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1.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 2461-2475, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33814910

RESUMEN

Aim: To explore the effects of Radix Sophorae Flavescentis carbonisata-based carbon dots (RSFC-CDs) on an ethanol-induced acute gastric ulcer rat model. Methods: The structure, optical properties, functional groups and elemental composition of RSFC-CDs synthesized by one-step pyrolysis were characterized. The gastric protective effects of RSFC-CDs were evaluated and confirmed by applying a rat model of ethanol-induced acute gastric ulcers. The underlying mechanisms were investigated through the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signalling pathway and oxidative stress. Results: RSFC-CDs with a diameter ranging from 2-3 nm mainly showed gastric protective effects by reducing the levels of NF-κB, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) to inhibit ethanol-induced inflammation and oxidative stress. Conclusion: RSFC-CDs have anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects, making them promising for application in ethanol-induced gastric injury.


Asunto(s)
Antiinflamatorios/uso terapéutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapéutico , Carbono/química , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/uso terapéutico , Sustancias Protectoras/uso terapéutico , Úlcera Gástrica/inducido químicamente , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedad Aguda , Animales , Antiinflamatorios/farmacología , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Regulación hacia Abajo/efectos de los fármacos , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/farmacología , Etanol/efectos adversos , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Masculino , FN-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintasa de Tipo II/metabolismo , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Espectroscopía de Fotoelectrones , Sustancias Protectoras/farmacología , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Úlcera Gástrica/patología , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Regulación hacia Arriba/efectos de los fármacos
2.
Wiad Lek ; 74(3 cz 2): 767-772, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33843651

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim: Analyze the ophthalmic studies on diagnostics and treatment of patients with age-related macular degeneration to optimize diagnostics and management tactics. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: The analysis of scientific papers due to age-related macular degeneration, vitamin D and its functions from scientometric databases: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science. The methods were next: systematic approach, analysis, summarization and comparison. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Age-related macular degeneration is a chronic, progressive disease among people older than 50 years. Late diagnostics and inappropriate treatment may lead to irreversible central vision loss and social disadaptation. Modern studies on the pathogenesis and treatment of this pathology (that are due to the role of the immune system, antioxidants and microelements) demonstrate the effectiveness and prospects for further development around the world to find new ways to solve this problem.


Asunto(s)
Degeneración Macular , Antioxidantes/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Degeneración Macular/diagnóstico , Degeneración Macular/prevención & control , Persona de Mediana Edad , Vitamina D , Vitaminas/uso terapéutico
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(7)2021 Mar 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810307

RESUMEN

Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease is a rare autosomal recessive inherited childhood neurodegenerative disease characterized by the accumulation of cholesterol and glycosphingolipids, involving the autophagy-lysosome system. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), an enzyme that metabolizes epoxy fatty acids (EpFAs) to 12-diols, exerts beneficial effects in modulating inflammation and autophagy, critical features of the NPC disease. This study aims to evaluate the effects of UB-EV-52, an sEH inhibitor (sEHi), in an NPC mouse model (Npc) by administering it for 4 weeks (5 mg/kg/day). Behavioral and cognitive tests (open-field test (OF)), elevated plus maze (EPM), novel object recognition test (NORT) and object location test (OLT) demonstrated that the treatment produced an improvement in short- and long-term memory as well as in spatial memory. Furthermore, UB-EV-52 treatment increased body weight and lifespan by 25% and reduced gene expression of the inflammatory markers (i.e., Il-1ß and Mcp1) and enhanced oxidative stress (OS) markers (iNOS and Hmox1) in the treated Npc mice group. As for autophagic markers, surprisingly, we found significantly reduced levels of LC3B-II/LC3B-I ratio and significantly reduced brain protein levels of lysosomal-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1) in treated Npc mice group compared to untreated ones in hippocampal tissue. Lipid profile analysis showed a significant reduction of lipid storage in the liver and some slight changes in homogenated brain tissue in the treated NPC mice compared to the untreated groups. Therefore, our results suggest that pharmacological inhibition of sEH ameliorates most of the characteristic features of NPC mice, demonstrating that sEH can be considered a potential therapeutic target for this disease.


Asunto(s)
Antiinflamatorios/uso terapéutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapéutico , Inhibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapéutico , Epóxido Hidrolasas/antagonistas & inhibidores , Enfermedad de Niemann-Pick Tipo C/tratamiento farmacológico , Animales , Autofagia , Cognición , Femenino , Masculino , Memoria , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Fenotipo
4.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1308: 257-272, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33861449

RESUMEN

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is becoming in one of the most prevalent liver diseases that leads to liver transplantation. This health problem is a multisystem disease with a complex pathogenesis that involves liver, adipose tissue, gut, and muscle. Although several pharmacological agents have been investigated to prevent or treat non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, currently there is no effective treatment for the management of this chronic liver disease. Nonetheless, the use of natural products has emerged as a alternative therapeutic for the treatment of hepatic diseases, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, due to its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antidiabetic, insulin-sensitizing, antiobesity, hypolipidemic, and hepatoprotective properties. In the present review, we have discussed the evidence from experimental and clinical studies regarding the potential beneficial effects of plant-derived natural products (quercetin, resveratrol, berberine, pomegranate, curcumin, cinnamon, green tea, coffee, garlic, ginger, ginseng, and gingko biloba) for the treatment or prevention of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.


Asunto(s)
Productos Biológicos , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico , Antioxidantes/uso terapéutico , Productos Biológicos/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Hígado , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/tratamiento farmacológico , Resveratrol
5.
Molecules ; 26(8)2021 Apr 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33921289

RESUMEN

The recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a global threat for healthcare management and the economic system, and effective treatments against the pathogenic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus responsible for this disease have not yet progressed beyond the developmental phases. As drug refinement and vaccine progression require enormously broad investments of time, alternative strategies are urgently needed. In this study, we examined phytochemicals extracted from Avicennia officinalis and evaluated their potential effects against the main protease of SARS-CoV-2. The antioxidant activities of A. officinalis leaf and fruit extracts at 150 µg/mL were 95.97% and 92.48%, respectively. Furthermore, both extracts displayed low cytotoxicity levels against Artemia salina. The gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis confirmed the identifies of 75 phytochemicals from both extracts, and four potent compounds, triacontane, hexacosane, methyl linoleate, and methyl palminoleate, had binding free energy values of -6.75, -6.7, -6.3, and -6.3 Kcal/mol, respectively, in complexes with the SARS-CoV-2 main protease. The active residues Cys145, Met165, Glu166, Gln189, and Arg188 in the main protease formed non-bonded interactions with the screened compounds. The root-mean-square difference (RMSD), root-mean-square fluctuations (RMSF), radius of gyration (Rg), solvent-accessible surface area (SASA), and hydrogen bond data from a molecular dynamics simulation study confirmed the docked complexes' binding rigidity in the atomistic simulated environment. However, this study's findings require in vitro and in vivo validation to ensure the possible inhibitory effects and pharmacological efficacy of the identified compounds.


Asunto(s)
Avicennia/química , Fitoquímicos/uso terapéutico , /metabolismo , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/uso terapéutico , Avicennia/metabolismo , Sitios de Unión , /virología , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Humanos , Simulación del Acoplamiento Molecular , Simulación de Dinámica Molecular , Alcohol Feniletílico/química , Alcohol Feniletílico/metabolismo , Alcohol Feniletílico/uso terapéutico , Fenilpropionatos/química , Fenilpropionatos/metabolismo , Fenilpropionatos/uso terapéutico , Fitoquímicos/química , Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Hojas de la Planta/química , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de la Matriz Viral/química , Proteínas de la Matriz Viral/metabolismo
6.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 Apr 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33925783

RESUMEN

As COVID-19 continues to take an enormous toll on global health, the effort to find effective preventive and treatment strategies has been unparalleled in recent history [...].


Asunto(s)
/dietoterapia , Carnosina/uso terapéutico , Suplementos Dietéticos , Antioxidantes/uso terapéutico , Salud Global , Humanos , Inflamación/epidemiología , Estrés Oxidativo
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802143

RESUMEN

(1) Background: Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) decreases the quality of life of patients and can lead to a dose reduction and/or the interruption of chemotherapy treatment, limiting its effectiveness. Potential pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of CIPN include chronic oxidative stress and subsequent increase in free radicals and proinflammatory cytokines. Approaches for the treatment of CIPN are highly limited in their number and efficacy, although several antioxidant-based therapies have been tried. On the other hand, ozone therapy can induce an adaptive antioxidant and anti-inflammatory response, which could be potentially useful in the management of CIPN. (2) Methods: The aims of this works are: (a) to summarize the potential mechanisms that could induce CIPN by the most relevant drugs (platinum, taxanes, vinca alkaloids, and bortezomib), with particular focus on the role of oxidative stress; (b) to summarize the current situation of prophylactic and treatment approaches; (c) to describe the action mechanisms of ozone therapy to modify oxidative stress and inflammation with its potential repercussions for CIPN; (d) to describe related experimental and clinical reports with ozone therapy in chemo-induced neurologic symptoms and CIPN; and (e) to show the main details about an ongoing focused clinical trial. (3) Results: A wide background relating to the mechanisms of action and a small number of experimental and clinical reports suggest that ozone therapy could be useful to prevent or improve CIPN. (4) Conclusions: Currently, there are no clinically relevant approaches for the prevention and treatment of stablished CIPN. The potential role of ozone therapy in this syndrome merits further research. Randomized controlled trials are ongoing.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos/efectos adversos , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Ozono/uso terapéutico , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso Periférico/prevención & control , Antiinflamatorios/uso terapéutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso Periférico/inducido químicamente , Calidad de Vida , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
8.
J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol ; 40(2): 11-21, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822513

RESUMEN

Global industrialization not only improved the quality life of millions but also paved the way to solving many health problems. One among them is allergic asthma, which affects approximately 20% of the global population. Poor air quality is the major culprit in allergic asthma, which not only affects the individual's health, but also impairs his or her life quality and that of family members. Asthma is a chronic pulmonary inflammatory disease characterized by excess mucus production, airway hyperresponsiveness, and bronchoconstriction. Inhalation of corticosteroids, leukotriene modifiers, and ß-adrenergic agonists is one treatment prescribed to control the symptoms of asthma, but there is still no effective cure. Phytochemicals such as carotenoids, phenolics, alkaloids, and nitrogen and organosulfur compounds are proven to possess immense pharmacological properties. Betalain is one such phytochemical present in plants of the order Caryophyllales. It is a water-soluble nitrogen-based pigment proven to possess antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, antilipidemic, antidiabetic, and anticancer properties. We examined the curative potential of betalain against allergic asthma in a mouse model. Betalain treatment effectively decreased lung weight and infiltration of inflammatory cells in BAL fluid, and lowered IgE, eotaxin, and cytokine levels in asthma-induced mice. It also improved pulmonary mechanics and decreased oxidative stress and nitric oxide levels. Betalain significantly decreased gene expression of TGF-ß and its downstream signaling Smad proteins. Lung histology confirmed that betalain protected the lung tissue of mice from ovalbumin-induced allergic asthma. Overall, our results show that betalain is a potent antiallergic drug that effectively protects mice from ovalbumin-induced allergic asthma. With further research, it can be prescribed as a treatment for asthma in humans.


Asunto(s)
Antiasmáticos/uso terapéutico , Antiinflamatorios/uso terapéutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapéutico , Asma/tratamiento farmacológico , Betalaínas/uso terapéutico , Proteínas Smad/inmunología , Factor de Crecimiento Transformador beta1/inmunología , Alérgenos , Animales , Antiasmáticos/farmacología , Antiinflamatorios/farmacología , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Asma/inmunología , Asma/patología , Asma/fisiopatología , Betalaínas/farmacología , Citocinas/inmunología , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Femenino , Inmunoglobulina E/inmunología , Pulmón/efectos de los fármacos , Pulmón/inmunología , Pulmón/patología , Pulmón/fisiopatología , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C , Ovalbúmina , Transducción de Señal/efectos de los fármacos , Proteínas Smad/genética , Factor de Crecimiento Transformador beta1/genética
9.
Georgian Med News ; (311): 54-57, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33814391

RESUMEN

Chronic generalized parodontitis is one of the most prevalent disorders among diseases of oral cavity, making the search for optimal treatment modalities of this disorder one of the mostressing matters to this day.  The purpose of this study was to assess outcomes of conventional therapy and secondary prevention of chronic generalized parodontitis with in combination with use of laser therapy and antioxidant drug treatment.   The study is presented as a joint multi-site investigation conducted by the group of authors from St. Petersburg and Saransk medical teaching and clinical institutions. The aim of the study was to improve the treatment and secondary prevention of chronic generalized parodontitis based on a pathogenetically substantiated scheme of laser and antioxidant therapy.   The total of 98 patients (31 male and 67 female) aged 30-50 years) with the 3 to 10 year history of moderate chronic generalized parodontitis were selected for the prospective study.  All patients were approximately equally divided into three groups according to the received treatment regimens: conventional treatment, laser therapy, and laser therapy with antioxidant medication. Several clinical indices were utilized for parodontal tissue assessment (PMA, SBI, AP), resistance of gingival capillary bed, osteal resorption. The lipid peroxide oxidation was determined by MDA, Fe2+ MDA  and phospholipase A2.   Additional implementation of laser and metabolic therapies sufficiently increases efficacy of conventional therapy and improves secondary prevention of chronic parodontitis. A marked decrease in structural-functional deviations and apparent recovery of microcirculatory vascular bed of parodontal tissue has been achieved. .


Asunto(s)
Periodontitis Crónica , Terapia por Láser , Adulto , Antioxidantes/uso terapéutico , Periodontitis Crónica/tratamiento farmacológico , Femenino , Humanos , Rayos Láser , Masculino , Microcirculación , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668657

RESUMEN

Anemia, characterized by a decrease of the hemoglobin level in the blood and a reduction in carrying capacity of oxygen, is a major public health problem which affects people of all ages. The methods used to treat anemia are blood transfusion and oral administration of iron-based supplements, but these treatments are associated with a number of side effects, such as nausea, vomiting, constipation, and stomach pain, which limit its long-term use. In addition, oral iron supplements are poorly absorbed in the intestinal tract, due to overexpression of hepcidin, a peptide hormone that plays a central role in iron homeostasis. In this review, we conducted an analysis of the literature on biologically active compounds and plant extracts used in the treatment of various types of anemia. The purpose of this review is to provide up-to-date information on the use of these compounds and plant extracts, in order to explore their therapeutic potential. The advantage of using them is that they are available from natural resources and can be used as main, alternative, or adjuvant therapies in many diseases, such as various types of anemia.


Asunto(s)
Anemia/tratamiento farmacológico , Antioxidantes/uso terapéutico , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico , Anemia/metabolismo , Anemia/patología , Humanos
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669995

RESUMEN

Oxidative stress and increased cytoplasmic calcium are key mediators of the detrimental effects on neuronal function and survival in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Pathways whereby these perturbations arise, and then prevent dendritic spine formation, promote tau hyperphosphorylation, further amplify amyloid ß generation, and induce neuronal apoptosis, are described. A comprehensive program of nutraceutical supplementation, comprised of the NADPH oxidase inhibitor phycocyanobilin, phase two inducers, the mitochondrial antioxidant astaxanthin, and the glutathione precursor N-acetylcysteine, may have important potential for antagonizing the toxic effects of amyloid ß on neurons and thereby aiding prevention of AD. Moreover, nutraceutical antioxidant strategies may oppose the adverse impact of amyloid ß oligomers on astrocyte clearance of glutamate, and on the ability of brain capillaries to export amyloid ß monomers/oligomers from the brain. Antioxidants, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and vitamin D, have potential for suppressing microglial production of interleukin-1ß, which potentiates the neurotoxicity of amyloid ß. Epidemiology suggests that a health-promoting lifestyle, incorporating a prudent diet, regular vigorous exercise, and other feasible measures, can cut the high risk for AD among the elderly by up to 60%. Conceivably, complementing such lifestyle measures with long-term adherence to the sort of nutraceutical regimen outlined here may drive down risk for AD even further.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/prevención & control , Antioxidantes/uso terapéutico , Señalización del Calcio , Oxidantes/toxicidad , Péptidos beta-Amiloides/toxicidad , Animales , Señalización del Calcio/efectos de los fármacos , Suplementos Dietéticos , Humanos
12.
Trials ; 22(1): 194, 2021 Mar 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33685474

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: We investigate the effects of melatonin, compared to the usual therapeutic regimen on clinical symptoms and laboratory signs in severely ill patients with confirmed COVID-19 who are admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). TRIAL DESIGN: This is a single-center, open-label, randomized, clinical trial with a parallel-group design. This study is being conducted at Shahid Mohammadi Hospital, Bandar Abbas, Iran. PARTICIPANTS: All patients admitted to the ICU of Shahid Mohammadi Hospital, Bandar Abbas, Iran, will be screened for the following criteria. Inclusion criteria 1. Age >20 years 2. Definitive diagnosis of COVID-19 based on RT-PCR or/and serological testing 3. Severe pneumonia and lung involvement in imaging 4. Signing informed consent Exclusion criteria 1. Underlying diseases, including convulsive disorders, chronic hepatic and renal diseases 2. Use of mechanical ventilation 3. History of known allergy to Melatonin 4. Pregnancy and breastfeeding INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Intervention group: The standard treatment regimen for COVID-19, according to the Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education's protocol, along with Melatonin soft gelatin capsule (Danna Pharmaceutical Company) at a dose of 5 mg twice a day for a period of seven days. CONTROL GROUP: The standard treatment for COVID-19 based on the Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education's protocol for a period of seven days. MAIN OUTCOMES: The primary outcomes are the recovery rate of clinical symptoms and checking arterial blood gas (ABG), C-reactive protein (C-RP), Ferritin, Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) within seven days of randomization. The secondary outcomes are time to improvement of clinical and paraclinical features and length of stay in the ICU, need for mechanical ventilation, and mortality rate within seven days of randomization. RANDOMIZATION: Included patients will be allocated to one of the study arms using block randomization in a 1:1 ratio (each block consists of 6 patients). This randomization method ensures a balanced allocation between the arms during the study. A web-based system will generate random numbers for the allocation sequence and concealment of participants. Each number relates to one of the study arms. BLINDING (MASKING): This is an open-label trial without blinding and placebo control. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMIZED (SAMPLE SIZE): A total of 60 participants randomizes (30 patients allocated to the intervention group and 30 patients allocated to the control group). TRIAL STATUS: The protocol is Version 1.0, February 16, 2021. Recruitment began February 28, 2021, and is anticipated to be completed by July 31, 2021. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial protocol has been registered in the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT). The registration number is " IRCT20200506047323N7 ". The registration date was February 16, 2021. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest of expediting the dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/uso terapéutico , Melatonina/uso terapéutico , Análisis de los Gases de la Sangre , Proteína C-Reactiva/metabolismo , /fisiopatología , Ferritinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Irán , L-Lactato Deshidrogenasa/metabolismo , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
13.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1286: 77-85, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725346

RESUMEN

Fibromyalgia is a common chronic pain condition of unknown aetiology, although mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and inflammation have been implicated in the pathophysiology of this disorder. Treatment generally involves physiotherapy, anticonvulsants, and antidepressant therapy; however, the symptomatic relief conferred by these treatments can be very variable, and there is a need for additional therapeutic strategies. One such treatment which is gaining a lot of interest is the use of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) supplementation. The therapeutic efficacy associated with CoQ10 supplementation is thought to arise from the ability of supplementation to restore an underlying deficit in CoQ10 status which has been associated with fibromyalgia together with the ability of CoQ10 to improve mitochondrial activity, restore cellular antioxidant capacity, and ameliorate inflammation. This chapter outlines the evidence supporting the therapeutic utility of CoQ10 in the treatment of fibromyalgia.


Asunto(s)
Fibromialgia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/uso terapéutico , Fibromialgia/tratamiento farmacológico , Fibromialgia/metabolismo , Humanos , Mitocondrias/metabolismo , Estrés Oxidativo , Ubiquinona/análogos & derivados
14.
Int J Mol Med ; 47(4)2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33649779

RESUMEN

Oxidative stress serves a key role in doxorubicin (DOX)­induced cardiotoxicity. The peptide Szeto­Schiller (SS)31 is an efficacious antioxidant with the capacity to reduce mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and scavenge free radicals. Although SS31 is involved in the pathophysiological process of various cardiovascular diseases, the role of SS31 in DOX­induced cardiotoxicity remains unclear. To explore the effects of SS31 in DOX­induced cardiotoxicity, the present study first constructed DOX­induced cardiotoxicity models, in which H9c2 cells were incubated with 1 µM DOX for 24 h and C57BL/6 mice were administered DOX (20 mg/kg cumulative dose). The results of various assays in these models demonstrated that SS31 exhibited a cardioprotective effect in vitro and in vivo by attenuating the level of ROS, stabilizing the mitochondrial membrane potential and ameliorating myocardial apoptosis as well as fibrosis following treatment with DOX. Mechanistically, the results of the present study revealed that the p38 MAPK signaling pathway was inhibited by SS31 in DOX­treated H9c2 cells, which was associated with the cardioprotective function of SS31. In addition, P79350, a selective agonist of p38 MAPK, reversed the protective effects of SS31. Taken together, these results demonstrated the effects of SS31 on ameliorating DOX­induced cardiotoxicity and indicated its potential as a drug for the treatment of DOX­induced cardiotoxicity.


Asunto(s)
Cardiotónicos/uso terapéutico , Doxorrubicina/toxicidad , Sistema de Señalización de MAP Quinasas/efectos de los fármacos , Miocardio/patología , Oligopéptidos/uso terapéutico , Proteínas Quinasas p38 Activadas por Mitógenos/antagonistas & inhibidores , Animales , Antioxidantes/uso terapéutico , Apoptosis/efectos de los fármacos , Cardiotoxicidad/tratamiento farmacológico , Cardiotoxicidad/prevención & control , Fibrosis Endomiocárdica/tratamiento farmacológico , Fibrosis Endomiocárdica/prevención & control , Masculino , Potencial de la Membrana Mitocondrial/efectos de los fármacos , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Mitocondrias/metabolismo , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Fosforilación/efectos de los fármacos , Ratas , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno/metabolismo
15.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672875

RESUMEN

Treatment of kidney stones is based on symptomatic medications which are associated with side effects such as gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., nausea, vomiting) and hepatotoxicity. The search for effective plant extracts without the above side effects has demonstrated the involvement of antioxidants in the treatment of kidney stones. A local survey in Morocco has previously revealed the frequent use of Rubia tinctorum L. (RT) for the treatment of kidney stones. In this study, we first explored whether RT ethanolic (E-RT) and ethyl acetate (EA-RT) extracts of Rubia tinctorum L. could prevent the occurrence of urolithiasis in an experimental 0.75% ethylene glycol (EG) and 2% ammonium chloride (AC)-induced rat model. Secondly, we determined the potential antioxidant potency as well as the polyphenol composition of these extracts. An EG/AC regimen for 10 days induced the formation of bipyramid-shaped calcium oxalate crystals in the urine. Concomitantly, serum and urinary creatinine, urea, uric acid, phosphorus, calcium, sodium, potassium, and chloride were altered. The co-administration of both RT extracts prevented alterations in all these parameters. In the EG/AC-induced rat model, the antioxidants- and polyphenols-rich E-RT and EA-RT extracts significantly reduced the presence of calcium oxalate in the urine, and prevented serum and urinary biochemical alterations together with kidney tissue damage associated with urolithiasis. Moreover, we demonstrated that the beneficial preventive effects of E-RT co-administration were more pronounced than those obtained with EA-RT. The superiority of E-RT was associated with its more potent antioxidant effect, due to its high content in polyphenols.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/uso terapéutico , Etanol/química , Extractos Vegetales/química , Polifenoles/uso terapéutico , Rubia/química , Urolitiasis/tratamiento farmacológico , Urolitiasis/prevención & control , Acetatos/química , Cloruro de Amonio , Animales , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Peso Corporal/efectos de los fármacos , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Glicol de Etileno , Concentración 50 Inhibidora , Fenoles/análisis , Polifenoles/farmacología , Ratas Wistar , Urolitiasis/inducido químicamente , Urolitiasis/fisiopatología
16.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673039

RESUMEN

Psidium (Myrtaceae) comprises approximately 266 species, distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Psidium taxa have great ecological, economic, and medicinal relevance due to their essential oils' chemical diversity and biological potential. This review reports 18 Psidium species growing around the world and the chemical and biological properties of their essential oils. Chemically, 110 oil records are reported with significant variability of volatile constituents, according to their seasonality and collection sites. Monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes with acyclic (C10 and C15), p-menthane, pinane, bisabolane, germacrane, caryophyllane, cadinane, and aromadendrane skeleton-types, were the primary constituents. The essential oils showed various biological activities, including antioxidant, antifungal, antibacterial, phytotoxic, larvicidal, anti-inflammatory, and cytotoxic properties. This review contributes to the Psidium species rational and economic exploration as natural sources to produce new drugs.


Asunto(s)
Monoterpenos/química , Aceites Volátiles/química , Psidium/química , Sesquiterpenos/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Antiinflamatorios/química , Antiinflamatorios/uso terapéutico , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/uso terapéutico , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/uso terapéutico , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Monoterpenos/uso terapéutico , Aceites Volátiles/uso terapéutico , Aceites Vegetales/química , Sesquiterpenos/uso terapéutico
17.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 22(3): 110, 2021 Mar 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33733385

RESUMEN

This study sought to improve the oral bioavailability and enhance the anti-enteritis effect of fraxetin by incorporating it into long circulating liposomes (F-LC-Lipo). The optimal formulation of F-LC-Lipo was obtained via orthogonal design. The particle size, morphology, encapsulation efficiency, stability, and anti-enteritis effect of F-LC-Lipo were evaluated. The particle size of F-LC-Lipo was 166.65 ± 8.75 nm with entrapment efficiency (EE) of 92.18 ± 0.17%. The release rate in different dissolution media (pH 1.2 HCl, DDW, and pH 7.4 PBS) was significantly higher than that of fraxetin solution. Compared with the free fraxetin solution, F-LC-Lipo increased oral bioavailability of fraxetin by 4.43 times (443%). More importantly, F-LC-Lipo could improve the levels of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1ß), IL-6, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), C-reactive protein (CRP), prostaglandin E2 (PEG2), and IL-10 in rats with enteritis. Overall, these results suggested that LC-Lipo may serve as a potential carrier for improving the solubility and oral bioavailability of fraxetin as well as improving its enteritis effect.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/administración & dosificación , Antioxidantes/uso terapéutico , Cumarinas/administración & dosificación , Cumarinas/uso terapéutico , Enteritis/tratamiento farmacológico , Animales , Antiinflamatorios no Esteroideos/administración & dosificación , Antiinflamatorios no Esteroideos/uso terapéutico , Disponibilidad Biológica , Liberación de Fármacos , Estabilidad de Medicamentos , Enteritis/patología , Liposomas , Masculino , Tamaño de la Partícula , Ratas , Ratas Sprague-Dawley
18.
Vitam Horm ; 115: 67-88, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33706965

RESUMEN

Preservation of a robust circadian rhythmicity (particulsarly of the sleep/wake cycle), a proper nutrition and adequate physical exercise are key elements for healthy aging. Aging comes along with circadian alteration, e.g. a disrupted sleep and inflammation, that leads to metabolic disorders. In turn, sleep cycle disturbances cause numerous pathophysiological changes that accelerates the aging process. In the central nervous system, sleep disruption impairs several functions, among them, the clearance of waste molecules. The decrease of plasma melatonin, a molecule of unusual phylogenetic conservation present in all known aerobic organisms, plays a particular role as far as the endocrine sequels of aging. Every day, the late afternoon/nocturnal increase of melatonin synchronizes both the central circadian pacemaker located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei as well as myriads of peripheral cellular circadian clocks. This is called the "chronobiotic effect" of melatonin, the methoxyindole being the prototype of the endogenous family of chronobiotic agents. In addition, melatonin exerts a significant cytoprotective action by buffering free radicals and reversing inflammation via down regulation of proinflammatory cytokines, suppression of low degree inflammation and prevention of insulin resistance. Because of these properties melatonin has been advocated to be a potential therapeutic tool in COVID 19 pandemic. Melatonin administration to aged animals counteracts a significant number of senescence-related changes. In humans, melatonin is effective both as a chronobiotic and a cytoprotective agent to maintain a healthy aging. Circulating melatonin levels are consistently reduced in the metabolic syndrome, ischemic and non-ischemic cardiovascular diseases and neurodegenerative disorders like the Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. The potential therapeutic value of melatonin has been suggested by a limited number of clinical trials generally employing melatonin in the 2-10mg/day range. However, from animal studies the cytoprotective effects of melatonin need higher doses to become apparent (i.e. in the 100mg/day range). Hence, controlled studies employing melatonin doses in this range are urgently needed.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/farmacología , Ritmo Circadiano/efectos de los fármacos , Envejecimiento Saludable/efectos de los fármacos , Melatonina/farmacología , Animales , Antioxidantes/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Melatonina/uso terapéutico
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Feb 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652942

RESUMEN

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is to date the most common chronic liver disease in clinical practice and, consequently, a major health problem worldwide. It affects approximately 30% of adults in the general population and up to 70% of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Despite the current knowledge of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and natural history of NAFLD, no specific pharmacological therapies are until now approved for this disease and, consequently, general strategies have been proposed to manage it. They include: (a) lifestyle change in order to promote weight loss by diet and physical activity, (b) control of the main cardiometabolic risk factors, (c) correction of all modifiable risk factors leading the development and progression of advanced forms of NAFLD, and (d) prevention of hepatic and extra-hepatic complications. In the last decade, several potential agents have been widely investigated for the treatment of NAFLD and its advanced forms-shedding some light but casting a few shadows. They include some glucose-lowering drugs (such as pioglitazone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists, sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors), antioxidants (such as vitamin E), statins or other lipid lowering agents, bile and non-bile acid farnesoid X activated receptor (FXR) agonists, and others. This narrative review discusses in detail the different available approaches with the potential to prevent and treat NAFLD and its advanced forms.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/terapia , Animales , Antioxidantes/uso terapéutico , Dietoterapia , Manejo de la Enfermedad , Ejercicio Físico , Humanos , Inhibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Reductasas/uso terapéutico , Hipoglucemiantes/uso terapéutico , Estilo de Vida
20.
Chem Res Toxicol ; 34(4): 952-958, 2021 04 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33719401

RESUMEN

Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis and is the most commonly acquired heart disease among children in many countries, which was first reported 50 years ago in Japan. The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)) has been a pandemic in most of the world since 2020, and since late 2019 in China. Kawasaki-like disease caused by COVID-19 shares some symptoms with KD, referred to as multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and has been reported in the United States, Italy, France, England, and other areas of Europe, with an almost 6-10 times or more increase compared with previous years of KD prevalence. Hydrogen gas is a stable and efficient antioxidant, which has a positive effect on oxidative damage, inflammation, cell apoptosis, and abnormal blood vessel inflammation. This review reports the chemical and biochemical aspects of hydrogen gas inhalation in treating KD and COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/uso terapéutico , Hidrógeno/uso terapéutico , Síndrome Mucocutáneo Linfonodular/tratamiento farmacológico , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacología , /virología , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Hidrógeno/química , Hidrógeno/farmacología , Macrófagos/citología , Macrófagos/efectos de los fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Síndrome Mucocutáneo Linfonodular/epidemiología , Síndrome Mucocutáneo Linfonodular/patología , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Prevalencia , /aislamiento & purificación
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