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1.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(6): 2355-2364, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231745

RESUMEN

The scope of this study is to evaluate factors related to family dysfunction (FD) among 227 randomly selected nonagenarians and centenarians in Porto Alegre, State of Rio Grande do Sul, who were visited and assessed in their homes. FD was evaluated by the "Family APGAR score," being considered with FD from 0 to 6, and without FD from 7 to 10 in this study. Sociodemographic and economic data, physical functionality, health self-perception, comorbidities, depressive symptoms, cognitive function, social support and interaction were evaluated. The mean APGAR score was 9.05±1.81, and FD occurred in 9.69% of the participants. Among the health conditions, the self-perception of health (p=0.0003), the number of depressive symptoms (p<0.0001), receiving visits (p=0.0994), having recourse to help in case of illness (p=0.0090), and the need for help to administer medication (p=0.0602), were significantly related to FD. In the adjusted analysis, self-perception of health, the presence of depressive symptoms and the need for help in administering medication were associated with FD among nonagenarians and centenarians. These factors may influence the satisfaction of nonagenarians and centenarians with their family relationships.


Asunto(s)
Cognición , Apoyo Social , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Brasil/epidemiología , Relaciones Familiares , Humanos
2.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203275

RESUMEN

Emotional intelligence (EI) and social support are among the most investigated hypothesized variables that affect stress at work. The current study aims to evaluate the direct association between EI and occupational stress and its indirect relationship mediated by three sources of social support during the spread of the COVID-19. The total sample was composed of 367 individuals (53.7% males), aged from 20 to 68 (M = 37.84, SD = 10.39), who filled out an online questionnaire. A mediation analysis was performed to test the hypothesized relationships. Our findings showed that EI has a direct effect on psychological effects and an indirect effect on almost all the facets of occupational stress. The significant mediators were social support from both family and friends. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed and directions for future studies are suggested.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Estrés Laboral , Inteligencia Emocional , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , Apoyo Social
3.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 21(1): 293, 2021 Jul 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34261434

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The chronic and progressive evolution of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD), with its prototypical fluctuating trend, creates a condition of psycho-social discomfort, impacting the quality of life in terms of personal, working, and interpersonal. AIMS: In this article, we want to identify the nature and extent of the research evidence on the life experiences, the perceived engagement, the psychological, social care and welfare needs of people affected by IBD across the lifecycle. METHODS: Following the approach set out by Arksey and O'Malley and the PRISMA extension for scoping reviews, we conducted a scoping review in March 2019 and closed the review with an update in October 2019. It was performed using electronic databases covering Health and Life Sciences, Social Sciences and Medical Sciences, such as PubMed, Medline, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane, Web of Science, PsycInfo. RESULTS: We identified 95 peer-reviewed articles published from 2009 to 2019, that allowed to detection the main needs in children (psychological, need to be accepted, physical activity, feeding, parent style, support, social needs), adolescents (to understand, physical and psychological needs, protection, relational, gratitude, respect, and engagement) and adults (information, medical, psychological, social, work-related, practical, future-related, engagement). Although the literature confirms that the majority of the IBD units have planned provision for the different types of transitions, the quality and appropriateness of these services have not been assessed or audited for all the kinds of challenges across the life cycle. CONCLUSIONS: The literature shows the relevance of organizing a flexible, personalized health care process across all the critical phases of the life cycle, providing adequate benchmarks for comparison in a multidisciplinary perspective and ensuring continuity between hospital and territory.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Inflamatorias del Intestino , Calidad de Vida , Adolescente , Adulto , Animales , Niño , Humanos , Enfermedades Inflamatorias del Intestino/terapia , Estadios del Ciclo de Vida , Padres , Apoyo Social
4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204059

RESUMEN

Social networks protect individuals from mental health conditions of depression and anxiety. The association between each social network type and its mental health implications in the Indian population remains unclear. The study aims to determine the association of depression and anxiety with different social network types in the participants of a community cohort. We conducted a cross-sectional household survey among people aged ≥30 years in geographically defined catchment areas of Kerala, India. We used cross-culturally validated assessment tools to measure depression, anxiety and social networks. An educated male belonging to higher income quartiles, without any disability, within a family dependent network has lower odds of depression and anxiety. Furthermore, 28, 26.8, 25.7, 9.8 and 9.7% of participants belonged to private restricted, locally integrated, wider community-focused, family-dependent and locally self-contained networks, respectively. Close ties with family, neighbours, and community had significantly lower odds of anxiety and depression than private restricted networks. The clustering of people to each social network type and its associated mental health conditions can inform social network-based public health interventions to optimize positive health outcomes in the community cohort.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad , Depresión , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/epidemiología , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Masculino , Red Social , Apoyo Social
5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204111

RESUMEN

The declining birth rate in South Korea is concerning and linked to stress in the work-family balance, which is known to affect family planning. Therefore, providing proper support to double-earner couples might help improve the fertility rate. Work-family balance refers to the ability of individuals to perform their roles at work and home with equal involvement. This study identifies two aspects: gains and strains. Latent profile analysis is employed to create a typology that can account for the diversity in work-family balance. This approach is person-centered rather than variable-centered, and it identifies clusters of individuals that differ qualitatively, thereby examining the strains and gains experienced by double-earner couples. We classify the types of work-family balance and identify the attributes of each profile. The findings showed that men were more likely to belong to the high-gain class when they had a temporary position, multiple children, good health, low depression, higher life satisfaction levels, and strong social support. Women were more likely to belong to the high-gain class when they experienced high happiness levels and strong social support. Based on these profiles, we provide recommendations to enhance work-family balance, thereby contributing to strategies to overcome low birth rates.


Asunto(s)
Apoyo Social , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , República de Corea
6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209463

RESUMEN

The purpose of the two studies was to investigate the relationships among student athletes' identity and mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, this study aimed to clarify the relationship between perceived social support from teammates and mental health in student-athletes. Two studies were conducted to investigate and clarify the mental health states of student-athletes in Japan during the COVID-19 pandemic. In Study 1, conducted in April 2020, the participants were 402 male student-athletes and we examined the relationships among student-athletes' identity and mental health. The results of correlational analyses indicated significant negative correlations between the degree of student-athletes' identity and depression and sports helplessness. In Study 2, conducted in March 2021, the participants were 135 male student-athletes and examined the relationship between perceived social support from teammates, student-athletes' identity, and mental health. The results indicated a significant correlation between social support, student athletes' identity, and mental health.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Atletas , Humanos , Japón/epidemiología , Masculino , Salud Mental , SARS-CoV-2 , Apoyo Social , Estudiantes , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
7.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 409, 2021 07 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215206

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Social support is a key factor in public health. Since the precise evaluation of it is critical, the current study has been developed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the MOS-SSS questionnaire's abbreviated form (MSSS-5-item) among the Iranian older adults. METHODS: This cross-sectional and methodological study was conducted on 420 community older adults (age ≥ 60) through random multi-stage sampling. The questionnaire was first translated into Persian through the Forward & Backward method based on WHO guidelines. Next, the validity of scales was investigated by calculating face validity, content validity, Known-group validity, explanatory factor analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis indices. The reliability of the questionnaire was calculated by internal consistency, test-retest, and absolute reliability. Moreover, the scalability of the questionnaire was checked through the Mokken scale analysis. The software packages SPSS version 22, AMOS version 22, and R (Mokken package) were employed to analyze the data. RESULTS: the face validity was conducted using interviews with older adults and gathering the specialists' opinions. Then, the items were grammatically and lexically corrected accordingly. The CVI index of the overall scale was 0.94, and for every single item above 0.89. The results of the independent t-test showed that the current questionnaire well distinguished between the older adults who do and do not feel lonely (p < 0.001). Two components were recognized according to the explanatory factor analysis. They together explained 67.78% of the total variance of the questionnaire. The CFA showed that the two-factor model had acceptable fit indices. The questionnaire had desirable internal consistency (α = 0.78), stability (ICC = 0.98), and absolute reliability (SEM = 0.56, MDC = 1.57). Furthermore, the Mokken scale proved that MSSS-5-item was a strong scale (H = 0.51, se = 0.03). CONCLUSION: The present study results showed that the MSSS-5-item questionnaire had suitable validity and reliability to be used among Iranian older adults.


Asunto(s)
Apoyo Social , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Irán/epidemiología , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
8.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1298, 2021 07 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215244

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The provision of public adaptive coping strategies to reduce psychological tension during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is critical. We sought to provide evidence-based guidance for psychological intervention, exploring the potential mediating roles of three sources of social support (i.e., subjective support, family support and counselor support) between coping strategies (i.e., cognitive coping, emotional coping and behavioral coping), and anxiety among college students at the height of the pandemic in China. METHODS: Using the Coping Strategy Questionnaire, Social Support Questionnaire, and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, this large-scale online study analyzed the levels of social support, coping, and anxiety among 2640 college students in China from February 21st to 24th, 2020, when the students had been isolated at home for 1 month since the lockdown of Wuhan city. RESULTS: Students reported high levels of cognitive coping, behavioral coping, and social support. They also experienced low levels of anxiety and emotional coping. Anxiety was significantly and negatively related to coping and social support. The mediating roles of three sources of social support were found between cognitive coping, behavioral coping, and anxiety, respectively. However, the effect of emotional coping on anxiety was not found to be mediated by social support. CONCLUSIONS: Adopting positive coping strategies may enhance social support that in turn relieves anxiety. The effect of social support, especially family and counselor support, should arouse greater awareness in coping with the pandemic cognitively and behaviorally.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Adaptación Psicológica , Ansiedad/epidemiología , China/epidemiología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Apoyo Social , Estudiantes
9.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(6): 6399-6409, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237961

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Although gestation and childbirth are progressive physical processes for most pregnant women, there are both physical and great psychosocial challenges throughout the process, which increase the sensitivity and vulnerability of women. Even for women with low-risk pregnancies, it is common to experience degrees of fear, especially for primipara women when faced with childbirth. During their first pregnancy, women may have no relevant health knowledge or experience with delivery and have difficulty identifying prenatal depression and other existing mental health factors; a fear of childbirth (FOC) may engender adverse outcomes for mothers and babies. Social support is a very important influential factor for prenatal depression. METHODS: This study adopted a descriptive cross-sectional design. The participant cohort involved 609 primipara women (≥18 years old) who had received routine prenatal care and visited a tertiary care hospital in Xi'an. The participants completed structured questionnaires, including the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), 12-item Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), and 33-item Wijma Delivery Expectancy/Experience Questionnaire (W-DEQ), alongside contribution of information regarding their demographic characteristics. Descriptive and correlation analyses were adopted to verify the correlations among these variables. Multiple regression models were examined by the SPSS PROCESS procedure with bootstrapping to confirm the significance of the mediation effect. RESULTS: The widespread prevalence of FOC in healthy pregnant women was 22.3% (WDEQ score ≥85). The mean scores of depression, social support, as well as FOC scores of participants were 9.50 (5.19), 70.91 (9.25), and 70.43 (20.88), respectively. Remarkable correlations were identified between pregnancy depressive symptoms, social support, and FOC. Results presented an indirect effect, indicating that the impacts of antenatal depression on FOC were mediated by social support. CONCLUSIONS: Perceived social support played a mediating role between antenatal depression and FOC among healthy primipara women. Techniques and suggestions for boosting social support may be expected to have a positive impact on the depressive symptoms of pregnant women with FOC.


Asunto(s)
Parto Obstétrico , Depresión , Adolescente , Estudios Transversales , Miedo , Femenino , Humanos , Parto , Embarazo , Apoyo Social
10.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(6): 6650-6660, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237969

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To investigate the status quo of participation in exercise among gastric cancer patients after radical gastrectomy and analyze the influencing factors. METHODS: Convenient sampling was used to conduct a questionnaire survey of 163 patients after radical gastric cancer surgery from January to December 2020. The survey content included general information, exercise participation, exercise knowledge, attitude, and social support. Descriptive statistics, single factor analysis, and multiple linear regression analysis were performed using Statistical Product and Service Solutions 24.0 (SPSS24.0, IBM, USA). RESULTS: After radical gastrectomy, the form of exercise that patients participated in was relatively simple. The average amount of exercise involved was 8.10 Mets-h/week, which was at the level of almost no exercise. Univariate analysis showed that differences in age, gender, education level, work status, main caregivers and sports knowledge, attitudes, and social support levels all led to different levels of exercise participation. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the factors affecting the patient's level of participation in exercise included age, degree of self-care in life, attitude towards exercise after surgery, and level of social support. CONCLUSIONS: The status quo of exercise participation among gastric cancer patients after radical gastrectomy is not ideal. In this study, we found that age, level of self-care in life, sports attitude, and level of social support were the main factors affecting the exercise participation of patients. Therefore, improving patients' self-care ability, exercise attitude, and increasing social support may play an important role in improving the status quo of patients' exercise participation after radical gastric cancer surgery.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Gástricas , Gastrectomía , Humanos , Autocuidado , Apoyo Social , Neoplasias Gástricas/cirugía , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
11.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1298, 2021 07 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295456

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The provision of public adaptive coping strategies to reduce psychological tension during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is critical. We sought to provide evidence-based guidance for psychological intervention, exploring the potential mediating roles of three sources of social support (i.e., subjective support, family support and counselor support) between coping strategies (i.e., cognitive coping, emotional coping and behavioral coping), and anxiety among college students at the height of the pandemic in China. METHODS: Using the Coping Strategy Questionnaire, Social Support Questionnaire, and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, this large-scale online study analyzed the levels of social support, coping, and anxiety among 2640 college students in China from February 21st to 24th, 2020, when the students had been isolated at home for 1 month since the lockdown of Wuhan city. RESULTS: Students reported high levels of cognitive coping, behavioral coping, and social support. They also experienced low levels of anxiety and emotional coping. Anxiety was significantly and negatively related to coping and social support. The mediating roles of three sources of social support were found between cognitive coping, behavioral coping, and anxiety, respectively. However, the effect of emotional coping on anxiety was not found to be mediated by social support. CONCLUSIONS: Adopting positive coping strategies may enhance social support that in turn relieves anxiety. The effect of social support, especially family and counselor support, should arouse greater awareness in coping with the pandemic cognitively and behaviorally.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Adaptación Psicológica , Ansiedad/epidemiología , China/epidemiología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Apoyo Social , Estudiantes
12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288890

RESUMEN

The purpose of the two studies was to investigate the relationships among student athletes' identity and mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, this study aimed to clarify the relationship between perceived social support from teammates and mental health in student-athletes. Two studies were conducted to investigate and clarify the mental health states of student-athletes in Japan during the COVID-19 pandemic. In Study 1, conducted in April 2020, the participants were 402 male student-athletes and we examined the relationships among student-athletes' identity and mental health. The results of correlational analyses indicated significant negative correlations between the degree of student-athletes' identity and depression and sports helplessness. In Study 2, conducted in March 2021, the participants were 135 male student-athletes and examined the relationship between perceived social support from teammates, student-athletes' identity, and mental health. The results indicated a significant correlation between social support, student athletes' identity, and mental health.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Atletas , Humanos , Japón/epidemiología , Masculino , Salud Mental , SARS-CoV-2 , Apoyo Social , Estudiantes , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288869

RESUMEN

Emotional intelligence (EI) and social support are among the most investigated hypothesized variables that affect stress at work. The current study aims to evaluate the direct association between EI and occupational stress and its indirect relationship mediated by three sources of social support during the spread of the COVID-19. The total sample was composed of 367 individuals (53.7% males), aged from 20 to 68 (M = 37.84, SD = 10.39), who filled out an online questionnaire. A mediation analysis was performed to test the hypothesized relationships. Our findings showed that EI has a direct effect on psychological effects and an indirect effect on almost all the facets of occupational stress. The significant mediators were social support from both family and friends. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed and directions for future studies are suggested.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Estrés Laboral , Inteligencia Emocional , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , Apoyo Social
14.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 687, 2021 Jul 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34247592

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Policy-makers expect that integration of health and social care will improve user and carer experience and reduce avoidable hospital use. [We] evaluate the impact on emergency hospital admissions of two large nationally-initiated service integration programmes in England: the Pioneer (November 2013 to March 2018) and Vanguard (January 2015 to March 2018) programmes. The latter had far greater financial and expert support from central agencies. METHODS: Of the 206 Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCGs) in England, 51(25%) were involved in the Pioneer programme only, 22(11%) were involved in the Vanguard programme only and 13(6%) were involved in both programmes. We used quasi-experimental methods to compare monthly counts of emergency admissions between four groups of CCGs, before and after the introduction of the two programmes. RESULTS: CCGs involved in the programmes had higher monthly hospital emergency admission rates than non-participants prior to their introduction [7.9 (95% CI:7.8-8.1) versus 7.5 (CI: 7.4-7.6) per 1000 population]. From 2013 to 2018, there was a 12% (95% CI:9.5-13.6%) increase in emergency admissions in CCGs not involved in either programme while emergency admissions in CCGs in the Pioneer and Vanguard programmes increased by 6.4% (95% CI: 3.8-9.0%) and 8.8% (95% CI:4.5-13.1%), respectively. CCGs involved in both initiatives experienced a smaller increase of 3.5% (95% CI:-0.3-7.2%). The slowdown largely occurred in the final year of both programmes. CONCLUSIONS: Health and social care integration programmes can mitigate but not prevent rises in emergency admissions over the longer-term. Greater financial and expert support from national agencies and involvement in multiple integration initiatives can have cumulative effects.


Asunto(s)
Hospitalización , Medicina Estatal , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital , Inglaterra/epidemiología , Hospitales , Humanos , Apoyo Social
15.
N Z Med J ; 134(1538): 52-67, 2021 07 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34239145

RESUMEN

AIM: This research explores the experience of low-income New Zealanders during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown and their advice to the Government about addressing future pandemics. New Zealand had a rapid and effective lockdown that meant the virtual elimination of community transmission. METHOD: Twenty-seven semi-structured interviews were undertaken with low-income people in June-July 2020 immediately after lockdown was lifted. RESULTS: Life during lockdown was challenging for study participants. They were fearful of the virus and experienced mental distress and isolation. Most participants felt safe at home and reported coping financially while still experiencing financial stress. Participants were resourceful and resilient. They coped with lockdown by using technology, self-help techniques and support from others. New Zealand's welfare state ensured participants had access to health services and welfare payments, but there were challenges. Welfare payments did not fully meet participants' needs, and support from charitable organisations was critical. Participants were overwhelmingly positive about the Government's response and advised the Government to take the same approach in the future. This is a particularly reassuring finding from some of the most vulnerable New Zealanders. CONCLUSIONS: An early and hard lockdown, the welfare state, compassion and clearly communicated leadership were keys to a successful lockdown for the low-income people in this study. Research of the experience of low-income people during pandemics is critical to ensuring inequities in pandemic impact are mitigated.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/prevención & control , COVID-19/psicología , Pandemias/prevención & control , Pobreza , Asistencia Pública , Adaptación Psicológica , Adulto , COVID-19/economía , Femenino , Abastecimiento de Alimentos , Política de Salud , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nueva Zelanda , Distrés Psicológico , Investigación Cualitativa , SARS-CoV-2 , Seguridad , Apoyo Social , Bienestar Social , Tecnología
16.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 19(1): 178, 2021 Jul 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34253195

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Women with breast cancer are prone to have mental stress and be stimulated by the fear of progression (FOP), then giving rise to a lower quality of life (QOL). The study aimed to examine the relationships between FOP, social support and QOL, and further explore whether social support mediates the association between FOP and QOL among Chinese patients with breast cancer. METHODS: The cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2019 to May 2020 at Anshan Cancer Hospital in Liaoning, China. 244 female breast cancer patients completed questionnaires including the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy for Breast (FACT-B), Multi-Dimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), and Fear of Progression (FOP). Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed to assess the associations between FOP, social support and QOL. Asymptotic and resampling strategies were used to explore the mediating role of social support. RESULTS: The mean QOL score was 90.6 ± 17.0 among the patients with breast cancer. FOP was negatively correlated with QOL, while social support was positively related to QOL. Social support partly mediated the association between FOP and QOL, and the proportion of the mediating effect accounted for by social support was 25%. CONCLUSIONS: Chinese breast cancer patients expressed low QOL. Social support could mediate the association between FOP and QOL. Medical staffs and cancer caregivers should alleviate patients' FOP to improve their QOL by facilitating social support.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama/psicología , Miedo/psicología , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Apoyo Social , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Adulto , Neoplasias de la Mama/terapia , China , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Análisis de Regresión , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
17.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(5): 1863-1872, 2021 May.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076127

RESUMEN

This study sought to assess the adherence to preventive measures among the elderly more prone to severe forms of COVID-19, and the association and interaction with social support. It is a cross-sectional study conducted with a sample of 3,477 participants of the telephone survey of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSI-COVID-19 initiative), who reported going out of the home in the past week. The adherence was based on the frequency of leaving the house, the need to venture outside the home, use of masks, and sanitization of hands. Statistical analysis was based on the Poisson model with robust variance. Predisposing factors for severe forms of COVID-19 included age ≥65 years, hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. Social support included living arrangements and social distancing during the pandemic. Approximately 46% of the participants showed higher adherence, which was positively associated with the number of predisposing factors for severe forms of COVID-19. Social support was not associated with adherence, nor was this association modified after adjustments. The conclusion drawn is that higher adherence is concentrated among the elderly with greater predisposition to severe forms of COVID-19, irrespective of social support, albeit preventive measures should be adopted by all.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Anciano , Brasil , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , SARS-CoV-2 , Apoyo Social
18.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1043, 2021 06 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078330

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Considering the reports of increasing sleep problems in children, affecting health and well-being in young children and their families, we found it important to gain more knowledge about sleep and its correlation to health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in young, healthy children. The aims with this study were to describe sleep quality, sleep duration, and HRQoL in healthy 3-10-year-old children and to test associations between children's sleep and HRQoL. METHODS: Parents of 160 children (average age: 6.9 years, SD ±2.2) participated in the study. Sleep onset problems (SOP), sleep maintenance problems (SMP), and sleep duration were measured by the Pediatric Insomnia Severity Index (PISI). KIDSCREEN-27 was used to measure HRQoL in five dimensions: physical well-being, psychological well-being, autonomy and parent relation, social support and peers, and school environment. RESULTS: The average score was 2.2 for SOP (SD +/- 2.2) and 1.3 for SMP (SD +/- 1.6). Few children (2%) were reported to sleep less than 8 h per night. Younger children had statistically significant higher SOP and SMP than older children. Correlations were found between SOP and poor psychological well-being (p < 0.05, ρ = - 0.16), and between SMP and poor physical wellbeing (p < 0.05, ρ = - 0.16), psychological well-being (p < 0.05, ρ = - 0.21), poor school environment (p < 0.01, ρ = - 0.29), autonomy and parent relation (p < 0.05, ρ = - 0.16), and poor social support and peers (p < 0.05, ρ = - 0.19). CONCLUSION: Children's sleep associates with health-related quality of life and needs to be acknowledged in child health care settings and schools.


Asunto(s)
Estado de Salud , Calidad de Vida , Adolescente , Niño , Preescolar , Humanos , Padres , Sueño , Apoyo Social , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
19.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e044631, 2021 06 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34083332

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Recently, there has been an increase in the number of people with dementia. However, no study has examined the association between community-level social support and the onset of incident dementia using multilevel survival analysis. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: We analysed data pertaining to 15 313 (7381 men and 7932 women) community-dwelling adults aged 65 years or older who had not accessed long-term care insurance and were living in Aichi Prefecture (seven municipalities) in Japan. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The association between community-level social support and onset of incident dementia was examined using the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study, a prospective cohort study introduced in Japan in 2003. Incident dementia was assessed using Long-term Care Insurance records spanning 3436 days from the baseline survey. RESULTS: During the 10-year follow-up, the onset of incident dementia occurred in 1776 adults. Among older people, a 1% increase in community-level social support (in the form of receiving emotional support) was associated with an approximately 4% reduction in the risk of developing dementia, regardless of socio-demographic variables and health conditions (HR=0.96; 95% CI=0.94 to 0.99). CONCLUSIONS: Receiving community-level social support in the form of emotional support is associated with a lower risk of developing incident dementia.


Asunto(s)
Demencia , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios de Cohortes , Demencia/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Japón/epidemiología , Masculino , Análisis Multinivel , Estudios Prospectivos , Apoyo Social
20.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e044634, 2021 06 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34083333

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To explore the perceived reasons underlying high mortality rates among people with multiple and complex needs. DESIGN: Qualitative study using peer research. SETTING: North East of England. PARTICIPANTS: Three focus group discussions were held involving (1) people with lived experience of multiple and complex needs (n=5); (2) front-line staff from health, social care and voluntary organisations that support multiple and complex needs groups (n=7); and (3) managers and commissioners of these organisations (n=9). RESULTS: Findings from this study provide valuable perspectives of people with multiple complex needs and those that provide them with support on what may be perceived factors underlying premature mortality. Mental ill health and substance misuse (often co-occurring dual diagnosis) were perceived as influencing premature mortality among multiple and complex needs groups. Perceptions of opportunities to identify people at risk included critical life events (eg, bereavement, relationship breakdown) and transitions (eg, release from prison, completion of drug treatment). Early prevention, particularly supporting young people experiencing adverse childhood experiences, was also highlighted as a priority. CONCLUSION: High mortality in multiple and complex needs groups may be reduced by addressing dual diagnosis, providing more support at critical life events and investing in early prevention efforts. Future interventions could take into consideration the intricate nature of multiple and complex needs and improve service access and navigation.


Asunto(s)
Salud Mental , Apoyo Social , Adolescente , Diagnóstico Dual (Psiquiatría) , Inglaterra/epidemiología , Humanos , Investigación Cualitativa
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