Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 52.859
Filtrar
1.
Prog Chem Org Nat Prod ; 111: 81-153, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114663

RESUMEN

Marine-derived fungi play an important role in the search for structurally unique secondary metabolites, some of which show promising pharmacological activities that make them useful leads for drug discovery. Marine natural product research in China in general has made enormous progress in the last two decades as described in this chapter on fungal metabolites. This contribution covers 613 new natural products reported from 2001 to 2017 from marine-derived fungi obtained from algae, sponges, corals, and other marine organisms from Chinese waters. The genera Aspergillus (170 new natural products, 28%) and Penicillium (70 new natural products, 11%) were the main fungal producers of new natural products during the time period covered, whereas sponges (184 new natural products, 30%) were the most abundant source of new natural products, followed by corals (154 new natural products, 25%) and algae (130 new natural products, 21%). Close to 40% of all natural products covered in this contribution displayed various bioactivities. The major bioactivities reported were cytotoxicity against different cancer cell lines, antimicrobial (mainly antibacterial) activity, and antiviral activity, which accounted for 13%, 9%, and 3% of all natural products reported. In terms of structural classes, polyketides (188 new natural products, 31%) play a dominant role, and if prenylated polyketides and nitrogen-containing polyketides (included in meroterpenes and alkaloids in this contribution) are taken into account, their total number even exceeds 50%. Nitrogen-containing compounds including peptides (65 new natural products, 10%) and alkaloids (103 new natural products, 17%) are the second largest group.


Asunto(s)
Productos Biológicos/farmacología , Hongos/química , Policétidos/farmacología , Animales , Antozoos/microbiología , Antiinfecciosos , Antineoplásicos , Organismos Acuáticos/microbiología , Aspergillus/química , Productos Biológicos/química , China , Penicillium/química , Policétidos/química , Poríferos/microbiología , Metabolismo Secundario
2.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 36(3): 50, 2020 Mar 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157464

RESUMEN

Despite the deep knowledge of the honey bee (Apis mellifera) gut microbiome, information on the microbial communities of other hive components is still scarce. Propolis originates from a natural resinous mixture that honeybees collect from different plants sources and modify; it is used mainly to ensure the hygiene of the hive. By virtue of its antimicrobial properties, propolis has been considered relatively aseptic, yet its ability to harbor microorganisms has not been previously investigated. In this study we report the first description of the diversity of the microbial community of propolis by both targeted-metagenomics analysis and cultivation. We demonstrated that propolis hosts a variety of microbial strains belonging to taxa already described in other hive components. Some of them are cultivable in standard laboratory conditions, and show metabolic characteristics compatible with their persistence in different physiological states inside propolis. Isolated bacteria produce antimicrobials against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, and entomopathogenic fungi, with different spectra of inhibition. Metagenomics analysis shows the presence of bacteria and fungi with great potential to outcompete potentially harmful microorganisms. These findings suggest that the characterized microbiota could contribute to the overall antimicrobial properties of propolis and to its ecological role as "disinfectant" within the hive.


Asunto(s)
Bacterias/clasificación , Hongos/clasificación , Microbiota , Própolis/farmacología , Animales , Antiinfecciosos/farmacología , Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Abejas , ADN Ribosómico/genética , Hongos/efectos de los fármacos , Hongos/aislamiento & purificación , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Microbiota/efectos de los fármacos , Filogenia
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(6): e18854, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028395

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The elimination of the pathogenic microorganisms of the periodontal pocket is one of the main points for success in periodontal treatment. The objective of this study is to investigate the clinical and antimicrobial effect of papain-mediated photodynamic therapy in the clinical treatment of periodontal disease. METHODS: Twenty patients with chronic periodontitis will be selected. Patients will be randomly divided into 2 groups (n = 10). Group 1 will receive conventional periodontal treatment and group 2 will receive conventional treatment and antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (PACT). Conventional treatment will consist of oral hygiene guidance, with brushing technique instructions and recommendation of daily flossing. The calculus deposits on the teeth will be removed with ultrasound equipment and curettes for scraping and root planning. The PACT will be performed at the end of each periodontal treatment session, at sites with bags ≥4 mm. PapaMblue photosensitizer will be deposited in the periodontal pockets with a syringe and a pre-irradiation time of 1 minute will be adopted. Then, the laser emitting wavelength of 660 nm, with power of 100 mW, for 2 minutes, radiant exposure of 30 J/cm and power density of 250 mW/cm will be applied. Patients will undergo clinical evaluations before treatment (day 1) at 30, 60, and 90 days after the end of treatment; and microbiological evaluations before and immediately after treatment. The distribution of the data within each group and the homogeneity of the variances will be verified. With this information, the most appropriate statistical test in each evaluation will be used. The sample calculation is based on the literature and the significance level of 5% will be adopted. DISCUSSION: The combination of PACT with methylene blue in a papain gel and the conventional treatment may increase the reduction of bacteria in periodontal pockets.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos/uso terapéutico , Periodontitis Crónica/terapia , Azul de Metileno/uso terapéutico , Fármacos Fotosensibilizantes/uso terapéutico , Adulto , Antiinfecciosos/administración & dosificación , Terapia Combinada , Método Doble Ciego , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Azul de Metileno/administración & dosificación , Fotoquimioterapia , Fármacos Fotosensibilizantes/administración & dosificación , Resultado del Tratamiento
4.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 204: 111806, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044619

RESUMEN

The cotton fabrics are a cosmopolitan in usage due to their extraordinary features. The clothes are a very good medium for the growth of pathogenic microorganisms. The nanoparticles have diverse benefits in the biomedical field like drug carrier and as antimicrobials. The current investigation was aimed to synthesize the metallic silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from the aqueous extract of Curcuma longa leaf and evaluating their antimicrobial and wound healing potential of AgNPs coated cotton fabric. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by HR-TEM and FT-IR examinations. The formulated AgNPs were coated with cotton fabrics to test their efficiency against the pathogenic microorganisms. The existence of AgNPs in the cotton fabrics was confirmed via the SEM along with EDX analysis. The antimicrobial potential of fabricated AgNPs and its coated cotton fabrics was inspected against the human pathogenic strains. The wound healing efficacy was examined in the L929 cells. The HR-TEM analysis proved the existence of spherical shaped AgNPs. In the antimicrobial activity, the CL-AgNPs loaded cotton fabric was exhibited an appreciable decrease in the growth of pathogenic microorganisms. The crude extract, as well as formulated AgNPs, also exhibited the noticeable antimicrobial potency against the S.aureus, P.aeruginosa, S.pyogenes, and C.albicans. The AgNPs loaded cotton fabrics was displayed the potent wound healing activity in the fibroblast (L929) cells. Consequently, it was concluded that the formulated AgNPs from C.longa coated cotton fabrics may be utilized for the variety of applications in hospital patients and even medical workers to prevent the microbial infection.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos/química , Fibra de Algodón/análisis , Curcuma/química , Nanopartículas del Metal/química , Plata/química , Animales , Antiinfecciosos/farmacología , Candida albicans/efectos de los fármacos , Línea Celular , Movimiento Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Supervivencia Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Curcuma/metabolismo , Bacterias Gramnegativas/efectos de los fármacos , Bacterias Grampositivas/efectos de los fármacos , Tecnología Química Verde , Nanopartículas del Metal/toxicidad , Ratones , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Extractos Vegetales/química , Hojas de la Planta/química , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo
5.
Chem Biodivers ; 17(2): e1900580, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31913571

RESUMEN

Developing effective and eco-friendly antimicrobials and pesticides has become a highly important issue. The repellent, insecticidal and antimicrobial activity of essential oils (EOs) isolated by hydrodistillation from dried leaves of the three Eucalyptus species (E. cloeziana, E. umbellata and E. benthamii) were investigated. During GC/MS analysis, α-pinene (47.36 %), 1,8-cineol (38.53 %) and α-pinene (35.31 %) were identified as major components of E. cloeziana, E. umbellata and E. benthamii, respectively. The EOs from E. cloeziana exhibited the longest effective protection time (465 min, at 50.0 % w/w) for humans among the EOs studied. The effective protection time was 30 min and 300 min at concentrations of 12.5 % (w/w) and 25.0 % (w/w), respectively. Fumigating insecticidal activity of EOs from three Eucalyptus species was tested by airtight fumigation in conical flask, which indicated that essential oils had a highly and rapidly insecticidal activity on Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus. The antimicrobial activity of EOs was evaluated by using disc diffusion and agar dilution methods. There was no significant difference in the antibacterial activity of EOs from E. cloeziana and E. umbellate and they had the same MICs (20 mL/L) on Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. E. benthamii had the worst microbial inhibitory effect among the three Eucalyptus essential oils and the MIC value for the test species is 40 mL/L except for Rhodotorula Harrison (10 mL/L).


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos/química , Eucalyptus/química , Repelentes de Insectos/química , Insecticidas/química , Aceites Volátiles/química , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Animales , Antiinfecciosos/farmacología , Aspergillus/efectos de los fármacos , Candida/efectos de los fármacos , Culex/efectos de los fármacos , Eucalyptus/metabolismo , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Bacterias Gramnegativas/efectos de los fármacos , Bacterias Grampositivas/efectos de los fármacos , Repelentes de Insectos/farmacología , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Aceites Volátiles/análisis , Aceites Volátiles/farmacología , Hojas de la Planta/química
6.
Global Health ; 16(1): 8, 2020 01 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937338

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In the Mekong Delta region of Vietnam, high quantities of products containing antimicrobial are used as prophylactic and curative treatments in small-scale chicken flocks. A large number of these contain antimicrobial active ingredients (AAIs) considered of 'critical importance' for human medicine according to the World Health Organization (WHO). However, little is known about the retail prices of these products and variables associated with the expense on antimicrobials at farm level. Therefore, the aims of the study were: (1) to investigate the retail price of antimicrobials with regards to WHO importance criteria; and (2) to quantify the antimicrobial expense incurred in raising chicken flocks. We investigated 102 randomly-selected small-scale farms raising meat chickens (100-2000 per flock cycle) in two districts in Dong Thap (Mekong Delta) over 203 flock production cycles raised in these farms. Farmers were asked to record the retail prices and amounts of antimicrobial used. RESULTS: A total of 214 different antimicrobial-containing products were identified. These contained 37 different AAIs belonging to 13 classes. Over half (60.3%) products contained 1 highest priority, critically important AAI, and 38.8% 1 high priority, critically important AAI. The average (farm-adjusted) retail price of a daily dose administered to a 1 kg bird across products was 0.40 cents of 1 US$ (₵) (SE ± 0.05). The most expensive products were those that included at least one high priority, critically important AAI, as well as those purchased in one of the two study districts. Farmers spent on average of ₵3.91 (SE ± 0.01) on antimicrobials per bird over the production cycle. The expense on antimicrobials in weeks with disease and low mortality was greater than on weeks with disease and high mortality, suggesting that antimicrobial use had a beneficial impact on disease outcomes (χ2 = 3.8; p = 0.052). Farmers generally used more expensive antimicrobials on older flocks. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATION: The retail prices of antimicrobial products used in chicken production in Mekong Delta small-scale chicken farms are very low, and not related to their relevance for human medicine. Farmers, however, demonstrated a degree of sensitivity to prices of antimicrobial products. Therefore, revising pricing policies of antimicrobial products remains a potential option to curb the use of antimicrobials of critical importance in animal production.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos/economía , Pollos , Comercio/estadística & datos numéricos , Granjas , Animales , Antiinfecciosos/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Vietnam
7.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 204: 111803, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000112

RESUMEN

Infectious diseases constitute a serious problem for human health and life. Although many bacterial and fungal infections can be successfully cured by commonly used antibiotics, a new threat emerges in the form of microbial resistance. For this reason, researchers try to find not only new active pharmaceutical ingredients for conventional antibiotherapy but also try to develop new strategies of microbial inactivation. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy, which relies on reactive oxygen species generated in situ in the presence of a photosensitizer and with the light of an appropriate wavelength, is one of them. Porphyrazines have been considered as potential photosensitizers for anticancer and antimicrobial photodynamic therapy. In this study, three tribenzoporphyrazines with dendrimeric peripheral substituents were subjected to in vitro antimicrobial photocytotoxicity study. One magnesium(II) tribenzoporphyrazine with peripheral 3,5-bis(3,5-dimethoxybenzyloxy)benzylsulfanyl substituents was synthesized and subjected to physicochemical characterization using NMR, UV-Vis, and mass spectrometry techniques. In photochemical studies this molecule revealed moderate singlet oxygen generation ability (ΦΔDMF = 0.12, ΦΔDMSO = 0.13). The other two magnesium(II) tribenzoporphyrazines applied in the biological study were 4-[3,5-di(hydroxymethyl)phenoxy]butylsulfanyl-substituted tribenzoporphyrazine and 4-[3,5-bis(benzyloxy)benzyloxy]phenyl-substituted tribenzopyrazinoporphyrazine. For the assessment, three microbial strains were chosen: Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, and fungal strain Candida albicans ATCC 10231. Very high activity against Staphylococcus aureus at low 10-6 M concentration was recorded for magnesium(II) tribenzoporphyrazines with peripheral 3,5-bis(3,5-dimethoxybenzyloxy)benzylsulfanyl and 4-[3,5-di(hydroxymethyl)phenoxy]butylsulfanyl substituents with calculated log reductions of 4.4 and 4.8, respectively. It is worth noting that magnesium(II) tribenzoporphyrazine with 4-[3,5-di(hydroxymethyl)phenoxy]butylsulfanyl substituents revealed also 3.2 log reduction in bacterial growth at the concentration 10-7 M.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos/farmacología , Dendrímeros/química , Pirazinas/química , Staphylococcus aureus/efectos de los fármacos , Antiinfecciosos/síntesis química , Antiinfecciosos/química , Candida albicans/efectos de los fármacos , Candida albicans/efectos de la radiación , Bacterias Gramnegativas/efectos de los fármacos , Bacterias Gramnegativas/efectos de la radiación , Bacterias Grampositivas/efectos de los fármacos , Bacterias Grampositivas/efectos de la radiación , Luz , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Pirazinas/síntesis química , Pirazinas/farmacología , Oxígeno Singlete/metabolismo , Staphylococcus aureus/efectos de la radiación
9.
Expert Opin Ther Pat ; 30(3): 227-234, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958255

RESUMEN

Introduction: Farnesol (C15H26O) is a sesquiterpene alcohol found in essential oils. This substance is reported to have different pharmacological activities such as antimicrobial, antitumor and antioxidant effects, as well as actions in different body systems.Areas covered: This study aimed to analyze pharmaceutical patents containing this substance in their formulations. Patent search was carried out through the WIPO (World Intellectual Property Organization), LatiPat and INPI (National Institute of Industrial Property) electronic banks using the following descriptors and combinations: 'farnesol', 'pharmaceutical product', 'pharmacology' and 'pharmacy'.Expert opinion: Primary research identified 54 patents, from which 17 were selected for the final analysis after applying the inclusion criteria. The selected patents referred to products presenting different pharmaceutical activities of interest such as the prevention and treatment of diseases affecting the dermis, central nervous and cardiovascular systems, diseases caused by different microorganisms and cancers, among others. A minority of the articles included in this review reported the type of farnesol isomer that was investigated, this becoming a major limitation for the development of future pharmaceutical products. With the completion of this study, farnesol presents itself as a potential agent with pharmacological application both in the prevention and treatment of different diseases.


Asunto(s)
Farnesol/administración & dosificación , Aceites Volátiles/química , Animales , Antiinfecciosos/administración & dosificación , Antiinfecciosos/farmacología , Antineoplásicos/administración & dosificación , Antineoplásicos/farmacología , Antioxidantes/administración & dosificación , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Farnesol/farmacología , Humanos , Patentes como Asunto
10.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 203: 111776, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931388

RESUMEN

Due to the emergence of antibiotic resistance, antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has recently been demonstrated as a promising alternative to antibiotics to treat wound infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens. This study aimed to evaluate the bacterial killing efficiency of aPDT mediated by methylene blue (MB) loaded thermosensitive hydrogels against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Box-Behnken Design method was employed to investigate the impacts of the polymer compositions, Poloxamer 407, Poloxamer 188 and Carbopol 934P, on the gelation temperature (Tsol-gel) and release rate of MB. The viscosity and in vitro bacterial killing efficiency of three selected formulations with Tsol-gel ranged 25-34 °C and MB release in 2 h (the incubation time used for aPDT experiment) ≥ 70%, were assessed. The viscosity was found to increase with increasing P407 content and increasing total gel concentration. In the in vitro aPDT experiment, all tested MB-hydrogels demonstrated >2.5 log10 colony forming unit (CFU) reduction against three clinical relevant MRSA strains. Interestingly, the bacterial reduction increased with decreasing amount of gel added (reduced MB concentration). This was possibly attributed to the increased viscosity at higher gel concentration reducing the diffusion rate of released MB towards bacterial cells leading to reduced aPDT efficiency. In summary, aPDT with the thermosensitive MB hydrogel formulations is a promising treatment strategy for wound infections.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos/química , Hidrogeles/química , Azul de Metileno/química , Antiinfecciosos/metabolismo , Antiinfecciosos/farmacología , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Liberación de Fármacos , Luz , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente a Meticilina/efectos de los fármacos , Azul de Metileno/metabolismo , Azul de Metileno/farmacología , Reología , Temperatura Ambiental , Viscosidad
11.
Br Dent J ; 228(1): 24, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31925369
12.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(10): 1464-1480, 2020 Feb 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31967621

RESUMEN

This review discusses the advantages of using luminescent d6-transition-metal complexes as cell probes for optical microscopy. In particular it focusses on the Thomas group's use of specific complexes as "building blocks" toward the construction of biomolecular binding substrates, with DNA being a particular target. Using this approach, a range of new imaging probes for conventional optical microscopy, nanoscopy and transmission electron microscopy have been identified. Through selection of specific metal centres and by substitution of coordinated ligands we illustrate how new chemotherapeutics, photo-therapeutics, and theranostics have been identified and developed from the original architectures.


Asunto(s)
Complejos de Coordinación/química , ADN/química , Antiinfecciosos/química , Antiinfecciosos/farmacología , Apoptosis/efectos de los fármacos , Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Medios de Contraste/química , Medios de Contraste/metabolismo , Complejos de Coordinación/metabolismo , Complejos de Coordinación/toxicidad , ADN/metabolismo , Humanos , Sondas Moleculares/química , Sondas Moleculares/metabolismo , Nanomedicina Teranóstica
13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911204

RESUMEN

This study was conducted to develop a highly selective, sensitive, and validated method for quantifying metronidazole in human plasma and bile fluid. Metronidazole and metronidazole-d4 (internal standard) were extracted from 100 µL of plasma and bile fluid by liquid-liquid extraction. Liquid chromatography with a Hydrosphere C18 column (50 × 2.0 mm) was performed using 10 mM ammonium formate (pH 4.0) and acetonitrile (20:80, v/v) as the mobile phase. Triple quadrupole mass spectrometry was operated with an electrospray ionization interface in multiple reaction monitoring and positive ion modes. The calibration curves were linear for bile and plasma samples over the range of 50-20,000 ng/mL (r2 > 0.999). The intra- and inter-day coefficients of variation (CVs) for plasma ranged from 2.50% to 7.85% and 3.11% to 16.9%, respectively; for bile, the intra-and inter-run precision (CVs) ranged from 2.76% to 13.2% and 3.16% to 11.5%, respectively. The mean extraction recovery for metronidazole ranged from 76.5% to 82.1% in plasma and from 78.8% to 87.8% in bile, respectively. Our proposed analytical method was successfully applied to determine metronidazole concentrations in bile as well as in plasma at multiple time points in a patient with acute cholangitis.


Asunto(s)
Bilis/química , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión/métodos , Metronidazol/análisis , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem/métodos , Antiinfecciosos/análisis , Antiinfecciosos/sangre , Antiinfecciosos/química , Antiinfecciosos/farmacocinética , Humanos , Límite de Detección , Modelos Lineales , Extracción Líquido-Líquido , Metronidazol/sangre , Metronidazol/química , Metronidazol/farmacocinética , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
15.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 68(1): 46-57, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902901

RESUMEN

Over the past decade, a number of new 1,4-naphthoquinones have been isolated from natural sources and new 1,4-naphthoquinones with diverse structural features have been synthesized. Cardioprotective, anti-ischemic, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective and some other new properties were found for these compounds; their role in protecting against neurodegenerative diseases has been established. Their anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antitumor activities have been studied in more detail; new, previously unknown intracellular molecular targets and mechanisms of action have been discovered. Some compounds of this class are already being used as a medicinal drugs and some substances can be used as biochemical tools and probes for non-invasive detection of pathological areas in cells and tissues in myocardial infarction and neurodegenerative diseases using modern molecular imaging techniques.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos/química , Antiinflamatorios/química , Naftoquinonas/química , Sustancias Protectoras/química , Antiinfecciosos/farmacología , Antiinflamatorios/farmacología , Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Leucocitos Mononucleares/citología , Leucocitos Mononucleares/efectos de los fármacos , Leucocitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Naftoquinonas/farmacología , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Sustancias Protectoras/farmacología , Trypanosoma/efectos de los fármacos
16.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(1): 223-234, jan./feb. 2020. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049244

RESUMEN

The Brazilian flora is known for its vast biodiversity; however, many species have been still little studied regarding to their chemical composition and biological potential. Thus, this study aimed to determine the antimicrobial, antioxidant and acaricidal activity of the extracts of leaves of Zanthoxylum caribaeum L. In addition, phytochemical screening of these extracts was carried out to determine the main classes of secondary metabolites present in Z. caribaeum. Using the Z. caribaeum leaves, aqueous and organic extracts were obtained using the following solvents (ethanol, methanol, hexane, acetone, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate). The antimicrobial activity of extracts was determined by broth microdilution method, and to detect antioxidant activity the method of capturing the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) was used. The acaricidal activity of the extracts was tested on Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer) (Acari: Dermanissidae). Ethanolic and methanolic extracts presented antimicrobial activity for most of the bacterial strains tested, as well as for yeast Candida albicans. The ethanolic extract presented high free radical sequestration potential (71.2%) and antioxidant capacity (the lowest IC50 value - 24.39 µg mL-1). The crude extracts obtained with methanol and acetone were the most promising. In general, phytochemical screening indicated the presence of steroids, flavanones, flavones, flavonols, saponins, tannins, triterpenoids and xanthones.


A flora brasileira é conhecida pela sua vasta biodiversidade, no entanto, muitas espécies ainda são pouco estudadas quanto à composição química e ao potencial biológico. Assim, esse trabalho teve como objetivo determinar a atividade antimicrobiana, antioxidante e acaricida dos extratos vegetais das folhas de Zanthoxylum caribaeum L. Adicionalmente, foi realizada triagem fotoquímica desses extratos para determinar as principais classes de metabólitos secundários presentes em Z. caribaeum. Empregando-se as folhas de Z. caribaeum foram obtidos o extrato aquoso e orgânicos, utilizando os seguintes solventes (etanol, metanol, hexano, acetona, diclorometano e acetato de etila). A atividade antimicrobiana dos extratos foi determinada pelo método de microdiluição em caldo, e para detecção da atividade antioxidante foi empregado o método de captura do radical livre 2,2-difenil-1-picril hidrazil (DPPH). A atividade acaricida dos extratos foi avaliada frente a Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer) (Acari: Dermanissidae). Os extratos brutos etanólico e metanólico apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana para a maioria das cepas bacterianas testadas, e também para a levedura Candida albicans. O extrato etanólico apresentou elevado potencial de sequestro de radicais livres (71,2%) e o menor valor de IC50 (24,39µg mL-1), revelando, portanto, sua capacidade antioxidante. No que se refere à atividade acaricida, os extratos obtidos com metanol e acetona foram os mais promissores. De modo geral, a triagem fitoquímica indicou a presença de esteroides, flavanonas, flavonas, flavonóis, saponinas, taninos, triterpenóides e xantonas.


Asunto(s)
Flora , Salmonella enterica , Rutaceae , Acaricidas , Antiinfecciosos , Antioxidantes
17.
Food Chem ; 313: 126071, 2020 May 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927204

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to investigate if the declared benefits associated with superfoods are related to a specific molecular composition. For this purpose, untargeted metabolomics and molecular networking were used to obtain an overview of all features, focusing on compounds with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant or antimicrobial properties. 565 plant-based food samples were analyzed using UHPLC-HRMS and advanced data analysis tools. The molecular networking of the whole dataset allowed identification of a greater diversity of molecules, in particular, prenol lipids, isoflavonoids and isoquinolines in superfoods, when compared with non-superfood species belonging to the same botanical family. Furthermore, in silico tools were used to expand our chemical knowledge of compounds observed in superfood samples.


Asunto(s)
Análisis de los Alimentos , Metabolómica/métodos , Plantas/química , Antiinfecciosos/química , Antiinflamatorios/química , Antioxidantes/química , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Espectrometría de Masas , Plantas/metabolismo , Análisis de Componente Principal
18.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eAO5023, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31994606

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To adapt an antibiotic dose adjustment software initially developed in English, to Portuguese and to the Brazilian context. METHODS: This was an observational, descriptive study in which the Delphi method was used to establish consensus among specialists from different health areas, with questions addressing the visual and operational aspects of the software. In a second stage, a pilot experimental study was performed with the random comparison of patients for evaluation and adaptation of the software in the real environment of an intensive care unit, where it was compared between patients who used the standardized dose of piperacillin/tazobactam, and those who used an individualized dose adjusted through the software Individually Designed and Optimized Dosing Strategies. RESULTS: Twelve professionals participated in the first round, whose suggestions were forwarded to the software developer for adjustments, and subsequently submitted to the second round. Eight specialists participated in the second round. Indexes of 80% and 90% of concordance were obtained between the judges, characterizing uniformity in the suggestions. Thus, there was modification in the layout of the software for linguistic and cultural adequacy, minimizing errors of understanding and contradictions. In the second stage, 21 patients were included, and there were no differences between doses of piperacillin in the standard dose and adjusted dose Groups. CONCLUSION: The adapted version of the software is safe and reliable for its use in Brazil.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos/administración & dosificación , Lingüística/normas , Piperacilina/administración & dosificación , Diseño de Programas Informáticos , Tazobactam/administración & dosificación , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Antropometría , Brasil , Comparación Transcultural , Técnica Delfos , Femenino , Humanos , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estándares de Referencia , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Estadísticas no Paramétricas , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 75, 2020 Jan 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31973704

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAIs) represent one of the leading issues to patient safety as well as a significant economic burden. Similarly, Antimicrobial Use (AMU) and Resistance (AMR) represent a growing threat to global public health and the sustainability of healthcare services. METHODS: A Point Prevalence Survey (PPS) following the 2016 ECDC protocol for HAI prevalence and AMU was conducted at Ferrara University Hospital (FUH). Data were collected by a team of trained independent surveyors in 2016 and 2018. Risk factors independently associated with HAI were assessed by a multivariate logistic regression model. RESULTS: Of the 1102 patients surveyed, 115 (10.4%) had an active HAI and 487 (44.2%) were on at least 1 systemic antimicrobial agent. Factors independently associated with increased HAI risk were a "Rapidly Fatal" McCabe score (expected fatal outcome within 1 year), presence of medical devices (PVC, CVC, indwelling urinary catheter or mechanically assisted ventilation) and a length of hospital stay of at least 1 week. The most frequent types of HAI were pneumonia, bloodstream infections, and urinary tract infections. Antimicrobial resistance to third-generation cephalosporins was observed in about 60% of Enterobacteriaceae. CONCLUSIONS: The survey reports a high prevalence of HAI and AMU in FUH. Repeated PPSs are useful to control HAIs and AMU in large acute-care hospitals, highlighting the main problematic factors and allowing planning for improvement actions.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos/uso terapéutico , Bacteriemia/epidemiología , Infección Hospitalaria/epidemiología , Enterobacteriaceae/aislamiento & purificación , Neumonía/epidemiología , Infecciones Urinarias/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Bacteriemia/tratamiento farmacológico , Infección Hospitalaria/tratamiento farmacológico , Femenino , Hospitales Universitarios , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neumonía/tratamiento farmacológico , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Catéteres Urinarios/microbiología , Infecciones Urinarias/tratamiento farmacológico , Adulto Joven
20.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 55(3): 105892, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926284

RESUMEN

Three homologous oxygenated elansolid-type of polyketide spanned macrolides were isolated from a heterotrophic marine bacterium, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens MTCC 12716, associated with an intertidal red alga Hypnea valentiae. The complete genome of the bacterium was sequenced and all detectable natural product gene clusters were analysed. The B. amyloliquefaciens MTCC 12716 genome features polyketide synthase (pks) systems of every known formally classified family, nonribosomal peptide synthetases and hybrid clusters. Comprehensive spectroscopic studies revealed the compounds to possess isobenzofuranyl benzoate and 1H-furopyrano[2,3-c]oxacyclononadecine-6-carboxylate moieties. The identified compounds displayed broad-spectrum bactericidal activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis, and drug-resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of ≤1.0 µg/mL, whereas the standard antibiotics ampicillin and chloramphenicol were active only at concentrations of ≥6.25 µg/mL. The plausible mechanism of elansolid-type macrolide biosynthesis by trans-AT polyketide synthases through the pks starter unit para-hydroxybenzoic acid was hypothesised, and the structures were correlated with the gene organisation, with the predicted gene cluster comprising 16 genes (~81 kb in size). The best binding poses for each compound with the peptide deformylase (PDF) protein of S. aureus revealed docking scores (>11.30 kcal/mol) greater than actinonin (6.96 kcal/mol), a natural PDF inhibitor. The higher electronic values along with optimum lipophilic parameters support the potential anti-infective properties of the studied macrolides. These antibacterial elansolid-type of polyketide spanned macrolides in marine symbiotic B. amyloliquefaciens could be potential leads for biotechnological and pharmaceutical applications against emerging multidrug-resistant pathogens.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos/farmacología , Bacillus amyloliquefaciens/química , Macrólidos/farmacología , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente a Meticilina/efectos de los fármacos , Antiinfecciosos/aislamiento & purificación , Bacillus amyloliquefaciens/genética , Productos Biológicos/química , Productos Biológicos/aislamiento & purificación , Productos Biológicos/farmacología , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Macrólidos/química , Macrólidos/aislamiento & purificación , Oxígeno
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA