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1.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 23(2): 1-10, abr.-jun. 2023. ilus, graf, tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-213889

RESUMEN

Background/Objective: Most studies investigating the neural correlates of threat learning were carried out using an explicit Pavlovian conditioning paradigm where declarative knowledge on contingencies between conditioned (CS) and unconditioned stimuli (US) is acquired. The current study aimed at understanding the neural correlates of threat conditioning when contingency awareness is limited or even absent. Method: We conducted an fMRI report of threat learning in an implicit associative learning paradigm called multi-CS conditioning, in which a number of faces were associated with aversive screams (US) such that participants could not report contingencies between the faces and the screams. Results: The univariate results showed support for the recruitment of threat-related regions including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and the cerebellum during acquisition. Further analyses by the multivariate representational similarity technique identified learning-dependent changes in the bilateral dlPFC. Conclusion: Our findings support the involvement of the dlPFC and the cerebellum in threat conditioning that occurs with highly limited or even absent contingency awareness. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Corteza Prefrontal , Cerebelo , Aprendizaje , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Amenazas , Miedo
2.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 9, 2023 Jan 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36593233

RESUMEN

Accurate tide level prediction is crucial to human activities in coastal areas. Many practical applications show that compared with traditional harmonic analysis, long short-term memory (LSTM), gated recurrent units (GRUs) and other neural networks, along with ensemble learning models, such as light gradient boosting machine (LightGBM) and eXtreme gradient boosting (XGBoost), can achieve extremely high prediction accuracy in relatively stationary time series. Therefore, this paper proposes a variable weight combination model based on LightGBM and CNN-BiGRU with relevant research. It uses the variable weight combination method to weight and synthesize the prediction results of the two base models so that the combination model has a stronger ability to capture time series features and fits the data well. The experimental results show that in contrast to the base model LightGBM, the RMSE value and MAE value of the combination model are reduced by 43.2% and 44.7%, respectively; in contrast to the base model CNN-BiGRU, the RMSE value and MAE value of the combination model are reduced by 35.3% and 39.1%, respectively. This means that the variable weight combination model can greatly improve the accuracy of tide level prediction. In addition, we use tidal data from different geographical environments to further verify the good universality of the model. This study provides a new idea and method for tide prediction.


Asunto(s)
Ambiente , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Aprendizaje , Memoria a Largo Plazo , Redes Neurales de la Computación
3.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 10, 2023 Jan 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36593254

RESUMEN

Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) is a powerful treatment in Parkinson's disease (PD), which provides a positive effect on motor symptoms although the way it operates on high cognitive processes such as metacognition remains unclear. To address this issue, we recorded electroencephalogram (EEG) of PD patients treated with STN-DBS that performed a reversal learning (RL) paradigm endowed with metacognitive self-assessment. We considered two stimulation conditions, namely DBS-ON (stimulation on) and DBS-OFF (stimulation off), and focused our EEG-analysis on the frontal brain region due to its involvement on high cognitive processes. We found a trend towards a significant difference in RL ability between stimulation conditions. STN-DBS showed no effect on metacognition, although a significant association between accuracy and decision confidence level held for DBS OFF, but not in the case of DBS ON. In summary, our study revealed no significant effect of STN-DBS on RL or metacognition.


Asunto(s)
Estimulación Encefálica Profunda , Metacognición , Enfermedad de Parkinson , Núcleo Subtalámico , Humanos , Enfermedad de Parkinson/terapia , Enfermedad de Parkinson/psicología , Núcleo Subtalámico/fisiología , Aprendizaje
4.
BMC Med Educ ; 23(1): 1, 2023 Jan 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36593450

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Verbal communication plays an important role in the patient-physician relationship. Research shows that language concordance, when a healthcare professional communicates fluently in the patient's preferred language, contributes to patient satisfaction and improves healthcare outcomes. Yet, many medical schools worldwide, including most institutions in the Arab world, use English as the language of instruction. As a result, students lack confidence and feel unprepared to communicate effectively with the local population. This manuscript describes the development, implementation and early perceptions of an Arabic language program for medical students in the United Arab Emirates. METHODS: In 2020, the learning communities at Khalifa University College of Medicine and Health Sciences launched a pilot program implementing a Peer Assisted Learning (PAL) framework to teach Arabic medical terminology and language to both native and non-native Arabic speaking medical students. A web-based survey was administered to the first two cohorts of students to assess satisfaction with the classes and the program's impact on students' communication skills during clinical encounters. RESULTS: Early perceptions of the program were very positive, with 43/48 students (89.6%) reporting that they used the information during home visits and clinical rotations, and 42 students (87.5%) admitting that the classes made them feel more comfortable in communicating with the Arabic speaking local patient population. CONCLUSION: This paper explores a new educational approach to address the challenge of language barriers in healthcare. A feasible, low cost program using peer assisted learning can improve students' comfort in communicating with patients in the local language.


Asunto(s)
Educación de Pregrado en Medicina , Médicos , Estudiantes de Medicina , Humanos , Lenguaje , Comunicación , Aprendizaje
5.
BMC Med Educ ; 23(1): 2, 2023 Jan 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36597081

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Medical education in Syria still adopts a traditional, teacher-centered curriculum to this day. These elements imply the existence of issues in the learning environment (LE). This study aims to provide the first evaluation of the LE at the largest medical schools in Syria using the DREEM inventory. METHODS: The three largest medical schools in Syria are the ones at Damascus University (DU), University of Aleppo (AU), Tishreen University (TU). The Arabic version of the DREEM questionnaire was used. Students across all years of study except year 1 were approached. Both paper-based and electronic surveys were conducted. RESULTS: A total of 1774 questionnaire forms were completed (DU:941, AU:533, TU: 300). The overall DREEM score at DU, AU, and TU were 100.8 ± 28.7, 101.3 ± 31.7, and 97.8 ± 35.7 respectively with no significant difference (P = 0.254) between the three universities. DREEM subscales concerning Learning, Atmosphere, Academic Self-perception and Social Self-perception had a low score across all universities. Clinical-stage students reported significantly lower perception (P ≤ 0.001) of the LE in comparison to their pre-clinical counterparts across all subscales. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study highlight the significant shortcomings of the medical LE in Syria. If not addressed properly, the academic, clinical, and professional competence of the healthcare workforce will continue to deteriorate. Moreover, the negative LE might be a predisposing factor for medical students' exodus. The Syrian medical education system requires leaders who are willing to defy the status quo to achieve a true educational transformation.


Asunto(s)
Educación de Pregrado en Medicina , Educación Médica , Estudiantes de Medicina , Humanos , Siria , Facultades de Medicina , Aprendizaje , Curriculum , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
6.
J Exp Biol ; 226(1)2023 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36601985

RESUMEN

Across communicative systems, the ability of compound signals to enhance receiver's perception and decoding is a potent explanation for the evolution of complexity. In nature, complex signaling involves spatiotemporal variation in perception of signal components; yet, how the synchrony between components affects performance of the receiver is much less understood. In the coevolution of plants and pollinators, bees are a model for understanding how visual and chemical components of floral displays may interact to influence performance. Understanding whether the temporal dimension of signal components impacts performance is central for evaluating hypotheses about the facilitation of information processing and for predicting how particular trait combinations function in nature. Here, I evaluated the role of the temporal dimension by testing the performance of bumble bees under restrained conditions while learning a bimodal (olfactory and visual) stimulus. I trained bumble bees under six different stimuli varying in their internal synchrony and structure. I also evaluated the acquisition of the individual components. I show that the temporal configuration and the identity of the components impact their combined and separate acquisition. Performance was favored by partial asynchrony and the initial presentation of the visual component, leading to higher acquisition of the olfactory component. This indicates that compound stimuli resembling the partially synchronous presentation of a floral display favor performance in a pollinator, thus highlighting the time dimension as crucial for the enhancement. Moreover, this supports the hypothesis that the evolution of multimodal floral signals may have been favored by the asynchrony perceived by the receiver during free flight.


Asunto(s)
Flores , Aprendizaje , Abejas , Animales , Plantas , Olfato , Cognición , Polinización
7.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0275750, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36602995

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Existing task-oriented virtual agents can assist users with simple tasks like ticket booking, hotel reservations, etc. effectively and with high confidence. These virtual assistants, however, assume specific, predictable end-user behavior, such as predefined/servable objectives, which results in conversation failures in challenging situations, such as when goals are unavailable. METHODOLOGY: Inspired by the practice and its efficacy, we propose an end-to-end framework for task-oriented persuasive dialogue generation that combines pre-training and reinforcement learning for generating context-aware persuasive responses. We utilize four novel rewards to improve consistency and repetitiveness in generated responses. Additionally, a meta-learning strategy has also been utilized to make the model parameters better for domain adaptation. Furthermore, we also curate a personalized persuasive dialogue (PPD) corpus, which contains utterance-level intent, slot, sentiment, and persuasion strategy annotation. FINDINGS: The obtained results and detailed analysis firmly establish the effectiveness of the proposed persuasive virtual assistant over traditional task-oriented virtual assistants. The proposed framework considerably increases the quality of dialogue generation in terms of consistency and repetitiveness. Additionally, our experiment with a few shot and zero-shot settings proves that our meta-learned model learns to quickly adopt new domains with a few or even zero no. of training epochs. It outperforms the non-meta-learning-based approaches keeping the base model constant. ORIGINALITY: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first effort to improve a task-oriented virtual agent's persuasiveness and domain adaptation.


Asunto(s)
Aprendizaje , Comunicación Persuasiva , Refuerzo en Psicología
8.
Vet Rec ; 192(1): 13, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36607655
9.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0279945, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36607967

RESUMEN

Research on underwater image processing has increased significantly in the past decade due to the precious resources that exist underwater. However, it is still a challenging problem to restore degraded underwater images. Existing prior-based methods show limited performance in many cases due to their reliance on hand-crafted features. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an effective unsupervised generative adversarial network(GAN) for underwater image restoration. Specifically, we embed the idea of contrastive learning into the model. The method encourages two elements (corresponding patches) to map the similar points in the learned feature space relative to other elements (other patches) in the data set, and maximizes the mutual information between input and output through PatchNCE loss. We design a query attention (Que-Attn) module, which compares feature distances in the source domain, and gives an attention matrix and probability distribution for each row. We then select queries based on their importance measure calculated from the distribution. We also verify its generalization performance on several benchmark datasets. Experiments and comparison with the state-of-the-art methods show that our model outperforms others.


Asunto(s)
Aumento de la Imagen , Aprendizaje , Generalización Psicológica , Procesamiento de Imagen Asistido por Computador , Benchmarking
10.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0278323, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36607963

RESUMEN

In a task-oriented dialogue setting, user's mood and demands can change in an ongoing dialogue, which may lead to a non-informative conversation or may result in conversation drop-off. To rectify such scenarios, a conversational agent should be able to learn the user's behaviour online, and form informative, empathetic and interactive responses. To incorporate these three aspects, we propose a novel end-to-end dialogue system GenPADS. First, we build and train two models, viz. a politeness classifier to extract polite information present in user's and agent's utterances and a generation model (G) to generate varying but semantically correct responses. We then incorporate both of these models in a reinforcement learning (RL) setting using two different politeness oriented reward algorithms to adapt and generate polite responses. To train our politeness classifier, we annotate recently released Taskmaster dataset into four fine-grained classes depicting politeness and impoliteness. Further, to train our generator model, we prepare a GenDD dataset using the same Taskmaster dataset. Lastly, we train GenPADS and perform automatic and human evaluation by building seven different user simulators. Detailed analysis reveals that GenPADS performs better than the two considered baselines,viz. a transformer based seq2seq generator model for user's and agent's utterance and a retrieval based politeness adaptive dialogue system (PADS).


Asunto(s)
Algoritmos , Comunicación , Humanos , Aprendizaje , Refuerzo en Psicología , Adaptación Fisiológica
11.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0280073, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36607995

RESUMEN

Unsupervised image-to-image translation (UI2I) tasks aim to find a mapping between the source and the target domains from unpaired training data. Previous methods can not effectively capture the differences between the source and the target domain on different scales and often leads to poor quality of the generated images, noise, distortion, and other conditions that do not match human vision perception, and has high time complexity. To address this problem, we propose a multi-scale training structure and a progressive growth generator method to solve UI2I task. Our method refines the generated images from global structures to local details by adding new convolution blocks continuously and shares the network parameters in different scales and also in the same scale of network. Finally, we propose a new Cross-CBAM mechanism (CRCBAM), which uses a multi-layer spatial attention and channel attention cross structure to generate more refined style images. Experiments on our collected Opera Face, and other open datasets Summer↔Winter, Horse↔Zebra, Photo↔Van Gogh, show that the proposed algorithm is superior to other state-of-art algorithms.


Asunto(s)
Aprendizaje , Percepción Visual , Humanos , Animales , Caballos , Algoritmos , Estaciones del Año , Traducciones , Procesamiento de Imagen Asistido por Computador
12.
Lancet Planet Health ; 7(1): e86-e96, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36608955

RESUMEN

This paper presents insights from the work of the Canadian Community of Practice in Ecosystem Approaches to Health (CoPEH-Canada) and 15 years (2008-2022) of land-based, transdisciplinary, learner-centred, transformative learning and training. We have oriented our learning approaches to Head, Hands, and Heart, which symbolise cognitive, psychomotor, and affective learning, respectively. Psychomotor and affective learning are necessary to grapple with and enact far-reaching structural changes (eg, decolonisation) needed to rekindle healthier, reciprocal relationships with nature and each other. We acknowledge that these approaches have been long understood by Indigenous colleagues and communities. We have developed a suite of teaching techniques and resources through an iterative and evolving pedagogy based on participatory approaches and operating reciprocal, research-pedagogical cycles; integrated different approaches and ways of knowing into our pedagogy; and built a networked Community of Practice for continued learning. Planetary health has become a dominant framing for health-ecosystem interactions. This Viewpoint underscores the depth of existing scholarship, collaboration, and pedagogical expertise in ecohealth teaching and learning that can inform planetary health education approaches.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Aprendizaje , Canadá , Estado de Salud , Educación en Salud
13.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 36, 2023 Jan 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36609235

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Long-lasting crises, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, require proper interim evaluation in order to optimize response. The World Health Organization and the European Center for Disease Control have recently promoted the in(tra)-action review (IAR) method for this purpose. We systematically evaluated the added value of two IARs performed in the Dutch point of entry (PoE) setting. METHODS: Two online, 4-hour IAR meetings were organized in March 2021, for ports and airports respectively, to reflect on the ongoing COVID-19 response. Topics discussed were selected through a survey among participants. Participants were mainly self-selected by the (air)port public health service. Evaluation of the IAR method consisted of participant evaluation through a questionnaire, and hot and cold debriefs of the organizing team. Evaluation of the impact of the IAR was done through analysis of the meeting results, and a 3-month follow-up of the actions proposed during the meetings. RESULTS: Thirty-nine professionals joined the IAR meetings. In the participant evaluation (n = 18), 89% agreed or totally agreed the IAR made it possible to identify challenges and problems in the COVID-19 response at PoE. Participants especially appreciated the resulting insight in regional and national partners. Regarding the online setting of the meeting, participants suggested to choose accessible and familiar online tools. After 3 months, all national actions and actions for ports had been executed; some regional actions for airports required further attention. A major result was a new meeting structure for all ports and the participating national authorities in which remaining and newly occurring issues were discussed. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the evaluations, we conclude that the IAR method can be of value during long-term crises, such as the COVID-19 pandemic response. Although it is challenging to dedicate time and effort to the organization and attendance of IAR meetings during crisis, the IAR method is feasible in an online setting if appropriate organizing and technical capacity is available. A participatory set-up supports the IAR method as a starting point for continuous exchange and learning during ongoing crises.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Humanos , Pandemias , Aprendizaje
15.
BMC Med Educ ; 23(1): 11, 2023 Jan 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36611174

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: One of the duties of the educational system is to provide situations in which students learn the tasks corresponding to their future careers in an interprofessional team. This study was designed to develop an interprofessional task-based training program. METHODS: This was a curriculum development study conducted by content validity methodology in two stages: 1) 'framework development' which resulted in the creation of the framework items; and 2) 'evaluation of the framework' (judgment and quantification). The first stage consisted of task identification, generation of sub-tasks, and assimilation of items into a usable format. The second stage consisted of the judgment -quantification of the content validity of items and the framework. After that, the framework of the tasks of the occupational health team was finalized in the expert panel. After explaining the tasks, a matrix for task-expected roles in the occupational health team and a matrix for task-required skills to perform each task were developed. The next step determined the appropriate teaching and assessment methods for each task. Finally, an expert panel reviewed and approved the components of the interprofessional task-based training program. RESULTS: Integrating the interprofessional education strategy with task-based learning was considered innovative in occupational health team training. In the development stage, 48 items were extracted, and then 35 tasks were generated in the step of identification of tasks. In the second step, 174 sub-tasks were developed. The tasks and sub-tasks were categorized into seven areas. After the stage of evaluation of the framework, 33 tasks were categorized into seven main areas, including "assessment and identification of workplace hazards" (n = 10), "control of occupational hazards" (n = 4), "determining the appropriate job position for each person" (n = 3), "occupational health examinations" (n = 6), "management of occupational/work-related diseases" (n = 5), "inter-organizational and inter-disciplinary relations, and legal judgment" (n = 3) and "education and scholarship in occupational health services" (n = 2). CONCLUSION: The results of the present study can be used in developing the use of the interprofessional strategy and task-based training as two appropriate strategies for the purposeful development of learners' abilities in the fields involved in providing occupational health services in their future careers.


Asunto(s)
Salud Laboral , Humanos , Aprendizaje , Curriculum , Estudiantes , Relaciones Interprofesionales
16.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36623531

RESUMEN

How future physicians can learn about role models during their medical training - an approach on teaching personal skills as described in the new "National Competence-based Catalogue of Learning Objectives in Medicine 2.0".


Asunto(s)
Curriculum , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina , Humanos , Autocuidado , Aprendizaje , Competencia Clínica , Enseñanza
17.
BMC Palliat Care ; 22(1): 2, 2023 Jan 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36604714

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Primary care providers play a critical role in providing early palliative care to their patients. Despite the availability of clinical education on best practices in palliative care, primary care providers often lack practical guidance to help them operationalize this approach in practice. CAPACITI is a virtual training program aimed at providing practical tips, strategies, and action plans to provide an early palliative approach to care. The entire program consists of 12 sessions (1 h each), divided evenly across three modules: (1) Identify and Assess; (2) Enhance Communication Skills; (3) Coordinate for Ongoing Care. We report the protocol for our planned evaluation of CAPACITI on its effectiveness in helping primary care providers increase their identification of patients requiring a palliative approach to care and to strengthen other core competencies. METHODS: A cluster randomized controlled trial evaluating two modes of CAPACITI program delivery: 1) self-directed learning, consisting of online access to program materials; and 2) facilitated learning, which also includes live webinars where the online materials are presented and discussed. The primary outcomes are 1) percent of patients identified as requiring palliative care (PC), 2) timing of first initiation of PC, and self-reported PC competency (EPCS tool). Secondary outcomes include self-reported confidence in PC, practice change, and team collaboration (AITCS-II tool), as well as qualitative interviews. Covariates that will be examined are readiness for change (ORCA tool), learning preference, and team size. Primary care teams representing interdisciplinary providers, including physicians, nurse practitioners, registered nurses, care coordinators, and allied health professionals will be recruited from across Canada. The completion of all three modules is expected to take participating teams a total of six months. DISCUSSION: CAPACITI is a national trial aimed at behavior change in primary care providers. This research will help inform future palliative care educational initiatives for generalist health care providers. Specifically, our findings will examine the effectiveness of the two models of education delivery and the participant experience associated with each modality. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT05120154.


Asunto(s)
Cuidados Paliativos , Médicos , Humanos , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Personal de Salud/educación , Aprendizaje , Atención Primaria de Salud , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
18.
BMC Med Educ ; 23(1): 12, 2023 Jan 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36624494

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Reflective writing (RW) allows physicians to step back, review their thoughts, goals and actions and recognise how their perspectives, motives and emotions impact their conduct. RW also helps physicians consolidate their learning and boosts their professional and personal development. In the absence of a consistent approach and amidst growing threats to RW's place in medical training, a review of theories of RW in medical education and a review to map regnant practices, programs and assessment methods are proposed. METHODS: A Systematic Evidence-Based Approach guided Systematic Scoping Review (SSR in SEBA) was adopted to guide and structure the two concurrent reviews. Independent searches were carried out on publications featured between 1st January 2000 and 30th June 2022 in PubMed, Embase, PsychINFO, CINAHL, ERIC, ASSIA, Scopus, Google Scholar, OpenGrey, GreyLit and ProQuest. The Split Approach saw the included articles analysed separately using thematic and content analysis. Like pieces of a jigsaw puzzle, the Jigsaw Perspective combined the themes and categories identified from both reviews. The Funnelling Process saw the themes/categories created compared with the tabulated summaries. The final domains which emerged structured the discussion that followed. RESULTS: A total of 33,076 abstracts were reviewed, 1826 full-text articles were appraised and 199 articles were included and analysed. The domains identified were theories and models, current methods, benefits and shortcomings, and recommendations. CONCLUSIONS: This SSR in SEBA suggests that a structured approach to RW shapes the physician's belief system, guides their practice and nurtures their professional identity formation. In advancing a theoretical concept of RW, this SSR in SEBA proffers new insight into the process of RW, and the need for longitudinal, personalised feedback and support.


Asunto(s)
Educación Médica , Médicos , Humanos , Curriculum , Aprendizaje , Escritura
19.
Int J Nurs Educ Scholarsh ; 20(1)2023 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36627761

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Collaborative Online International Learning (COIL) is an innovative teaching pedagogy involving faculty collaboration and student co-learning across global partner schools. Guided by the cross-cultural alignment model, the purpose of this educational research project was to analyze the impact of COIL on the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of nursing students in two global partner schools and to determine if groups of students were impacted differently. METHODS: Students engaged in synchronous and asynchronous learning sessions using a secure digital platform over several weeks. Data was gathered from students using an optional, anonymous, online, retrospective pre-posttest survey. RESULTS: COIL enhances student understanding of key global nursing concepts and culturally responsive care. Differences across schools were observed. CONCLUSIONS: COIL is a feasible and cost-effective way to integrate global education into the curriculum of undergraduate nursing education. Recommendations for future COIL experiences are made.


Asunto(s)
Bachillerato en Enfermería , Estudiantes de Enfermería , Humanos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Aprendizaje , Curriculum
20.
Chest ; 163(1): 202-203, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36628668

Asunto(s)
Aprendizaje , Humanos
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