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1.
AMA J Ethics ; 23(2): E127-131, 2021 02 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33635192

RESUMEN

Health professions educators continuously adapt curricular content in response to new scientific knowledge but can struggle to incorporate content about current social issues that profoundly affect students and learning environments. This article offers recommendations to support innovation and action as students and faculty grapple with ongoing unrest in the United States, including racism, murders of Black people by police, and COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Educadores en Salud , Empleos en Salud/educación , Racismo/psicología , Justicia Social/psicología , Afroamericanos , Grupos Étnicos , Disparidades en Atención de Salud , Humanos , Aplicación de la Ley , Estados Unidos
3.
J Strength Cond Res ; 35(4): 955-962, 2021 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33555831

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: Martinez, GJ and Abel, MG. Effect of a law enforcement academy training program on validated fitness outcomes of cadets. J Strength Cond Res 35(4): 955-962, 2021-The purpose of this investigation was to assess the efficacy of a law enforcement training program on physical fitness outcomes in police cadets. A convenience sample of 138 male and 8 female police cadets participated in a 23-week law enforcement training academy with validated fitness assessments conducted at entrance, midpoint, and exit from the academy. Demographic, anthropometric, and fitness data (i.e., 1.5-mile run, 1 repetition maximum bench press, sit-up repetitions, push-up repetitions, and 300-m run) were retrospectively collected. Analysis of variance was used to identify the influence of training on fitness outcomes over time and between cadet subgroup stratifications. Statistical significance for this study was set at p ≤ 0.05. All cadet subgroups (specialty-stratified and sex-stratified cohorts) exceeded the validated fitness standards on academy entrance and exit (p ≤ 0.01). The entire cohort significantly improved all fitness outcomes throughout the training program. Furthermore, improvements in all fitness outcomes were significantly greater from entrance to midpoint (4.4-35.7%, p ≤ 0.001) vs. midpoint to exit (1.2-15.4%, p < 0.05). Specifically, there were greater relative improvements in push-ups and sit-ups (57.5 and 28.7%, respectively; p < 0.001) compared with bench press (13.8%, p < 0.001), 300-m run (5.8%, p < 0.001), and 1.5-mile run (12.1%, p < 0.001). Regarding female cadets, the average relative improvement in fitness outcomes from entrance to exit assessments was superior compared to male counterparts for all fitness tests except sit-ups. Moreover, the specialty cadets produced lower 1.5-mile run times than nonspecialty cadets throughout the academy. Overall, the academy improved occupationally relevant fitness outcomes, with greater improvements occurring earlier in the academy.


Asunto(s)
Aplicación de la Ley , Personal Militar , Ejercicio Físico , Prueba de Esfuerzo , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Aptitud Física , Estudios Retrospectivos
4.
Am J Emerg Med ; 42: 55-59, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33453616

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Between October 2019 and February 2020, massive crowds protested in Lebanon against economic collapse. Various less than lethal weapons including riot control agents and rubber bullets were used by law enforcement, which led to several traumatic and chemical injuries among victims. This study describes the clinical presentation, management, outcome, and healthcare costs of injuries. METHODS: A retrospective review of the hospital records of all the casualties presenting to the Emergency Department of the American University of Beirut Medical Center between October 17th, 2019, and February 29th, 2020, was conducted. RESULTS: A total of 313 casualties were evaluated in the ED, with a mean age of 30.2 +/- 9.6 years and a predominance of males (91.1%). Most were protestors (71.9%) and arrived through EMS (43.5%) at an influx rate of one patient presenting every 2.7-8 min. Most patients (91.1%) presented with an Emergency Severity Index of 3. Most patients (77.6%) required imaging with 10% having major findings including fractures and hemorrhages. Stones, rocks, and tear gas canisters (30.7%) were the most common mechanism of injury. Musculoskeletal injuries were most common (62.6%), followed by lacerations (44.7%). The majority (93.3%) were treated and discharged home and 3.2% required hospital admission, with 2.6% requiring surgery. CONCLUSION: Less-than-lethal weapons can cause severe injuries and permanent morbidity. The use of riot control agents needs to be better controlled, and users need to be well trained in order to avoid misuse and to lessen the morbidity, mortality, and financial burden.


Asunto(s)
Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital , Tumultos , Heridas y Traumatismos/terapia , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/economía , Femenino , Fracturas Óseas/terapia , Hemorragia/terapia , Costos de Hospital , Humanos , Laceraciones/terapia , Aplicación de la Ley/métodos , Líbano , Masculino , Sistema Musculoesquelético/lesiones , Estudios Retrospectivos , Heridas y Traumatismos/economía
6.
Health Policy ; 125(2): 135-140, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33390280

RESUMEN

During the COVID-19 pandemic, in some jurisdictions, police have become involved in enforcing coronavirus-related measures. Relatedly, several North American jurisdictions have established COVID-19 data sharing protocols with law enforcement. Research across a range of fields has demonstrated that involving police in matters of public health disproportionately impacts the most vulnerable and does more harm than good. This is reflected in the consensus against COVID-19 criminalization that has emerged among civil society organizations focused on HIV, human rights, and harm reduction. The European Data Protection Board has also released guidelines against re-uses of COVID-19 data for law enforcement purposes. This article offers an overview of the harms of criminalizing illnesses and strategies for health stakeholders to seek alternatives to sharing COVID-19 data with police agencies while facilitating interoperability with healthcare first responders. It also presents case studies from two North American jurisdictions - Ontario and Minnesota - that have established routine COVID-19 data sharing with police. We recommended seven alternatives, including designating COVID-19 data as sensitive and implementing segmented interoperability with first responder agencies. These guidelines can help ensure that health information technology platforms do not become vehicles for the criminalization of COVID-19, and that health data stay within the health system.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Derechos Humanos , Difusión de la Información , Aplicación de la Ley , Participación de los Interesados , Socorristas , Humanos , Minnesota/epidemiología , Ontario/epidemiología , Estudios de Casos Organizacionales , Salud Pública
8.
Am J Public Health ; 110(11): 1597-1598, 2020 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026866
12.
Georgian Med News ; (304-305): 182-189, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965272

RESUMEN

The article deals with issues related to the use of specialist medical knowledge by a specialist in the investigation of illegal medical activities. The procedural status of a specialist in criminal procedural legislation of Georgia, Ukraine and certain EU countries has been carried out. The analysis of forms and directions of the use of special knowledge in the course of interaction with the investigator, allows to establish a special value for the process of proving the involvement of a specialist in the field of medicine to conduct procedural actions. It was found that by means of special medical knowledge in the course of the investigation there will be more chances to establish the circumstances to be proven, to properly record the evidence and to increase the effectiveness of the procedural action. Based on the consultations with a medical specialist, in the course of organizational and technical cooperation with the investigator, it will help to identify all circumstances that will influence the qualification of the person's actions in conducting illegal medical activity. On the basis of comparison with the Ukrainian legislation, the role in the form of involvement in procedural actions is determined; coverage of procedural and forensic aspects of using specialist medical knowledge by a specialist. Emphasis is placed on procedural interactions between the investigator and the medical specialist by involving his investigative (search) actions, such as: review of scene of action, search, interrogation and investigative experiment. While characterizing the non-procedural form of interaction between the investigator and medical specialist, the role of the latter in providing consultations on the preparation and conduct of individual procedural actions, reference and advisory assistance regarding the availability of special medical knowledge and consequences resulting from treatment, as well as in formulating questions during the appointment of forensic investigations during the investigation of illicit medical activities has been established.


Asunto(s)
Criminales , Georgia (República) , Humanos , Aplicación de la Ley , Ucrania
13.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 30(5): 256-267, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896935

RESUMEN

Liaison and Diversion (L&D) has twin objectives: improving mental health outcomes and reducing re-offending. Early diversion from police custody seems promising, but evidence of benefit is required to sustain such programmes. To test the hypothesis that contact with L&D services while in police custody would lead to improved mental health outcomes and a reduction in type and level of offending, we used a pre-post service use design. National Health Service (NHS) records in two counties were searched for evidence that patients had been involved with L&D services while in police custody during the period July 2009-December 2017. We defined January 2009-July 2014 as the pre-intervention period and any time after contact as the post-intervention period. Data from the Police National Computer were gathered for each period for these individuals, to assess their pre-post L&D contact offending histories. NHS Trust data were similarly gathered to assess their pre-post use of mental health legislation. 4,462 individuals were identified who had used L&D services in police custody. There were statistically significant reductions in the amount of offending following contact with the L&D service (whether one or two contacts), regardless of offence type. Statistically significant reductions were also observed in use of the four most commonly used legislative powers for detaining patients in hospital on mental disorder grounds, regardless of offending status (prolific/non-prolific). Our results indicate positive associations between the L&D interventions and change in offending and use of compulsory hospital detention. Whilst our research does not allow a direct causal relationship to be established in either area, the findings go beyond other impact assessments of L&D which have either been with small samples or relied only on qualitative data or expert opinion.


Asunto(s)
Criminales/psicología , Aplicación de la Ley , Enfermos Mentales/psicología , Policia , Prisioneros/psicología , Adulto , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Trastornos Mentales/diagnóstico , Salud Mental , Servicios de Salud Mental , Trastornos Psicóticos , Medicina Estatal , Reino Unido
15.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236764, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735624

RESUMEN

Do people punish more than they would if the decision costs were more transparent? In two Internet-based vignette experiments, we tested whether juvenile sentencing recommendations among U.S. adults are responsive to variation in the salience of the taxpayer costs and public safety benefits of incarceration. Using a 2 Cost (present vs. absent) x 2 Benefit (present vs. absent) factorial design, Experiment 1 (N = 234) found that exposure to information about the direct costs of incarcerating the juvenile offender reduced sentencing recommendations by about 28%, but exposure to the public safety benefits had no effect on sentences. Experiment 2 (N = 301) manipulated cost-benefit salience by asking participants to generate their own list of costs of incarceration, benefits of incarceration, or an affectively neutral, unrelated word list. Results revealed a similar selective effect whereby sentencing recommendations were reduced in the cost condition relative to the benefits and control conditions, but sentences in the benefit condition did not differ from the control. This combined pattern suggests that laypeople selectively neglect to factor cost considerations into these judgments, thereby inflating their support for punishment, unless those costs are made salient. These findings contribute to the debate on transparency in sentencing.


Asunto(s)
Análisis Costo-Beneficio/estadística & datos numéricos , Juicio , Castigo , Adolescente , Adulto , Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Criminales , Toma de Decisiones , Femenino , Humanos , Aplicación de la Ley , Masculino , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos
17.
Georgian Med News ; (302): 167-173, 2020 May.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32672711

RESUMEN

The purpose of this study was to determine the possibility and basics for the applying medical expertise as a tool for assessing the quality of medical support for police officers of the Republic of Armenia. The object of the study was the data reflecting the activities of the medical commission (MC), the appeal to the Polyclinic and hospitalization in the hospital of the Medical Directorate of the Police (MDP) of the Republic of Armenia (RA). The analysis was conducted for the years 2011-2015. In the course of the study, generally accepted statistical methods were applied with the determination of the specific weight of the phenomenon, the frequency of distribution (medical expertise, appealability and hospitalization) of the phenomenon in the appropriate environment (police of the RA), the reliability of the difference in relative values, matching of the obtained data by applying the Pearson criterion. The activities of the MC of MDP in the RA are regulated by orders of the head of the police of the Republic. Volume indicators and nomenclature of work of the medical commission of the MDP encompass both curative, as well as medical expert evaluations of the work of the medical staff of the police, all police officers of the Republic of Armenia, entrants of the Academy and college of police; determining the causal relationship of the disease of police themselves and deaths of former police officers of the RA. The analysis shows that the solutions medical commission of the Medical Police Department are general indicators for assessing the state of health of the police of the RA and their further performance; viewed a certain incoherence in the activities of the three main structures of the MDP of the RA, due to the development of 15-20 years ago and the current orders and decisions of the Government of the RA. Thus, it should be emphasized that the need has ripened for the development of a new methodology and modern methods for assessing the quality of medical support for police officers, at the same time, medical expertise is a quite respective tool for assessing the medical support the police of the Republic of Armenia.


Asunto(s)
Aplicación de la Ley , Policia , Armenia , Hospitales , Humanos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
18.
J Addict Med ; 14(5): e144-e146, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32604133

RESUMEN

: The imposition of new regulations can send industries scrambling to comply, fostering innovation in doing so. How we police and treat people with opioid use disorder (OUD), with recent widespread social unrest in reaction to police violence and systemic racism bringing the need for lasting structural changes to our justice system and social services into especially acute relief. Arbitrary laws and counterproductive policies previously subject to only incremental reform have given way to sweeping changes: people convicted of nonviolent drug crimes have been released from jails and prisons, the enforcement of drug laws has been cast aside as a priority, and the regulations surrounding addiction treatment medications and treating patients with OUD have been greatly loosened. These are changes many practitioners and advocates have sought for years if not decades, but they come with the reality that the old systems are culturally entrenched and likely to be resilient. It is critical that researchers evaluate these changes and synthesize the results with existing evidence in ways that empower efforts to make the most effective responses permanent. The COVID-19 pandemic makes for a challenging research environment, but its OUD-related interventions have created new regulatory systems that lend themselves to valuable opportunities for evaluation as natural experiments by the burgeoning field of legal epidemiology.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Reforma de la Atención de Salud , Aplicación de la Ley , Trastornos Relacionados con Opioides/tratamiento farmacológico , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Betacoronavirus , Humanos
19.
Accid Anal Prev ; 144: 105662, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622156

RESUMEN

More than 1500 U.S. law enforcement personnel fatalities occurred from 2007 to 2016, with 39 % of these related to automobile crashes. This study looked at various types of lighting on police vehicles to determine if changes made to the visibility of a police vehicle can impact the surrounding traffic behavior and increase safety for both law enforcement and the general public. Unmarked and marked police vehicles were positioned behind a civilian vehicle on the shoulder of five different multi-lane highways in Virginia, simulating a routine traffic stop. The data collected indicated that more lighting and the use of red in a light bar impact traffic behavior in terms of merging and speed when passing a police vehicle. The benefits may be attributed to the symbolic influence of red as denoting a different type of emergency than a traffic stop in addition to red's chromatic contrast against the blue sky during the daytime.


Asunto(s)
Conducción de Automóvil/estadística & datos numéricos , Aplicación de la Ley , Iluminación/métodos , Vehículos a Motor/normas , Policia , Color , Desaceleración , Humanos , Virginia
20.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 63(4): 4-8, 2020.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32686382

RESUMEN

Work purpose: to consider theoretical and practical issues of use of special forensic medical knowledge during inspection of the incident site, during investigation experiment and when appointing the transport and technical forensic examinations. The detailed study of transport incident circumstances is closely related to the use of specialized knowledge from various fields of transport and forensic medicine. The results of transport and technical forensic examinations depend entirely on the initial data submitted by the investigator and the court, which are established during the investigation: examinations, interrogations, experiments. The presence of this data allows the expert to draw up a reasonable conclusion. On the basis of the studied judicial, investigative and expert practice, examples of positive use of the results of forensic, transport and technical forensic examinations in the investigation of crimes committed at transport facilities are given. The role of the figurant in carrying out investigative actions is noted. The idea of adding to the Chapter 8 of the Code of Criminal Procedure of the Russian Federation the other participant of criminal proceedings - «figurant¼ - is given, defining and affirming his rights and duties.


Asunto(s)
Criminales , Medicina Legal , Crimen , Testimonio de Experto , Humanos , Aplicación de la Ley , Federación de Rusia
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