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1.
Mymensingh Med J ; 29(1): 169-176, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915354

RESUMEN

This cross sectional analytical type of study was conducted at department of Anatomy, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka, Bangladesh from July 2015 to June 2016 on 50 adult Bangladeshi male sprinters (Group A) and 50 adult Bangladeshi male cricket batsman (Group B). Sample collection was done by convenient purposive sampling technique. History of any injury of hand during playing was excluded to construct standard measurement. Hand breadth was measured with the help of slide calipers. Hand grip strength Dynamometer was used to measure the hand grip strength. Paired Student's 't' test, unpaired student's 't' test and Pearson's correlation coefficient test were done for statistical analysis of the result. The aim of the present study was to determine hand breadth and average hand grip strength of Bangladeshi male cricket batsman to find out correlation between them that may be used as a baseline for other professions as well for future research in our country. The mean right and left hand grip strength was significantly higher in the cricket batsman than in the sprinters. The mean right and left hand breadth was found to be significantly higher in the cricket batsman than in the sprinters. Right and left hand grip strength showed significant positive correlation with hand breadth in both hand. The study findings suggest that regular physical exercise and training increase hand grip strength.


Asunto(s)
Fuerza de la Mano , Mano/anatomía & histología , Adulto , Animales , Antropometría , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática , Atletas , Bangladesh , Estudios Transversales , Grupos Étnicos , Humanos , Masculino , Dinamómetro de Fuerza Muscular , Carrera
3.
World Neurosurg ; 133: e156-e164, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476474

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the correlation between changes in spinal/pelvic sagittal parameters and clinical treatment outcomes after oblique lumbar interbody fusion (OLIF). METHODS: Eighty-two patients with lumbar degenerative disease (LDD) treated by OLIF were retrospectively analyzed. The visual analog scale (VAS) score and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) score were compared before and after surgery. Disk height (DH) and various spinal/pelvic sagittal parameters, including pelvic incidence (PI), pelvic tilt (PT), sacral slope (SS), lumbar lordosis (LL), and sagittal vertical axis (SVA), were measured preoperatively and at the last postoperative follow-up. The correlation between the changes in sagittal parameters before and after surgery and the clinical treatment outcomes were observed. RESULTS: ODI score, VAS score, and DH were significantly better at the last follow-up compared with before surgery. The change in PI was not statistically significant before and after surgery. PT significantly decreased and SS and LL significantly increased after surgery. Significant linear relationships were found for several independent variables (difference in DH before and after surgery, postoperative LL, difference in LL before and after surgery, PI-LL match status, and SVA status) and the dependent variable ODI. The difference in DH before and after surgery showed the strongest correlation. The percentages of PI-LL match were 37% before surgery and 66% after surgery. The percentage of the normal SVA was 9% before surgery and 62% after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: OLIF for treatment of LDD had significant clinical outcomes, effectively restored the spinal/pelvic sagittal balance, and helped to improve the patients' clinical conditions.


Asunto(s)
Vértebras Lumbares/cirugía , Huesos Pélvicos/diagnóstico por imagen , Fusión Vertebral/métodos , Columna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagen , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Antropometría , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Huesos Pélvicos/patología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Enfermedades de la Columna Vertebral/cirugía , Columna Vertebral/patología , Resultado del Tratamiento
4.
World Neurosurg ; 133: e84-e88, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470152

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Spinopelvic sagittal parameters have a significant influence on adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) after fusion surgery. The association between ASD and sagittal balance is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the biomechanical influence of various sacral slope (SS) degrees on adjacent segments after transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) at the L4-L5 level. METHODS: We conducted a finite element model of the L1-S1 based on computed tomography scan images. The L1-S1 model with L4-L5 TLIF was modified with various SS degrees (33°, 38°, 43°, and 48°) to investigate the biomechanical influence of SS on adjacent segments. The range of motion (ROM) and intradiscal pressure (IDP) of the adjacent segments (L3-L4 and L5-S1) were compared among models using various SS angles. RESULTS: When the SS angle increased, the ROM and IDP in L5-S1 decreased gradually after TLIF at the L4-L5 level in all motion patterns. Nevertheless, the ROM and IDP in L3-L4 were not significantly different among various SS angles. CONCLUSIONS: Decreased SS after lumbar fusion surgery may pose a higher risk of ASD. Therefore, restoring appropriate SS should be considered during decision-making prior to fusion surgery to reduce the risk of degenerative changes.


Asunto(s)
Vértebras Lumbares/cirugía , Sacro/diagnóstico por imagen , Fusión Vertebral/métodos , Antropometría , Fenómenos Biomecánicos , Análisis de Elementos Finitos , Humanos , Disco Intervertebral/fisiopatología , Vértebras Lumbares/diagnóstico por imagen , Presión , Rango del Movimiento Articular , Sacro/patología , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X
5.
Sports Biomech ; 19(1): 90-119, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132028

RESUMEN

As the sport of strongman is becoming increasingly popular, and such exercises are being commonly used by strength and conditioning coaches for a wide range of athletic groups, a greater understanding of the biomechanics of strongman exercises is warranted. To improve the quality of research, this systematic review summarised the research methodology used in biomechanical studies of strongman exercises and identified potential improvements to current approaches. A search of 5 databases found 10 articles adherent to the pre-defined inclusion criteria. The studies assessed 8 strongman exercises and included male participants of relatively similar body mass but varying training backgrounds. Due to the complexity of strongman exercises and the challenges in collecting advanced biomechanical data in the field, most studies used simplified measurement/analysis methods (e.g., 2D motion capture). Future strongman biomechanical studies should: assess under/un-researched strongman exercises; include a greater number of experienced and female strongman athletes; utilise more advanced (e.g., 3D motion capture and/or inertial sensor) technology so to provide a broader range and greater quality of data. Such approaches will provide strength and conditioning coaches, strongman coaches and athletes with a greater understanding of strongman exercises, thereby further improving exercise prescription, athlete performance and minimising risk of injury.


Asunto(s)
Proyectos de Investigación , Entrenamiento de Resistencia/métodos , Levantamiento de Peso/fisiología , Antropometría , Fenómenos Biomecánicos , Conducta Competitiva/fisiología , Humanos , Articulaciones/fisiología , Cinética , Músculo Esquelético/fisiología , Proyectos de Investigación/normas
7.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 103, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800914

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To explore the association between adiposity, major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder, and to assess the role of inflammation, diet quality and physical activity in this association. METHODS: We used data from 2,977 individuals from the 1993 Pelotas Cohort (Brazil) who attended the 18- and 22-year follow-ups. We assessed general obesity using body mass index, fat mass index, and abdominal obesity using waist circumference. Major Depressive Disorder and generalized anxiety disorder were assessed using the mini-international neuropsychiatric interview. C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were used as a measure of inflammation; diet quality was estimated using the revised diet quality index, and physical activity was assessed by the International physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ, min/day). The association between adiposity and major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder was assessed using logistic regression, and the natural indirect effect via the mediators was estimated using G-computation. RESULTS: General obesity assessed by body mass index (OR: 2.3; 95% CI:1.13; 4.85), fat mass index (OR: 2.6; 95%CI: 1.37; 4.83), and abdominal obesity (OR: 2.5; 95%CI: 1.18; 5.39) were associated with higher odds of major depressive disorder, whereas major depressive disorder was only associated with obesity assessed by body mass index (OR=1.9; 95% CI: 1.09; 3.46). Obesity and generalized anxiety disorder were not associated. C-reactive protein, diet quality and physical activity did not mediate the effect of obesity on major depressive disorder, and C-reactive protein mediated about 25% of the effect of major depressive disorder on adiposity. CONCLUSIONS: Depression, but not generalized anxiety disorder, is associated with adiposity in both directions, with a stronger evidence for the direction obesity-depression. Inflammation explains part of the effect of major depressive disorder on obesity but not the other way around. Further research should explore other mechanisms that could be involved in the association between obesity and depression.


Asunto(s)
Adiposidad/fisiología , Trastornos de Ansiedad/fisiopatología , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/fisiopatología , Dieta , Ejercicio/psicología , Obesidad/psicología , Adolescente , Antropometría , Brasil , Proteína C-Reactiva/análisis , Estudios de Cohortes , Ejercicio/fisiología , Femenino , Humanos , Interleucina-6/sangre , Estilo de Vida , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Obesidad Abdominal/psicología , Escalas de Valoración Psiquiátrica , Valores de Referencia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
8.
Int Braz J Urol ; 45(6): 1204-1208, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31808409

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: This study aims to assess the association between CHA2DS2-VASc score and erectile dysfunction in patients who were admitted to cardiology outpatient clinics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and two male patients who were admitted to the cardiology outpatient clinic were included to the study. Erectile dysfunction was evaluated in the urology outpatient clinic in the same hospital and scored using Turkish Version of The International Index of Erectile Function. CHA2DS2-VASc score was calculated for every patient using the current associated guidelines. RESULTS: There was a negative correlation between The International Index of Erectile Function score and CHA2DS2-VASc score, age, hypertension, heart failure, diabetes mellitus, stroke respectively. Smoking and dislipidemia were not correlated with The International Index of Erectile Function score (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: CHA2DS2-VASc score can be used to detect Erectile dysfunction in patients who are admitted to the cardiology outpatient clinics.


Asunto(s)
Disfunción Eréctil/diagnóstico , Disfunción Eréctil/fisiopatología , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Antropometría , Estudios Transversales , Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatología , Insuficiencia Cardíaca/fisiopatología , Humanos , Hipertensión/fisiopatología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Valores de Referencia , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Factores de Riesgo , Estadísticas no Paramétricas , Accidente Cerebrovascular/fisiopatología
9.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(11): 1481-1486, 2019 Nov 10.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838825

RESUMEN

Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancer. Studies have been conducted to evaluate the association between anthropometric indicators and gastric cancer, but the results were inconsistent. Therefore, a literature retrieval was conducted by using PubMed and Wanfang databases to summarize the latest research progress in the cohort study of the association between anthropometric indicators and the risk for gastric cancer. It was found that both general obesity and abdominal obesity might increase the risk for gastric cancer, while the association between underweight and gastric cancer needs further study. This paper summarizes the progress in the cohort study of association between anthropometric indicators for the risk for gastric cancer in order to provide evidence for the prevention and control of gastric cancer.


Asunto(s)
Antropometría , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiología , Índice de Masa Corporal , Estudios de Cohortes , Estudios Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Factores de Riesgo
10.
Metas enferm ; 22(10): 14-20, dic. 2019. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-185327

RESUMEN

Objetivo: describir la calidad del desayuno de los niños y las niñas de 4 a 9 años de un municipio de Madrid, y de sus cuidadores familiares. Método: se diseñó un estudio descriptivo transversal en el Centro de Salud Alicante en Fuenlabrada (Madrid) con la población infantil de entre 4 y 9 años, que acudían a consulta de Enfermería para revisiones programadas junto al familiar/tutor con quien realizaban habitualmente el desayuno. Los datos se recogieron mediante entrevista clínica y exploración antropométrica en consulta, empleándose el cuestionario "Test de desayuno saludable" de la Comunidad de Madrid para obtener los datos de la calidad del desayuno. Se llevó a cabo un análisis descriptivo, usando media y desviación estándar (DE) para las variables cuantitativas y frecuencias para las cualitativas. Resultados: participaron 289 niños/as, con una edad media (DE) de 5,83 (1,98) años. 240 niños (83,1%) presentaban normopeso, 29 (10%) sobrepeso y 20 (6,9%) obesidad. La calidad global del desayuno fue adecuada en el 38,7% de los casos mientras que el 61,3% restante necesitaba mejorar o replantearse el desayuno por no alcanzar el mínimo requerido. El 25,6% de los cuidadores hacía un desayuno de calidad, mientras que el 74,4% necesitaba mejorar o replantearse sus hábitos dietéticos en el desayuno. Conclusiones: un desayuno nutricionalmente adecuado se asocia con un mejor rendimiento físico e intelectual y mejor estado de salud, incluyendo la prevención de la obesidad. En el presente estudio los datos para un desayuno de calidad revelan que más de la mitad de los niños/as de 4-9 años de edad necesitan mejorar o replantearse el desayuno


Objective: to describe the quality of breakfast in 4-to-9-year old boys and girls and their family caregivers in a Madrid district. Method: a descriptive cross-sectional study was designed at the Centro de Salud Alicante in Fuenlabrada (Madrid) with the pediatric population between 4 and 9-year-old who attended the Nursing Unit for scheduled routine examinations with the relative/tutor with whom they had breakfast usually. Data were collected through clinical interview and anthropometric examination during the visit; the "Healthy Breakfast Test" of the Community of Madrid was used to obtain data about the quality of breakfast. A descriptive analysis was conducted, using mean and standard deviation (SD) for the quantitative variables, and frequencies for qualitative variables. Results: the study included 289 boys and girls, with a mean age (SD) of 5.83 (1.98) years; 240 children (83.1%) presented normal weight, 29 (10%) overweight and 20 (6.9%) obesity. The overall quality of breakfast was adequate in 38.7% of cases, while the remaining 61.3% needed to improve or reconsider breakfast because they did not reach the minimum required. Of caregivers, 25.6% had a quality breakfast, while 74.4% needed to improve or reconsider their diet habits at breakfast. Conclusions: a nutritionally adequate breakfast is associated with better physical and intellectual performance and better health status, including the prevention of obesity. In the present study, quality breakfast data revealed that over half of 4-to-9-year-old children needed to improve or reconsider their breakfast


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Desayuno , Enfermería de Consulta , Nutrición del Lactante , Alimentación Escolar , Antropometría , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Investigación Cualitativa , Cuidadores , Obesidad Pediátrica/dietoterapia , Servicios de Enfermería Escolar
11.
Endocrinol. diabetes nutr. (Ed. impr.) ; 66(10): 611-619, dic. 2019. graf, tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-184788

RESUMEN

Antecedentes: El ejercicio intervalado de alta intensidad (HIIT) ha sido utilizado ampliamente para combatir los factores de riesgo cardiovascular en población adolescente y adulta, existiendo un vacío de su aplicabilidad en población infantil. Objetivos: Determinar los efectos de un HIIT sobre distintos parámetros antropométricos y cardiovasculares de niños con sobrepeso y obesidad de entre 7 y 9 años de edad. Material y métodos: Cuatro grupos fueron formados: 1) grupo control con sobrepeso (GCS, n = 30, IMC = 21,60 ± 3,72 kg/m2); 2) grupo control con obesidad (GCO, n = 34, IMC = 23,92 ± 3,11 kg/m2); 3) grupo intervención con sobrepeso (GIS, n = 69, IMC = 20,01 ± 1,88 kg/m2), y 4) grupo intervención con obesidad (GIO, n = 141, IMC=24,12 ± 2,66 kg/m2). El IMC, grasa corporal (GC), circunferencia de cintura, razón cintura-estatura, presión arterial sistólica y diastólica, y capacidad cardiorrespiratoria (CRF), fueron evaluadas pre- y postintervención. Resultados: Existieron diferencias significativas en las variables IMC (p < 0,001), GC (p < 0,001) y CRF (p < 0,001) en la comparación entre grupos (control vs. intervención) en pre- y postintervención (GCS vs. GIS y GCO vs. GIO). El GIS (IMC; pre = 20,01 ± 1,88 vs. post = 19,00 ± 2,02, p < 0,001) y el GIO (IMC; pre = 24,12 ± 2,66 vs. post = 23,23 ± 3,23, p < 0,001) disminuyeron su IMC. De igual forma, en el GIS (GC; pre = 21,84 ± 4,97 vs. post = 19,55±4,81%, p < 0,001) y en el GIO (GC; pre = 30,26 ± 11,49 vs. post =26,81 ± 6,80%, p < 0,001) la GC disminuyó. Ambos grupos intervenidos mejoraron su CRF (p < 0,001). Existió una disminución significativa de escolares con obesidad (pre = 66,4% vs. post = 49,6%) (p < 0,001). Conclusión: La intervención realizada en el contexto escolar mejora los parámetros antropométricos y cardiovasculares de los escolares, permitiendo además disminuir la proporción de escolares con obesidad


Background: High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been widely used to fight cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents and adults, but no data are available on its applicability in children. Objectives: To assess the effects of HIIT on different anthropometric and cardiovascular parameters of overweight and obese children aged 7-9 years. Material and methods: Four groups were formed: 1) an overweight control group (OWCG, n = 30, BMI = 21.60 ± 3.72 kg/m2); 2) an obesity control group (OCG, n = 34, BMI = 23.92 ± 3.11 kg/m2); 3) an overweight intervention group (OWIG, n = 69, BMI = 20.01 ± 1.88 kg/m2), and 4) an obesity intervention group (OIG, n = 141, BMI = 24.12 ± 2.66 kg/m2). BMI, body fat (BF), waist circumference, height-waist ratio, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) were assessed before and after intervention. Results: There were significant differences in BMI (P < .001), BF (P < .001), and CRF (P < .001) between the groups (control vs. intervention) before and after intervention (OWCG vs. OWIG and OCG vs. OIG). BMI decreased in the OWIG (BMI, 20.01 ± 1.88 at baseline vs. 19.00 ± 2.02 after HIIT, P < .001) and OIG (BMI, 24.12 ± 2.66 at baseline vs. 23.23 ± 3.23 after HIIT, P < .001) groups. Similarly, BF decreased in the OWIG (BF, 21.84 ± 4.97 at baseline vs. 19.55 ± 4.81% after HIIT, P < .001) and OIG (BF, 30.26 ± 11.49 at baseline vs. 26.81 ± 6.80% after HIIT, P < .001) groups. CRF improved in both intervention groups (P < .001). There was a significant decrease in the prevalence rate of schoolchildren with obesity (from 66.4% to 49.6%) (P < .001). Conclusion: The intervention conducted in the school setting improved the anthropometric and cardiovascular parameters of schoolchildren, and also allowed for reducing the proportion of schoolchildren with obesity


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Niño , Obesidad Pediátrica/diagnóstico , Obesidad Pediátrica/terapia , Ejercicio/fisiología , Capacidad Cardiovascular/fisiología , Antropometría , Sobrepeso/complicaciones , Índice de Masa Corporal , Análisis de Varianza
12.
Endocrinol. diabetes nutr. (Ed. impr.) ; 66(10): 647-653, dic. 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-184792

RESUMEN

Introduction: Several sweeteners are introduced to replace sucrose in the human diet. However, they had their own limitations and concerns, particularly in terms of their taste and their long-term health consequences. This study examined the effect of a new mixture of sugars and sugar alcohol on the postprandial blood glucose levels and its possible gastrointestinal (GI) adverse reactions in human adults. Methods: In this double-blind three-way randomized clinical trial, adults (21 with type 2 diabetes and 20 healthy) received 300 ml of three beverages containing 50 g glucose, sucrose, and lacritose (a mixture of lactose, fructose, sucrose, and erythritol) when they were in the fasted state in a random order. Postprandial serum glucose was checked every 30min up to 2 h and the gastrointestinal reactions were collected. Results: The mean serum glucose was significantly lower in all time points after ingestion of the lacritose for participants with type 2 diabetes compared to glucose and sucrose (P < 0.05). The blood glucose levels were significantly lower in the 30th and 60th min for healthy subjects (P < 0.05). Adverse GI reactions were not significant between the test beverages. Conclusions: The ingestion of a 50 g dose of lacritose containing lactose, fructose, sucrose, and erythritol, led to an improved blood glucose levels without any significant adverse effect compared to the same amount of glucose and sucrose. Studying the long-term effects of lacritose on appetite, metabolic markers and adverse reactions is recommended. The trial was registered in Iranian registry of clinical trials: IRCT2015050912571N2


Introducción: Se han utilizado varios edulcorantes para sustituir a la sacarosa en la dieta humana. Sin embargo, tenían sus propias limitaciones y problemas, sobre todo por su sabor y sus consecuencias a largo plazo para la salud. En este estudio se explora el efecto de una nueva muestra de azúcares y alcohol de azúcar en los niveles de glucemia posprandial y las posibles reacciones adversas digestivas a ella en adultos humanos. Métodos: En este ensayo clínico doble ciego aleatorizado de tres vías, adultos (21 con diabetes tipo 2 y 20 sanos) recibieron 300ml de tres bebidas que contenían 50 g de glucosa, sacarosa y lacritosa (una mezcla de lactosa, fructosa, sacarosa y eritritol) en orden aleatorio en ayunas. Se comprobó la glucose sérica posprandial cada 30 minutos hasta las dos horas y se recogieron las reacciones digestivas. Resultados: Los valores medios de glucosa en suero eran significativamente menores en todos los puntos temporales tras la ingesta de lacritosa que tras la de glucosa y sacarosa en los participantes con diabetes tipo 2 (P < 0,05). Los niveles de glucemia eran significativamente menores a los 30 y 60 minutos en los sujetos sanos (P < 0,05). No había diferencias significativas en las reacciones digestivas adversas entre las bebidas estudiadas. Conclusiones: La ingesta de una dosis de 50 g de lacritosa que contiene lactosa, fructosa, sacarosa y eritritol, mejoró los niveles de glucemia sin efectos adversos importantes comparada con la misma cantidad de glucosa y sacarosa. Se recomienda estudiar los efectos a largo plazo de la lacritosa en el apetito, los marcadores metabólicos y las reacciones adversas. El ensayo se inscribió en el registro de ensayos clínicos de Irán: IRCT2015050912571N2


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Glucemia/análisis , Sacarosa/sangre , Hiperglucemia/sangre , Hiperglucemia/inducido químicamente , Alcoholes del Azúcar/análisis , Sacarosa/efectos adversos , Índice Glucémico , Hiperglucemia/complicaciones , Método Doble Ciego , Alcoholes del Azúcar/efectos adversos , Alcoholes del Azúcar/sangre , Antropometría
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(44): e17736, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689819

RESUMEN

To explore associated risk factors and their interactions with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) among the elderly with prediabetes in rural areas in China.A nested case-control study was conducted in a fixed cohort to identify the risk factors for T2DM among the elderly with prediabetes in rural areas of Yiyang City in China. A total of 37 elderly with T2DM were included in the cases group and 111 elderly subjects with prediabetes were matched in the control group. Data related to sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle behavior, and anthropometric variables were collected by trained staff using standard tools. The risk factors for T2DM were determined using conditional logistic regression analysis, and their additive interactions were also explored.Multivariable conditional logistic regression analysis results showed that overweight/obesity (odds ratio [OR] = 4.80, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.20-12.28), family history of diabetes (OR = 3.63, 95% CI: 1.03-12.81), physically inactive (OR = 3.08, 95% CI: 1.14-8.30), high waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (OR = 3.15, 95% CI: 1.27-7.80), and inadequate diabetes-specific health literacy (DSHL) (OR = 3.92, 95% CI: 1.14-13.48) increased the risk for T2DM. Additive interactions for T2DM were observed between a family history of diabetes and high WHR with a relative excess risk of interaction (RERI) of 10.02 (95% CI: 4.25, 15.78), and between high WHR and overweight or obesity, with an RERI of 3.90 (95% CI: 0.36, 7.44).The independent risk factors for T2DM are overweight or obesity, high WHR, family history of diabetes, physically inactive, and inadequate DSHL. High WHR as a risk factor for T2DM has additive interactions with family history of diabetes and overweight or obesity.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiología , Estado Prediabético/etiología , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Anciano , Antropometría , Estudios de Casos y Controles , China/epidemiología , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiología , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatología , Ejercicio , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Análisis Multivariante , Estado Prediabético/epidemiología , Estado Prediabético/fisiopatología , Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Conducta Sedentaria , Relación Cintura-Cadera
14.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 295, 2019.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692843

RESUMEN

Introduction: Spirometric reference values cannot be extrapolated in the populations, being subject to many environmental and human variables; hence the interest of local studies in this field. Methods: This study aims to determine the reference values among healthy adults in Kinshasa. We conducted a cross-sectional study including 7443 subjects (3208 women, 43%). FEV1, FVC, PEF were correlated with anthropometric data. Five age groups were formed and comparisons were made on the basis of sex, age, BMI and of the practice of sporting activity. Results: Differences are evident between the sexes, in terms of FEV1 (3.00 vs 2.21 L), FVC (3.19 vs 2.38) and the PEF (6.8 vs 5.70 L/s); same as for the outer age categories. FEV1 ranged between 2.33 et 4.54 vs 1.93-3.3 L in the age group 20-29 years and 1,76-3,39 vs 1,60 vs 2,53 L in the age group 60-70 years; FVC ranged between 2,44-4,89 vs 1,96-3,56 L and 1,79-3,78 vs 1,66-2,74 L ; PEF ranged between 4,34-12.2 vs 3,62-8.58 L/s and 2.99-6.76 vs 2.99-7.34L/s in the age group 60-70 years. Conclusion: The differences related to gender, age, anthropometric data as well as to the practice of sporting activity are obvious. These results warrant further and more extended investigations and show the relevance of values based on percentiles in the determinantion of a spirometry standard in a given population.


Asunto(s)
Volumen Espiratorio Forzado/fisiología , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Respiratorios , Espirometría , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Antropometría , Estudios Transversales , República Democrática del Congo , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Valores de Referencia , Factores Sexuales , Adulto Joven
15.
Endocrinol. diabetes nutr. (Ed. impr.) ; 66(9): 571-578, nov. 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-184380

RESUMEN

Introduction: Psychological and neuroendocrine alterations are typical characteristics in anorexia nervosa patients. The role of adipokines and cytokines as mediators of body systems' adaptations to the patients' abnormal eating behavior is not well understood. The duration of disease seems to be a determinant of nutritional status and associated hormone changes. We aimed to assess whether alterations in adipokines, cytokines and cortisol do already exist in patients with a recent disease onset by means of a case-control study. Methods: Forty-one adolescent female patients on their first-episode and diagnosed with anorexia nervosa, were matched by age and socioeconomic status (SES) (1:1) with healthy girls. Leptin, soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R), adiponectin, cortisol, and the cytokines IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6 and TNF-alfa were examined. Results: The results showed reduced leptin and increased sOB-R and cortisol levels in AN patients. Adiponectin was also increased but opposite to the previous biomarkers did not correlate with BMI Z-score. Serum TNF-alfa and IL-2 showed significantly lower and higher values, respectively, in the AN patients than in the controls. Cortisol showed the strongest correlation with sOB-R (r = 0.436; P = 0.005). Conclusions: Our study confirms previous findings on adipokine and cortisol alterations in AN patients, while overall cytokine results did not show a clear disruption in AN patients with short disease duration. The results highlight the need to disentangle the role of the sOB-R in the interactions between leptin and cortisol secretion


Introducción: Las alteraciones psicológicas y neuroendocrinas son típicas de las pacientes con anorexia nerviosa (AN). El papel de las adipoquinas y citocinas como mediadores de la adaptación del organismo al comportamiento alimentario alterado no es bien conocido. La duración de la enfermedad parece ser un determinante del estado nutricional y de los cambios hormonales asociados. Nuestro objetivo ha sido establecer si existen alteraciones de adipoquinas, citocinas y cortisol en pacientes con un comienzo reciente de la enfermedad en un estudio caso-control. Métodos: Cuarenta y una chicas adolescentes diagnosticadas de AN en su primer episodio fueron emparejadas por edad y estado socioeconómico (1:1) con adolescentes sanas. Se midieron la leptina, el receptor soluble de leptina, la adiponectina, el cortisol y las citocinas IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6 y TNF-alfa. Resultados: Las pacientes con AN mostraron niveles reducidos de leptina y elevados de receptor de leptina y cortisol. La adiponectina también se observó elevada pero, al contrario que los otros marcadores, no correlacionó con el Z-score del índice de masa corporal. Las pacientes mostraron valores de TNF-alfa e IL-2 menores y mayores, respectivamente, que las controles. El cortisol y el receptor de leptina mostraron la correlación más fuerte de todas las observadas (r = 0,436; p = 0,005). Conclusiones: Se confirman los resultados previos de adipoquinas y cortisol en pacientes con AN. Sin embargo, los resultados globales de citocinas no muestran una alteración clara en pacientes con corta duración de la enfermedad. Los resultados apuntan la necesidad de desentrañar el papel del receptor soluble de leptina en las interacciones entre leptina y cortisol


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Adolescente , Anorexia/diagnóstico , Anorexia/fisiopatología , Análisis Químico de la Sangre , Biomarcadores/análisis , Leptina/sangre , Hidrocortisona/sangre , Citocinas/sangre , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Antropometría
16.
Int J Sports Med ; 40(14): 903-908, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614383

RESUMEN

Football players frequently face the occurrence of non-contact injuries. Although there are likely multiple factors that contribute to increased risk of non-contact injury, it remains a challenge to correlate all these factors. However, it is not clear how much of individual training abilities may interfere in these events. As such, the primary aim of the present study was to determine whether the reduction of functional performance of the thigh in the isokinetic knee tests, anthropometric and morbid history can establish risk factors for lower-limb musculoskeletal injuries throughout the season. The incidence of injuries and odds ratios were calculated for suspected risk factors. Hamstring/Quadriceps conventional ratio outside of the safety range (55-64%) may be involved in the occurrence of non-contact muscle injuries and the risk for any musculoskeletal injuries in the lower extremities is 16 times higher when extensor peak of torque exceeds 10% and 12 times higher when flexor peak of torque difference was greater than 10%. This kind of evaluation can result in intervention programs that may decrease the risk of lower-limb musculoskeletal injuries. Based on these results we can establish a specific and individualized exercise program for each athlete and thus protect them during the season.


Asunto(s)
Extremidad Inferior/lesiones , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Fútbol/lesiones , Adolescente , Adulto , Antropometría , Prueba de Esfuerzo , Músculos Isquiotibiales/lesiones , Músculos Isquiotibiales/fisiología , Humanos , Rodilla/fisiología , Ligamentos/lesiones , Estudios Longitudinales , Extremidad Inferior/fisiología , Masculino , Acondicionamiento Físico Humano , Músculo Cuádriceps/lesiones , Músculo Cuádriceps/fisiología , Factores de Riesgo , Fútbol/fisiología , Muslo/fisiología , Lesiones de Menisco Tibial/fisiopatología , Adulto Joven
18.
J Strength Cond Res ; 33(11): 2909-2912, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644516

RESUMEN

Cordingley, DM, Sirant, L, MacDonald, PB, and Leiter, JR. Three-year longitudinal fitness tracking in top-level competitive youth ice hockey players. J Strength Cond Res 33(11): 2909-2912, 2019-The purpose of this retrospective review was to report the physical and physiological development of top-level competitive male youth hockey players for 3 consecutive years (13, 14, and 15 years of age). Before each hockey season, the athletes (n = 103) underwent a fitness testing combine to assess aerobic, anaerobic, and musculoskeletal fitness. The tests performed included the height, body mass, body fat percentage determined by skinfolds, push-ups, chin-ups, plank, broad jump, grip strength 20-m shuttle run, Wingate bike test, and 5-10-5 shuttle test. Height and body mass increased with each consecutive year (p < 0.05) with no change in body fat percentage. Chin-ups, broad jump, and grip strength all improved with age (p < 0.001). However, push-ups only improved from 13 to 14 years of age (p < 0.001), whereas maximal plank duration decreased from 14 to 15 years of age (p < 0.05). The total distance covered during the 20-m shuttle run decreased from 14 to 15 years of age (p < 0.05). Absolute peak and average power increased with each age increase (p < 0.001), but relative peak and average power only increased from 13 to 14 years of age (p < 0.05). There was no change in the fatigue index with age. The 5-10-5 shuttle test improved with each age increase (p < 0.05). Over a 3-year period (13-15 years of age), there are many physical and physiological changes that occur in top-level competitive male hockey players. Having a better understanding of how these athletes develop could aid in the implementation of specific on- and off-ice training programs.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo del Adolescente , Atletas , Hockey/fisiología , Aptitud Física , Adolescente , Antropometría , Prueba de Esfuerzo , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/fisiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Deportes Juveniles
19.
Codas ; 31(6): e20180261, 2019.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644710

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To describe and compare the anthropometric measurements and the orofacial proportions of healthy term newborns (NB) according to sex, from a public maternity hospital in the state of Sergipe, northeastern Brazil. METHODS: Descriptive and analytical randomized study was carried out. The participants included were 46 randomly selected healthy and full-term RNs of both sexes. A digital caliper was used to measure measurements (in millimeters) with the NB supine and occluded lips. Twice different, previously trained researchers measured each NB. Data were described using simple and percentage frequencies. The mean differences were assessed using the Mann-Whitney test, with a significance of 5%. Associations evaluated by the Fisher Exact test, and Cohen D size effects were calculated. RESULTS: Differences were found between the groups for the anthropometric measurements: midface third height (glabella-subnasal or sn-g) and bottom (subnasal-gnathion or sn-gn); and filter heights (upper-lip subnasal or sn-ls), the upper lips (subnasal-estomus or sn-sto), and lower (stomatal-gnathion or sto-gn), which was always greater in males. The orofacial proportions studied did not show differences between sexes. CONCLUSION: The study showed the presence of sexual dimorphism for the measures of the face at birth in the population born in Aracaju, Sergipe.


Asunto(s)
Antropometría , Cara/anatomía & histología , Nacimiento a Término/fisiología , Brasil , Cefalometría , Femenino , Edad Gestacional , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Labio/anatomía & histología , Masculino , Distribución Aleatoria , Valores de Referencia , Caracteres Sexuales
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(43): e17598, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651867

RESUMEN

Emerging evidences had reported the positive relationship between obesity and intraocular pressure (IOP). The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between hepatic steatosis and IOP in an adult Taiwanese population.Seven thousand seven hundred twelve males and 6325 females who received a health examination at the Tri-Service General Hospital during the period from 2010 to 2016 were included in this study.IOP was measured by noncontact tonometry. Hepatic steatosis was diagnosed by abdominal ultrasound examination. Multivariate regression analyses were used to assess the associations among various anthropometric parameters and IOP.After adjusting for pertinent covariables, hepatic steatosis had a closer association with increased IOP than percentage body fat, body mass index, or waist circumference (ß = 0.017, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.006, 0.028). This relationship remained significant among males in the study population (ß = 0.015, 95% CI = 0.001, 0.029). Furthermore, hepatic steatosis was significantly correlated with increased risk of high IOP (odd ratios = 1.235, 95% CI = 1.041-1.465).Our study highlights that hepatic steatosis is a better index for assessing the relationship with increased IOP than other anthropometric parameters. Underlying pathophysiological mechanisms regulating the association between hepatic steatosis and increasing IOP and even the risk of glaucoma should be examined in further studies.


Asunto(s)
Índice de Masa Corporal , Hígado Graso/fisiopatología , Presión Intraocular/fisiología , Circunferencia de la Cintura/fisiología , Adulto , Antropometría , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Oportunidad Relativa , Taiwán/epidemiología , Tonometría Ocular
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