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1.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 2396-2399, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018489

RESUMEN

Various computational human phantoms have been proposed in the past decades, but few of them include delicate anthropometric variations. In this study, we build a whole-body phantom library including 145 anthropometric parameters. This library is constructed by registration-based pipeline, which transfers a standard whole-body anatomy template to an anthropometry-adjustable body shape library (MakeHuman™). Therefore, internal anatomical structures are created for body shapes of different anthropometric parameters. Based on the constructed library, we can generate individualized whole-body phantoms according to given arbitrary anthropometric parameters. Moreover, the proposed phantom library can also be converted to voxel-based and tetrahedron-based model for further personalized simulation. We hope this phantom library will serve as a computational tool in research community.


Asunto(s)
Antropometría , Fantasmas de Imagen , Humanos
2.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239155, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044967

RESUMEN

Training in elite sport aims at the optimization of the athletic performance, and to control the athletes`progress in physiological, anthropometrical and motor performance prerequisites. However, in most sports, the value of longitudinal testing is unclear. This study evaluates the longitudinal development and the influence of intense training over 2-years on specific physiological performance prerequisites, as well as certain body dimensions and motor abilities in elite youth athletes. Recruited between 11-13 years of age at Shanghai Elite Sport school, the sample of student-athletes (N = 21) was categorized as the swimming group (10 athletes), and the racket sports group (11 players: 7 table tennis and 4 badminton players). The performance monitoring took place over two years between September 2016 and September 2018 and included 5 test waves. In all the test waves, the athletes were assessed by means of three physiological measurements (vital capacity, hemoglobin concentration, heart rate at rest), three anthropometric parameters (body height, body weight, chest girth), and two motor tests (back strength, complex reaction speed). Seven out of eight diagnostic methods exhibit medium to high validity to discriminate between the different levels of performance development in the two sports groups. The investigated development of the performance characteristics is attributed partly to the inherited athletic disposition as well as to the different sport-specific training regimens of the two sports groups.


Asunto(s)
Atletas , Rendimiento Atlético/fisiología , Deportes de Raqueta/fisiología , Natación/fisiología , Adolescente , Antropometría , Niño , China , Estudios de Seguimiento , Frecuencia Cardíaca , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Destreza Motora , Fuerza Muscular , Tiempo de Reacción , Capacidad Vital
3.
Arch Osteoporos ; 15(1): 155, 2020 10 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025208

RESUMEN

We compared the effect of anthropometric factors on osteoporosis diagnosis by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and found QCT spine volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) was not associated with body weight, body mass index (BMI) or DXA anteroposterior spine thickness. In contrast, DXA spine and hip areal bone mineral density (aBMD) were strongly associated with all three factors. Adjustment of DXA aBMD measurements improved consistency with QCT vBMD. PURPOSE: Although the diagnosis of osteoporosis using DXA T scores preferentially targets patients with BMI, there is evidence that obesity is not protective against fractures. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of anthropometric factors on osteoporosis diagnosis by QCT and DXA and investigate whether adjustment of DXA aBMD can achieve a more even distribution of diagnoses between slimmer and heavier individuals consistent with QCT. METHODS: The participants were 964 men and 682 women referred for low-dose chest CT and DXA examinations as part of their employers' health check-up programs. QCT vBMD was measured in the L1-L2 vertebrae and DXA aBMD in the spine and hip. The prevalence of osteoporosis in each tertile of BMI in participants aged > 50 years was evaluated based on their QCT and DXA findings, and then re-evaluated after adjustment to the mean BMI in each sex. Similar investigations were performed for body weight and DXA anteroposterior (AP) spine thickness. The effect of the adjustment of DXA aBMD for anthropometric factors on the correlation with QCT vBMD was also examined. RESULTS: For spine QCT, correlations of age adjusted vBMD residuals against BMI were not statistically significant in men (P = 0.44) or women (P = 0.32). In contrast, slopes for aBMD residuals were all highly statistically significant (P < 0.001). There were similar findings for weight and AP spine thickness. Adjustment of DXA aBMD for anthropometric factors resulted in a more equal spread of diagnoses of osteoporosis and greater consistency with QCT. CONCLUSION: Our study highlights differences between DXA and QCT in their correlation with anthropometric factors and its effect on the diagnosis of osteoporosis. Adjustment of DXA T scores for anthropometric factors gave greater consistency with QCT vBMD. Further studies are required into whether adjusting DXA aBMD for anthropometric factors has a beneficial impact on the discriminative or predictive power for vertebral fracture.


Asunto(s)
Osteoporosis , Absorciometría de Fotón , Antropometría , Densidad Ósea , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Osteoporosis/diagnóstico por imagen , Osteoporosis/epidemiología , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X
4.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 20(9): 811-816, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058420

RESUMEN

AIM: The Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI) can predict nutritional risk. However, just a few studies have validated the optimal cut-off value of GNRI for nutrition screening in older patients. Hence, this study aimed to determine the optimal value of GNRI to screen the risk of malnutrition among older patients. METHODS: This retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out with 5867 consecutive older adult patients who were admitted to an academic hospital in Japan. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were carried out to obtain the optimal cut-off value of GNRI, and the results were compared against the Mini Nutritional Assessment - Short Form and Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool. The validation of the obtained cut-off value was examined on the concordance rate of malnutrition diagnosis based on the European Society of Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism criteria. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 76.0 ± 7.0 years. The optimal cut-off value of GNRI for Mini Nutritional Assessment - Short Form ≤11 points was 95.92 (area under the curve 0.827 [0.817-0.838], P < 0.001), and that for Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool ≥1 point was 95.95 (area under the curve 0.788 [0.776-0.799], P < 0.001). By adapting GNRI <96 points as an initial screening cut-off in the European Society of Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism-defined malnutrition process, the concordance rates of comparisons were 98.5% and 98.5% for Mini Nutritional Assessment - Short Form-based and MUST-based diagnosis, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The study showed GNRI <96 points as the optimal cut-off value for nutritional screening. GNRI might be one of the easy-to-use tools for nutritional screening and for diagnosing malnutrition in older adults. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020; 20: 811-816.


Asunto(s)
Desnutrición/diagnóstico , Tamizaje Masivo/métodos , Evaluación Nutricional , Estado Nutricional/fisiología , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Antropometría , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Evaluación Geriátrica/métodos , Hospitalización , Hospitales Universitarios , Humanos , Japón , Masculino , Curva ROC , Estudios Retrospectivos
5.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 4848-4853, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019076

RESUMEN

In this study, we present a human body shape statistical model including elderly people, which is constructed using principal component analysis (PCA) on 3D body scan data of approximately 130 people. As a pre-process step, a template human body mesh model is fitted to 3D scan data using a coarse-to-fine surface registration technique based on a conformal deformation method, in order to establish correspondences between the scans of different subjects possibly in different poses. To change body style by a small set of parameters, such as "age", "weight" and "height" or the easily measurable anthropometric parameters like "shoulder width", the linear transformations between these attributes and the first 10 principal component scores are obtained. We design a simple user interface to use this deformation model to generate different body styles easily. As a result, we were able to produce and show body styles capturing the characteristics of elderly people whose shoulders fell and back bent. Finally, as an application, we used our deformation method to generate different body types, performed forward dynamics simulations in an assistive device setting and visualized the differences in contact pressure distributions due to body shape changes.


Asunto(s)
Cuerpo Humano , Imagenología Tridimensional , Anciano , Antropometría , Humanos , Modelos Estadísticos , Análisis de Componente Principal
6.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 28 Suppl: S47-S52, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069181

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this work is to compare the current prevalence of selected risk factors in cardiovascular diseases in the Czech general population in a particular region with a selected population of Czech soldiers in a particular military unit. METHODS: Within medical preventive examinations, data from 684 civilians aged between 30-60 years were obtained (405 men and 279 women). Within compulsory medical preventive examinations, data from 659 soldiers from a particular military unit aged between 30-60 years were obtained (576 men and 83 women). Anthropometric parameters such as height and body weight were monitored and then used to calculate the values of Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist circumference. From biochemical parameters the following values were monitored: glycaemia, uric acid, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, ALT, and GGT. As for the demographic data, age and gender were processed. In the cohort of male soldiers a questionnaire was used to find the extent of cigarette smoking, frequency of using alcoholic drinks and performance of regular physical activities such as aerobic exercises. RESULTS: As for cardiovascular risk, assessed anthropometric parameters in monitored female age categories are statistically significantly lower (p < 0.05) in women in the Army of the Czech Republic (ACR) compared to the female civilian population. Most of the biochemical parameters also display values that indicate the female military population is healthier than the civilian in these parameters. On the other hand, assessed anthropometric parameters in monitored male age categories are statistically significantly lower (p < 0.001) in civilian men compared to the male military population. Most of the assessed biochemical parameters show statistically significant health-indicative values in the male civilian population as well. CONCLUSION: This work revealed differences in anthropometric and biochemical parameters between the examined civilian and military populations. As for cardiovascular risk, the main findings are significantly worse anthropometric and biochemical parameters in the selected male military cohort compared to the male civilian cohort.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Adulto , Antropometría/métodos , Índice de Masa Corporal , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , República Checa/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores de Riesgo
8.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 3969-3972, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018869

RESUMEN

The assessment of lower limb oedema almost always involves measuring leg volume, and the gold-standard for this is the water displacement technique. As it is not very practical to use in a clinical routine, physicians prefer indirect methods such as anthropometric or bioimpedance measurements. In the case of "non-pitting" leg oedema, i.e. where the presence of oedema is not obvious, it may be challenging to estimate changes in leg volume using these methods separately. The combination of these two methods, however, gives interesting results, such as a new composite parameter that is much more robust and efficient than commonly used parameters.Clinical Relevance- This study demonstrates the benefit of using a composite anthropometric-impedimetric parameter to predict water displacement variations in the leg over the course of a day, rather than using parameters based solely on anthropometry or impedance. Our new parameter (C²-A²)/R0 showed a robust r² value of 61%, which is more than twice the r² values obtained using other simple or composite parameters.


Asunto(s)
Pierna , Agua , Antropometría , Edema/diagnóstico , Humanos , Extremidad Inferior , Análisis Espectral
9.
Arch Osteoporos ; 15(1): 157, 2020 10 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026533

RESUMEN

Dynamic skeletal deformation with ageing showed important signs of degenerative and osteoporotic diseases. We found that both femoral bowing and cortical thickness were correlated with ageing in a Chinese population. Further, femoral cortical index, an osteoporotic indicator, was negatively correlated with femoral bowing angle. Hence, more attention should be paid to these femoral morphological changes to avoid fragility fractures and failed internal fixation. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether morphological parameters of the femoral shaft are in age-related deformation and identify correlations between parameters of femoral cortical thickness and femoral shaft bowing. METHODS: One hundred twenty patients (mean 50 years, range 18~104 years) who had received standard long-standing anteroposterior and femoral lateral radiographs from October 2016 to October 2019 were included in this retrospective study. The sagittal femoral bowing angle (sFBA), sagittal femoral cortical index (sFCI), coronal femoral bowing angle (cFBA), and coronal femoral cortical index (cFCI) were measured by two orthopaedists separately. All the participants' demographic data, including age, sex, body laterality, height, and weight, were collected. The Student's t test, Mann-Whitney U test, two-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation, and multiple linear regression were used in the statistical analysis. RESULTS: The mean age of the male and female participants was 46.95 ± 15.25 and 52.22 ± 15.61 years, respectively. Two-way ANOVA revealed that females had a significantly lower sFCI than males at the right side (P < 0.05). There were no significant interactions between sex or body laterality and the sFBA, cFBA, sFCI, and cFCI groups (P > 0.05). Pearson correlation revealed that sFCI was strongly correlated with sFBA (r = - 0.535, P < 0.05) and cFBA (r = - 0.535, P < 0.05). Multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that both age (ß = 0.304 and 0.308 respectively) and sFCI (ß = - 0.322 and - 0.414 respectively) were two independent predictors associated with sFBA and cFBA respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The femoral shaft bowing of the Chinese population was positively correlated with ageing, whereas the sagittal femoral cortical thickness negatively correlated with ageing. A high FBA occurred in femoral shafts with a low sFCI, which revealed that femoral shaft bowing was associated with femoral cortical thickness. During femur-related surgery in older patients, more attention should be paid to these femoral morphological changes.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/fisiología , Diáfisis/diagnóstico por imagen , Fémur/diagnóstico por imagen , Radiografía/métodos , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Antropometría/métodos , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática , Femenino , Fémur/anatomía & histología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos
10.
Arch Osteoporos ; 15(1): 166, 2020 10 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079259

RESUMEN

In our study investigating the prevalence of osteosarcopenic obesity (OSO) in community-dwelling older adults and possible factors responsible for falls, we have found that prevalence of OSO is 10.7%. OSO does not significantly increase the odds of falling, whereas lower handgrip strength, ALMi and gait speed were independent factors associated with falls. PURPOSES: The purposes of the study were (a) to determine the prevalence of osteosarcopenic obesity (OSO) in community-dwelling older adults and (b) to investigate the association between falls and possible factors in individuals with and without OSO. METHODS: Medical records of patients aged ≥ 65 years were retrospectively reviewed. Individuals were diagnosed with OSO based on their T-score assessed by dual x-ray absorptiometry, handgrip strength, appendicular lean mass index (ALMi), gait speed and body fat percentile. Comorbidities, history of falls, depressive state, medications and anthropometric measures were also noted. RESULTS: A sample of 460 individuals were assessed (337 females; 123 males) and 49 patients were diagnosed with OSO. There was no statistically significant difference in falls between the two groups (OR: 0.768, 95% CI: 0.409-1.440, p: 0.41) and the presence of OSO was not significantly associated with increased odds of falling (OR: 1.755, 95% CI: 0.547-5.628, p: 0.344). Handgrip strength (OR: 0.931, 95% CI: 0.893-0.971, p: 0.001), ALMi (OR: 0.799, 95% CI: 0.708-0.901, p < 0.0001) and gait speed (OR: 0.529, 95% CI: 0.283-0.988, p: 0.046) were independently associated with falls in overall group, whereas interaction analysis did not reveal any significant moderator effect of OSO vs. non-OSO in the associations between risk factors and falls. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of OSO was 10.7%. OSO was not associated with elevated odds of falling, whereas lower handgrip strength, ALMi and gait speed were independent factors associated with falls. Further prospective research is needed to clarify the effect of OSO on odds of falling, in consideration with possible risk factors. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER AND DATE: NCT04288401 /26.02.2020.


Asunto(s)
Fragilidad/fisiopatología , Evaluación Geriátrica/métodos , Fuerza de la Mano/fisiología , Obesidad/epidemiología , Osteoporosis Posmenopáusica/epidemiología , Osteoporosis/epidemiología , Sarcopenia/epidemiología , Absorciometría de Fotón/métodos , Anciano , Antropometría/métodos , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Vida Independiente , Masculino , Obesidad/fisiopatología , Osteoporosis/fisiopatología , Equilibrio Postural/fisiología , Prevalencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Sarcopenia/fisiopatología
11.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(5): s142-s152, oct 2020. ilus
Artículo en Español | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1122562

RESUMEN

Es innegable la necesidad de contar con curvas estándar de tamaño al nacer y crecimiento para evaluar y contribuir a orientar las acciones en la atención del neonato. Durante muchos años, se utilizaron las referencias de Lejarraga y Fustiñana, que fueron progresivamente reemplazadas por las de Fenton y Kim.Recientemente, el proyecto INTERGROWTH-21st construyó estándares de crecimiento prescriptivo para evaluar el tamaño al nacer desde las 33 semanas de edad gestacional, referencias para evaluar el tamaño al nacer desde las 24 a las 32,6 semanas de edad gestacional y curvas para el seguimiento longitudinal del crecimiento de recién nacidos pretérmino desde las 27 semanas de edad gestacional. Los Comités de Crecimiento y Desarrollo y de Estudios Feto-neonatales de la Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría, en conjunto con la Secretaría de Gobierno de Salud de la Nación, acordaron recomendar el reemplazo de las curvas de Fenton y Kim por las de INTERGROWTH-21st


It is unquestionable the need to have standards of size at birth and growth to evaluate and contribute to guide the actions in the care of the newborn. For many years the references of Lejarraga and Fustiñana were used, progressively replaced by those of Fenton and Kim. However, recently, the INTERGROWTH-21st project has developed prescriptive growth standards to evaluate the size at birth from 33 weeks of gestational age, references from 24 to 32.6 weeks of gestational age, and curves for postnatal growth from 27 weeks of gestational age onward. The Growth and Development and Neonatal Fetal Studies Committees of the Argentine Society of Pediatrics in conjunction with the Secretary of National Government of Health agreed to recommend the replacement of the Fenton and Kim curves with those of INTERGROWTH-21st.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Recién Nacido , Peso al Nacer , Tamaño Corporal , Crecimiento y Desarrollo , Gráficos de Crecimiento , Estándares de Referencia , Recien Nacido Prematuro/crecimiento & desarrollo , Antropometría , Edad Gestacional
12.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238706, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915820

RESUMEN

The aim of the present study was to determine the level of morphological asymmetry among the general population of Polish youth as it correlates to sex and body type. The anthropometric characteristics of a group of 618 Polish youths (354 males aged 19.5 ± 1.2 years and 264 females aged 19.2 ± 1.2 years) were evaluated to assess their somatotypes using the Heath-Carter method. Body composition was calculated using the bioelectrical impedance method, and the absolute asymmetry index was used for comparisons between the right and left sides of the body. Significant differentiation was observed between all morphological characteristics (≤ 0.0001) and two body types (≤ 0.0001) among sexes. Females and males largely exhibited endomorphic and mesomorphic somatotypes, respectively. The findings demonstrated that dominant somatotype and sex both affect the level of fat mass asymmetry in the arms and legs. Furthermore, significant variations in the levels of asymmetry between sexes were observed in fat mass in both the arms and legs, with greater variation observed in the arms. In the case of muscle mass, no great differences were observed between men, women, or body types. This study provides new data on the morphological asymmetry of given body composition according to somatotype and sex. This study has potential medical implications, given that a large degree of inter-limb imbalance could be shown to have a negative effect on health; the findings of the present study would therefore be important for arriving at an understanding of how to prevent such imbalances, or to mitigate their negative effects.


Asunto(s)
Composición Corporal/fisiología , Conducta Sexual/fisiología , Somatotipos/fisiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Antropometría , Impedancia Eléctrica , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Polonia/epidemiología , Conducta Sexual/psicología , Somatotipos/psicología , Adulto Joven
13.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(4): 636-653, 2020 10 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946765

RESUMEN

With mounting interest in translating genome-wide association study (GWAS) hits from large meta-analyses (meta-GWAS) in diverse clinical settings, evaluating their generalizability in target populations is crucial. Here, we consider long-term survivors of childhood cancers from the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort Study, and we show the limited generalizability of 1,376 robust SNP associations reported in the general population across 12 complex anthropometric and cardiometabolic phenotypes (n = 2,231; observed-to-expected replication ratio = 0.70, p = 6.2 × 10-8). An examination of five comparable phenotypes in a second independent cohort of survivors from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study corroborated the overall limited generalizability of meta-GWAS hits to survivors (n = 4,212; observed-to-expected replication ratio = 0.55, p = 5.6 × 10-15). Finally, in direct comparisons of survivor samples against independent equivalently powered general population samples from the UK Biobank, we consistently observed lower meta-GWAS hit replication rates and poorer polygenic risk score predictive performance in survivor samples for multiple phenotypes. As a possible explanation, we found that meta-GWAS hits were less likely to be replicated in survivors who had been exposed to cancer therapies that are associated with phenotype risk. Examination of complementary DNA methylation data in a subset of survivors revealed that treatment-related methylation patterns at genomic sites linked to meta-GWAS hits may disrupt established genetic signals in survivors.


Asunto(s)
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapéutico , Supervivientes de Cáncer , Epigénesis Genética , Regulación Neoplásica de la Expresión Génica , Genes Relacionados con las Neoplasias , Neoplasias Hipotalámicas/genética , Antropometría/métodos , Niño , Estudios de Cohortes , Metilación de ADN , Femenino , Estudio de Asociación del Genoma Completo , Genotipo , Humanos , Neoplasias Hipotalámicas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hipotalámicas/patología , Neoplasias Hipotalámicas/terapia , Masculino , Metaanálisis como Asunto , Metaboloma/genética , Herencia Multifactorial , Fenotipo , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Medición de Riesgo
14.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 44(5): 421-426, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955747

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To determine longer-term (18-month) sustainability of a six-month physical activity and nutrition intervention for 50-69-year-olds with or at risk of metabolic syndrome residing in a rural Australian community. METHODS: Participants (n=151) were followed-up at 12 and 18 months post-intervention. Changes in nutrition behaviours (fat and fibre barometer); physical activity behaviours (IPAQ); anthropometry (waist-hip ratio, weight, BMI), blood pressure, blood parameters (triglycerides, glucose, LDL-, HDL-, non-HDL, total-cholesterol) were analysed using t-tests and repeated measures ANOVA. RESULTS: Across three time points (6, 12 and 18 months) marginal decrease was observed for waist circumference (p=0.001), a modest increase was observed for diastolic blood pressure (p=0.010) and other outcome measures remained stable. CONCLUSION: Maintenance and ongoing improvement of health behaviours in the longer-term is challenging. Future studies must look for ways to embed interventions into communities so they are sustainable and investigate new approaches to reduce the risk of chronic disease. Implications for public health: Metabolic syndrome is a major health issue in Australia and worldwide. Early identification and management are required to prevent the progression to chronic disease. This 18-month follow-up showed that outcomes measures remained relatively stable; however, there is a need to investigate opportunities for embedded community interventions to support long-term health behaviour change.


Asunto(s)
Dieta , Ejercicio Físico , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Servicios de Atención de Salud a Domicilio/organización & administración , Síndrome Metabólico/prevención & control , Obesidad/prevención & control , Anciano , Antropometría , Australia , Índice de Masa Corporal , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/dietoterapia , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Estudios Prospectivos , Población Rural , Factores de Tiempo
15.
Environ Health ; 19(1): 97, 2020 09 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917231

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Organophosphate esters (OPEs)-used as flame retardants and plasticizers-are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as reduced fecundity and live births and increased preterm delivery. OPEs may interfere with growth and metabolism via endocrine-disruption, but few studies have investigated endocrine-related outcomes. The objective of this pilot study (n = 56 mother-infant pairs) was to evaluate associations of OPEs with gestational weight gain (GWG), gestational age at delivery, infant anthropometry, and infant feeding behaviors. METHODS: We quantified OPE metabolites (bis-2-chloroethyl phosphate [BCEP], bis (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate [BDCPP], diphenyl phosphate [DPHP]) in pooled maternal spot urine collected throughout pregnancy (~ 12, 28, and 35 weeks' gestation). We obtained maternal sociodemographic characteristics from questionnaires administered at enrollment and perinatal characteristics from medical record abstraction. Trained research assistants measured infant weight, length, head and abdominal circumferences, and skinfold thicknesses at birth and 6 weeks postpartum. Mothers reported infant feeding behavior via the Baby Eating Behavior Questionnaire (BEBQ). Using multiple linear regression, we assessed associations of log2-transformed maternal urinary OPE metabolites with GWG, gestational age at delivery, infant anthropometry at birth, weekly growth rate, and BEBQ scores at 6 weeks postpartum. We used linear mixed effects (LME) models to analyze overall infant anthropometry during the first 6 weeks of life. Additionally, we considered effect modification by infant sex. RESULTS: We observed weak positive associations between all OPE metabolites and GWG. In LME models, BDCPP was associated with increased infant length (ß = 0.44 cm, 95%CI = 0.01, 0.87) and weight in males (ß = 0.14 kg, 95%CI = 0.03, 0.24). BDCPP was also associated with increased food responsiveness (ß = 0.23, 95%CI = 0.06, 0.40). DPHP was inversely associated with infant abdominal circumference (ß = - 0.50 cm, 95%CI = - 0.86, - 0.14) and female weight (ß = - 0.19 kg, 95%CI = - 0.36, - 0.02), but positively associated with weekly growth in iliac skinfold thickness (ß = 0.10 mm/wk., 95%CI = 0.02, 0.19). Further, DPHP was weakly associated with increased feeding speed. BCEP was associated with greater infant thigh skinfold thickness (ß = 0.34 mm, 95%CI = 0.16, 0.52) and subscapular skinfold thickness in males (ß = 0.14 mm, 95%CI = 0.002, 0.28). CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, these findings suggest that select OPEs may affect infant anthropometry and feeding behavior, with the most compelling evidence for BDCPP and DPHP.


Asunto(s)
Antropometría , Contaminantes Ambientales/orina , Edad Gestacional , Ganancia de Peso Gestacional/efectos de los fármacos , Recién Nacido/fisiología , Exposición Materna , Organofosfatos/orina , Adulto , Composición Corporal/efectos de los fármacos , Tamaño Corporal/efectos de los fármacos , Ésteres/orina , Conducta Alimentaria/efectos de los fármacos , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido/crecimiento & desarrollo , Embarazo , Rhode Island , Adulto Joven
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e21327, 2020 Aug 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871862

RESUMEN

The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) has increased recently in Qatar. Body mass index (BMI) is a predictor of T2D in many populations. However, BMI is based on height and weight measurements and not on body adiposity. Therefore, the utility of BMI for predicting the risk of T2D has been questioned. Visceral adiposity appears to be a better predictor of T2D.This study aimed to assess the relative effectiveness of visceral adiposity index (VAI) and body adiposity index (BAI), in comparison with BMI, for T2D among Qatari adults.A random sample of 1103 adult Qatari nationals and long term residents over 20 years old were included in this study. This data were obtained from the Qatar Biobank (QBB). We performed a multivariate logistic regression to examine the association between VAI, BAI, BMI, and T2D, and computed z-scores for VAI, BAI and BMI.VAI z-scores showed the strongest association with the risk of T2D (OR, 1.44; 95% CI: 1.24-1.68) compared with the z-scores for BAI (OR, 1.15; 95% CI: 0.93-1.43) and BMI (OR, 1.33; 95% CI: 1.11-1.59). ROC curve analysis showed that VAI was a stronger predictor than BAI and BMI (P < .0001). Subgroup analysis indicated that the association was stronger between VAI and T2D in Qatari women than in men.VAI was a stronger and an independent predictor of T2D compared to BAI and BMI among the Qatari adult population. Therefore, VAI could be a useful tool for predicting the risk of T2D among Qatari adults.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiología , Grasa Intraabdominal/patología , Obesidad Abdominal/complicaciones , Adiposidad , Adulto , Algoritmos , Antropometría/métodos , Índice de Masa Corporal , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Femenino , Humanos , Grasa Intraabdominal/crecimiento & desarrollo , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Prevalencia , Qatar/epidemiología
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e21574, 2020 Aug 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871873

RESUMEN

The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MS) is increasing in China, but there are disparities between urban and rural populations, and across different regions.To examine the prevalence and risk factors of MS in the rural area of Qianjiang (Southwest China).From March 2016 to June 2018, 6 townships in the Qianjiang District of Chongqing Municipality were selected for a cross-sectional study of the residents in rural areas. Demographics and medical history were collected using a questionnaire. Anthropometry and blood pressure were obtained by physical examination. Blood lipids, fasting plasma glucose, and 2-h postprandial glucose were measured.A total of 2949 (1067 males and 1882 females) were included. The mean age was 63.8 ±â€Š10.7 years. The prevalence of MS in the study population was 16.8% (496/2949). The prevalence of MS was 7.4% in men, 22.2% in women, 15.7% in Han, 18.1% in Tujia, and 14.8% in Miao. According to age, the prevalence of MS was 10.6%, 17.0%, and 18.3% in the 30-50, 50-69, and ≥ 70 years groups. The multivariable analysis showed that female sex (OR = 33.36, 95%CI: 17.0-65.53), dyslipidemia (OR = 4.71, 95%CI: 1.73-12.82), kidney diseases (OR = 2.32, 95%CI: 1.37-3.94), waistline (OR = 1.39, 95%CI: 1.33-1.46), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR = 0.12, 95%CI: 0.06-0.23), triglycerides (OR = 1.52, 95%CI: 1.31-1.76), alanine aminotransferase (OR = 0.98, 95%CI: 0.97-1.00), γ-glutamyltransferase (OR = 1.00, 95%CI: 1.00-1.01), and glycated hemoglobin (OR = 1.31, 95%CI: 1.08-1.59) were independently associated with MS.The prevalence of MS was 16.8% in Qianjiang. Female sex, kidney diseases, alanine aminotransferase, and γ-glutamyltransferase were independent risk factors for MS.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome Metabólico/sangre , Síndrome Metabólico/epidemiología , Población Rural/tendencias , Anciano , Alanina Transaminasa/sangre , Antropometría , Glucemia/análisis , Presión Sanguínea/fisiología , China/epidemiología , HDL-Colesterol/sangre , Estudios Transversales , Dislipidemias/epidemiología , Ayuno/sangre , Femenino , Humanos , Enfermedades Renales/epidemiología , Lípidos/sangre , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Sexuales , Triglicéridos/sangre , gamma-Glutamiltransferasa/sangre
18.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 27(3): 407-412, 2020 Sep 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955223

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: The biochemical and anthropometric consequences of metabolic disorders exert an enormous effect on the functioning of people worldwide. The aim of this study is to assess relationships between biochemical and anthropometric parameters associated with metabolic syndrome, and the presence of the PPAR-γ rs1801282, the FTO rs9939609, and the MC4R rs17782313 polymorphisms in women aged 45-60. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 425 women, aged 45-59 years, from the general population of the West Pomeranian Province in north-west Poland. The research procedure involved a structured interview, anthropometric and blood pressure measurements, biochemical analysis of serum, and genetic analysis. RESULTS: The carriers of the A/A genotype of the FTO polymorphism had higher LDL levels than their counterparts with the T/T genotype (p = 0.01). The carriers of the T/T genotype of the MC4R polymorphism had lower non-HDL levels than those with the C/C and C/T genotypes (p = 0.019). Weight was related to the C/C and the C/G + G/G genotypes of the PPAR-γ gene polymorphism (p = 0.046). The model of inheritance for the MC4R polymorphism had a significant effect on TG (p = 0.039) and non-HDL (p = 0.05) levels. CONCLUSIONS: The genotypes analyzed in the study had only a slight direct effect on the biochemical and anthropometric abnormalities typical of metabolic disorders. Nonetheless, the risk alleles (A allele of the FTO rs9939609 and the C allele of the MC4R rs17782313) were found to be related to lipid metabolism disorders in 45-60-year-old women.


Asunto(s)
Dioxigenasa FTO Dependiente de Alfa-Cetoglutarato/genética , Antropometría , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Síndrome Metabólico/genética , PPAR gamma/genética , Receptor de Melanocortina Tipo 4/genética , Dioxigenasa FTO Dependiente de Alfa-Cetoglutarato/metabolismo , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , PPAR gamma/metabolismo , Polonia , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Receptor de Melanocortina Tipo 4/metabolismo
20.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(9): 1229-1236, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913161

RESUMEN

Aims: This study was carried out to evaluate the degree of accuracy of age-based weight estimation methods in assessing the weight of the Nigerian child. Method: The weights of one thousand, four hundred and fifty-six (1,456) children were measured and compared with the updated Advanced Paediatric Life Support (APLS), Best guess, Nelson and Luscombe & Owen methods. Result: The updated APLS, Nelson and Luscombe & Owen methods underestimated the weights in younger children while overestimating in older ones. Best guess overestimated the weights across all ages. The Nelson formula had the best agreement within 10% and 20% of the measured weights among all methods. A linear regression analysis produced an equation for weight estimation: weight (W) = 2.058 Y + 9.925, where W is weight in kilogram and Y is the age in years. Conclusion: None of the weight estimation formulae assessed was entirely accurate in our study, though the Nelson method showed superior agreement.


Asunto(s)
Antropometría/métodos , Peso Corporal , Adolescente , Anciano , Niño , Preescolar , Familia , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Nigeria
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