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1.
Acta Gastroenterol Belg ; 84(1): 33-41, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33639691

RESUMEN

Objective: To describe comorbidities and concomitant medications in patients initiating treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimens in Belgium. Methods: This was a noninterventional, observational, multicenter study of data from patient charts. Adult patients with HCV infection receiving second-generation DAA therapy were included. Comorbidities were assessed at the time of HCV treatment initiation. Concomitant medications were recorded at the time of diagnosis and at treatment initiation. Potential clinically relevant drug-drug interactions (DDIs) were assessed based on information available at www.hep-druginteractions.org. The primary objective was to describe concomitant medication use ; secondary objectives were to describe modifications in concomitant therapies and comorbidities. Results: 405 patients were included. A total of 956 comorbidities were reported by 362 patients (median, 2 ; range, 0-15). The most common comorbidities were hypertension (27.2%) ; HIV coinfection (22.5%), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (14.3%). Overall, 1455 concomitant medications were being taken by 365 patients (90.1% ; median, 3 ; range 0-16). The most common concomitant medications were psycholeptics (28.6%), antiviral agents (24.2%), and medications for acid-related disorders (21.0%) Overall, 74/365 (20.3%) patients receiving a concomitant medication required an adaptation to their concomitant medication. The medications that most frequently required change were drugs for acid-related disorders (n = 14) and antiviral drugs (n = 5) ; those that were most frequently stopped were lipid-modifying drugs (n = 25) and drugs for acid-related disorders (n = 13). Conclusion: Physicians are aware of the potential for DDIs with DAAs, but improved alignment between clinical practice and theoretical recommendations is required.


Asunto(s)
Coinfección , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Infecciones por VIH , Hepatitis C Crónica , Hepatitis C , Adulto , Antivirales/efectos adversos , Bélgica/epidemiología , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamiento farmacológico , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis C/tratamiento farmacológico , Hepatitis C Crónica/tratamiento farmacológico , Hepatitis C Crónica/epidemiología , Humanos
2.
Riv Psichiatr ; 56(1): 53-55, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33560276

RESUMEN

Infection outbreak has been prevalent since previous decades. The impact of infection outbreak not merely limited to physical suffering but grounded for massive mental health issues. The fear of getting contagion and persistent exposure to diverse medication and vaccination contribute enormously to develop mental health issues among people. During previous infection treatment with diverse vaccination and antiviral agent, the common mental health issues found to be a mood disorder, delirium, schizophrenia, and psychotic symptoms. Cumbersomely, it is almost impossible to treat mental health issues during the pandemic with the help of only pharmacological availability. Hence psychological intervention is also important to ameliorate better consequences. The current study highlights the impact of CoViD-19 related diverse medication and vaccination on the mental health of the people.


Asunto(s)
Antivirales/efectos adversos , Trastornos Mentales/inducido químicamente , Salud Mental , Pandemias , Adenosina Monofosfato/efectos adversos , Adenosina Monofosfato/análogos & derivados , Alanina/efectos adversos , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Amidas/efectos adversos , /efectos adversos , Combinación de Medicamentos , Miedo , Humanos , Lopinavir/efectos adversos , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Oseltamivir/efectos adversos , Pirazinas/efectos adversos , Ribavirina/efectos adversos , Ritonavir/efectos adversos
3.
Trials ; 22(1): 116, 2021 Feb 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546739

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Baricitinib is supposed to have a double effect on SARS-CoV2 infection. Firstly, it reduces the inflammatory response through the inhibition of the Januse-Kinase signalling transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) pathway. Moreover, it reduces the receptor mediated viral endocytosis by AP2-associated protein kinase 1 (AAK1) inhibition. We propose the use of baricinitib to prevent the progression of the respiratory insufficiency in SARS-CoV2 pneumonia in onco-haematological patients. In this phase Ib/II study, the primary objective in the safety cohort is to describe the incidence of severe adverse events associated with baricitinib administration. The primary objective of the randomized phase (baricitinib cohort versus standard of care cohort) is to evaluate the number of patients who did not require mechanical oxygen support since start of therapy until day +14 or discharge (whichever it comes first). The secondary objectives of the study (only randomized phase of the study) are represented by the comparison between the two arms of the study in terms of mortality and toxicity at day+30. Moreover, a description of the immunological related changes between the two arms of the study will be reported. TRIAL DESIGN: The trial is a phase I/II study with a safety run-in cohort (phase 1) followed by an open label phase II randomized controlled trial with an experimental arm compared to a standard of care arm. PARTICIPANTS: The study will be performed at the Institut Català d'Oncologia, a tertiary level oncological referral center in the Catalonia region (Spain). The eligibility criteria are: patients > 18 years affected by oncological diseases; ECOG performance status < 2 (Karnofsky score > 60%); a laboratory confirmed infection with SARS-CoV-2 by means of real -time PCR; radiological signs of low respiratory tract disease; absence of organ dysfunction (a total bilirubin within normal institutional limits, AST/ALT≤2.5 X institutional upper limit of normal, alkaline phosphatase ≤2.5 X institutional upper limit of normal, coagulation within normal institutional limits, creatinine clearance >30 mL/min/1.73 m2 for patients with creatinine levels above institutional normal); absence of HIV infection; no active or latent HBV or HCV infection. The exclusion criteria are: patients with oncological diseases who are not candidates to receive any active oncological treatment; hemodynamic instability at time of study enrollment; impossibility to receive oral medication; medical history of recent or active pulmonary embolism or deep venous thrombosis or patients at high-risk of suffering them (surgical intervention, immobilization); multi organ failure, rapid worsening of respiratory function with requirement of fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) > 50% or high-flow nasal cannula before initiation of study treatment; uncontrolled intercurrent illness (ongoing or severe active infection, symptomatic congestive heart failure, unstable angina pectoris, cardiac arrhythmia, or psychiatric illness/social situations that would limit compliance with study requirements); allergy to one or more of study treatments; pregnant or breastfeeding women; positive pregnancy test in a pre-dose examination. Patients should have the ability to understand, and the willingness to sign, a written informed consent document; the willingness to accept randomization to any assigned treatment arm; and must agree not to enroll in another study of an investigational agent prior to completion of Day +28 of study. An electronic Case Report Form in the Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap) platform will be used to collect the data of the trial. Removal from the study will apply in case of unacceptable adverse event(s), development of an intercurrent illness, condition or procedural complication, which could interfere with the patient's continued participation and voluntary patient withdrawal from study treatment (all patients are free to withdraw from participation in this study at any time, for any reasons, specified or unspecified, and without prejudice). INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Treatment will be administered on an inpatient basis. We will compare the experimental treatment with baricitinib plus the institutional standard of care compared with the standard of care alone. During the phase I, we will define the dose-limiting toxicity of baricitinib and the dose to be used in the phase 2 part of the study. The starting baricitinib dose will be an oral tablet 4 mg-once daily which can be reduced to 2 mg depending on the observed toxicity. The minimum duration of therapy will be 5 days and it can be extended to 7 days. The standard of care will include the following therapies. Antibiotics will be individualized based on clinical suspicion, including the management of febrile neutropenia. Prophylaxis of thromboembolic disease will be administered to all participants. Remdesivir administration will be considered only in patients with severe pneumonia (SatO2 <94%) with less than 7 days of onset of symptoms and with supplemental oxygen requirements but not using high-flow nasal cannula, non-invasive or invasive mechanical ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). In the randomized phase, tocilizumab or interferon will not be allowed in the experimental arm. Tocilizumab can be used in patients in the standard of care arm at the discretion of the investigator. If it is prescribed it will be used according to the following criteria: patients who, according to his baseline clinical condition, would be an ICU tributary, interstitial pneumonia with severe respiratory failure, patients who are not on mechanical ventilation or ECMO and who are still progressing with corticoid treatment or if they are not candidates for corticosteroids. Mild ARDS (PAFI <300 mmHg) with radiological or blood gases deterioration that meets at least one of the following criteria: CRP >100mg/L D-Dimer >1,000µg/L LDH >400U/L Ferritin >700ng/ml Interleukin 6 ≥40ng/L. The use of tocilizumab is not recommended if there are AST/ALT values greater than 10 times the upper limit of normal, neutrophils <500 cells/mm3, sepsis due to other pathogens other than SARS-CoV-2, presence of comorbidity that can lead to a poor prognosis, complicated diverticulitis or intestinal perforation, ongoing skin infection. The dose will be that recommended by the Spanish Medicine Agency in patients ≥75Kg: 600mg dose whereas in patients <75kg: 400mg dose. Exceptionally, a second infusion can be assessed 12 hours after the first in those patients who experience a worsening of laboratory parameters after a first favourable response. The use of corticosteroids will be recommended in patients who have had symptoms for more than 7 days and who meet all the following criteria: need for oxygen support, non-invasive or invasive mechanical ventilation, acute respiratory failure or rapid deterioration of gas exchange, appearance or worsening of bilateral alveolar-interstitial infiltrates at the radiological level. In case of indication, it is recommended: dexamethasone 6mg/d p.o. or iv for 10 days or methylprednisolone 32mg/d orally or 30mg iv for 10 days or prednisone 40mg day p.o. for 10 days. MAIN OUTCOMES: Phase 1 part: to describe the toxicity profile of baricitinib in COVID19 oncological patients during the 5-7 day treatment period and until day +14 or discharge (whichever it comes first). Phase 2 part: to describe the number of patients in the experimental arm that will not require mechanical oxygen support compared to the standard of care arm until day +14 or discharge (whichever it comes first). RANDOMISATION: For the phase 2 of the study, the allocation ratio will be 1:1. Randomization process will be carried out electronically through the REDcap platform ( https://www.project-redcap.org/ ) BLINDING (MASKING): This is an open label study. No blinding will be performed. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): The first part of the study (safety run-in cohort) will consist in the enrollment of 6 to 12 patients. In this population, we will test the toxicity of the experimental treatment. An incidence of severe adverse events grade 3-4 (graded by Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v.5.0) inferior than 33% will be considered sufficient to follow with the next part of the study. The second part of the study we will perform an interim analysis of efficacy at first 64 assessed patients and a definitive one will analyze 128 assessed patients. Interim and definitive tests will be performed considering in both cases an alpha error of 0.05. We consider for the control arm this rate is expected to be 0.60 and for the experimental arm of 0.80. Considering this data, a superiority test to prove a difference of 0.20 with an overall alpha error of 0.10 and a beta error of 0.2 will be performed. Considering a 5% of dropout rate, it is expected that a total of 136 patients, 68 for each study arm, will be required to complete study accrual. TRIAL STATUS: Version 5.0. 14th October 2020 Recruitment started on the 16th of December 2020. Expected end of recruitment is June 2021. TRIAL REGISTRATION: AEMPs: 20-0356 EudraCT: 2020-001789-12, https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu/ctr-search/search (Not publically available as Phase I trial) Clinical trials: BARCOVID19, https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ (In progress) FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol."


Asunto(s)
Antivirales/efectos adversos , Azetidinas/efectos adversos , Neoplasias Hematológicas/complicaciones , Purinas/efectos adversos , Pirazoles/efectos adversos , Insuficiencia Respiratoria/prevención & control , Sulfonamidas/efectos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , /epidemiología , /virología , Ensayos Clínicos Fase I como Asunto , Ensayos Clínicos Fase II como Asunto , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Neoplasias Hematológicas/epidemiología , Neoplasias Hematológicas/mortalidad , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Terapia por Inhalación de Oxígeno , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa , Insuficiencia Respiratoria/epidemiología , España/epidemiología , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
4.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(5): 377-390, 2021 Feb 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33584070

RESUMEN

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has undoubtedly revolutionized the whole globe and given a new point of view on respiratory tract infections. Nevertheless, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cannot be perceived as a disease limited only to pneumonia with diverse severity. More and more reports have demonstrated a wide range of possible systemic symptoms, including hepatic complications. Liver injury has been observed in a significant proportion of patients, especially in those with a severe or critical illness. COVID-19 might provoke a deterioration of liver function in patients with already diagnosed chronic liver diseases and without pre-existing liver disorders. The deterioration of liver function worsens the prognosis, increases the risk of a severe course of SARS-CoV-2 infection and prolongs the hospital stay. In general, patients who develop liver dysfunction in COVID-19 are mainly males, elderly people, and those with higher body mass index. The underlying mechanisms for hepatic failure in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 are still unclear, nevertheless liver damage appears to be directly connected with virus-induced cytopathic effects. A liver injury observed during hospitalization might be simultaneously caused by the use of potentially hepatotoxic drugs, mainly antiviral agents. This minireview focuses on a possible relationship between COVID-19 and the liver, potential molecular mechanisms of liver damage, the characteristics of liver injury and suggested factors predisposing to hepatic manifestations in COVID-19 patients.


Asunto(s)
/complicaciones , Fallo Hepático/virología , Antivirales/efectos adversos , /patología , Tracto Gastrointestinal/fisiopatología , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno , Humanos , Inflamación/complicaciones , Hígado/patología , Fallo Hepático/inducido químicamente , Síndrome Metabólico/complicaciones , Pronóstico , /fisiología
5.
Trials ; 22(1): 126, 2021 Feb 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33563325

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The rapid emergence and the high disease burden of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 have created a medical need for readily available drugs that can decrease viral replication or blunt the hyperinflammatory state leading to severe COVID-19 disease. Azithromycin is a macrolide antibiotic, known for its immunomodulatory properties. It has shown antiviral effect specifically against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro and acts on cytokine signaling pathways that have been implicated in COVID-19. METHODS: DAWn-AZITHRO is a randomized, open-label, phase 2 proof-of-concept, multicenter clinical trial, evaluating the safety and efficacy of azithromycin for treating hospitalized patients with COVID-19. It is part of a series of trials testing promising interventions for COVID-19, running in parallel and grouped under the name DAWn-studies. Patients hospitalized on dedicated COVID wards are eligible for study inclusion when they are symptomatic (i.e., clinical or radiological signs) and have been diagnosed with COVID-19 within the last 72 h through PCR (nasopharyngeal swab or bronchoalveolar lavage) or chest CT scan showing typical features of COVID-19 and without alternate diagnosis. Patients are block-randomized (9 patients) with a 2:1 allocation to receive azithromycin plus standard of care versus standard of care alone. Standard of care is mostly supportive, but may comprise hydroxychloroquine, up to the treating physician's discretion and depending on local policy and national health regulations. The treatment group receives azithromycin qd 500 mg during the first 5 consecutive days after inclusion. The trial will include 284 patients and recruits from 15 centers across Belgium. The primary outcome is time from admission (day 0) to life discharge or to sustained clinical improvement, defined as an improvement of two points on the WHO 7-category ordinal scale sustained for at least 3 days. DISCUSSION: The trial investigates the urgent and still unmet global need for drugs that may impact the disease course of COVID-19. It will either provide support or else justify the discouragement of the current widespread, uncontrolled use of azithromycin in patients with COVID-19. The analogous design of other parallel trials of the DAWN consortium will amplify the chance of identifying successful treatment strategies and allow comparison of treatment effects within an identical clinical context. TRIAL REGISTRATION: EU Clinical trials register EudraCT Nb 2020-001614-38 . Registered on 22 April 2020.


Asunto(s)
Antivirales/efectos adversos , Azitromicina/efectos adversos , /genética , Nivel de Atención , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Antivirales/administración & dosificación , Azitromicina/administración & dosificación , Bélgica/epidemiología , /virología , Femenino , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapéutico , Tiempo de Internación , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Multicéntricos como Asunto , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Prueba de Estudio Conceptual , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533809

RESUMEN

The efficacy of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) in liver transplant recipients is poorly understood, and several factors, including immunosuppression, drug interactions, elevated viraemia, and intolerance to ribavirin (RBV), can reduce cure rates. We conducted a real-life study on liver transplant recipients with CHC treated with a combination of sofosbuvir (SOF) and daclatasvir (DCV) or simeprevir (SIM), with or without RBV, followed-up for 12 to 24 weeks. The treatment effectiveness was assessed by determining the sustained virological response (SVR) rates at 12 or 24 weeks after the treatment cessation. Eighty-four patients were evaluated, with a mean age of 63.4 ± 7.4 years, HCV genotype 1 being the most prevalent (63.1%). Nineteen patients (22.7%) had mild fibrosis (METAVIR < F2) and 41 (48.8%) significant fibrosis (METAVIR ≥ F2). The average time between liver transplantation and the start of treatment was 4 years (2.1-6.6 years). The SOF + DCV regimen was used in 58 patients (69%). RBV in combination with DAAs was used in seven patients (8.3%). SVR was achieved in 82 patients (97.6%), and few relevant adverse events could be attributed to DAA therapy, including a patient who stopped treatment due to a headache. There was a significant reduction in ALT, AST, GGT and FA levels, or the APRI index after 4 weeks of treatment, which remained until 12/24 weeks post-treatment. DAA treatment of CHC in liver-transplanted patients achieved a high SVR rate and resulted in the normalization of serum levels of liver enzymes.


Asunto(s)
Antivirales/uso terapéutico , Hepacivirus/efectos de los fármacos , Hepatitis C Crónica/tratamiento farmacológico , Trasplante de Hígado/efectos adversos , Ribavirina/uso terapéutico , Anciano , Antivirales/efectos adversos , Brasil , ADN Viral/genética , Quimioterapia Combinada , Femenino , Genotipo , Hepacivirus/genética , Humanos , Cirrosis Hepática/cirugía , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Ribavirina/efectos adversos , Receptores de Trasplantes , Resultado del Tratamiento
7.
JAMA ; 325(7): 632-644, 2021 02 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33475701

RESUMEN

Importance: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to spread rapidly worldwide. Neutralizing antibodies are a potential treatment for COVID-19. Objective: To determine the effect of bamlanivimab monotherapy and combination therapy with bamlanivimab and etesevimab on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral load in mild to moderate COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: The BLAZE-1 study is a randomized phase 2/3 trial at 49 US centers including ambulatory patients (N = 613) who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection and had 1 or more mild to moderate symptoms. Patients who received bamlanivimab monotherapy or placebo were enrolled first (June 17-August 21, 2020) followed by patients who received bamlanivimab and etesevimab or placebo (August 22-September 3). These are the final analyses and represent findings through October 6, 2020. Interventions: Patients were randomized to receive a single infusion of bamlanivimab (700 mg [n = 101], 2800 mg [n = 107], or 7000 mg [n = 101]), the combination treatment (2800 mg of bamlanivimab and 2800 mg of etesevimab [n = 112]), or placebo (n = 156). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was change in SARS-CoV-2 log viral load at day 11 (±4 days). Nine prespecified secondary outcome measures were evaluated with comparisons between each treatment group and placebo, and included 3 other measures of viral load, 5 on symptoms, and 1 measure of clinical outcome (the proportion of patients with a COVID-19-related hospitalization, an emergency department [ED] visit, or death at day 29). Results: Among the 577 patients who were randomized and received an infusion (mean age, 44.7 [SD, 15.7] years; 315 [54.6%] women), 533 (92.4%) completed the efficacy evaluation period (day 29). The change in log viral load from baseline at day 11 was -3.72 for 700 mg, -4.08 for 2800 mg, -3.49 for 7000 mg, -4.37 for combination treatment, and -3.80 for placebo. Compared with placebo, the differences in the change in log viral load at day 11 were 0.09 (95% CI, -0.35 to 0.52; P = .69) for 700 mg, -0.27 (95% CI, -0.71 to 0.16; P = .21) for 2800 mg, 0.31 (95% CI, -0.13 to 0.76; P = .16) for 7000 mg, and -0.57 (95% CI, -1.00 to -0.14; P = .01) for combination treatment. Among the secondary outcome measures, differences between each treatment group vs the placebo group were statistically significant for 10 of 84 end points. The proportion of patients with COVID-19-related hospitalizations or ED visits was 5.8% (9 events) for placebo, 1.0% (1 event) for 700 mg, 1.9% (2 events) for 2800 mg, 2.0% (2 events) for 7000 mg, and 0.9% (1 event) for combination treatment. Immediate hypersensitivity reactions were reported in 9 patients (6 bamlanivimab, 2 combination treatment, and 1 placebo). No deaths occurred during the study treatment. Conclusions and Relevance: Among nonhospitalized patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 illness, treatment with bamlanivimab and etesevimab, compared with placebo, was associated with a statistically significant reduction in SARS-CoV-2 viral load at day 11; no significant difference in viral load reduction was observed for bamlanivimab monotherapy. Further ongoing clinical trials will focus on assessing the clinical benefit of antispike neutralizing antibodies in patients with COVID-19 as a primary end point. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04427501.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Monoclonales Humanizados/administración & dosificación , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/administración & dosificación , Antivirales/administración & dosificación , /aislamiento & purificación , Carga Viral/efectos de los fármacos , Adulto , Anciano , Anticuerpos Monoclonales Humanizados/efectos adversos , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/efectos adversos , Antivirales/efectos adversos , /virología , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Método Doble Ciego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Femenino , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Infusiones Intravenosas , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad
8.
Molecules ; 26(3)2021 Jan 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33503834

RESUMEN

Plants have had historical significance in medicine since the beginning of civilization. The oldest medical pharmacopeias of the African, Arabian, and Asian countries solely utilize plants and herbs to treat pain, oral diseases, skin diseases, microbial infections, multiple types of cancers, reproductive disorders among a myriad of other ailments. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that over 65% of the world population solely utilize botanical preparations as medicine. Due to the abundance of plants, plant-derived medicines are more readily accessible, affordable, convenient, and have safer side-effect profiles than synthetic drugs. Plant-based decoctions have been a significant part of Jamaican traditional folklore medicine. Jamaica is of particular interest because it has approximately 52% of the established medicinal plants that exist on earth. This makes the island particularly welcoming for rigorous scientific research on the medicinal value of plants and the development of phytomedicine thereof. Viral infections caused by the human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2), hepatitis virus B and C, influenza A virus, and the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2) present a significant global burden. This is a review of some important Jamaican medicinal plants, with particular reference to their antiviral activity.


Asunto(s)
Antivirales/farmacología , Plantas Medicinales/química , Virus/efectos de los fármacos , Antivirales/efectos adversos , Antivirales/química , Jamaica , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Virus/clasificación
9.
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) ; 22(3): 190-196, 2021 03 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33512975

RESUMEN

AIM: The aim of this study was to detect predisposing CV risks factors and ECGs changes in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: The study population included 60 noncritically ill patients with COVID-19 pneumonia admitted to our hospital between 16 March and 11 May 2020. Electrographic changes, evaluated from ECGs acquired at admission and at 7 days after starting COVID-19 therapy, were analysed. We also compared 45 patients without CV involvement with 15 patients with new onset of cardiac adverse events during hospitalization. RESULTS: ECGs under treatment showed a lower heart rate (HR) (69.45 ±â€Š8.06 vs 80.1 ±â€Š25.1 beats/min, P = 0,001) and a longer QRS (102.46 ±â€Š15.08 vs 96.75 ±â€Š17.14, P = 0.000) and QT corrected (QTc) interval (452.15 ±â€Š37.55 vs 419.9 ±â€Š33.41, P = 0,000) duration than ECGs before therapy. Fifteen patients (25%) showed clinical CV involvement. Within this group, female sex, lower ejection fraction (EF), low serum haemoglobin, high Troponin I levels (TnI), low lymphocytes count, high serum IL-6 levels, or use of Tocilizumab (TCZ) were more represented. CONCLUSIONS: Patients admitted for SARS-CoV2 infection and treated with anti-COVID-19 drug therapy develop ECG changes such as reduction in HR and increase in QRS duration and QTc interval. One in four patients developed CV events. Gender, EF, heamoglobin values, TnI, lymphocytes count, IL-6 and use of TCZ can be considered as predisposing factors for CV involvement.


Asunto(s)
Antivirales/uso terapéutico , /tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/inducido químicamente , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/virología , Electrocardiografía , Adulto , Anciano , Antivirales/efectos adversos , Biomarcadores/sangre , Femenino , Humanos , Italia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neumonía Viral/virología , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Sexuales , Volumen Sistólico
10.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(1): 549-555, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33506948

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Because of the limited treatment options available, oral lopinavir/ritonavir (LPR) was used for treating coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in pediatric patients. This study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of LPR in COVID-19 pediatric patients with mild symptoms. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective multicenter analysis included hospitalized children with mild COVID-19 who received LPR at one of 13 hospitals in China from January 1, 2020, to June 1, 2020. Patients treated with LPR were matched with patients not treated with LPR (1:4) according to age, sex, and length of symptom onset and hospitalization. Descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests were applied to compare differences between groups. Kaplan-Meier probability curves and Cox regression models were used to analyze nasal swab turning negative time (recovery time) and hospital discharge days. RESULTS: In total, 23 patients treated with LPR were matched with 92 untreated controls. The median age of patients was 6 years, and 56.52% of them were male. All patients were discharged from the hospital after being cured. The treatment group had a longer nasal swab turning negative time (hazard ratio [HR] 5.33; 95% CI: 1.94-14.67; p = 0.001) than the control group. LPR treatment was also associated with a longer hospitalization time (HR 2.01; 95% CI: 1.24-3.29; p = 0.005). After adjusting for the influence of LPR treatment, adverse drug reaction events were associated with a longer nasopharyngeal swab negative time (HR 4.67; 95% CI 1.35-16.11; p = 0.015). CONCLUSIONS: For children with mild COVID-19, LPR is inferior to conventional treatment in reducing virus shedding time and hospitalization duration and is associated with increased adverse reactions.


Asunto(s)
Antivirales/uso terapéutico , Lopinavir/uso terapéutico , Ritonavir/uso terapéutico , Administración Oral , Antivirales/administración & dosificación , Antivirales/efectos adversos , Niño , China , Quimioterapia Combinada , Femenino , Hospitalización , Humanos , Lopinavir/administración & dosificación , Lopinavir/efectos adversos , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Ritonavir/administración & dosificación , Ritonavir/efectos adversos
11.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(1): 556-566, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33506949

RESUMEN

A novel coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a current outbreak of infection termed Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) by the World Health Organization (WHO). COVID-19 is currently a global pandemic that may cause close to half a billion deaths around the world. Until now, there is no effective treatment for COVID-19. Quinacrine (Qx) has been used since the 1930s as preventive antimalarial compound. It is a recognized small molecule inhibitor of RNA virus replication, with known anti-prion activity, and identified as a potent Ebola virus inhibitor both in vitro and in vivo. Recently, Qx has showed anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity. Herein, we review the potential mechanisms associated with quinacrine as an antiviral compound.


Asunto(s)
Antivirales/farmacología , Quinacrina/farmacología , Animales , Antivirales/administración & dosificación , Antivirales/efectos adversos , Línea Celular , Síndrome de Liberación de Citoquinas/inmunología , Síndrome de Liberación de Citoquinas/prevención & control , Citocinas/inmunología , Humanos , Ratones , Quinacrina/administración & dosificación , Quinacrina/efectos adversos , Replicación Viral/efectos de los fármacos
12.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(1): 541-548, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33506946

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: List the clinical data of the role of remdesivir in COVID-19, and try to make an objective evaluation and analyze its feasibility. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The keywords of "remdesivir", "COVID-19" and "SARS-CoV-2" were systematically searched in PubMed and Web of Science. After removing the repetitions, we summarize articles, letters, and comments on remdesivir in the treatment of COVID-19. RESULTS: In this review, we summarize clinical case of using remdesivir in the treatment of COVID-19, analyzed the final treatment results, and judged whether the drug was effective for the treatment of COVID-19. Also, attention was paid to the side effects of the drug. CONCLUSIONS: According to the clinical results, it was found that remdesivir was effective in the treatment of COVID-19. The drug has side effects, but the symptoms were mild and disappeared immediately after discontinuation of medication.


Asunto(s)
Adenosina Monofosfato/análogos & derivados , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Antivirales/uso terapéutico , /tratamiento farmacológico , Adenosina Monofosfato/administración & dosificación , Adenosina Monofosfato/efectos adversos , Adenosina Monofosfato/uso terapéutico , Alanina/administración & dosificación , Alanina/efectos adversos , Alanina/uso terapéutico , Antivirales/administración & dosificación , Antivirales/efectos adversos , Humanos , Resultado del Tratamiento
14.
Trials ; 22(1): 4, 2021 Jan 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397429

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: We will evaluate the efficacy and safety of Ivermectin in patients with mild and moderately severe COVID-19. TRIAL DESIGN: This is a phase 3, single-center, randomized, open-label, controlled trial with a 2-arm parallel-group design (1:1 ratio). PARTICIPANTS: The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Departments of the Shahid Mohammadi Hospital, Bandar Abbas, Iran, will screen for patients age ≥ 20 years and weight ≥35 kg for the following criteria: Inclusion criteria for patients with mild COVID-19 symptoms (outpatients) 1. Diagnosed mild pneumonia using computed tomography (CT) and/or chest X-ray (CX-R) imaging, not requiring hospitalization. 2. Signing informed consent. Inclusion criteria for patients with moderate COVID-19 symptoms (inpatients) 1. Confirmed infection using PCR. 2. Diagnosed moderate pneumonia using CT and/or CXR imaging, requiring hospitalization. 3. Hospitalized ≤ 48 hours. 4. Signing informed consent. Exclusion criteria 1. Severe and critical pneumonia due to COVID-19. 2. Underlying diseases, including AIDS, asthma, loiasis, and severe liver and kidney disease. 3. Use of anticoagulants (e.g., warfarin) and ACE inhibitors (e.g., captopril). 4. History of drug allergy to Ivermectin. 5. Pregnancy or breastfeeding. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Intervention groups: Outpatient and inpatient groups will receive the standard treatment regimen for mild and moderate COVID-19, based on the Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education's protocol, along with oral Ivermectin (MSD Company, France) at a single dose of 0.2 mg/kg. Control groups: The outpatient group will receive hydroxychloroquine sulfate (Amin Pharmaceutical Company, Iran) at a dose of 400 mg twice a day for the first day and 200 mg twice a day for seven subsequent days. The inpatient group will receive 200/50 mg Lopinavir/Ritonavir (Heterd Company, India) twice a day for the seven days, plus five doses of 44 mcg Interferon beta-1a (CinnaGen, Iran) every other day. Other supportive and routine care will be the same in both outpatient and inpatient groups. MAIN OUTCOME: The primary outcomes are composite and include the improvement of clinical symptoms and need for hospitalization for outpatient groups, and the length of hospital stay until discharge, the need for ICU admission until discharge, and the need for mechanical ventilation for inpatient groups within seven days of randomization. The secondary outcome is the incidence of serious adverse drug reactions within seven days of randomization. RANDOMIZATION: Patients in both outpatient (mild) and inpatient (moderate) groups will be randomized into the treatment and control groups based on the following method. A simple randomization method and table of random numbers will be used. If the selected number is even, the patient is allocated to the treatment group, and if it is odd, the patient is allocated to the control group in a 1:1 ratio. BLINDING (MASKING): This is an open-label study, and there is not blinding. Numbers to be randomized (sample size) A total number of 120 patients (60 outpatients and 60 patients) will be randomized into two groups (30 patients in each of the intervention groups and 30 patients in each of the control groups). TRIAL STATUS: The protocol is Version 1.0, November 17, 2020. Recruitment began November 25, 2020, and is anticipated to be completed by February 25, 2021. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This clinical trial has been registered in the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT). The registration number is " IRCT20200506047323N6 ". The registration date is November 17, 2020. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting the dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Asunto(s)
Antivirales/administración & dosificación , Ivermectina/administración & dosificación , /aislamiento & purificación , Administración Oral , Adulto , Antivirales/efectos adversos , /virología , Ensayos Clínicos Fase III como Asunto , Quimioterapia Combinada/efectos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/administración & dosificación , Hidroxicloroquina/efectos adversos , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos/estadística & datos numéricos , Interferón beta-1a/administración & dosificación , Interferón beta-1a/efectos adversos , Irán , Ivermectina/efectos adversos , Tiempo de Internación/estadística & datos numéricos , Lopinavir/administración & dosificación , Lopinavir/efectos adversos , Masculino , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Ritonavir/administración & dosificación , Ritonavir/efectos adversos , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad
15.
Trials ; 22(1): 3, 2021 Jan 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397457

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the efficacy and safety of repurposed antiprotozoal and antiretroviral drugs, nitazoxanide and atazanavir/ritonavir, in shortening the time to clinical improvement and achievement of SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) negativity in patients diagnosed with moderate to severe COVID-19. TRIAL DESIGN: This is a pilot phase 2, multicentre 2-arm (1:1 ratio) open-label randomised controlled trial. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis (defined as SARS-CoV-2 PCR positive nasopharyngeal swab) will be recruited from four participating isolation and treatment centres in Nigeria: two secondary care facilities (Infectious Diseases Hospital, Olodo, Ibadan, Oyo State and Specialist State Hospital, Asubiaro, Osogbo, Osun State) and two tertiary care facilities (Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Osun State and Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital, Sagamu, Ogun State). These facilities have a combined capacity of 146-bed COVID-19 isolation and treatment ward. INCLUSION CRITERIA: Confirmation of SARS-CoV-2 infection by PCR test within two days before randomisation and initiation of treatment, age bracket of 18 and 75 years, symptomatic, able to understand study information and willingness to participate. Exclusion criteria include the inability to take orally administered medication or food, known hypersensitivity to any of the study drugs, pregnant or lactating, current or recent (within 24 hours of enrolment) treatment with agents with actual or likely antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2, concurrent use of agents with known or suspected interaction with study drugs, and requiring mechanical ventilation at screening. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Participants in the intervention group will receive 1000 mg of nitazoxanide twice daily orally and 300/100 mg of atazanvir/ritonavir once daily orally in addition to standard of care while participants in the control group will receive only standard of care. Standard of care will be determined by the physician at the treatment centre in line with the current guidelines for clinical management of COVID-19 in Nigeria. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Main outcome measures are: (1) Time to clinical improvement (defined as time from randomisation to either an improvement of two points on a 10-category ordinal scale (developed by the WHO Working Group on the Clinical Characterisation and Management of COVID-19 infection) or discharge from the hospital, whichever came first); (2) Proportion of participants with SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) negative result at days 2, 4, 6, 7, 14 and 28; (3) Temporal patterns of SARS-CoV-2 viral load on days 2, 4, 6, 7, 14 and 28 quantified by RT-PCR from saliva of patients receiving standard of care alone versus standard of care plus study drugs. RANDOMISATION: Allocation of participants to study arm is randomised within each site with a ratio 1:1 based on randomisation sequences generated centrally at Obafemi Awolowo University. The model was implemented in REDCap and includes stratification by age, gender, viral load at diagnosis and presence of relevant comorbidities. BLINDING: None, this is an open-label trial. NUMBER TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): 98 patients (49 per arm). TRIAL STATUS: Regulatory approval was issued by the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control on 06 October 2020 (protocol version number is 2.1 dated 06 August 2020). Recruitment started on 9 October 2020 and is anticipated to end before April 2021. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial has been registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (July 7, 2020), with identifier number NCT04459286 and on Pan African Clinical Trials Registry (August 13, 2020), with identifier number PACTR202008855701534 . FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file which will be made available on the trial website. In the interest of expediting dissemination of this material, the traditional formatting has been eliminated, and this letter serves as a summary of the key elements in the full protocol. The study protocol has been reported in accordance with the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Clinical Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) guidelines (Additional file 2).


Asunto(s)
Antivirales/administración & dosificación , Sulfato de Atazanavir/administración & dosificación , Ritonavir/administración & dosificación , Tiazoles/administración & dosificación , Administración Oral , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Antivirales/efectos adversos , Sulfato de Atazanavir/efectos adversos , /virología , Ensayos Clínicos Fase II como Asunto , Esquema de Medicación , Combinación de Medicamentos , Reposicionamiento de Medicamentos , Quimioterapia Combinada/efectos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Multicéntricos como Asunto , Nigeria , Proyectos Piloto , ARN Viral/aislamiento & purificación , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Ritonavir/efectos adversos , /aislamiento & purificación , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Nivel de Atención , Tiazoles/efectos adversos , Resultado del Tratamiento , Carga Viral/efectos de los fármacos , Adulto Joven
16.
AAPS J ; 23(1): 14, 2021 01 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400058

RESUMEN

The ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has made a serious public health threat worldwide with millions of people at risk in a growing number of countries. Though there are no clinically approved antiviral drugs and vaccines for COVID-19, attempts are ongoing for clinical trials of several known antiviral drugs, their combination, as well as development of vaccines in patients with confirmed COVID-19. This review focuses on the latest approaches to diagnostics and therapy of COVID-19. We have summarized recent progress on the conventional therapeutics such as antiviral drugs, vaccines, anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody treatments, and convalescent plasma therapy which are currently under extensive research and clinical trials for the treatment of COVID-19. The developments of nanoparticle-based therapeutic and diagnostic approaches have been also discussed for COVID-19. We have assessed recent literature data on this topic and made a summary of current development and future perspectives.


Asunto(s)
Antivirales/uso terapéutico , /diagnóstico , /terapia , /efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Antivirales/efectos adversos , /efectos adversos , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno , Humanos , Inmunización Pasiva/efectos adversos , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Resultado del Tratamiento
17.
MAbs ; 13(1): 1860476, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33459118

RESUMEN

In this 12th annual installment of the Antibodies to Watch article series, we discuss key events in antibody therapeutics development that occurred in 2020 and forecast events that might occur in 2021. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic posed an array of challenges and opportunities to the healthcare system in 2020, and it will continue to do so in 2021. Remarkably, by late November 2020, two anti-SARS-CoV antibody products, bamlanivimab and the casirivimab and imdevimab cocktail, were authorized for emergency use by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the repurposed antibodies levilimab and itolizumab had been registered for emergency use as treatments for COVID-19 in Russia and India, respectively. Despite the pandemic, 10 antibody therapeutics had been granted the first approval in the US or EU in 2020, as of November, and 2 more (tanezumab and margetuximab) may be granted approvals in December 2020.* In addition, prolgolimab and olokizumab had been granted first approvals in Russia and cetuximab saratolacan sodium was first approved in Japan. The number of approvals in 2021 may set a record, as marketing applications for 16 investigational antibody therapeutics are already undergoing regulatory review by either the FDA or the European Medicines Agency. Of these 16 mAbs, 11 are possible treatments for non-cancer indications and 5 are potential treatments for cancer. Based on the information publicly available as of November 2020, 44 antibody therapeutics are in late-stage clinical studies for non-cancer indications, including 6 for COVID-19, and marketing applications for at least 6 (leronlimab, tezepelumab, faricimab, ligelizumab, garetosmab, and fasinumab) are planned in 2021. In addition, 44 antibody therapeutics are in late-stage clinical studies for cancer indications. Of these 44, marketing application submissions for 13 may be submitted by the end of 2021. *Note added in proof on key events announced during December 1-21, 2020: margetuximab-cmkb and ansuvimab-zykl were approved by FDA on December 16 and 21, 2020, respectively; biologics license applications were submitted for ublituximab and amivantamab.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos/uso terapéutico , Antivirales/uso terapéutico , Desarrollo de Medicamentos/tendencias , Descubrimiento de Drogas/tendencias , Reposicionamiento de Medicamentos/tendencias , /efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Anticuerpos/efectos adversos , Antivirales/efectos adversos , /virología , Difusión de Innovaciones , Aprobación de Drogas , Predicción , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno , Humanos , /inmunología
18.
Int J Risk Saf Med ; 32(1): 3-17, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33386817

RESUMEN

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a viral illness caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS- CoV-2) presenting with pulmonary and extra-pulmonary manifestations. The first case was reported in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and it has rapidly progressed to the form of a pandemic. The presentation is mild in about 80 percent of the cases but the disease can also progress to a severe form of respiratory illness leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and sometimes multi-organ failure, especially in people with other co-morbidities. Pregnant women also appear to be at a greater risk of acquiring a severe infection due to physiological changes during pregnancy. Many drugs with in vitro activity against the virus or an immunomodulatory effect have been considered for repurposing or have been tried as off-label drugs. The safety data regarding the use of newly approved or off-label or investigational drugs in pregnant women is limited and this poses a great challenge for clinicians. Therefore, it is important to know the utility and safety of the medications to avoid untoward adverse effects on pregnant women and fetuses. In this review, we aim to provide an overview of the approved, off-label, unlicensed, new and some promising pharmacological options for their use in the treatment of COVID-19 and the safety profile in pregnancy in an Indian scenario.


Asunto(s)
Antivirales/uso terapéutico , Feto/efectos de los fármacos , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/tratamiento farmacológico , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/virología , Antiinfecciosos/efectos adversos , Antiinfecciosos/uso terapéutico , Antivirales/efectos adversos , Drogas en Investigación , Femenino , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/efectos adversos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapéutico , India/epidemiología , Uso Fuera de lo Indicado , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/tratamiento farmacológico , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/virología , Embarazo , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/epidemiología , Mujeres Embarazadas , Esteroides/efectos adversos , Esteroides/uso terapéutico
19.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(2): 390-392, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33402301

RESUMEN

Favipiravir is an antiviral drug that is expected to have a therapeutic effect on SARS-CoV2 infection. Teratogenicity and hyperuricemia are known as the main side effects of favipiravir, but little is known about other side effects. This report describes a case of cholestatic liver injury induced by favipiravir. A 73-year-old Japanese with a history of alcoholic hepatitis was infected with SARS-CoV2. Drug therapy was instituted with lopinavir/ritonavir combined with interferon ß-1b. However, his condition worsened despite additional support with continuous hemodiafiltration and veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. We suspected complications of bacterial pneumonia and started favipiravir in addition to antimicrobial therapy. Favipiravir was administered at 6000 mg/day on the first day and 2400 mg/day for the second and subsequent days for 14 days. After the initiation of antibiotics, transaminase and total bilirubin were elevated, suggesting a transient cholestasic liver dysfunction. The liver dysfunction in this case may have been triggered by antibacterial treatment, and high dose of favipiravir may have promoted the deterioration of liver function. Monitoring of liver function is vital and close attention should be paid when using favipiravir at high doses or in patients with impaired liver function.


Asunto(s)
Amidas/efectos adversos , Antivirales/efectos adversos , Enfermedad Hepática Inducida por Sustancias y Drogas/etiología , Colestasis/etiología , Pirazinas/efectos adversos , Anciano , Amidas/uso terapéutico , Antivirales/uso terapéutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Oxigenación por Membrana Extracorpórea , Humanos , Lopinavir/uso terapéutico , Masculino , Pirazinas/uso terapéutico , Ritonavir/uso terapéutico
20.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 238(2): 329-340, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33410987

RESUMEN

RATIONALE: Management of anxiety, delirium, and agitation cannot be neglected in coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Antipsychotics are usually used for the pharmacological management of delirium, and confusion and behavioral disturbances. The concurrent use of treatments for COVID-19 and antipsychotics should consider eventual drug-drug interactions OBJECTIVE: To systematically review evidence-based available on drug-drug interactions between COVID-19 treatments and antipsychotics. EVIDENCE REVIEW: Three databases were consulted: Lexicomp® Drug Interactions, Micromedex® Solutions Drugs Interactions, and Liverpool© Drug Interaction Group for COVID-19 therapies. To acquire more information on QT prolongation and Torsade de Pointes (TdP), the CredibleMeds® QTDrugs List was searched. The authors made a recommendation agreed to by consensus. Additionally, a systematic review of drug-drug interactions between antipsychotics and COVID-19 treatment was conducted. RESULTS: The main interactions between COVID-19 drugs and antipsychotics are the risk of QT-prolongation and TdP, and cytochromes P450 interactions. Remdesivir, baricinitib, and anakinra can be used concomitantly with antipsychotics without risk of drug-drug interaction (except for hematological risk with clozapine and baricinitib). Favipiravir only needs caution with chlorpromazine and quetiapine. Tocilizumab is rather safe to use in combination with antipsychotics. The most demanding COVID-19 treatments for coadministration with antipsychotics are chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and lopinavir/ritonavir because of the risk of QT prolongation and TdP and cytochromes interactions. The systematic review provides highly probable drug interaction between lopinavir/ritonavir plus quetiapine and ritonavir/indinavir plus risperidone. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians prescribing antipsychotics should be aware of the likely risk of drug-drug interaction with COVID-19 medication and may benefit from taking into account present recommendations of use to preserve patient safety.


Asunto(s)
Antipsicóticos/efectos adversos , Antivirales/efectos adversos , /tratamiento farmacológico , Antipsicóticos/uso terapéutico , Antivirales/uso terapéutico , Sistema Enzimático del Citocromo P-450 , Interacciones Farmacológicas , Humanos , Síndrome de QT Prolongado/inducido químicamente , Torsades de Pointes/inducido químicamente
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