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1.
Adv Neurobiol ; 24: 679-693, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006380

RESUMEN

Food selectivity by children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is relatively high as compared to typical children and consequently puts them at risk of nutritional inadequacies. Thus, there is a need to educate children with ASD on food types and their benefits in a simple and interesting manner that will encourage food acceptance and enable a move toward healthy living. The use of technological intervention has proven to be an effective tool for educating children with ASD in maintaining attention and mastering new skills as compared to traditional methods. Some of the popularly used technologies are computer-based intervention and robotics which do not support ecological validity (i.e., mimicking natural scenario). Consideration of natural factors is essential for better learning outcomes and generalized skills which can easily be incorporated into reality-based technologies such as virtual reality, augmented reality, and mixed reality. These technologies provide evidence-based support for ecological validation of intervention and sustaining the attention of children with ASD. The main objective of this study is to review existing reality-based technology intervention for children with ASD and investigate the following: (1) commonly used reality-based technology, (2) types of intervention targeted with reality-based technology, and (3) what subjects' inclusion types are used in the reality-based interventions. These objective statements have guided our recommendation of reality-based technology that can support ecological validity of food intake intervention.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno del Espectro Autista/dietoterapia , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/psicología , Ingestión de Alimentos/psicología , Preferencias Alimentarias , Realidad Virtual , Niño , Humanos , Aprendizaje , Robótica
2.
J Dent Educ ; 84(2): 135-142, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043588

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a blended learning model with a flipped classroom approach in a clinical dental education setting based on student performance and perceptions. Comparisons were made between blended learning and traditional methods for all fourth-year dental students in two consecutive cohorts in a conservative dentistry course at a dental school in Jordan. The 2016-17 cohort (control group) consisted of 364 students taught with conventional methods. The 2017-18 cohort (study group) consisted of 253 students taught with blended learning using a flipped classroom method. Performance measures were two exams (online and written), two assignments, inclinic quizzes, and clinical assessment. The study also assessed the number of posts made by students in the study group on an online discussion forum. The results showed that the study group students had significantly better performance on all assessments than the control group students. The students' overall grades in the blended learning cohort were an average 7.25 points higher than in the control cohort. Students who participated in the online forum also had better performance in the course: one participation correlated with 0.697 standard deviations higher score. Overall, students' perceptions were positive and supported the adoption of a blended learning model in the course. These results showing improved student performance provide support for blended learning and use of an online discussion forum.


Asunto(s)
Satisfacción Personal , Estudiantes de Odontología , Curriculum , Educación en Odontología , Evaluación Educacional , Humanos , Aprendizaje , Aprendizaje Basado en Problemas , Facultades de Odontología
3.
J Dent Educ ; 84(2): 157-165, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043590

RESUMEN

Reflection involves taking the time to deeply consider a past situation and examine areas of weakness or confusion. It allows identification of learning needs and the development of an action plan to improve future experiences. The aim of this study was to assess second-year dental students' ability to reflect in writing on a clinical rotation when prompted with a guided reflection template. The 76 second-year dental students enrolled in a periodontics clinical rotation course at one U.S. dental school in 2016-17 completed two reflective writing exercises during the semester. A total of 144 journals (after excluding incomplete journals) were analyzed individually by two evaluators following a rubric developed by Kember. This rubric combined Mezirow's seven levels of reflection into four categories: Habitual Action (HA), Understanding (U), Reflection (R), and Critical Reflection (CR). The first two categories are examples of non-reflective thoughts, and the latter two are reflective. The two sets of journals were also compared. On average, the journals contained 0.2% HA, 15.9% U, 73.8% R, and 10.1% CR, averaging 16.1% non-reflective thoughts and 83.9% reflective thoughts. Comparison of the students' first journal submissions to their second showed that the first journals averaged a higher percentage of reflective thought than the second journals: 85.2% vs. 82.7%, respectively. However, the first journals showed a lower average percentage of critical reflection than the second journals: 9.3% vs. 11.3%, respectively. Overall, a high degree of reflection was found in these students' journals after rotation in periodontics clinic, suggesting that reflective journaling can serve as a useful learning exercise to promote continual improvement during clinical training.


Asunto(s)
Estudiantes de Odontología , Escritura , Comprensión , Humanos , Aprendizaje
4.
J Dent Educ ; 84(1): 62-71, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977103

RESUMEN

Continuing professional development (CPD) is needed in endodontics, and distance learning environments and courses may be preferable for CPD. Instructional designs (IDs) have been reported to strongly influence the educational effectiveness of these courses. Four Component Instructional Design (4C-ID) is an ID found to be effective for distance learning. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a distance learning CPD course on regenerative endodontic procedures (REPs) designed with a 4C-ID model. The study was conducted between April 2017 and March 2018 with volunteers from the 2015-16 graduates of Selçuk University's Faculty of Dentistry in Turkey. Pre- and posttests and skill assessment guide were used for assessment. To determine the participants' satisfaction levels, the Satisfaction Scale for e-Learning Process and an open-ended question were used. Of the 86 graduates invited to participate, 79.1% (n=68) responded they would; but the investigators limited the participants to 30, and the first 30 volunteers who had identified a need for REPs CPD were accepted to the course. Four (0.13%) had to drop out during the course, so data from the 26 who completed it were evaluated. The findings showed the difference between pre- and posttest results was significant (p<0.001). The mean score for psychomotor skills at the end of the course was 99.62±1.96 out of 100. On the satisfaction scale, the mean score for all participants was 138.5 on a scale from 29=lower satisfaction to 145=greater satisfaction with the e-learning process. At the end of the REPs course, the participants' knowledge levels had increased, and they were able to apply REP steps on a model. These results suggest the 4C-ID was effective in this distance education course in REPs.


Asunto(s)
Educación a Distancia , Endodoncia , Educación Continua , Docentes , Humanos , Aprendizaje
6.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 40(1): 68-74, 2020 Jan 12.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31930902

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of early intervention electroacupuncture (EA) at "Baihui" (GV 20), "Dazhui" (GV 14) and "Shenshu" (BL 23) on the learning-memory ability and the expression of phosphorylated Tau protein in the hippocampus of SAMP8 mice, so as to provide reference for the intervening period of EA for Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: A total of 36 3-month old SAMP8 mice were randomly divided into a model group, a 3-month-old EA group and a 9-month-old EA group, 12 mice in each group. Twelve normal SAMR1 mice with the same age were taken as the control group. The mice in the 3-month-old EA group and 9-month-old EA group were treated with EA at "Baihui" (GV 20), "Dazhui" (GV 14) and "Shenshu" (BL 23) separately 3 months old and 9 months old (continuous wave, 2 Hz, 1.5-2 mA), 20 min each time, once a day, 8 days as a course of treatment, with an interval of 2 days between courses, totally 3 courses of treatment were given. The mice sample in each group was collected at the age of 10 months after the learning-memory ability tested by Morris water maze. The expression of phosphorylated Tau protein in the hippocampus was detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blot, and the expression of Tau mRNA was detected by real-time PCR. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, in the model group, the escape latency was significantly increased (P<0.01), the time of stay in the original platform quadrant and the number of crossing the platform quadrant were reduced (P<0.01), and the expressions of phosphorylated Tau protein and Tau mRNA in hippocampus were increased (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, in the 3-month-old EA group and 9-month-old EA group, the escape latency was significantly reduced (P<0.05), the time of stay in the original platform quadrant and the number of crossing the platform quadrant were increased (P<0.05), and the expressions of phosphorylated Tau protein and Tau mRNA in hippocampus were reduced (P<0.05). Compared with the 9-month-old EA group, in the 3-month-old EA group, the escape latency was significantly reduced (P<0.05), the time of stay in the original platform quadrant and the number of crossing the platform quadrant were increased (P<0.05), and the expressions of phosphorylated Tau protein and Tau mRNA were reduced (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: The early EA intervention could more effectively improve the learning-memory ability and inhibit phosphorylation of Tau protein in the hippocampus of SAMP8 mice.


Asunto(s)
Electroacupuntura , Animales , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Hipocampo , Aprendizaje , Memoria , Ratones , Proteínas tau
7.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 40(1): 103-5, 2020 Jan 12.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31930908

RESUMEN

In this paper, the micro-video teaching mode was explored in the course construction of Characteristic Clinical Technology of Acupuncture and Moxibustion. The micro-video teaching contents include the academic thought, experience in diagnosis and treatment, characteristic technology and clinical manipulation of famous acupuncture experts in the Henan University of CM. Each micro-video film is designed within 15-18 min, including three sections of knowledge, i.e. basic theory, technological application and clinical manipulation. Each section is designed within 5-6 min. The construction of the teaching course of Characteristic Clinical Technology of Acupuncture and Moxibustion is the innovation of practice mode of TCM and the new approach to the inheritance of the experience of experts. The construction of micro-video teaching course propels the reform of teaching mode, improves the learning initiative of students and clinical manipulative ability so as to improve the teaching effect and quality.


Asunto(s)
Terapia por Acupuntura , Moxibustión , Humanos , Aprendizaje , Estudiantes , Enseñanza
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(2): e18674, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914058

RESUMEN

This study was to develop tablet personal computer-based cognitive training programs for children with developmental disabilities whose cognitive age is less than 4 years. Twelve cognitive training programs (named Injini) were designed comprising cognitive domains that included attention, visual and auditory perception, memory, executive function, language, and reasoning. In addition, programs related to learning experiences, such as self-regulation, role play, learning of number, and letter/shape concepts, comparison, classification, and pattern matching, were included. Six of 12 programs comprised approximately 10 levels for each program, with different difficulty levels. Other programs consisted of universal tasks that did not have a difficulty level. To ensure that the difficulty level was appropriate, we pre-tested the pilot version of Injini among 80 children with typical development aged 18 to 41 months. After modifying the pilot version, we developed the final version and tested it among 80 children with cognitive impairment whose cognitive age was 18 to 41 months. All children were assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development to determine their development and cognitive age. The difficulty level analyses in children with typical development revealed several inappropriate results wherein the success rate did not decrease with increase in level in some programs. After adjusting the difficulty level, the analyses in children with cognitive impairment demonstrated that the success rate gradually decreased with increasing level in all programs. Cognitive training programs for children with developmental disabilities were successfully developed.


Asunto(s)
Cognición , Computadores de Bolsillo , Discapacidades del Desarrollo/rehabilitación , Aprendizaje , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
9.
Anaesthesia ; 75(2): 281, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31916599
10.
Orv Hetil ; 161(4): 139-150, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955584

RESUMEN

Introduction: Comprehensive predictors of first-year students' academic performance, including pre-university experience, can be found at both individual and infrastructural levels that can be measured and used to increase academic performance and contribute to student mental health. Aim: To study the characteristics of students who are beginning their studies in medical, dental, pharmacy and health care organization. Method: Analysis of a database obtained through questionnaire data among first-year Semmelweis University students (n = 550). Significant explanatory variables influencing student performance were determined by logistic regression. Results: Different faculties and prestige channels have different success factors and student needs, the fulfillment of which also serves the maintenance of student mental health. Two groups were defined: (i) factors independent of age (perseverance value, religious belief, WHO value of well-being, importance of sport, trust), (ii) faculty-specific factors (Faculties of Medicine and Dentistry: parental influence on learning; Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences: the importance of relationships is high; Faculty of Health Sciences: parental qualifications are decisive). Conclusion: At the start of a student's life, measurements can uncover factors that, if learned, can facilitate later successful studies, preventing early school leaving. During the course of studies, these features can be monitored continuously, so that the necessary interventions can be made to ensure student success. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(4): 139-150.


Asunto(s)
Éxito Académico , Aprendizaje , Estudiantes del Área de la Salud/psicología , Investigación Empírica , Humanos , Estudiantes del Área de la Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
11.
Br J Nurs ; 29(2): 84-90, 2020 Jan 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972118

RESUMEN

Intermittent self-catheterisation (ISC) is the method of choice for men with lower urinary tract symptoms who need to drain retained urine from the bladder. It is preferred to using an indwelling urinary catheter as it has lower risks of complications and catheter-associated urinary tract infection. Learning ISC can be challenging for men initially but, with the support of knowledgeable nurses experienced in teaching ISC, the technique can be learned, accepted and normalised, improving symptom control and quality of life. This paper discusses the results of a survey exploring men's experiences of learning ISC with the Hydrosil Go™ (C.R. Bard Inc-now part of Becton, Dickinson and Company) silicone catheter and to highlight issues important to men when learning and living with ISC. The survey collected data from four countries: UK, France, Netherlands and Italy. It aims to help nurses who teach ISC and inform them to discuss what matters to men when learning and living with ISC.


Asunto(s)
Cateterismo Uretral Intermitente/instrumentación , Aprendizaje , Autocuidado/psicología , Siliconas , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
12.
Eur J Dent Educ ; 24(1): 95-102, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584729

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the perception of dental students on becoming innovative healthcare professionals. The specific objective was to identify aspects of innovative healthcare development that could spur their interest in becoming more involved in healthcare research and new product development. METHODS: Survey research was conducted via questionnaires using a five-point Likert scale response. Based on the innovation science literature, each questionnaire comprised three sets of questions that might foster dental students' interest in healthcare innovation development. Data were obtained from 265 students from years 2, 4 and 6. RESULTS: Three critical dimensions of dental student's preferences were revealed. First, socially related goals were identified as important for developing healthcare innovation. Second, non-traditional learning activities, especially lectures from experienced innovators or an industrial trip were suggested to foster interest in healthcare innovation. Third, the students thought it was important to learn about the research process that translates scientific findings into healthcare innovation. CONCLUSIONS: This study identifies potential ways to develop dental clinicians' interest in becoming innovative professionals who are involved in healthcare product development. This is especially true for Thailand where commercially based innovation has not yet flourished.


Asunto(s)
Personal de Salud , Estudiantes de Odontología , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Humanos , Aprendizaje , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Tailandia
13.
Eur J Dent Educ ; 24(1): 53-62, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518475

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: In the United Kingdom, the General Dental Council requires newly graduated dentists to be competent in managing orthodontic emergencies. Undergraduate students typically receive limited exposure to orthodontics, with teaching primarily delivered via conventional lectures. Flipped teaching involves knowledge being acquired in students' own time, with class time focussing on construction of meaning. METHODS: A total of 61 undergraduate dental students were randomised into either a flipped or a conventional group. The conventional group (n = 30) attended a lecture describing the management of six common emergencies. The flipped group (n = 31) were given access to six videos via a virtual learning environment and later completed practical tasks related to the material. Both groups completed a single best answer assessment. Perceptions of flipped classroom teaching were explored via focus groups. RESULTS: For questions on orthodontic emergencies, the conventional group had a mean examination result of 70.5% (SD 8.0%) compared with the flipped group of 72.8% (SD 12.9%). There was no significant difference between the groups (P = .532). For regular orthodontic questions, the conventional group had a mean examination result of 64.8% (SD: 19.9%) compared with 78.3% (SD: 21.7%). There was no significant difference between the groups (P = .083). Thematic analysis identified the following themes: ways in which videos encourages more effective learning, improved engagement, awareness of learning needs and proposed teaching/curriculum changes. The overarching theoretical perspective was facilitating an experiential learning cycle using flipped classroom teaching. CONCLUSIONS: In the context of this investigation, the flipped classroom method of teaching resulted in comparable examination performance and improved levels of satisfaction.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Odontología , Urgencias Médicas , Aprendizaje Basado en Problemas , Curriculum , Educación en Odontología/métodos , Humanos , Aprendizaje , Enseñanza , Reino Unido
14.
Eur J Dent Educ ; 24(1): 134-144, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675468

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the learning programmes and teaching techniques used in interventions to enhance oral health literacy (OHL) or patient-centred communication (PCC) for healthcare providers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review of OHL and PCC were obtained from four electronic databases (PubMed, ScienceDirect, ProQuest and Scopus) was undertaken. These searches covered the period from January 2008 to December 2017. The quality assessment tool was the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal tool for systematic reviews of effectiveness. RESULTS: The final review included nine studies amongst a total of 1475 studies. They showed three learning programmes (workshops, training and community-based rotation) and 17 related teaching techniques to promote OHL and PCC. The most commonly used learning programmes to enhance OHL and PCC for healthcare providers were workshops, and the teaching techniques included feedback and reflection. The intervention periods of the programmes took 20 minutes to half a day. The three studies did not have a follow-up, whilst the rest showed a follow-up range of 2 months to 3 years. Interestingly, there was one study, which applied double follow-ups to show the effectiveness of the programme. CONCLUSION: Either workshops or training programmes with a combination of teaching techniques were effective in terms of enhancing their OHL or PCC. The more frequent follow-up might increase the long-term effectiveness of the learning programme.


Asunto(s)
Alfabetización en Salud , Comunicación , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Aprendizaje , Salud Bucal
15.
J Homosex ; 67(3): 305-314, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30335583

RESUMEN

Increasingly popular in the neoliberal university, community-engaged service-learning (CESL) courses offer rich yet contradictory opportunities for LGBTQ studies students to synthesize queer critiques of community and identity with experiences in LGBTQ communities. Much CESL scholarship has focused on the tensions between benefits to community and to students, prioritizing either radical social change or student satisfaction. Beside such debates, I propose the queer ethical, pedagogical, and political value of disappointment in the tedium and contradictions of community itself. Such queer disappointment, I contend, might enable students to cultivate the emotional and critical capacities to engage in community work on sustainable, dedramatized, and unentitled terms.


Asunto(s)
Satisfacción Personal , Minorías Sexuales y de Género/psicología , Estudiantes/psicología , Universidades , Femenino , Identidad de Género , Homosexualidad/psicología , Humanos , Aprendizaje , Masculino , Características de la Residencia , Minorías Sexuales y de Género/educación , Cambio Social
16.
Nurs Educ Perspect ; 41(1): 16-19, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860479

RESUMEN

AIM: This study was conducted to explore the experiences of nurse educators who transitioned from traditional classroom to an online learning environment, either 100 percent online or in hybrid courses. BACKGROUND: Online education is an effective way to reach students; however, online education requires a different pedagogy than the traditional classroom. METHOD: Nurse educators who transitioned from traditional classroom to online environments (100 percent online or hybrid) were interviewed using 13 guided interview questions designed to explore the challenges experienced during the transition. RESULTS: Challenges nurse educators experienced included a need for professional development for learning a new pedagogy and learning management system, technological support, mentorship in transitioning to the new mode of teaching, and a mind shift in teaching to a different pedagogy. CONCLUSION: The results provide practical information for nurse educators who may be interested teaching online courses.


Asunto(s)
Educación a Distancia , Investigación Cualitativa , Estudiantes de Enfermería , Docentes de Enfermería , Humanos , Aprendizaje
17.
Nurs Educ Perspect ; 41(1): 59-60, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860493

RESUMEN

Creating simulation-based learning experiences is a process. With tools such as the 2016 INACSL Standards of Best Practice: Simulation Simulation Design and theories to guide development, nurse faculty have the opportunity to create rich simulation-based learning experiences that promote student learning. The purpose of this article is to describe an innovative simulation-based experience that applies simulation design criteria in a non-manikin experience. Using a ShadowBox approach, novice nursing students were exposed to expert decision-making in a simulated environment. We describe this approach and how the simulation design criteria are applied.


Asunto(s)
Bachillerato en Enfermería , Entrenamiento Simulado , Estudiantes de Enfermería , Toma de Decisiones , Humanos , Aprendizaje
18.
Nurs Educ Perspect ; 41(1): 61-62, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860494

RESUMEN

Lack of clinical sites and disparate experiences contribute to the challenge for RN-to-BS nursing programs to provide sufficient leadership and quality improvement opportunities. A virtual clinical learning experience using WordPress was developed as a faculty-graduate student think tank project and implemented in an RN-BS hybrid nursing leadership course. The unfolding case study created an interactive experience to portray use of systems thinking and transformational leadership. Mann-Whitney U analysis identified no significant difference in learning outcomes. The low-cost, easy-to-develop technology counteracted limited clinical sites, allowing for learning on the go with equivalent learning outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Aprendizaje , Estudiantes de Enfermería , Interfaz Usuario-Computador , Educación en Enfermería , Humanos , Liderazgo
19.
Nurs Educ Perspect ; 41(1): 65-66, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860496

RESUMEN

This article describes an interactive teaching-learning strategy titled "Don't Be a Serial Citer. Synthesize!" The strategy is used during an onsite, face-to-face orientation to help new graduate nursing students overcome the tendency to be "serial citers." Although the primary purpose is to develop students' beginning skills at performing synthesis writing, there are important secondary outcomes attached to the experience, including the opportunity for students to be involved in a positive experience during group work and getting to know their classmates. This activity takes approximately two hours to complete.


Asunto(s)
Estudiantes de Enfermería , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Aprendizaje
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(3): 751-758, 2020 Jan 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31861959

RESUMEN

The present study aimed to investigate the combined effects of defatted walnut meal hydrolysate (DWMH) and tea polyphenols (TP) on learning improvement and to explain mechanistically why the combined treatments were more effective than either subject alone. In the step-down avoidance test and the Morris water maze test, codelivery of DWMH and TP was more effective than either individual supplement in reversing memory impairment in scopolamine-treated mice. Mixing with TP significantly facilitated the protective effects of DWMH or DWMH-derived peptides (cationic peptide P1 and anionic peptide P2) on H2O2-injured SH-SY5Y cells. Although combination treatment with TP and DWMH did not significantly alter systemic exposure to P1 or P2 in rats, it significantly increased the accumulation of the two peptides in the mouse brain. In addition, TP significantly improved cellular uptake of P1 and P2 by brain capillary endothelial cells, indicating that TP enhanced the blood-brain barrier permeation of DWMH-derived peptides. The proposed explanation for the advantage of combined treatment with TP and DWMH in reversing memory impairment was that TP enhanced both the protective effects of DWMH on nerve cells and the accumulation of DWMH in the brain. Our study can aid efforts to develop products and investigate the effects of nutrient combinations on brain disorders.


Asunto(s)
Camellia sinensis/química , Juglans/química , Trastornos de la Memoria/tratamiento farmacológico , Fármacos Neuroprotectores/administración & dosificación , Extractos Vegetales/administración & dosificación , Polifenoles/administración & dosificación , Animales , Encéfalo/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Aprendizaje/efectos de los fármacos , Masculino , Aprendizaje por Laberinto , Trastornos de la Memoria/inducido químicamente , Trastornos de la Memoria/psicología , Ratones , Nueces/química , Ratas , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Escopolamina/efectos adversos
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