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1.
Molecules ; 26(7)2021 Mar 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805024

RESUMEN

Depression and anxiety disorders are widespread diseases, and they belong to the leading causes of disability and greatest burdens on healthcare systems worldwide. It is expected that the numbers will dramatically rise during the COVID-19 pandemic. Established medications are not sufficient to adequately treat depression and are not available for everyone. Plants from traditional medicine may be promising alternatives to treat depressive symptoms. The model organism Chaenorhabditis elegans was used to assess the stress reducing effects of methanol/dichlormethane extracts from plants used in traditional medicine. After initial screening for antioxidant activity, nine extracts were selected for in vivo testing in oxidative stress, heat stress, and osmotic stress assays. Additionally, anti-aging properties were evaluated in lifespan assay. The extracts from Acanthopanax senticosus, Campsis grandiflora, Centella asiatica, Corydalis yanhusuo, Dan Zhi, Houttuynia cordata, Psoralea corylifolia, Valeriana officinalis, and Withaniasomnifera showed antioxidant activity of more than 15 Trolox equivalents per mg extract. The extracts significantly lowered ROS in mutants, increased resistance to heat stress and osmotic stress, and the extended lifespan of the nematodes. The plant extracts tested showed promising results in increasing stress resistance in the nematode model. Further analyses are needed, in order to unravel underlying mechanisms and transfer results to humans.


Asunto(s)
Antidepresivos/farmacología , Caenorhabditis elegans/efectos de los fármacos , Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiología , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Plantas Medicinales/química , Envejecimiento/efectos de los fármacos , Envejecimiento/fisiología , Animales , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Técnicas de Inactivación de Genes , Respuesta al Choque Térmico/efectos de los fármacos , Longevidad/efectos de los fármacos , Longevidad/genética , Longevidad/fisiología , Mutación , Presión Osmótica/efectos de los fármacos , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Extractos Vegetales/química , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno/metabolismo
2.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 2461-2475, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33814910

RESUMEN

Aim: To explore the effects of Radix Sophorae Flavescentis carbonisata-based carbon dots (RSFC-CDs) on an ethanol-induced acute gastric ulcer rat model. Methods: The structure, optical properties, functional groups and elemental composition of RSFC-CDs synthesized by one-step pyrolysis were characterized. The gastric protective effects of RSFC-CDs were evaluated and confirmed by applying a rat model of ethanol-induced acute gastric ulcers. The underlying mechanisms were investigated through the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signalling pathway and oxidative stress. Results: RSFC-CDs with a diameter ranging from 2-3 nm mainly showed gastric protective effects by reducing the levels of NF-κB, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) to inhibit ethanol-induced inflammation and oxidative stress. Conclusion: RSFC-CDs have anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects, making them promising for application in ethanol-induced gastric injury.


Asunto(s)
Antiinflamatorios/uso terapéutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapéutico , Carbono/química , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/uso terapéutico , Sustancias Protectoras/uso terapéutico , Úlcera Gástrica/inducido químicamente , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedad Aguda , Animales , Antiinflamatorios/farmacología , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Regulación hacia Abajo/efectos de los fármacos , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/farmacología , Etanol/efectos adversos , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Masculino , FN-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintasa de Tipo II/metabolismo , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Espectroscopía de Fotoelectrones , Sustancias Protectoras/farmacología , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Úlcera Gástrica/patología , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Regulación hacia Arriba/efectos de los fármacos
3.
J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol ; 40(2): 11-21, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822513

RESUMEN

Global industrialization not only improved the quality life of millions but also paved the way to solving many health problems. One among them is allergic asthma, which affects approximately 20% of the global population. Poor air quality is the major culprit in allergic asthma, which not only affects the individual's health, but also impairs his or her life quality and that of family members. Asthma is a chronic pulmonary inflammatory disease characterized by excess mucus production, airway hyperresponsiveness, and bronchoconstriction. Inhalation of corticosteroids, leukotriene modifiers, and ß-adrenergic agonists is one treatment prescribed to control the symptoms of asthma, but there is still no effective cure. Phytochemicals such as carotenoids, phenolics, alkaloids, and nitrogen and organosulfur compounds are proven to possess immense pharmacological properties. Betalain is one such phytochemical present in plants of the order Caryophyllales. It is a water-soluble nitrogen-based pigment proven to possess antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, antilipidemic, antidiabetic, and anticancer properties. We examined the curative potential of betalain against allergic asthma in a mouse model. Betalain treatment effectively decreased lung weight and infiltration of inflammatory cells in BAL fluid, and lowered IgE, eotaxin, and cytokine levels in asthma-induced mice. It also improved pulmonary mechanics and decreased oxidative stress and nitric oxide levels. Betalain significantly decreased gene expression of TGF-ß and its downstream signaling Smad proteins. Lung histology confirmed that betalain protected the lung tissue of mice from ovalbumin-induced allergic asthma. Overall, our results show that betalain is a potent antiallergic drug that effectively protects mice from ovalbumin-induced allergic asthma. With further research, it can be prescribed as a treatment for asthma in humans.


Asunto(s)
Antiasmáticos/uso terapéutico , Antiinflamatorios/uso terapéutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapéutico , Asma/tratamiento farmacológico , Betalaínas/uso terapéutico , Proteínas Smad/inmunología , Factor de Crecimiento Transformador beta1/inmunología , Alérgenos , Animales , Antiasmáticos/farmacología , Antiinflamatorios/farmacología , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Asma/inmunología , Asma/patología , Asma/fisiopatología , Betalaínas/farmacología , Citocinas/inmunología , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Femenino , Inmunoglobulina E/inmunología , Pulmón/efectos de los fármacos , Pulmón/inmunología , Pulmón/patología , Pulmón/fisiopatología , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C , Ovalbúmina , Transducción de Señal/efectos de los fármacos , Proteínas Smad/genética , Factor de Crecimiento Transformador beta1/genética
4.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 2515-2532, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33824589

RESUMEN

Introduction: Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) with multiple functionalities are intriguing candidates for various biomedical applications. Materials and Methods: This study introduced a simple and green synthesis of Fe3O4 NPs using a low-cost stabilizer of plant waste extract rich in polyphenols content with a well-known antioxidant property as well as anticancer ability to eliminate colon cancer cells. Herein, Fe3O4 NPs were fabricated via a facile co-precipitation method using the crude extract of Garcinia mangostana fruit peel as a green stabilizer at different weight percentages (1, 2, 5, and 10 wt.%). The samples were analyzed for magnetic hyperthermia and then in vitro cytotoxicity assay was performed. Results: The XRD planes of the samples were corresponding to the standard magnetite Fe3O4 with high crystallinity. From TEM analysis, the green synthesized NPs were spherical with an average size of 13.42±1.58 nm and displayed diffraction rings of the Fe3O4 phase, which was in good agreement with the obtained XRD results. FESEM images showed that the extract covered the surface of the Fe3O4 NPs well. The magnetization values for the magnetite samples were ranging from 49.80 emu/g to 69.42 emu/g. FTIR analysis verified the functional groups of the extract compounds and their interactions with the NPs. Based on DLS results, the hydrodynamic sizes of the Fe3O4 nanofluids were below 177 nm. Furthermore, the nanofluids indicated the zeta potential values up to -34.92±1.26 mV and remained stable during four weeks of storage, showing that the extract favorably improved the colloidal stability of the Fe3O4 NPs. In the hyperthermia experiment, the magnetic nanofluids showed the acceptable specific absorption rate (SAR) values and thermosensitive performances under exposure of various alternating magnetic fields. From results of in vitro cytotoxicity assay, the killing effects of the synthesized samples against HCT116 colon cancer cells were mostly higher compared to those against CCD112 colon normal cells. Remarkably, the Fe3O4 NPs containing 10 wt.% of the extract showed a lower IC50 value (99.80 µg/mL) in HCT116 colon cancer cell line than in CCD112 colon normal cell line (140.80 µg/mL). Discussion: This research, therefore, introduced a new stabilizer of Garcinia mangostana fruit peel extract for the biosynthesis of Fe3O4 NPs with desirable physiochemical properties for potential magnetic hyperthermia and colon cancer treatment.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos/farmacología , Frutas/química , Garcinia mangostana/química , Tecnología Química Verde/métodos , Hipertermia Inducida , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/química , Extractos Vegetales/química , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Muerte Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Línea Celular Tumoral , Supervivencia Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Dispersión Dinámica de Luz , Humanos , Hidrodinámica , Concentración 50 Inhibidora , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/ultraestructura , Tamaño de la Partícula , Espectrometría por Rayos X , Espectroscopía Infrarroja por Transformada de Fourier , Temperatura , Difracción de Rayos X
5.
Food Chem ; 352: 129300, 2021 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667920

RESUMEN

Avocado peel is a by-product obtained in high amounts in the food industry with no further applications despite its richness in bioactive compounds. In this context, an efficient "green" microwave assisted extraction (MAE) was optimized to maximize the extraction of bioactive polyphenols. Moreover, the phenolic composition of the developed green avocado extract was characterized by HPLC coupled to MS analysers and the potential applications for the food industry were studied assaying different bioactivities. Thus, the matrix metalloproteinases inhibition, the antioxidant capacity and the antimicrobial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, yeast and mold were tested. The results pointed out both, high matrix metalloproteinases inhibitory capacity and antioxidant activity of avocado peel MAE extract. These findings suggest the potential food industry applications of this extract as natural food preservative, functional food ingredient or nutraceuticals with antioxidant and anti-aging activities.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/aislamiento & purificación , Antioxidantes/aislamiento & purificación , Industria de Alimentos , Microondas , Persea/química , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Bacterias Gramnegativas/efectos de los fármacos , Bacterias Grampositivas/efectos de los fármacos , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología
6.
Molecules ; 26(5)2021 Feb 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668690

RESUMEN

The Mongolian rhubarb-Rheum undulatum L. (RU)-and Rumex crispus L. (RC)-a Taiwanese local rhubarb belonging to the family of Polygonaceae-are principal therapeutic materials in integrative medicine due to their rich quantities of bioactive compounds; however, their phytochemical and antioxidant properties, and anti-cancer activity is poorly investigated. Furthermore, the phytochemical characteristics of both species may be affected by their different geographical distribution and climatic variance. The current study aimed to compare RU with RC extracts in different polarity solvents (n-hexane, ethyl acetate, acetone, ethanol, and water) for their phytochemical contents including the total phenolic content (TPC), total anthraquinone content (TAC), total flavonoid content (TFC), antioxidant and free radical scavenging capacities, and anticancer ability on the HepG2 cell. Except for the n-hexane extract, all of the RU extracts had considerably higher TPCs than RC extracts, ranging from 8.39 to 11.16 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) per gram of dry weight, and the TPCs of each extract were also significantly correlated with their antioxidant capacities by ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP assays (p < 0.05). Moreover, there was no remarkable association between the antioxidant capacities and either TACs or TFCs in both the RU and RC extracts. Besides, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed that both the RU and RC extracts contained chrysophanol, emodin, and physcion, and those bioactive compounds were relatively higher in the n-hexane solvent extracts. Additionally, we observed different levels of dose-dependent cytotoxic effects in all the extracts by cell viability assay. Notably, the ethanol extract of RU had a compelling cytotoxic effect with the lowest half-maximum inhibition concentration (IC50-171.94 ± 6.56 µg/mL at 48 h) among the RU extracts than the ethanol extract of RC. Interestingly, the ethanol extract of RU but not RC significantly induced apoptosis in the human liver cancer cell line, HepG2, with a distinct pattern in caspase-3 activation, resulting in increased PARP cleavage and DNA damage. In summary, Mongolian Rhubarb, RU, showed more phytochemical contents, as well as a higher antioxidant capacity and apoptotic effect to HepG2 than RC; thus, it can be exploited for the proper source of natural antioxidants and liver cancer treatment in further investigation.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos Fitogénicos/farmacología , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Fitoquímicos/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Rheum/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogénicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogénicos/aislamiento & purificación , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/aislamiento & purificación , Benzotiazoles/antagonistas & inhibidores , Compuestos de Bifenilo/antagonistas & inhibidores , Proliferación Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Supervivencia Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Ensayos de Selección de Medicamentos Antitumorales , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Mongolia , Fitoquímicos/química , Fitoquímicos/aislamiento & purificación , Picratos/antagonistas & inhibidores , Extractos Vegetales/química , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , Relación Estructura-Actividad , Ácidos Sulfónicos/antagonistas & inhibidores , Taiwán , Células Tumorales Cultivadas
7.
Molecules ; 26(5)2021 Feb 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669031

RESUMEN

Response surface methodology was employed to optimize the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) conditions for simultaneous optimization of dependent variables, including DPPH radical scavenging activity (RSA), tyrosinase activity inhibition (TAI), and collagenase activity inhibition (CAI) of peanut shell extracts. The effects of the main variables including extraction time (5.0~55.0 min, X1), extraction temperature (26.0~94.0 °C, X2), and ethanol concentration (0.0%~99.5%, X3) were optimized. Based on experimental values from each condition, quadratic regression models were derived for the prediction of optimum conditions. The coefficient of determination (R2) of the independent variable was in the range of 0.89~0.96, which demonstrates that the regression model is suitable for the prediction. In predicting optimal UAE conditions based on the superimposing method, extraction time of 31.2 min, extraction temperature of 36.6 °C, and ethanol concentration of 93.2% were identified. Under these conditions, RSA of 74.9%, TAI of 50.6%, and CAI of 86.8% were predicted, showing good agreement with the experimental values. A reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction showed that peanut shell extract decreased mRNA levels of tyrosinase-related protein-1 and matrix metalloproteinase-3 genes in B16-F0 cell. Therefore, we identified the skin-whitening and anti-wrinkle effects of peanut shell extracts at protein as well as gene expression levels, and the results show that peanut shell is an effective cosmetic material for skin-whitening and anti-wrinkle effects. Based on this study, peanut shell, which was considered a byproduct, can be used for the development of healthy foods, medicines, and cosmetics.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/farmacología , Arachis/química , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Preparaciones para Aclaramiento de la Piel/farmacología , Ondas Ultrasónicas , Animales , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/aislamiento & purificación , Compuestos de Bifenilo/antagonistas & inhibidores , Metaloproteinasa 3 de la Matriz/genética , Metaloproteinasa 3 de la Matriz/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/antagonistas & inhibidores , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Ratones , Oxidorreductasas/antagonistas & inhibidores , Oxidorreductasas/genética , Oxidorreductasas/metabolismo , Picratos/antagonistas & inhibidores , Extractos Vegetales/química , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , ARN Mensajero/antagonistas & inhibidores , ARN Mensajero/genética , ARN Mensajero/metabolismo , Envejecimiento de la Piel/efectos de los fármacos , Preparaciones para Aclaramiento de la Piel/química , Preparaciones para Aclaramiento de la Piel/aislamiento & purificación , Células Tumorales Cultivadas
8.
Anticancer Res ; 41(3): 1213-1218, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33788712

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND/AIM: Overexpression of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress increase the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) in obesity and hyperlipidemia. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the monoterpene antioxidant p-cymene would reduce the incidence of CRC in a rat model of hyperlipidemia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The hyperlipidemic CRC rat model was established by a high-fat diet and dimethyl hydrazine (DMH) induction. All rats received 30 mg/kg DMH to induce CRC, and were then assigned to groups with a normal diet or high-fat diet with/without 30 mg/kg/day p-cymene orally during the entire experimental period. Tumor incidence in each group, and the level of serum inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress-related markers in intestinal tissues were measured. RESULTS: p-Cymene significantly inhibited CRC occurrence in hyperlipemic rats (p=0.024) by reducing the expression of serum inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1 by 54.5%; interleukin-6 by 28.3%; adiponectin by 26.3%; cyclo-oxygenase-2 by 48.4%) and intestinal oxidative-stress cytokines (total antioxidant capacity by 30.4%; superoxide dismutase by 30.3%; malondialdehyde by 47.1%). CONCLUSION: p-Cymene has clinical potential to reduce the incidence of CRC in hyperlipemia.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/farmacología , Neoplasias Colorrectales/prevención & control , Cimenos/farmacología , Citocinas/genética , Hiperlipidemias/complicaciones , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Neoplasias Colorrectales/metabolismo , Cimenos/uso terapéutico , Dieta Alta en Grasa , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Femenino , Masculino , Ratas , Ratas Wistar
9.
Food Chem ; 351: 129315, 2021 Jul 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647686

RESUMEN

Mangiferin-loaded nanobilosomes (MGF-NBSs) were developed using microfluidic-based techniques to improve aqueous solubility, digestive stability, and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) of mangiferin. Preliminary experiments showed that optimal formation conditions were 5:1 aqueous (water) to solvent (ethanol) phase ratio and 85 mL/min total flow rate. Further optimization using response surface methodology provided the optimal formulation (200 mg encapsulant consisting of 90.91% phosphatidylcholine and 9.09% sodium glycocholate, and 25.89 mg mangiferin), achieving 9.25% mangiferin loading and 80.65% encapsulation efficiency. Mono-dispersed MGF-NBSs with an average size of around 48.14 nm and zeta potential of -30.1 mV were obtained. FTIR and DSC results confirmed the successful encapsulation of mangiferin into the nanobilosomes and revealed interactions among the components. MGF-NBSs showed a 7-fold increase in the aqueous solubility compared with non-encapsulated mangiferin. CAA of MGF-NBSs in Caco-2 cells was 2 times higher than that of mangiferin and the in vitro digestive stability was improved.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Nanoestructuras/química , Agua/química , Xantonas/química , Xantonas/farmacología , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Células CACO-2 , Digestión , Composición de Medicamentos , Humanos , Dispositivos Laboratorio en un Chip , Tamaño de la Partícula , Solubilidad , Xantonas/metabolismo
10.
Food Chem ; 351: 129320, 2021 Jul 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662906

RESUMEN

In this study, mushroom stems were separated from the fruiting body of two edible mushrooms, white button mushroom (WB, Agaricus bisporus) and oyster mushroom (OY, Pleurotus ostreatus), and their functionalities were compared in wheat flour noodles at fortification levels of 5, 10, 15%. The inclusion of WB led to higher protein content than OY, which had more dietary fibre, especially insoluble dietary fibre. The fortification of mushrooms decreased the area under the curve (AUC) of reducing sugars released during in vitro digestion significantly (p < 0.05). WB fortified noodles yielded higher antioxidant capacities than OY fortification, whereas the digesta following digestion of WB and OY groups shared similar free accessible weighted average antioxidants. Mushrooms derived insoluble dietary fibre was negatively correlated with AUC and positively correlated with antioxidants (p < 0.05), suggesting the efficacy of mushroom stems over post-prandial glucose release of foods and providing the antioxidant environment to the intestine.


Asunto(s)
Agaricus/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Fibras de la Dieta/metabolismo , Fibras de la Dieta/farmacología , Digestión , Carga Glucémica/efectos de los fármacos
11.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1261: 231-238, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33783746

RESUMEN

Metabolic disorders, such as lipid accumulation, insulin resistance, and inflammation, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of NAFLD/NASH. Both innate and recruited immune cells mediate the development of insulin resistance and NASH. Oxidative stress is also pivotal for the progression of NASH. Astaxanthin is a natural carotenoid mainly derived from microorganisms and marine organisms. Due to its special chemical structure, astaxanthin has strong antioxidant activity. ß-Cryptoxanthin is a xanthophyll carotenoid specifically found in the Satsuma mandarin. ß-Cryptoxanthin is readily absorbed and relatively abundant in human plasma, together with α-carotene, ß-carotene, lycopene, lutein, and zeaxanthin. Considering the unique chemical properties of astaxanthin and ß-cryptoxanthin and the complex pathogenic mechanism of NASH, astaxanthin and ß-cryptoxanthin are regarded as a considerable compound for the prevention and treatment of NASH. This chapter comprehensively describes the mechanism of the application for astaxanthin and ß-cryptoxanthin on the prevention and treatment of NASH from the aspects, including antioxidative stress, inhibition of inflammation and promotion of M2 macrophage polarization, improvement of mitochondrial oxidative respiration, amelioration of insulin resistance, and suppression of fibrosis.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico , Antioxidantes/farmacología , beta-Criptoxantina , Humanos , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/prevención & control , Xantófilas
12.
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol ; 35: 20587384211005645, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33779346

RESUMEN

Protective effects of peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6) in RIN-m5F ß-cells and of thymulin in mice with alloxan-induced diabetes were recently reported. The present work was aimed at studying the efficiency of thymulin and PRDX6 in a type 1 diabetes mellitus model induced by streptozotocin in mice. Effects of prolonged treatment with PRDX6 or thymic peptide thymulin on diabetes development were evaluated. We assessed the effects of the drugs on the physiological status of diabetic mice by measuring blood glucose, body weight, and cell counts in several organs, as well as effects of thymulin and PRDX6 on the immune status of diabetic mice measuring concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines in blood plasma (TNF-α, interleukin-5 and 17, and interferon-γ), activity of NF-κB and JNK pathways, and Hsp90α expression in immune cells. Both thymulin and PRDX6 reduced the physiological impairments in diabetic mice at various levels. Thymulin and PRDX6 provide beneficial effects in the model of diabetes via very different mechanisms. Taken together, the results of our study indicated that the thymic peptide and the antioxidant enzyme have anti-inflammatory functions. As increasing evidences show diabetes mellitus as a distinct comorbidity leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome and increased mortality in patients with COVID-19 having cytokine storm, thymulin, and PRDX6 might serve as a supporting anti-inflammatory treatment in the therapy of COVID 19 in diabetic patients.


Asunto(s)
MAP Quinasa Quinasa 4/metabolismo , FN-kappa B/metabolismo , Peroxiredoxina VI , Transducción de Señal , Factor Tímico Circulante , Animales , Antiinflamatorios/metabolismo , Antiinflamatorios/farmacología , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacología , /inmunología , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamiento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/inmunología , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/inmunología , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/terapia , Descubrimiento de Drogas , Interferón gamma/sangre , Interleucinas/sangre , Ratones , Peroxiredoxina VI/metabolismo , Peroxiredoxina VI/farmacología , Transducción de Señal/efectos de los fármacos , Transducción de Señal/inmunología , Factor Tímico Circulante/metabolismo , Factor Tímico Circulante/farmacología , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/sangre
13.
Molecules ; 26(5)2021 Feb 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668106

RESUMEN

Tagetes erecta L. is a popular ornamental plant of the Asteraceae family, which is widely cultivated not only for its decorative use, but also for the extraction of lutein. Besides carotenoid representatives, which have been extensively studied, other important classes of secondary metabolites present in the plant, such as polyphenols, could exhibit important biological activities. The phytochemical analysis of a methanolic extract obtained from T. erecta inflorescences was achieved using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) techniques. The extract was further subjected to a multistep purification process, which allowed the separation of different fractions. The total extract and its fractions contain several polyphenolic compounds, such as hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, flavonols (especially quercetagetin glycosides), and several aglycons (e.g., quercetin, patuletin). One of the fractions, containing mostly quercetagitrin, was subjected to two different antioxidant assays (metal chelating activity and lipoxygenase inhibition) and to in vitro cytotoxicity assessment. Generally, the biological assays showed promising results for the investigated fraction compared to the initial extract. Given the encouraging outcome of the in vitro assays, further purification and structural analysis of compounds from T. erecta extracts, as well as further in vivo investigations are justified.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/farmacología , Flores/química , Inhibidores de la Lipooxigenasa/farmacología , Fitoquímicos/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Tagetes/química , Animales , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/aislamiento & purificación , Supervivencia Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Fibroblastos/efectos de los fármacos , Lipooxigenasa/metabolismo , Inhibidores de la Lipooxigenasa/química , Inhibidores de la Lipooxigenasa/aislamiento & purificación , Fitoquímicos/química , Fitoquímicos/aislamiento & purificación , Extractos Vegetales/química , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , Conejos , Relación Estructura-Actividad
14.
Molecules ; 26(5)2021 Feb 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668169

RESUMEN

A series of fifteen silver (I) quinoline complexes Q1-Q15 have been synthesized and studied for their biological activities. Q1-Q15 were synthesized from the reactions of quinolinyl Schiff base derivatives L1-L5 (obtained by condensing 2-quinolinecarboxaldehyde with various aniline derivatives) with AgNO3, AgClO4 and AgCF3SO3. Q1-Q15 were characterized by various spectroscopic techniques and the structures of [Ag(L1)2]NO3Q1, [Ag(L1)2]ClO4Q6, [Ag(L2)2]ClO4Q7, [Ag(L2)2]CF3SO3Q12 and [Ag(L4)2]CF3SO3Q14 were unequivocally determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. In vitro antimicrobial tests against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria revealed the influence of structure and anion on the complexes' moderate to excellent antibacterial activity. In vitro antioxidant activities of the complexes showed their good radical scavenging activity in ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Complexes with the fluorine substituent or the thiophene or benzothiazole moieties are more potent with IC50 between 0.95 and 2.22 mg/mL than the standard used, ascorbic acid (2.68 mg/mL). The compounds showed a strong binding affinity with calf thymus-DNA via an intercalation mode and protein through a static quenching mechanism. Cytotoxicity activity was examined against three carcinoma cell lines (HELA, MDA-MB231, and SHSY5Y). [Ag(L2)2]ClO4Q7 with a benzothiazole moiety and [Ag(L4)2]ClO4Q9 with a methyl substituent had excellent cytotoxicity against HELA cells.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Antineoplásicos/farmacología , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Complejos de Coordinación/farmacología , ADN/química , Antibacterianos/síntesis química , Antibacterianos/química , Antineoplásicos/síntesis química , Antineoplásicos/química , Antioxidantes/síntesis química , Antioxidantes/química , Línea Celular Tumoral , Proliferación Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Complejos de Coordinación/síntesis química , Complejos de Coordinación/química , Ensayos de Selección de Medicamentos Antitumorales , Compuestos Férricos/antagonistas & inhibidores , Bacterias Gramnegativas/efectos de los fármacos , Bacterias Grampositivas/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Oxidación-Reducción , Quinolinas/química , Quinolinas/farmacología , Bases de Schiff/química , Bases de Schiff/farmacología , Plata/química , Plata/farmacología
15.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671715

RESUMEN

Fucoidan is a fucose-rich sulfated polysaccharide with attractive therapeutic potential due to a variety of biological activities, including antioxidant action. Fucoidan is typically found in the cell wall of marine brown algae, but extra-algal sources have also been discovered. In the present work, for the first time we extracted a water soluble fucoidan fraction from the roots of the terrestrial shrub Ferula hermonis. This fucoidan fraction was termed FUFe, and contained fucose, glucose, sulfate, smaller amounts of monosaccharides such as galactose and mannose, and a minor quantity of proteins. FUFe structural features were investigated by FTIR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The antioxidant property of FUFe was measured by DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays, which revealed a high radical scavenging capacity that was confirmed in in vitro cellular models. In hepatic and endothelial cells, 50 µg/mL FUFe could reduce ROS production induced by intracellular lipid accumulation. Moreover, in hepatic cells FUFe exhibited a significant antisteatotic action, being able to reduce intracellular triglyceride content and to regulate the expression of key genes of hepatic lipid metabolism. Altogether, our results candidate FUFe as a possible bioactive compound against fatty liver disease and related vascular damage.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/farmacología , Ferula/química , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Raíces de Plantas/química , Polisacáridos/farmacología , Animales , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/aislamiento & purificación , Benzotiazoles/antagonistas & inhibidores , Compuestos de Bifenilo/antagonistas & inhibidores , Células Cultivadas , Recuperación de Fluorescencia tras Fotoblanqueo , Humanos , Líbano , Picratos/antagonistas & inhibidores , Extractos Vegetales/química , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , Polisacáridos/química , Polisacáridos/aislamiento & purificación , Ratas , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno/metabolismo , Ácidos Sulfónicos/antagonistas & inhibidores
16.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671811

RESUMEN

Marine algae are a promising source of potent bioactive agents against oxidative stress, diabetes, and inflammation. However, the possible therapeutic effects of many algal metabolites have not been exploited yet. In this regard, we explored the therapeutic potential of Enteromorpha intestinalis extracts obtained from methanol, ethanol, and hexane, in contrasting oxidative stress. The total phenolic (TPC) and flavonoids (TFC) content were quantified in all extracts, with ethanol yielding the best values (about 60 and 625 mg of gallic acid and rutin equivalents per gram of extract, respectively). Their antioxidant potential was also assessed through DPPH•, hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide, and superoxide anion scavenging assays, showing a concentration-dependent activity which was greater in the extracts from protic and more polar solvents. The α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities were estimated for checking the antidiabetic capacity, with IC50 values of about 3.8 µg/mL for the methanolic extract, almost as low as those obtained with acarbose (about 2.8 and 3.3 µg/mL, respectively). The same extract also showed remarkable anti-inflammatory effect, as determined by hemolysis, protein denaturation, proteinase and lipoxygenase activity assays, with respectable IC50 values (about 11, 4, 6, and 5 µg/mL, respectively), also in comparison to commercially used drugs, such as acetylsalicylic acid.


Asunto(s)
Antiinflamatorios/farmacología , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Inhibidores Enzimáticos/farmacología , Hipoglucemiantes/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Ulva/química , Antiinflamatorios/química , Antiinflamatorios/aislamiento & purificación , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/aislamiento & purificación , Compuestos de Bifenilo/antagonistas & inhibidores , Inhibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inhibidores Enzimáticos/aislamiento & purificación , Eritrocitos/efectos de los fármacos , Eritrocitos/metabolismo , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/aislamiento & purificación , Flavonoides/farmacología , Humanos , Radical Hidroxilo/antagonistas & inhibidores , Hipoglucemiantes/química , Hipoglucemiantes/aislamiento & purificación , Lipooxigenasas/metabolismo , Masculino , Péptido Hidrolasas/metabolismo , Fenoles/química , Fenoles/aislamiento & purificación , Fenoles/farmacología , Picratos/antagonistas & inhibidores , Extractos Vegetales/química , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , Superóxidos/antagonistas & inhibidores
17.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672102

RESUMEN

Macroalgae are sources of bioactive compounds that are interesting from both a chemical and a medical point of view. Although their use in biomedicine has increased significantly in recent years, tests conducted to date have been mostly related to species from temperate latitudes, with the potential application of Antarctic biodiversity being minor. The wide variety of algae species present on Antarctic coastal areas can be a source of new antioxidants. Bearing this in mind, the brown macroalgae Desmarestia antarctica (DA) and the red Iridaea cordata (IC) were selected for the preparation of aqueous extracts with the aim of analyzing their antioxidant activity. This analysis was performed by determining reducing power, total phenolic content, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity. Furthermore, both extracts were employed to synthesize gold and silver nanoparticles. The nanomaterials were fully characterized by means of UV-Visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Z potential measurements, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, which confirmed the formation of stable, spherical nanoparticles with mean diameters of 13.7 ± 3.1 and 17.5 ± 3.7 nm for Ag@DA and Ag@IC and 12.6 ± 1.9 and 12.3 ± 1.6 nm for Au@DA and Au@IC. Antioxidant assays were performed after the synthesis of the nanomaterials to evaluate their possible synergistic effect with the extracts. The results suggest that polysaccharides and proteins may play a key role in the process of reduction and stabilization. Finally, for the sake of comparison, the results obtained for the Antarctic macroalgae Desmarestia menziesii and Palmaria decipiens have also been considered in the present work.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/farmacología , Oro/metabolismo , Nanopartículas del Metal/química , Phaeophyta/química , Rhodophyta/química , Plata/metabolismo , Regiones Antárticas , Antioxidantes/síntesis química , Antioxidantes/química , Compuestos de Bifenilo/antagonistas & inhibidores , Oro/química , Tamaño de la Partícula , Picratos/antagonistas & inhibidores , Plata/química
18.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672239

RESUMEN

Low temperatures seriously depress germination and seedling establishment in wheat and it is of great significance to explore approaches to improve wheat tolerance to low temperatures. In this study, the effects of seed pre-soaking and parental treatment with melatonin on seed germination and low temperature tolerance during the early growing stage in wheat were studied. The results showed that pre-soaking with melatonin increased the germination rate, improved antioxidant capacity and accelerated starch degradation under low temperature, which alleviated low temperature-induced damage to the chloroplasts in coleoptiles of wheat seedlings. Parental melatonin treatment during grain filling stage significantly decreased the grain weight. Seeds from parental melatonin-treated plants showed higher germination rates and higher antioxidant enzyme activity than the control seeds under low temperature. In addition, parental treatment with melatonin modulated the activities of carbohydrate metabolism enzymes, which contributes to enhanced low temperature tolerance in wheat offspring. It was suggested that both seed pre-soaking and parental treatment with melatonin could be the effective approaches for low temperature tolerance induction in wheat.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/farmacología , Melatonina/farmacología , Temperatura , Triticum/efectos de los fármacos , Metabolismo de los Hidratos de Carbono , Semillas/efectos de los fármacos , Semillas/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo
19.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672486

RESUMEN

Medicinal plants and their derived compounds have drawn the attention of researchers due to their considerable impact on human health. Among medicinal plants, mint (Mentha species) exhibits multiple health beneficial properties, such as prevention from cancer development and anti-obesity, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, and cardioprotective effects, as a result of its antioxidant potential, combined with low toxicity and high efficacy. Mentha species are widely used in savory dishes, food, beverages, and confectionary products. Phytochemicals derived from mint also showed anticancer activity against different types of human cancers such as cervix, lung, breast and many others. Mint essential oils show a great cytotoxicity potential, by modulating MAPK and PI3k/Akt pathways; they also induce apoptosis, suppress invasion and migration potential of cancer cells lines along with cell cycle arrest, upregulation of Bax and p53 genes, modulation of TNF, IL-6, IFN-γ, IL-8, and induction of senescence phenotype. Essential oils from mint have also been found to exert antibacterial activities against Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and many others. The current review highlights the antimicrobial role of mint-derived compounds and essential oils with a special emphasis on anticancer activities, clinical data and adverse effects displayed by such versatile plants.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Antineoplásicos Fitogénicos/farmacología , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Mentha/química , Aceites Volátiles/farmacología , Fitoquímicos/farmacología , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/aislamiento & purificación , Antineoplásicos Fitogénicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogénicos/aislamiento & purificación , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/aislamiento & purificación , Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Compuestos de Bifenilo/antagonistas & inhibidores , Proliferación Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Aceites Volátiles/química , Aceites Volátiles/aislamiento & purificación , Fitoquímicos/química , Fitoquímicos/aislamiento & purificación , Picratos/antagonistas & inhibidores
20.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672652

RESUMEN

Herein, we report the neuroprotective and antioxidant activity of 1,1'-biphenyl nitrones (BPNs) 1-5 as α-phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone analogues prepared from commercially available [1,1'-biphenyl]-4-carbaldehyde and [1,1'-biphenyl]-4,4'-dicarbaldehyde. The neuroprotection of BPNs1-5 has been measured against oligomycin A/rotenone and in an oxygen-glucose deprivation in vitro ischemia model in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Our results indicate that BPNs 1-5 have better neuroprotective and antioxidant properties than α-phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN), and they are quite similar to N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), which is a well-known antioxidant agent. Among the nitrones studied, homo-bis-nitrone BPHBN5, bearing two N-tert-Bu radicals at the nitrone motif, has the best neuroprotective capacity (EC50 = 13.16 ± 1.65 and 25.5 ± 3.93 µM, against the reduction in metabolic activity induced by respiratory chain blockers and oxygen-glucose deprivation in an in vitro ischemia model, respectively) as well as anti-necrotic, anti-apoptotic, and antioxidant activities (EC50 = 11.2 ± 3.94 µM), which were measured by its capacity to reduce superoxide production in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell cultures, followed by mononitrone BPMN3, with one N-Bn radical, and BPMN2, with only one N-tert-Bu substituent. The antioxidant activity of BPNs1-5 has also been analyzed for their capacity to scavenge hydroxyl free radicals (82% at 100 µM), lipoxygenase inhibition, and the inhibition of lipid peroxidation (68% at 100 µM). Results showed that although the number of nitrone groups improves the neuroprotection profile of these BPNs, the final effect is also dependent on the substitutent that is being incorporated. Thus, BPNs bearing N-tert-Bu and N-Bn groups show better neuroprotective and antioxidant properties than those substituted with Me. All these results led us to propose homo-bis-nitrone BPHBN5 as the most balanced and interesting nitrone based on its neuroprotective capacity in different neuronal models of oxidative stress and in vitro ischemia as well as its antioxidant activity.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/farmacología , Óxidos N-Cíclicos/farmacología , Inhibidores de la Lipooxigenasa/farmacología , Lipooxigenasa/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotectores/farmacología , Antioxidantes/síntesis química , Antioxidantes/química , Óxidos N-Cíclicos/síntesis química , Óxidos N-Cíclicos/química , Humanos , Radical Hidroxilo/antagonistas & inhibidores , Peroxidación de Lípido/efectos de los fármacos , Inhibidores de la Lipooxigenasa/síntesis química , Inhibidores de la Lipooxigenasa/química , Estructura Molecular , Fármacos Neuroprotectores/síntesis química , Fármacos Neuroprotectores/química , Células Tumorales Cultivadas
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