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1.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(2): e20200466, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-608501

RESUMEN

COVID-19 emerged in December 2019 in China, and since then, has disrupted global public health and changed economic paradigms. In dealing with the new Coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, the world has not faced such extreme global fragility since the "Spanish flu" pandemic in 1918. Researchers globally are dedicating efforts to the search for an effective treatment for COVID-19. Drugs already used in a clinical setting for other pathologies have been tested as a new therapeutic approach against SARS-CoV-2, setting off a frenzy over the preliminary data of different studies. This work aims to compile and discuss the data published thus far. Despite the potential effects of some antivirals and antiparasitic against COVID-19, clinical studies must confirm real effectiveness. However, non-pharmacological approaches have proven to be the most efficient strategy to date.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/administración & dosificación , Antiparasitarios/administración & dosificación , Antivirales/administración & dosificación , Betacoronavirus/efectos de los fármacos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Macrólidos/administración & dosificación , Neumonía Viral/tratamiento farmacológico , Inhibidores de Serina Proteinasa/administración & dosificación , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Antiparasitarios/química , Antiparasitarios/farmacología , Antivirales/química , Antivirales/farmacología , Humanos , Macrólidos/química , Macrólidos/farmacología , Pandemias , Inhibidores de Serina Proteinasa/química , Inhibidores de Serina Proteinasa/farmacología
2.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(2): e20200466, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32556054

RESUMEN

COVID-19 emerged in December 2019 in China, and since then, has disrupted global public health and changed economic paradigms. In dealing with the new Coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, the world has not faced such extreme global fragility since the "Spanish flu" pandemic in 1918. Researchers globally are dedicating efforts to the search for an effective treatment for COVID-19. Drugs already used in a clinical setting for other pathologies have been tested as a new therapeutic approach against SARS-CoV-2, setting off a frenzy over the preliminary data of different studies. This work aims to compile and discuss the data published thus far. Despite the potential effects of some antivirals and antiparasitic against COVID-19, clinical studies must confirm real effectiveness. However, non-pharmacological approaches have proven to be the most efficient strategy to date.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/administración & dosificación , Antiparasitarios/administración & dosificación , Antivirales/administración & dosificación , Betacoronavirus/efectos de los fármacos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Macrólidos/administración & dosificación , Neumonía Viral/tratamiento farmacológico , Inhibidores de Serina Proteinasa/administración & dosificación , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Antiparasitarios/química , Antiparasitarios/farmacología , Antivirales/química , Antivirales/farmacología , Humanos , Macrólidos/química , Macrólidos/farmacología , Pandemias , Inhibidores de Serina Proteinasa/química , Inhibidores de Serina Proteinasa/farmacología
3.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(6): e0008298, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511226

RESUMEN

In Haiti, 22 communes still require mass drug administration (MDA) to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (LF) as a public health problem. Several clinical trials have shown that a single oral dose of ivermectin (IVM), diethylcarbamazine (DEC) and albendazole (ALB) (IDA) is more effective than DEC plus ALB (DA) for clearing Wuchereria bancrofti microfilariae (Mf). We performed a cluster-randomized community study to compare the safety and efficacy of IDA and DA in an LF-endemic area in northern Haiti. Ten localities were randomized to receive either DA or IDA. Participants were monitored for adverse events (AE), parasite antigenemia, and microfilaremia. Antigen-positive participants were retested one year after MDA to assess treatment efficacy. Fewer participants (11.0%, 321/2917) experienced at least one AE after IDA compared to DA (17.3%, 491/2844, P<0.001). Most AEs were mild, and the three most common AEs reported were headaches, dizziness and abdominal pain. Serious AEs developed in three participants who received DA. Baseline prevalence for filarial antigenemia was 8.0% (239/3004) in IDA localities and 11.5% (344/2994) in DA localities (<0.001). Of those with positive antigenemia, 17.6% (42/239) in IDA localities and 20.9% (72/344, P = 0.25) in DA localities were microfilaremic. One year after treatment, 84% percent of persons with positive filarial antigen tests at baseline could be retested. Clearance rates for filarial antigenemia were 20.5% (41/200) after IDA versus 25.4% (74/289) after DA (P = 0.3). However, 94.4% (34/36) of IDA recipients and 75.9% (44/58) of DA recipients with baseline microfilaremia were Mf negative at the time of retest (P = 0.02). Thus, MDA with IDA was at least as well tolerated and significantly more effective for clearing Mf compared to the standard DA regimen in this study. Effective MDA coverage with IDA could accelerate the elimination of LF as a public health problem in the 22 communes that still require MDA in Haiti.


Asunto(s)
Albendazol/administración & dosificación , Antiparasitarios/administración & dosificación , Dietilcarbamazina/administración & dosificación , Ivermectina/administración & dosificación , Adolescente , Adulto , Albendazol/efectos adversos , Animales , Antiparasitarios/efectos adversos , Niño , Preescolar , Dietilcarbamazina/efectos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Filariasis Linfática/tratamiento farmacológico , Femenino , Haití , Humanos , Ivermectina/efectos adversos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Administración Masiva de Medicamentos/efectos adversos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
4.
Hautarzt ; 71(6): 447-454, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32430543

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of scabies has become surprisingly frequent in Germany in recent years and the use of scabicides has risen significantly. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our survey was to determine whether this trend can also be detected among military personnel of the German Armed Forces (Bundeswehr). METHODS: The study was conducted as a retrospective single-center study over a period of 8 years from 2012 to 2019 in the Department of Dermatology of the Armed Forces Hospital Berlin, Germany. Data were generated from the hospital information system (KIS), which was searched for all scabies-coded diagnoses according to ICD10 code B86 both as outpatients and inpatients. Only first presentations with scabies diagnosis confirmed by dermoscopy or microscopy by a dermatologist were included. Inpatient treatment was required if a patient was not cured after at least three antiscabies treatment cycles in the outpatient setting. RESULTS: The data show that there has been a steady increase in the diagnosis of scabies in Bundeswehr personnel. Moreover, our data show that the number of unsuccessfully treated outpatients increased and required in-hospital treatment. CONCLUSION: We observed an increase of scabies among German military personnel who represent a typical at-risk group. These results support the observations of an increased incidence of scabies in Germany in general and especially in an at-risk population. With the general increase in scabies cases, there are also increasing numbers of German military personnel who are refractory to treatment, which was largely attributed to inadequate treatment of contact persons and individual treatment errors. Nevertheless, the data also emphasize the low overall prevalence of scabies; therefore, all diagnoses should be confirmed by dermoscopy or microscopy after 14 days whenever possible to rule out the bias of overreporting due to false-positive cases diagnosed only by clinical examination.


Asunto(s)
Antiparasitarios/administración & dosificación , Ivermectina/administración & dosificación , Personal Militar/estadística & datos numéricos , Escabiosis/epidemiología , Administración Tópica , Animales , Antiparasitarios/uso terapéutico , Alemania/epidemiología , Humanos , Ivermectina/uso terapéutico , Estudios Retrospectivos , Escabiosis/diagnóstico , Escabiosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Resultado del Tratamiento
5.
Brasilia; s.n; 22 abr. , 2020. 24 p.
No convencional en Portugués | LILACS, BRISA/RedTESA, PIE | ID: biblio-1095198

RESUMEN

O objetivo da revisão sistemática foi investigar a eficácia e a segurança de tratamentos com antivirais para COVID-19, SARS e MERS. Ao todo, 22 estudos foram incluídos: 1 ensaio clínico, 16 séries de casos e 5 relatos de caso. Os antivirais mais utilizados foram lopinavir / ritonavir, oseltamivir, ribavirina e arbidol. Todos os estudos usaram outras terapias, como antibióticos, imunoglobulina, interferon, glicocorticoides, metilprednisolona e medicamentos antiparasitários e antifúngicos, além da terapia antiviral para pacientes com COVID-19. No único ECR incluído, os pacientes que receberam lopinavir / ritonavir tiveram um processo de recuperação semelhante aos pacientes que receberam tratamento padrão. Os desfechos de mortalidade em 28 dias e carga viral de RNA não foram significativamente diferentes entre os dois grupos. Dentre os achados dos demais estudos, vale destacar que estudos de séries e relatos de casos não avaliam a eficácia de medicamentos, e que em geral as amostras foram pequenas. O estudo de Guan, com 1099 pacientes, chegou a conclusão que oseltamivir foi ineficaz na diminuição da taxa de admissão na UTI, na necessidade de ventilação e na taxa de mortalidade entre os pacientes. O estudo de Shang, com 416 pacientes, indicou que medicamentos antivirais não têm efeito na taxa de mortalidade de pacientes com COVID-19. O estudo de Li, com cinco crianças com COVID-19, indicou que os agentes antivirais não alteraram o resultado ou a duração da internação. A revisão cita outros estudos que foram publicados com os pacientes ainda sob tratamento, sem o desfecho final dessas populações. Quanto a busca por ensaios clínicos para SARS e MERS, foram encontrados protocolos, mas nenhum resultado publicado.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Neumonía Viral/tratamiento farmacológico , Ribavirina/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Ritonavir/uso terapéutico , Antirretrovirales/administración & dosificación , Oseltamivir/uso terapéutico , Lopinavir/uso terapéutico , Betacoronavirus/efectos de los fármacos , Antifúngicos/administración & dosificación , Antiparasitarios/administración & dosificación , Evaluación de la Tecnología Biomédica , Terapias en Investigación/instrumentación
6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(3): e0008106, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176703

RESUMEN

Lymphatic filariasis has remained endemic in Fiji despite repeated mass drug administration using the well-established and safe combination of diethylcarbamazine and albendazole (DA) since 2002. In certain settings the addition of ivermectin to this combination (IDA) remains a safe strategy and is more efficacious. However, the safety has yet to be described in scabies and soil-transmitted helminth endemic settings like Fiji. Villages of Rotuma and Gau islands were randomised to either DA or IDA. Residents received weight-based treatment unblinded with standard exclusions. Participants were actively found and asked by a nurse about their health daily for the first two days and then asked to seek review for the next five days if unwell. Anyone with severe symptoms were reviewed by a doctor and any serious adverse event was reported to the Medical Monitor and Data Safety Monitoring Board. Of 3612 enrolled and eligible participants, 1216 were randomised to DA and 2396 to IDA. Age and sex in both groups were representative of the population. Over 99% (3598) of participants completed 7 days follow-up. Adverse events were reported by 600 participants (16.7%), distributed equally between treatment groups, with most graded as mild (93.2%). There were three serious adverse events, all judged not attributable to treatment by an independent medical monitor. Fatigue was the most common symptom reported by 8.5%, with headache, dizziness, nausea and arthralgia being the next four most common symptoms. Adverse events were more likely in participants with microfilaremia (43.2% versus 15.7%), but adverse event frequency was not related to the presence of scabies or soil-transmitted helminth infection. IDA has comparable safety to DA with the same frequency of adverse events experienced following community mass drug administration. The presence of co-endemic infections did not increase adverse events. IDA can be used in community programs where preventative chemotherapy is needed for control of lymphatic filariasis and other neglected tropical diseases.


Asunto(s)
Albendazol/efectos adversos , Antiparasitarios/efectos adversos , Dietilcarbamazina/efectos adversos , Insecticidas/efectos adversos , Ivermectina/efectos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Albendazol/administración & dosificación , Antiparasitarios/administración & dosificación , Niño , Preescolar , Infecciones Comunitarias Adquiridas/tratamiento farmacológico , Dietilcarbamazina/administración & dosificación , Quimioterapia Combinada/efectos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Efectos Colaterales y Reacciones Adversas Relacionados con Medicamentos/epidemiología , Efectos Colaterales y Reacciones Adversas Relacionados con Medicamentos/patología , Filariasis Linfática/tratamiento farmacológico , Femenino , Fiji , Helmintiasis/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Lactante , Insecticidas/administración & dosificación , Ivermectina/administración & dosificación , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Enfermedades Desatendidas/tratamiento farmacológico , Población Rural , Escabiosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
7.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(1): e0007966, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923177

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Recent findings from onchocerciasis-endemic foci uphold that increasing ivermectin coverage reduces the epilepsy incidence, and anecdotal evidence suggests seizure frequency reduction in persons with onchocerciasis-associated epilepsy, when treated with ivermectin. We conducted a randomized clinical trial to assess whether ivermectin treatment decreases seizure frequency. METHODS: A proof-of-concept randomized clinical trial was conducted in the Logo health zone in the Ituri province, Democratic Republic of Congo, to compare seizure frequencies in onchocerciasis-infected persons with epilepsy (PWE) randomized to one of two treatment arms: the anti-epileptic drug phenobarbital supplemented with ivermectin, versus phenobarbital alone. The primary endpoint was defined as the probability of being seizure-free at month 4. A secondary endpoint was defined as >50% reduction in seizure frequency at month 4, compared to baseline. Both endpoints were analyzed using multiple logistic regression. In longitudinal analysis, the probability of seizure freedom during the follow-up period was assessed for both treatment arms by fitting a logistic regression model using generalized estimating equations (GEE). RESULTS: Ninety PWE enrolled between October and November 2017 were eligible for analysis. A multiple logistic regression analysis showed a borderline association between ivermectin treatment and being seizure-free at month 4 (OR: 1.652, 95% CI 0.975-2.799; p = 0.062). There was no significant difference in the probability of experiencing >50% reduction of the seizure frequency at month 4 between the two treatment arms. Also, treatment with ivermectin did not significantly increase the odds of being seizure-free during the individual follow-up visits. CONCLUSION: Whether ivermectin has an added value in reducing the frequency of seizures in PWE treated with AED remains to be determined. A larger study in persons with OAE on a stable AED regimen and in persons with recent epilepsy onset should be considered to further investigate the potential beneficial effect of ivermectin treatment in persons with OAE. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registration: www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT03052998.


Asunto(s)
Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapéutico , Epilepsia/tratamiento farmacológico , Epilepsia/etiología , Ivermectina/uso terapéutico , Oncocercosis/complicaciones , Oncocercosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Antiparasitarios/administración & dosificación , Antiparasitarios/uso terapéutico , República Democrática del Congo/epidemiología , Quimioterapia Combinada , Epilepsia/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Ivermectina/administración & dosificación , Masculino , Oncocercosis/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
8.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 21(1): 9, 2019 Dec 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797083

RESUMEN

Increased human-pet interactions have led to concerns related to the prevention and treatment of ectoparasite infestations. Fipronil (FIP) is a widely used ectoparasiticide in veterinary medicine available for topical administration; however, its use may cause damage to the owners and the environment. The aim of the study was to develop immediate-release tablets of FIP, as well as to determine its pharmacokinetic properties after oral administration in beagle dogs. The prepared FIP tablets were evaluated for pre-compression (angle of repose, speed flow, and Carr's index) and post-compression (weight variation, friability, thickness, hardness, disintegration time, and dissolution rate) parameters. Orally administered FIP at a dose of 2 mg/kg was rapidly absorbed with Cmáx of 3.13 ± 1.39 µg/mL at 1.83 ± 0.40 h post treatment (P.T.) and metabolized with 1.27 ± 1.04 µg/mL at 2.33 ± 0.82 h P.T. for fipronil sulfone (SULF) (the primary metabolite). The elimination of FIP and SULF occurred slowly and had maintained quantifiable plasma levels in the blood for up to 28 days P.T. The goal of the study is aligned with the concept of One Health, which aims to collaboratively achieve the best health for people, animals, and the environment. Therefore, the use of FIP tablets for the control of ectoparasites in dogs may be a safer alternative for owners and the environment.


Asunto(s)
Antiparasitarios/química , Antiparasitarios/farmacocinética , Pirazoles/química , Pirazoles/farmacocinética , Administración Oral , Animales , Antiparasitarios/administración & dosificación , Perros , Dureza , Pirazoles/administración & dosificación , Comprimidos , Contaminación del Agua/prevención & control
9.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(4): 760-763, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058003

RESUMEN

Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a single dose of oral afoxolaner in controlling fleas in cats. Fourteen cats were used. The cats were given identification numbers, housed individually, artificially infested with Ctenocephalides felis felis, and treated (or not) with afoxolaner. Were divided into a treatment group and a control group (n = 7/group), on the basis of the fleas count hours after an infestation applied on Day (one-by-one allocation after ordering by count). At the start of the experimental protocol (designated day 0), the treated group received afoxolaner in a single dose of 2.5 mg/kg and the control group animals received a placebo. All animals were infested with 100 C. felis felis fleas two days before day 0, as well as on days 5, 12, 19, 26, 33, 40, 47, 54, and 63, parasite loads being evaluated at 48 h after each infestation. The efficacy of afoxolaner was 100% on day 2 and remained above 98% until day 42, decreasing to 95.3% by day 63. The findings confirm that a single dose of oral afoxolaner was effective in controlling C. felis felis in cats, and there were no observed adverse events.


Resumo O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a eficácia de uma dose única de afoxolaner oral no controle de pulgas em gatos. Foram utilizados 14 gatos. Os animais foram identificados, alojados individualmente, infestados artificialmente com C. felis felis e tratados (ou não) com afoxolaner. Foram divididos em um grupo de tratamento e um grupo controle (n = 7/ grupo), com base na contagem de pulgas, horas após a infestação aplicada no dia (alocação de um por um após o período por contagem). No início do protocolo experimental (dia 0), o grupo tratado recebeu afoxolaner em dose inicial de 2,5 mg / kg e os animais do grupo controle receberam um placebo. Todos os animais foram infestados com 100 pulgas C. felis felis dois dias antes do dia 0, assim como nos dias 5, 12, 19, 26, 33, 40, 47, 54 e 63, sendo avaliadas as cargas parasitárias às 48 h após cada infestação. A eficácia do afoxolaner foi de 100% no dia 2 e permaneceu acima de 98% até o dia 42, diminuindo para 95,3% no dia 63. Os resultados confirmam que uma dose única de afoxolaner oral foi eficaz no controle de C. felis felis em gatos, e não houve eventos adversos observados.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Masculino , Femenino , Gatos , Enfermedades de los Gatos/parasitología , Infestaciones por Pulgas/veterinaria , Isoxazoles/administración & dosificación , Naftalenos/administración & dosificación , Antiparasitarios/administración & dosificación , Enfermedades de los Gatos/tratamiento farmacológico , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Resultado del Tratamiento , Infestaciones por Pulgas/tratamiento farmacológico , Carga de Parásitos , Siphonaptera
10.
Drug Deliv ; 26(1): 1206-1221, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746243

RESUMEN

As an emerging novel drug carrier, nanoparticles provide a promising way for effective treatment of parasitic diseases by overcoming the shortcomings of low bioavailability, poor cellular permeability, nonspecific distribution and rapid elimination of antiparasitic drugs from the body. In recent years, some kinds of ideal nanocarriers have been developed for antiparasitic drug delivery. In this review, the progress of the enhanced antiparasitic effects of different nanoparticles payload and their influencing factors were firstly summarized. Secondly, the transport and disposition process in the body were reviewed. Finally, the challenges and prospects of nanoparticles for antiparasitic drug delivery were proposed. This review will help scholars to understand the development trend of nanoparticles in the treatment of parasitic diseases and explore strategies in the development of more efficient nanocarriers to overcome the difficulty in the treatment of parasite infections in the future.


Asunto(s)
Antiparasitarios/administración & dosificación , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Nanopartículas/química , Animales , Portadores de Fármacos/farmacocinética , Liberación de Fármacos , Humanos , Liposomas , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Tamaño de la Partícula , Propiedades de Superficie , Distribución Tisular
11.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 509, 2019 Oct 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666109

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Haemaphysalis longicornis is the major tick affecting dogs in most of the East Asia/Pacific region and has recently been detected in a number of areas of the USA. This tick is a vector for a number of pathogens of dogs, other mammals and humans. In this study, the efficacy of a single oral administration of sarolaner (Simparica®, Zoetis) at the minimum label dosage (2 mg/kg) was evaluated against an existing infestation of H. longicornis and subsequent weekly reinfestations for 5 weeks after treatment. METHODS: Sixteen dogs were ranked on pretreatment tick counts and randomly allocated to treatment on Day 0 with sarolaner at 2 mg/kg or a placebo. The dogs were infested with H. longicornis nymphs on Days - 2, 5, 12, 19, 26 and 33. Efficacy was determined at 48 hours after treatment and subsequent re-infestations based on live tick counts relative to placebo-treated dogs. RESULTS: There were no adverse reactions to treatment. A single dose of sarolaner provided 100% efficacy on Days 2, 7, 14 and 21; and ≥ 97.4% efficacy on Days 28 and 35. Considering only attached, live ticks, efficacy was 100% for the entire 35 days of the study. Geometric mean live tick counts for sarolaner were significantly lower than those for placebo on all days (11.62 ≤ t(df) ≤ 59.99, where 13.0 ≤ df ≤ 14.1, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, a single oral administration of sarolaner at 2 mg/kg provided 100% efficacy against an existing infestation of H. longicornis nymphs and ≥ 97.4% efficacy (100% against attached ticks) against weekly reinfestation for at least 35 days after treatment.


Asunto(s)
Antiparasitarios/uso terapéutico , Vectores Arácnidos , Azetidinas/uso terapéutico , Enfermedades de los Perros/tratamiento farmacológico , Ixodidae , Compuestos de Espiro/uso terapéutico , Infestaciones por Garrapatas/veterinaria , Administración Oral , Animales , Antiparasitarios/administración & dosificación , Azetidinas/administración & dosificación , Enfermedades de los Perros/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Perros/prevención & control , Perros , Compuestos de Espiro/administración & dosificación , Infestaciones por Garrapatas/tratamiento farmacológico , Infestaciones por Garrapatas/prevención & control
12.
Pathology ; 51(7): 737-741, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635949

RESUMEN

Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), are recognised neglected tropical diseases and have been endemic in patients in tropical Northern Australia. We reviewed the temporal trends in detections of STHs and Hymenolepis nana in faecal samples from Northern Territory (NT) Government Health facilities, representing patients with acute illnesses and comorbidities between 2008 and 2018. Ascaris lumbricoides is not detected in patients in the NT. The number of faecal samples examined yearly was relatively constant with a median of 4458 (range 4246-4933). Faecal samples from patients under the age of 5 years declined by 45% over the 11 years of the study. Detections of Trichuris trichiura, Strongyloides spp., and hookworm ova fell significantly by 89% (p<0.001), 71% (p<0.001), and 43% (p<0.01), respectively, over the 11 years. Detections of H. nana declined by 33% absolutely, but not significantly, when assessed relative to the reduction in faecal samples from patients under the age of 5 years. The marked reduction in STH numbers coincided with a 10-fold increase in NT dispensing of ivermectin, predominantly used for scabies control, in widely geographically spaced locations throughout the NT, over the 11 years of the study. Our data support previous findings of the beneficial collateral effects of ivermectin therapy. Ivermectin is not recognised as having anti-cestode activity, hence the continued presence of H. nana endemically in the NT, suggests declines in STHs are not related to other changes in health hardware or existing mass drug administration programs. The reduction in T. trichiura detections may not be explained by this association, as unlike Strongyloides spp., the anti-helminthic effect of ivermectin has been less marked.


Asunto(s)
Antiparasitarios/administración & dosificación , Helmintiasis/epidemiología , Helmintos/aislamiento & purificación , Ivermectina/administración & dosificación , Enfermedades Desatendidas/epidemiología , Animales , Heces/parasitología , Helmintiasis/parasitología , Helmintiasis/prevención & control , Humanos , Enfermedades Desatendidas/parasitología , Enfermedades Desatendidas/prevención & control , Northern Territory/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Suelo/parasitología , Medicina Tropical
14.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 469, 2019 Oct 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601244

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The larval stage of the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus is the causative agent of hydatid disease in humans. This zoonotic parasitic infection remains a major health problem in certain areas of the world where is still endemic. In view of the ineffectiveness of some drug treatments, the surgical removal of cysts remains the preferred treatment option together with the administration of albendazole and mebendazole. However, severe side effects of these drugs have been reported which demands developing new scolicidal agents that confer suitable efficacy and fewer side effects during surgery. METHODS: To that purpose, in the present work we assessed the effectiveness of ivermectin (IVM), a macrocyclic lactone endectocide that has shown to be an effective nematocidal drug against other important parasitic infections. To overcome the limitations observed in some drug formulations and resistance, we used nano lipid carriers (NLCs) as a targeted and sustained drug delivery system for IVM. We evaluated the in vitro cestocidal and apoptotic effects of NLCs-loaded IVM versus IVM by quantifying the expression of caspase-3 mRNA. RESULTS: We found that after 60 and 120 min of administration, 800 µg/ml and 400 µg/ml NLCs-loaded IVM induced 100% mortality, respectively. On the other hand, the 800 µg/ml of IVM induced 100% mortality rate 150 min after administration. Additionally, we found that NLCs-loaded IVM induced higher mRNA caspase-3 expression suggesting a more potent apoptotic effect on the parasite. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that NLCs-loaded IVM may be a promising alternative to current treatments although in vivo studies are needed.


Asunto(s)
Antiparasitarios/administración & dosificación , Equinococosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Echinococcus granulosus/efectos de los fármacos , Ivermectina/administración & dosificación , Análisis de Varianza , Animales , Caspasa 3/genética , Fragmentación del ADN , Portadores de Fármacos , Equinococosis/parasitología , Echinococcus granulosus/clasificación , Echinococcus granulosus/genética , Echinococcus granulosus/ultraestructura , Complejo IV de Transporte de Electrones/genética , Técnicas de Genotipaje , Lípidos , Microscopía Electrónica de Rastreo , Nanoestructuras , ARN Mensajero/metabolismo , Ovinos
15.
Dermatol Ther ; 32(6): e13093, 2019 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31579993

RESUMEN

Ivermectin is a drug approved for the treatment of papulopustular rosacea (PPR). Although clinical guidelines recommend the use of ivermectin as the first-line treatment in patients with almost clear and mild rosacea, studies concerning its use on them are lacking. This study investigated the effectiveness and the tolerability of ivermectin in almost clear to severe rosacea and assessed the antiparasitic effect on Demodex mites. This is a retrospective study based on 50 patients affected by PPR and treated with topical ivermectin 1% once daily over 16 weeks. The disease severity, the patient-examined improvement, and the safety assessment of patients were evaluated. Demodex mites were studied with the standardized skin surface biopsy. PPR to all severity achieved a therapeutic success. The number of inflammatory lesions was significantly decreased in almost clear (p < .0001), mild, moderate, and severe (p < .001) forms. A complete remission of inflammatory lesions was achieved by almost clear (p < .001) and mild (p = .005) with 82% with none-to-mild cutaneous adverse events. Thirty-two percent were positive for Demodex mites, and all of them turned negative after 16 weeks. Ivermectin is an effective treatment not only in moderate to severe PPR but also in almost clear/mild rosacea.


Asunto(s)
Antiparasitarios/administración & dosificación , Ivermectina/administración & dosificación , Infestaciones por Ácaros/tratamiento farmacológico , Rosácea/tratamiento farmacológico , Administración Cutánea , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Animales , Antiparasitarios/efectos adversos , Femenino , Humanos , Ivermectina/efectos adversos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Ácaros , Estudios Retrospectivos , Rosácea/patología , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Resultado del Tratamiento
16.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(4): 760-763, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483035

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a single dose of oral afoxolaner in controlling fleas in cats. Fourteen cats were used. The cats were given identification numbers, housed individually, artificially infested with Ctenocephalides felis felis, and treated (or not) with afoxolaner. Were divided into a treatment group and a control group (n = 7/group), on the basis of the fleas count hours after an infestation applied on Day (one-by-one allocation after ordering by count). At the start of the experimental protocol (designated day 0), the treated group received afoxolaner in a single dose of 2.5 mg/kg and the control group animals received a placebo. All animals were infested with 100 C. felis felis fleas two days before day 0, as well as on days 5, 12, 19, 26, 33, 40, 47, 54, and 63, parasite loads being evaluated at 48 h after each infestation. The efficacy of afoxolaner was 100% on day 2 and remained above 98% until day 42, decreasing to 95.3% by day 63. The findings confirm that a single dose of oral afoxolaner was effective in controlling C. felis felis in cats, and there were no observed adverse events.


Asunto(s)
Antiparasitarios/administración & dosificación , Enfermedades de los Gatos/parasitología , Infestaciones por Pulgas/veterinaria , Isoxazoles/administración & dosificación , Naftalenos/administración & dosificación , Animales , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Enfermedades de los Gatos/tratamiento farmacológico , Gatos , Femenino , Infestaciones por Pulgas/tratamiento farmacológico , Masculino , Carga de Parásitos , Siphonaptera , Resultado del Tratamiento
18.
Vet Parasitol ; 272: 79-82, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395209

RESUMEN

The astigmatid mite Psoroptes ovis (Acari: Proroptidae) causes the highly contagious and debilitating ovine disease, sheep scab. This ectoparasitic infection has a high economic and animal welfare impact on British sheep farming. Following recent work demonstrating resistance of Psoroptes mites to moxidectin, a widely used macrocyclic lactone (ML) treatment for scab, the current study compared the toxicity of three of the commonly administered macrocylic lactone therapeutic treatments (moxidectin, ivermectin and doramectin) to P. ovis from outbreak populations that had appeared unresponsive to treatment. These outbreak populations were from Wales and south west England. The data presented demonstrate that there is resistance to all three available ML compounds in populations of Psoroptes mites. However, considerable variation in response suggested that resistance alone was not responsible for the reported lack of efficacy in all of the submitted cases; lack of response in others may be associated with inappropriate treatment application or management. These data highlight the importance of the appropriate use of these compounds to manage national scab incidence at levels that are consistent with acceptable animal welfare standards, while attempting to reduce the development and spread of resistance.


Asunto(s)
Resistencia a Múltiples Medicamentos , Lactonas/administración & dosificación , Lactonas/farmacología , Infestaciones por Ácaros/veterinaria , Psoroptidae/efectos de los fármacos , Crianza de Animales Domésticos/normas , Animales , Antiparasitarios/administración & dosificación , Antiparasitarios/farmacología , Inglaterra , Infestaciones por Ácaros/tratamiento farmacológico , Infestaciones por Ácaros/epidemiología , Infestaciones por Ácaros/prevención & control , Ovinos , Enfermedades de las Ovejas/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades de las Ovejas/epidemiología , Enfermedades de las Ovejas/prevención & control , Gales
19.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 17: 100295, 2019 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303226

RESUMEN

Information pertaining to parasitic fauna and parasitic diseases in Manipuri ponies in India is not available. Moreover, no systematic studies have been undertaken on cutaneous habronemosis in Manipuri ponies which is a common skin problem of Manipuri ponies as reported by pony owners. Keeping in the view of the importance of parasitic infections in veterinary health coverage particularly in Manipuri ponies, the present study was planned. A survey of natural cases of cutaneous habronemosis followed by molecular confirmation of species involved and treatments were done. Out of 200 ponies examined, nine cases (4.5%) of cutaneous habronemosis was recorded. Gross examination revealed raised and ulcerated wounds with necrotic tissues covered with yellowish-tan granulation. Histopathological study revealed eosinophilic granuloma and in the center of the granuloma with necrotic debris. Remnants of the Hebronema larvae with infiltrating neutrophils surrounded by proliferating fibrous tissue with numerous eosinophils, macrophages and lymphocytes were also observed. Molecular detection of Habronema sp. was confirmed by semi-nested PCR. Sequence analysis revealed larvae of H. muscae was the common spirurid species responsible for producing cutaneous habronemosis in Manipuri ponies. Subsequently, sequence submitted to NCBI GenBank and accession number obtained (MH038181). Surgical removal of necrotic tissue, ivermectin injection along with antibiotics successfully cured all the lesions in infected ponies.Results confirmed occurrence of cutaneous habronemosis in Manipuri ponies in India.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Caballos/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Caballos/parasitología , Enfermedades Cutáneas Parasitarias/veterinaria , Infecciones por Spirurida/veterinaria , Spiruroidea/genética , Combinación Amoxicilina-Clavulanato de Potasio/administración & dosificación , Animales , Antiparasitarios/administración & dosificación , Secuencia de Bases , Biopsia/veterinaria , Clonación Molecular , ADN de Helmintos/química , ADN de Helmintos/aislamiento & purificación , ADN Ribosómico/química , ADN Ribosómico/genética , Granuloma Eosinófilo/parasitología , Granuloma Eosinófilo/patología , Granuloma Eosinófilo/veterinaria , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Enfermedades de los Caballos/patología , Enfermedades de los Caballos/terapia , Caballos , Incidencia , India/epidemiología , Ivermectina/administración & dosificación , Masculino , Necrosis/veterinaria , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Alineación de Secuencia/veterinaria , Enfermedades Cutáneas Parasitarias/epidemiología , Enfermedades Cutáneas Parasitarias/parasitología , Enfermedades Cutáneas Parasitarias/patología , Infecciones por Spirurida/epidemiología , Infecciones por Spirurida/parasitología , Infecciones por Spirurida/patología , Spiruroidea/aislamiento & purificación
20.
Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex ; 76(4): 198-202, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303653

RESUMEN

Background: Crusted scabies (CS) is an uncommon, highly contagious, variant of classic scabies. Elevated concentrations of the mite Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis are found in the skin lesions, which lead to a more exaggerated clinical picture than in classic scabies. This disease is mainly observed in patients with any kind of immunosuppression and relates to Down syndrome. Case report: A pediatric female patient with Down syndrome, who presented a crusty white plaque associated with nail dystrophy and subungual hyperkeratosis affecting the distal portion of the fingers is described. Because of these findings, the diagnosis of acrodermatitis continua of Hallopeau was considered. A punch biopsy was performed, attaining the diagnosis of CS. She received systemic treatment with oral ivermectin, topical treatment with emollient cream and desonide 0.1%. Notorious clinical improvement was observed two weeks after finalizing treatment. Conclusions: CS is variant of scabies prevalent in immunocompromised patients and Down syndrome that can be easily confused with inflammatory pathologies with abnormal epidermal keratinization. This case is considered as an atypical presentation of the disease because of local affection of the fingers and nail dystrophy. The histopathological study was necessary to obtain the diagnosis and rule out differential diagnosis.


Asunto(s)
Acrodermatitis/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Down/complicaciones , Escabiosis/diagnóstico , Acrodermatitis/patología , Animales , Antiinflamatorios/administración & dosificación , Antiparasitarios/administración & dosificación , Niño , Desonida/administración & dosificación , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Femenino , Humanos , Ivermectina/administración & dosificación , Sarcoptes scabiei , Escabiosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Escabiosis/patología
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