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1.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 22, 2022 Jan 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34996435

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Medical and pathology education has gone through an immense transformation from traditional face-to-face teaching mode to virtual mode during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study evaluated the effectiveness of online histopathology teaching in medical education during the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic in Griffith University, Australia. METHODS: Second-year medical students (n = 150) who had previously completed one year of face-to-face histopathology teaching, completed an online questionnaire rating their learning experiences before and during the COVID-19 pandemic after the completion of their histology and pathology practical sessions. The students' histopathology assessment results were then compared to the histopathology results of a prior second-year cohort to determine if the switch to online histopathology teaching had an impact on students' learning outcome. RESULTS: A thematic analysis of the qualitative comments strongly indicated that online histopathology teaching was instrumental, more comfortable to engage in and better structured compared to face-to-face teaching. Compared to the previous year's practical assessment, individual performance was not significantly different (p = 0.30) and compared to the prior cohort completing the same curriculum the mean overall mark was significantly improved from 65.36% ± 13.12% to 75.83% ± 14.84% (p < 0.05) during the COVID-19 impacted online teaching period. CONCLUSIONS: The transformation of teaching methods during the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic improved student engagement without any adverse effects on student learning outcomes in histology and pathology education.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Estudiantes de Medicina , Humanos , Aprendizaje , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
2.
J Nurs Educ ; 61(1): 53-57, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35025679

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Due to an increasing number of undergraduate students in a Bachelor of Nursing Science program, the existing teaching modalities in wound care were shifted into blended- and e-learning units. The aim is to present the development and implementation of a blended- and e-learning wound care curriculum in an actual nursing program. METHOD: The development of the blended- and e-learning units is based on literature reviews and expert discussions. The process was guided by the learning outcomes defined by the European Wound Management Association. The implementation was planned for 3 years. RESULTS: All 14 learning units were developed and implemented using 12 blended and two e-learning units. Flipped classrooms using asynchronous e-learnings and workshops with clinical wound care specialists were used for blended learning. CONCLUSION: Blended and e-learning are valuable modalities to provide flexibility and deliver learning units based on the latest evidence. The effectiveness of this curriculum needs to be investigated. [J Nurs Educ. 2022;61(1):53-57.].


Asunto(s)
Instrucción por Computador , Bachillerato en Enfermería , Estudiantes de Enfermería , Curriculum , Humanos , Aprendizaje
3.
J Nurs Educ ; 61(1): 29-35, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35025682

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Nursing students often experience anxiety and stress from the expectations to develop clinical reasoning skills, internalize new knowledge, and learn to care for patients. Previous research has proposed reflective thinking as a tool to lessen anxiety and promote metacognition. This article examines the role of journaling in promoting reflection among undergraduate nursing students. METHOD: The PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines were used to conduct the review. Concepts for journaling and nursing students were searched in four databases. Data were extracted from 19 sources to identify study type, participants, descriptions of journaling, and findings. RESULTS: Studies took place in a variety of clinical and classroom settings; the majority used a guided format. Various frameworks and tools were used to provide conceptual support. CONCLUSION: Most studies found journaling to be effective in promoting reflection and the development of clinical judgment and emotional competency. However, more studies are needed to develop appropriate rubrics for assessment. [J Nurs Educ. 2022;61(1):29-35.].


Asunto(s)
Bachillerato en Enfermería , Estudiantes de Enfermería , Competencia Clínica , Humanos , Aprendizaje
4.
J Contin Educ Nurs ; 53(1): 10-12, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34978474

RESUMEN

Health care studies that use Q methodology have increased dramatically in recent years, but most nurses have not learned about this mixed methods approach in their research classes. This teaching column will help readers understand some of the unique terms and characteristics of Q methodology. Understanding this method can help nurses performing evidence-based practice and education. [J Contin Educ Nurs. 2022;53(1):10-12.].


Asunto(s)
Educación Continua en Enfermería , Lectura , Práctica Clínica Basada en la Evidencia , Humanos , Aprendizaje
5.
Surg Radiol Anat ; 44(1): 15-23, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34994830

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Human anatomy is a core course of basic medicine and the first professional course for medical students. Traditional teaching includes "teacher-centered" instruction, passive learning, and a lack of interaction between teachers and students as well as between students. The aim of this study was to develop a "student-centered" multielement fusion teaching mode to address the mentioned drawbacks. METHODS: A total of 141 clinical medical students from grades 2016 and 2017 of Chengde Medical University participated in this study. The students were randomly divided into four classes: two experimental classes and two control classes. The experimental classes experienced a "student-centered" multielement fusion teaching mode, while the control classes experienced a traditional teaching method. Formative assessments and questionnaires were used to assess the students' preferences and obtain feedback. Theoretical and experimental tests were carried out to detect the students' scores at the end of the semester. RESULTS: The results of the questionnaires demonstrated that 100% of the students agreed that the multielement teaching mode was better. In the experimental test, the students in the experimental group achieved a mean score of 16.50 ± 0.3203, which was significantly higher than that of the control group 12.65 ± 0.4731 (P < 0.01). In the theoretical test, the average score of the experimental group was 45.86 ± 0.6273 and that of the control group was 46.59 ± 0.6636; thus, there was no significant difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The application of a "student-centered" multielement fusion teaching mode obtained strong approval from the students. This teaching mode not only improved students' interest in learning and increased the interaction between teachers and students as well as between students but also enhanced students' competence and will lay a solid foundation for their future careers.


Asunto(s)
Evaluación Educacional , Estudiantes de Medicina , Humanos , Aprendizaje , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Enseñanza , Universidades
6.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 38, 2022 Jan 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35031044

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The support of students' academic well-being is one of the main agendas of medical education. For medical students, well-being can help prevent burnout and provides students with grounds for their future healthcare setting. The aim of this study was to examine the mediating role of motivated strategies for learning in the relationship between formative assessment and academic well-being. METHOD: The present cross-sectional study was performed on 391 undergraduate students of medical sciences selected by a convenient sampling method. The measuring instruments used in this study included motivated strategies for learning questionnaire (Pintrich and De Groot), classroom assessment approaches questionnaire (Yousefi Afrashteh et al.) and Academic well-being Questionnaire (Pietarinen et al.). In order to analyze the data, SPSS-26 software was used for descriptive statistics and correlation matrix, and LISREL-10.20 software was used to do path analysis and determine the relationships between variables within the model. RESULTS: Findings showed that formative assessment is a significant resource in shaping subscale of motivated strategies for learning (self-efficacy, intrinsic value, test anxiety, cognitive strategies and self-regulation). Moreover, the results demonstrated that the self-regulated learning strategies is a crucial determinant of academic well-being and is a mediator between formative assessment and academic well-being. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest the important value and necessity of formative assessment in medical science classes which can indirectly lead to improve students' academic well-being.


Asunto(s)
Estudiantes de Medicina , Agotamiento Psicológico , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Aprendizaje , Autoeficacia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
7.
Handb Clin Neurol ; 184: 21-34, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35034736

RESUMEN

The last century was characterized by a significant scientific effort aimed at unveiling the neurobiological basis of learning and memory. Thanks to the characterization of the mechanisms regulating the long-term changes of neuronal synaptic connections, it was possible to understand how specific neural networks shape themselves during the acquisition of memory traces or complex motor tasks. In this chapter, we will summarize the mechanisms underlying the main forms of synaptic plasticity taking advantage of the studies performed in the hippocampus and in the nucleus striatum, key brain structures that play a crucial role in cognition. Moreover, we will discuss how the molecular pathways involved in the induction of physiologic synaptic long-term changes could be disrupted during neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory disorders, highlighting the translational relevance of this intriguing research field.


Asunto(s)
Aprendizaje , Encéfalo , Hipocampo , Humanos , Plasticidad Neuronal , Sinapsis
8.
Handb Clin Neurol ; 184: 221-237, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35034737

RESUMEN

Neuro-plasticity describes the ability of the brain in achieving novel functions, either by transforming its internal connectivity, or by changing the elements of which it is made, meaning that, only those changes, that affect both structural and functional aspects of the system, can be defined as "plastic." The concept of plasticity can be applied to molecular as well as to environmental events that can be recognized as the basic mechanism by which our brain reacts to the internal and external stimuli. When considering brain plasticity within a clinical context-that is the process linked with changes of brain functions following a lesion- the term "reorganization" is somewhat synonymous, referring to the specific types of structural/functional modifications observed as axonal sprouting, long-term synaptic potentiation/inhibition or to the plasticity related genomic responses. Furthermore, brain rewires during maturation, and aging thus maintaining a remarkable learning capacity, allowing it to acquire a wide range of skills, from motor actions to complex abstract reasoning, in a lifelong expression. In this review, the contribution on the "neuroplasticity" topic coming from advanced analysis of EEG rhythms is put forward.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo , Plasticidad Neuronal , Fenómenos Electromagnéticos , Humanos , Aprendizaje , Neurogénesis
9.
Handb Clin Neurol ; 184: 331-340, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35034746

RESUMEN

Neuroplasticity follows nervous system injury in the presence or absence of rehabilitative treatments. Rehabilitative interventions can be used to modulate adaptive neuroplasticity, reducing motor impairment and improving activities of daily living in patients with brain lesions. Learning principles guide some rehabilitative interventions. While basic science research has shown that reward combined with training enhances learning, this principle has been only recently explored in the context of neurorehabilitation. Commonly used reinforcers may be more or less rewarding depending on the individual or the context in which the task is performed. Studies in healthy humans showed that both reward and punishment can enhance within-session motor performance; but reward, and not punishment, improves consolidation and retention of motor skills. On the other hand, neurorehabilitative training after brain lesions involves complex tasks (e.g., walking and activities of daily living). The contribution of reward to neurorehabilitation is incompletely understood. Here, we discuss recent research on the role of reward in neurorehabilitation and the needed directions of future research.


Asunto(s)
Rehabilitación Neurológica , Rehabilitación de Accidente Cerebrovascular , Actividades Cotidianas , Humanos , Aprendizaje , Destreza Motora , Plasticidad Neuronal , Recompensa
10.
Handb Clin Neurol ; 184: 35-52, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35034748

RESUMEN

Traditionally, sleep and wakefulness have been considered as two global, mutually exclusive states. However, this view has been challenged by the discovery that sleep and wakefulness are actually locally regulated and that islands of these two states may often coexist in the same individual. Importantly, such a local regulation seems to be the key for many essential functions of sleep, including the maintenance of cognitive efficiency and the consolidation of new skills and memories. Indeed, local changes in sleep-related oscillations occur in brain areas that are used and involved in learning during wakefulness. In turn, these changes directly modulate experience-dependent brain adaptations and the consolidation of newly acquired memories. In line with these observations, alterations in the regional balance between wake- and sleep-like activity have been shown to accompany many pathologic conditions, including psychiatric and neurologic disorders. In the last decade, experimental research has started to shed light on the mechanisms involved in the local regulation of sleep and wakefulness. The results of this research have opened new avenues of investigation regarding the function of sleep and have revealed novel potential targets for the treatment of several pathologic conditions.


Asunto(s)
Sueño , Vigilia , Encéfalo , Electroencefalografía , Humanos , Aprendizaje , Plasticidad Neuronal
11.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 9743123, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35035470

RESUMEN

Recent image captioning models based on the encoder-decoder framework have achieved remarkable success in humanlike sentence generation. However, an explicit separation between encoder and decoder brings out a disconnection between the image and sentence. It usually leads to a rough image description: the generated caption only contains main instances but neglects additional objects and scenes unexpectedly, which reduces the caption consistency of the image. To address this issue, we proposed an image captioning system within context-fused guidance in this paper. It incorporates regional and global image representation as the compositional visual features to learn the objects and attributes in images. To integrate image-level semantic information, the visual concept is employed. To avoid misleading decoding, a context fusion gate is introduced to calculate the textual context by selectively aggregating the information of visual concept and word embedding. Subsequently, the context-fused image guidance is formulated based on the compositional visual features and textual context. It provides the decoder with informative semantic knowledge. Finally, a captioner with a two-layer LSTM architecture is constructed to generate captions. Moreover, to overcome the exposure bias, we train the proposed model through sequence decision-making. The experiments conducted on the MS COCO dataset show the outstanding performance of our work. The linguistic analysis demonstrates that our model improves the caption consistency of the image.


Asunto(s)
Lingüística , Semántica , Lenguaje , Aprendizaje
12.
Med Educ Online ; 27(1): 2016357, 2022 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35012424

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To map the current literature on functional neuroimaging use in medical education research as a novel measurement modality for neurocognitive engagement, learning, and expertise development. METHOD: We searched PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, ERIC, and Web of Science, and hand-searched reference lists of relevant articles on April 4, 2019, and updated the search on July 7, 2020. Two authors screened the abstracts and then full-text articles for eligibility based on inclusion criteria. The data were then charted, synthesized, and analyzed descriptively. RESULTS: Sixty-seven articles published between 2007 and 2020 were included in this scoping review. These studies used three main neuroimaging modalities: functional magnetic resonance imaging, functional near-infrared spectroscopy, and electroencephalography. Most of the publications (90%, n = 60) were from the last 10 years (2011-2020). Although these studies were conducted in 16 countries, 68.7% (n = 46) were from three countries: the USA (n = 21), UK (n = 15), and Canada (n = 10). These studies were mainly non-experimental (74.6%, n = 50). Most used neuroimaging techniques to examine psychomotor skill development (57%, n = 38), but several investigated neurocognitive correlates of clinical reasoning skills (22%, n = 15). CONCLUSION: This scoping review maps the available literature on functional neuroimaging use in medical education. Despite the heterogeneity in research questions, study designs, and outcome measures, we identified a few common themes. Included studies are encouraging of the potential for neuroimaging to complement commonly used measures in education research and may help validate/challenge established theoretical assumptions and provide insight into training methods. This review highlighted several areas for further research. The use of these emerging technologies appears ripe for developing precision education, establishing viable study protocols for realistic operational settings, examining team dynamics, and exploring applications for real-time monitoring/intervention during critical clinical tasks.


Asunto(s)
Competencia Clínica , Atención a la Salud , Empleos en Salud , Humanos , Aprendizaje , Neuroimagen
13.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 23(Suppl 1): 34, 2022 Jan 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35016602

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Drug combination, offering an insight into the increased therapeutic efficacy and reduced toxicity, plays an essential role in the therapy of many complex diseases. Although significant efforts have been devoted to the identification of drugs, the identification of drug combination is still a challenge. The current algorithms assume that the independence of feature selection and drug prediction procedures, which may result in an undesirable performance. RESULTS: To address this issue, we develop a novel Semi-supervised Heterogeneous Network Embedding algorithm (called SeHNE) to predict the combination patterns of drugs by exploiting the graph embedding. Specifically, the ATC similarity of drugs, drug-target, and protein-protein interaction networks are integrated to construct the heterogeneous networks. Then, SeHNE jointly learns drug features by exploiting the topological structure of heterogeneous networks and predicting drug combination. One distinct advantage of SeHNE is that features of drugs are extracted under the guidance of classification, which improves the quality of features, thereby enhancing the performance of prediction of drugs. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is more accurate than state-of-the-art methods on various data, implying that the joint learning is promising for the identification of drug combination. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed model and algorithm provide an effective strategy for the prediction of combinatorial patterns of drugs, implying that the graph-based drug prediction is promising for the discovery of drugs.


Asunto(s)
Algoritmos , Mapas de Interacción de Proteínas , Combinación de Medicamentos , Aprendizaje
14.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 32, 2022 Jan 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35016663

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The execution of undergraduate thesis is a period in which students have an opportunity to develop their scientific knowledge. However, many barriers could prevent the learning process. This cross-sectional study aimed to analyze the scientific dissemination of results from undergraduate theses in physical therapy programs and verify the existence of barriers and challenges in the preparation of undergraduate thesis. Second, to investigate whether project characteristics and thesis development barriers were associated with the dissemination of undergraduate thesis results. METHODS: Physical therapists who graduated as of 2015, from 50 different educational institutions, answered an online questionnaire about barriers faced during the execution of undergraduate thesis and about scientific dissemination of their results. RESULTS: Of 324 participants, 43% (n = 138) of participants disseminated their results, and the main form of dissemination was publishing in national journals (18%, n = 58). Regarding the barriers, 76% (n = 246) of participants reported facing some difficulties, and the main challenge highlighted was the lack of scientific knowledge (28%, n = 91). Chances of dissemination were associated with barriers related to scientific understanding and operational factors, such as the type of institution, institutional facilities, and involvement with other projects. CONCLUSION: Scientific knowledge seems to be a determining factor for the good development of undergraduate theses. In addition, it is clear the need to stimulate more qualified dissemination that reaches a larger audience. Changes in operational and teaching factors may improve the undergraduate thesis quality. However, the importance of rethinking scientific education within physical therapy programs draws attention.


Asunto(s)
Aprendizaje , Estudiantes , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Edición
15.
Med Educ Online ; 27(1): 2024488, 2022 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34986760

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: For years, US medical schools have relied on community-based, private clinicians to educate medical students. There has been a steady decline in the number of physicians willing to take on medical students in their clinical practices. Recent issues related to the pandemic raise questions about how many patients students should see to have a meaningful clinical experience. METHODS: As part of a 16-week longitudinal clinical experience, medical students spend 2 days each week in a family medicine or internal medicine clinic. As repetition enhances learning, maximizing the number of patients students see is important. Using a mixed integer linear program, we sought to determine the optimal schedule that maximizes the number of patients whom students see during a rotation. Patient visits were collected from January to April 2018 for clinics used by the medical school. By maximizing the minimum number of patients per learner over all non-empty day-clinic combinations, we deliver equitable rotation plans based on our assumptions. RESULTS: For this pilot study, multiple experiments were performed with different numbers of students assigned to clinics. Each experiment also generated a weekly rotation plan for a given student. Based on this optimization model, the minimum number of patients per student over 16 weeks was 87 (3 patients per day) and actually increased the number of students who could be assigned to one of the clinics from 1 student per rotation to 8 students. CONCLUSIONS: The mixed integer linear program assigned more students to clinics that have more total visits in order to achieve the optimal and fairest learning quality. In addition, by conducting various experiments on different numbers of students, we observed that we were able to allocate more students without affecting the number of patients students see.


Asunto(s)
Estudiantes de Medicina , Humanos , Aprendizaje , Proyectos Piloto , Facultades de Medicina
16.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 19, 2022 Jan 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34991584

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Clinical reasoning is a core competency for every physician, as well as one of the most complex skills to learn. This study aims to provide insight into the perspective of learners by asking students about their own experiences with learning clinical reasoning throughout the medical Master's curriculum. METHODS: We adopted a constructivist approach to organise three semi-structured focus groups within the Master's curriculum at the medical school of the Radboud University Medical Center in Nijmegen (Netherlands) between August and December 2019. Analysis was performed through template analysis. RESULTS: The study included 18 participants who (1) defined and interpreted clinical reasoning, (2) assessed the teaching methods and (3) discussed how they used their context in order to learn and perform clinical reasoning during their clinical rotations. They referred to a variety of contexts, including the clinical environment and various actors within it (e.g. supervisors, peers and patients). CONCLUSION: With regard to the process by which medical students learn clinical reasoning in practice, this study stresses the importance of integrating context into the clinical reasoning process and the manner in which it is learnt. The full incorporation of the benefits of dialogue with the practice of clinical reasoning will require additional attention to educational interventions that empower students to (1) start conversations with their supervisors; (2) increase their engagement in peer and patient learning; (3) recognise bias and copy patterns in their learning process; and (4) embrace and propagate their role as boundary crossers.


Asunto(s)
Educación de Pregrado en Medicina , Estudiantes de Medicina , Competencia Clínica , Razonamiento Clínico , Curriculum , Humanos , Aprendizaje
17.
N C Med J ; 83(1): 26-28, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34980649

RESUMEN

The Pathways to Grade-Level Reading initiative created partnerships among North Carolina's early learning and education, public agency, policy, philanthropic, and business leaders to define a common vision, shared measures of success, and coordinated strategies to support the optimal development of all North Carolina children beginning at birth to reach third-grade reading profiency.


Asunto(s)
Alfabetización , Lectura , Niño , Familia , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Aprendizaje , North Carolina
19.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 34, 2022 Jan 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35022002

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In a flipped classroom, students acquire knowledge before class and deepen and apply this knowledge during class. This way, lower-order learning goals are achieved before class and higher-order skills are reached during class. This study aims to provide an overview of the factors that contribute to the effectiveness of the flipped classroom and how these factors can be stimulated. The effectiveness of the flipped classroom is conceptualized in this study as test scores, the achievement of higher learning goals, and student perceptions. METHODS: A state-of-the-art review was conducted. The databases MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus were consulted. The timeframe is 2016 till 2020. The studies were qualitatively analyzed according to the grounded theory method. RESULTS: After screening the studies based on the inclusion-and exclusion criteria, 88 studies were included in this review. The qualitative analysis of these studies revealed six main factors that affect the effectiveness of the flipped classroom: student characteristics, teacher characteristics, implementation, task characteristics, out-of-class activities, and in-class activities. Mediating factors are, amongst other factors, the learner's level of self-regulated learning, teacher's role and motivation, assessment approach, and guidance during self-study by means of prompts or feedback. These factors can be positively stimulated by structuring the learning process and focusing the teacher training on competencies and learning-and teaching approaches that are essential for the flipped classroom. CONCLUSION: This paper provides insight into the factors that contribute to the effectiveness of the flipped classroom and how these factors could be stimulated. In order to stimulate the effectiveness of the flipped classroom, the positively and negatively affecting factors and mediating factors should be taken into account in the design of the flipped classroom. The interventions mentioned in this paper could also be used to enhance the effectiveness.


Asunto(s)
Curriculum , Aprendizaje , Educación en Salud , Humanos , Motivación , Aprendizaje Basado en Problemas , Estudiantes
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