Besides, most bio-based molecules have unique physical, chemical properties and physiological activity, such as optical activity, acid/alkali amphoteric property, hydrophilic property and easy coordination with metal ions. Thus, the corresponding nano-materials based on bio-based molecules also have unique functions, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-oxidation, antiviral fall blood sugar and blood fat etc. In this paper, we give a comprehensive overview of the preparation and application of nano-metallic materials based on bio-based molecules in recent years.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos , Nanoestructuras , Catálisis , Metales
14.
Molecules ; 26(5)2021 Feb 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652755

RESUMEN

Food packaging is designed to protect foods, to provide required information about the food, and to make food handling convenient for distribution to consumers. Packaging has a crucial role in the process of food quality, safety, and shelf-life extension. Possible interactions between food and packaging are important in what is concerning food quality and safety. This review tries to offer a picture of the most important types of active packaging emphasizing the controlled/target release antimicrobial and/or antioxidant packaging including system design, different methods of polymer matrix modification, and processing. The testing methods for the appreciation of the performance of active food packaging, as well as mechanisms and kinetics implied in active compounds release, are summarized. During the last years, many fast advancements in packaging technology appeared, including intelligent or smart packaging (IOSP), (i.e., time-temperature indicators (TTIs), gas indicators, radiofrequency identification (RFID), and others). Legislation is also discussed.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Preparaciones de Acción Retardada/química , Embalaje de Alimentos , Antiinfecciosos/farmacología , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Preparaciones de Acción Retardada/farmacología , Conservación de Alimentos , Calidad de los Alimentos , Humanos
15.
Molecules ; 26(5)2021 Feb 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652788

RESUMEN

Molybdates are biocidal materials that can be useful in coating surfaces that are susceptible to contamination and the spread of microorganisms. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of copper doping of hydrated cobalt molybdate, synthesized by the co-precipitation method, on its antibacterial activity and to elucidate the structural and morphological changes caused by the dopant in the material. The synthesized materials were characterized by PXRD, Fourier Transformed Infrared (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis/differential scanning calorimetry (TG/DSC), and SEM-Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The antibacterial response of the materials was verified using the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) employing the broth microdilution method. The size of the CoMoO4·1.03H2O microparticles gradually increased as the percentage of copper increased, decreasing the energy that is needed to promote the transition from the hydrated to the beta phase and changing the color of material. CoMoO4·1.03H2O obtained better bactericidal performance against the tested strains of Staphylococcus aureus (gram-positive) than Escherichia coli (gram-negative). However, an interesting point was that the use of copper as a doping agent for hydrated cobalt molybdate caused an increase of MIC value in the presence of E. coli and S. aureus strains. The study demonstrates the need for caution in the use of copper as a doping material in biocidal matrices, such as cobalt molybdate.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos/química , Cobalto/química , Cobre/química , Molibdeno/química , Antiinfecciosos/farmacología , Infecciones Bacterianas/tratamiento farmacológico , Complejos de Coordinación/química , Escherichia coli/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Nanopartículas del Metal/química , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Tamaño de la Partícula , Staphylococcus aureus/efectos de los fármacos
16.
Molecules ; 26(5)2021 Feb 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652887

RESUMEN

Although several natural plants and mixtures have been known and used over the centuries for their antibacterial activity, few have been thoroughly explored in the field of dentistry. Thus, the aim of this study was to enhance the antimicrobial activity of a conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC) with natural plant extracts. The effect of this alteration on the bond strength and film thickness of glass ionomer cement was evaluated and related to an 0.5% chlorohexidine modified GIC. Olive leaves (Olea europaea), Fig tree (Ficus carica), and the leaves and roots of Miswak (Salvadora persica) were used to prepare an alcoholic extract mixture. The prepared extract mixture after the evaporation of the solvent was used to modify a freeze-dried glass ionomer cement at three different extracts: water mass ratios 1:2, 1:1, and 2:1. An 0.5% chlorhexidine diacetate powder was added to a conventional GIC for the preparation of a positive control group (CHX-GIC) for comparison. The bond strength to dentine was assessed using a material-testing machine at a cross head speed of 0.5 mm/min. Failure mode was analyzed using a stereomicroscope at 12× magnification. The cement film thickness was evaluated in accordance with ISO standard 9917-1. The minimum number of samples in each group was n = 10. Statistical analysis was performed using a Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Dunn's post hoc test for pairwise comparison. There was a statistically insignificant difference between the median shear bond strength (p = 0.046) of the control group (M = 3.4 MPa), and each of the CHX-GIC (M = 1.7 MPa), and the three plant modified groups of 1:2, 1:1, 2:1 (M = 5.1, 3.2, and 4.3 MPa, respectively). The CHX-GIC group showed statistically significant lower median values compared to the three plant-modified groups. Mixed and cohesive failure modes were predominant among all the tested groups. All the tested groups (p < 0.001) met the ISO standard of having less than 25 µm film thickness, with the 2:1 group (M = 24 µm) being statistically the highest among all the other groups. The plant extracts did not alter either the shear bond strength or the film thickness of the GIC and thus might represent a promising additive to GICs.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos/química , Cementos Dentales/química , Cementos de Ionómero Vitreo/química , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Antiinfecciosos/farmacología , Clorhexidina/química , Clorhexidina/farmacología , Cementos Dentales/farmacología , Dentina/química , Dentina/microbiología , Ficus/química , Cementos de Ionómero Vitreo/farmacología , Humanos , Ensayo de Materiales , Olea/química , Extractos Vegetales/química , Hojas de la Planta/química , Raíces de Plantas/química , Salvadoraceae/química , Resistencia al Corte , Propiedades de Superficie
17.
Small ; 17(12): e2100139, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33656273

RESUMEN

The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has prompted a worldwide pandemic and poses a great threat to public safety and global economies. Most present personal protective equipment (PPE) used to intercept pathogenic microorganisms is deficient in biocidal properties. Herein, we present green nanofibers with effective antibacterial and antiviral activities that can provide sustainable bioprotection by continuously producing reactive oxygen species (ROS). The superiority of the design is that the nanofibers can absorb and store visible light energy and maintain the activity under light or dark environment. Moreover, the nanofibers can uninterruptedly release ROS in the absence of an external hydrogen donor, acting as a biocide under all weather conditions. A facile spraying method is proposed to rapidly deploy the functional nanofibers to existing PPE, such as protective suits and masks. The modified PPE exhibit stable ROS production, excellent capacity for storing activity potential, long-term durability, and high bactericidal (>99.9%) and viricidal (>99.999%) efficacies.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos/farmacología , Hidrógeno/química , Luz , Nanofibras/química , Benzofenonas/química , Celulosa/farmacología , Nanofibras/ultraestructura , Riboflavina/farmacología
18.
Carbohydr Polym ; 260: 117834, 2021 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712171

RESUMEN

This study reports preparation and physicochemical characterization of natural antimicrobials (Origanum Syriacum essential oil (OSEO), shrimp chitosan nanoparticles (CSNPs)) and new imidazolium ionic liquid-supported Zn(II)Salen. These antimicrobials were separately or co-encapsulated by CSNPs to fabricate novel antimicrobial nanoplatforms "NPFs" (OSEO-loaded CSNPs (NPF-1), Zn(II)Salen-loaded CSNPs (NPF-2), and Zn(II)Salen@OSEO-loaded CSNPs (NPF-3)). The finding of loading, encapsulation, and antimicrobial release studies confirm the suitability of CSNPs for nanoencapsulation of Zn(II)Salen and OSEO. All NPFs can significantly suppress the growth of microbial species with performances dependent upon the microbial strain and nanoplatform concentration. The susceptibility of microbes toward new antimicrobials was as follows; Gram-positive bacteria > Gram-negative bacteria > fungi. The amazing physicochemical features of new nanoplatforms and their bioactive ingredients (Zn(II)Salen, OSEO, and CSNPs) signify the importance of our designs for developing a new generation of nanopharmaceuticals supported both natural products and biogenic ionic metal cofactors, targeting the multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogens.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos/química , Quitosano/química , Etilenodiaminas/química , Nanopartículas/química , Aceites Volátiles/química , Antiinfecciosos/metabolismo , Antiinfecciosos/farmacología , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Liberación de Fármacos , Etilenodiaminas/metabolismo , Hongos/efectos de los fármacos , Bacterias Gramnegativas/efectos de los fármacos , Bacterias Grampositivas/efectos de los fármacos , Imidazoles/química , Aceites Volátiles/metabolismo , Origanum/metabolismo , Tamaño de la Partícula , Temperatura , Zinc/química
19.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(3)2021 Mar 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33762277

RESUMEN

Hydroxychloroquine has been widely prescribed to treat patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. A 73-year-0ld woman with COVID-19 pneumonia was treated with dexamethasone and hydroxychloroquine. Her home medications, citalopram and donepezil, were continued. The ECG prior to starting hydroxychloroquine showed normal sinus rhythm with prolonged corrected QT (QTc) of 497 ms, due to citalopram and donepezil therapy. Repeat ECG on days 3 and 4 of hydroxychloroquine therapy showed significantly prolonged QTc of 557 ms and 538 ms, respectively, despite normal serum electrolytes. All QT-prolonging medications including hydroxychloroquine were discontinued on day 4; however, she suffered a transient torsades de pointes lasting for about 15 s, which resolved before any intervention. QTc improved to 477 ms, after discontinuation of QT-prolonging medications. The patient had QTc prolongation and torsades de pointes due to therapy with multiple QT-prolonging medications. Medicine reconciliation and careful monitoring of QTc may help prevent cardiac complications in patients with COVID-19 treated with hydroxychloroquine.


Asunto(s)
/tratamiento farmacológico , Dexametasona/efectos adversos , Hidroxicloroquina/efectos adversos , Torsades de Pointes/inducido químicamente , Anciano , Antiinfecciosos/efectos adversos , Antiinfecciosos/uso terapéutico , Citalopram/efectos adversos , Citalopram/uso terapéutico , Dexametasona/uso terapéutico , Donepezilo/efectos adversos , Donepezilo/uso terapéutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Electrocardiografía/métodos , Femenino , Cardiopatías/inducido químicamente , Cardiopatías/prevención & control , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapéutico , Síndrome de QT Prolongado/inducido químicamente
20.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669712

RESUMEN

Hydroxyapatite (HA) is the main inorganic mineral that constitutes bone matrix and represents the most used biomaterial for bone regeneration. Over the years, it has been demonstrated that HA exhibits good biocompatibility, osteoconductivity, and osteoinductivity both in vitro and in vivo, and can be prepared by synthetic and natural sources via easy fabrication strategies. However, its low antibacterial property and its fragile nature restricts its usage for bone graft applications. In this study we functionalized a MgHA scaffold with gold nanorods (AuNRs) and evaluated its antibacterial effect against S. aureus and E. coli in both suspension and adhesion and its cytotoxicity over time (1 to 24 days). Results show that the AuNRs nano-functionalization improves the antibacterial activity with 100% bacterial reduction after 24 h. The toxicity study, however, indicates a 4.38-fold cell number decrease at 24 days. Although further optimization on nano-functionalization process are needed for cytotoxicity, these data indicated that Au-NRs nano-functionalization is a very promising method for improving the antibacterial properties of HA.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos/farmacología , Durapatita/farmacología , Oro/farmacología , Magnesio/farmacología , Nanotubos/química , Muerte Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Supervivencia Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Escherichia coli/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Nanotubos/ultraestructura , Espectroscopía de Fotoelectrones , Staphylococcus aureus/efectos de los fármacos , Andamios del Tejido/química
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