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1.
Hu Li Za Zhi ; 67(2): 33-44, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32281081

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Middle-aged and older individuals suffer from skeletal muscle loss due to aging, increasing the risk of sarcopenia. Muscular dystrophy reduces lower-extremity muscle endurance. The annual incidence of falls in the community is about 30-40%. Falls contribute to disability and fractures, affect quality of life, reduce mental health, and, in severe cases, result in death. Therefore, preventing lower limb muscle weakness in middle-aged and older individuals should be taken seriously. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to promote community health with a focus on older, community-dwelling individuals. The effects of a lower-extremity exercise intervention on middle-aged and older individuals in terms of improving functional fitness, physiological indexes, exercise self-efficacy, sleep quality, and mental health were explored. METHODS: This study used convenience sampling to recruit community residents over 55 years old as participants, with 50 participants assigned to the control group and to the experimental group, respectively. The experimental group participated in a 50-min lower extremity exercise intervention three times a week for 12 weeks. Differences in functional fitness, basic physiological index, exercise self-efficacy, sleep quality, and mental health variables between the two groups were assessed at the conclusion of the intervention. RESULTS: The lower-extremity muscle exercise program significantly improved functional fitness, physiological indexes, exercise self-efficacy, sleep quality, and overall mental health status in the experimental group, as compared to the control group (p < .05). CONCLUSIONS / IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: It is recommended that the concept and application of lower extremity movement intervention should be popularized among middle-aged and older individuals to promote physical and mental health, prevent the decline and loss of lower extremity muscle strength, and help realize healthy aging goals.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico/fisiología , Ejercicio Físico/psicología , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Extremidad Inferior/fisiología , Anciano , Humanos , Vida Independiente , Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Aptitud Física/fisiología , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Autoeficacia , Sueño/fisiología
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(12): e19427, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32195937

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Severe and morbid obesity are increasing globally, particularly in women. As BMI increases, the likelihood of anovulation is higher. The primary aim of the EMOVAR clinical trial is to examine, over the short (16 weeks) and medium (12 months) term, the effects of a supervised physical exercise program (focused primarily on aerobic and resistance training) on ovarian function in women with severe/morbid obesity who have undergone bariatric surgery. Secondary objectives are to examine the effects of the intervention on chronic inflammation, insulin resistance, arterial stiffness, physical fitness, and health-related quality of life. METHODS: This is a randomized controlled trial in which ∼40 female bariatric surgery patients, aged between 18 and 45 years old, will be included. Participants assigned to the experimental group will perform a total of 48 sessions of supervised concurrent (strength and aerobic) training (3 sessions/week, 60 min/session) spread over 16 weeks. Patients assigned to the control group will receive lifestyle recommendations. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline, week 16 (i.e., after the exercise intervention) and 12 months after surgery. The primary outcome is ovarian function using the Sex-Hormone Binding Globuline, measured in serum. Secondary outcomes are serum levels of anti-mullerian hormone, TSH, T4, FSH, LH, estradiol, prolactine, and free androgen index, as well as oocyte count, the diameters of both ovaries, endometrial thickness, and uterine arterial pulsatility index (obtained from a transvaginal ultrasound), the duration of menstrual bleeding and menstrual cycle duration (obtained by personal interview) and hirsutism (Ferriman Gallwey Scale). Other secondary outcomes include serum markers of chronic inflammation and insulin resistance (i.e., C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, leptin, glomerular sedimentation rate, glucose, insulin and the HOMA-IR), arterial stiffness, systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure, body composition, and total weight loss. Physical fitness (including cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength, and flexibility), health-related quality of life (SF-36 v2) and sexual function (Female Sexual Function Index) will also be measured. DISCUSSION: This study will provide, for the first time, relevant information on the effects of exercise training on ovarian function and underlying mechanisms in severe/morbid obese women following bariatric surgery. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN registry (ISRCTN27697878).


Asunto(s)
Cirugía Bariátrica/rehabilitación , Terapia por Ejercicio/métodos , Obesidad Mórbida/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Ejercicio Físico , Femenino , Humanos , Inflamación/fisiopatología , Resistencia a la Insulina/fisiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad Mórbida/cirugía , Pruebas de Función Ovárica , Aptitud Física/fisiología , Calidad de Vida , Método Simple Ciego , Rigidez Vascular/fisiología , Adulto Joven
3.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 60(1): 1-10, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008309

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was twofold: 1) to characterize a common microcycle considering both internal and external training loads; and 2) to identify the effects of small-sided games (SSGs) and of power and strength training on the fitness status of football players. METHODS: Fifteen male football players (age: 18.55±0.39 years) participated in this study. Ninety-two consecutive training sessions were monitored and analyzed over a period of nineteen weeks. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE ) was used as an internal load marker, and the distances covered at different speed thresholds and accelerations/decelerations were used as external load markers to characterize the common microcycle. Participants' body composition, vertical jumping ability, maximal strength, speed, and agility were assessed twice before and after the training monitoring process. RESULTS: The results revealed that match day -5 (MD-5) and MD-1 were associated with the lowest RPE scores (4.2 and 3.8 A.U., respectively). MD-4 and MD-3 were associated with the highest RPE values (9.2 and 8.8 A.U., respectively). Meaningful changes in RPE were found between training days. External load monitoring revealed that MD-4 had the highest values of accelerations and decelerations >2 m/s2/min (4.22 and 3.17, respectively) and MD-3 had the highest values of distance covered at high intensity (6.11 m/s2/min). Meaningful moderate improvements in jumping performance (d=0.90) and maximal strength parameters (d=0.83) were also found between assessments. CONCLUSIONS: It was identified that the concurrent approach had meaningful impacts on the fitness development of players and should be considered by coaches for future training interventions.


Asunto(s)
Esfuerzo Físico/fisiología , Aptitud Física/fisiología , Entrenamiento de Resistencia/métodos , Fútbol/fisiología , Aceleración , Adolescente , Desaceleración , Humanos , Masculino , Carrera/fisiología
4.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229079, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069319

RESUMEN

AIM: To analyse i) the association of physical fitness during early second trimester and late pregnancy with maternal and neonatal outcomes; and ii) to investigate whether physical fitness is associated with the type of birth (vaginal or caesarean section). METHODS: Pregnant women from the GESTAFIT Project (n = 159) participated in this longitudinal study. Maternal physical fitness including upper- and lower-body strength, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and flexibility were measured through objective physical fitness tests at the 16th and 34th gestational weeks. Maternal and neonatal outcomes were collected from obstetric medical records. Umbilical arterial and venous blood gas pH and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2) and oxygen (PO2), were assessed. RESULTS: At the 16th week, greater upper-body muscle strength was associated with greater neonatal birth weight (r = 0.191, p<0.05). Maternal flexibility was associated with a more alkaline arterial pH (r = 0.220, p<0.05), higher arterial PO2 (r = 0.237, p<0.05) and lower arterial PCO2 (r = -0.331, p<0.01) in umbilical cord blood. Maternal CRF at the 16th gestational week was related to higher arterial umbilical cord PO2 (r = 0.267, p<0.05). The women who had caesarean sections had lower CRF (p<0.001) at the 16th gestational week and worse clustered overall physical fitness, both at the 16th (-0.227, p = 0.003, confidence interval (CI): -0.376, -0.078) and 34th gestational week (-0.223; p = 0.018; CI: -0.432, -0.015) compared with the women who had vaginal births. CONCLUSION: Increasing physical fitness during pregnancy may promote better neonatal outcomes and is associated with a decrease in the risk of caesarean section. This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02582567) on October 20, 2015.


Asunto(s)
Peso al Nacer/fisiología , Cesárea/estadística & datos numéricos , Recién Nacido/fisiología , Aptitud Física/fisiología , Embarazo/fisiología , Adulto , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Femenino , Sangre Fetal/química , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Oxígeno/análisis , Presión Parcial , Segundo Trimestre del Embarazo/fisiología , Autoinforme
5.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227581, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978065

RESUMEN

Previous research has demonstrated a lack of neuroplasticity induced by acute exercise in low fit individuals, but the influence of exercise intensity is unclear. In the present study, we assessed the effect of acute high-intensity (HI) or moderate-intensity (MOD) interval exercise on neuroplasticity in individuals with low fitness, as determined by a peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) test (n = 19). Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to assess corticospinal excitability via area under the motor evoked potential (MEP) recruitment curve before and following training. Corticospinal excitability was unchanged after HI and MOD, suggesting no effect of acute exercise on neuroplasticity as measured via TMS in sedentary, young individuals. Repeated bouts of exercise, i.e., physical training, may be required to induce short-term changes in corticospinal excitability in previously sedentary individuals.


Asunto(s)
Entrenamiento de Intervalos de Alta Intensidad , Aptitud Física/fisiología , Tractos Piramidales/fisiología , Electromiografía , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Plasticidad Neuronal , Factores de Tiempo , Adulto Joven
6.
J Sports Sci ; 38(1): 38-45, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613185

RESUMEN

To help inform strategies aimed at increasing muscular fitness levels, we examined factors associated with childhood muscular fitness (strength and power) that preceded the recently observed secular decline. Data were available from a nationally representative sample of Australian children aged 7-15 years in 1985 (n = 8469). Muscular fitness measures included strength (right and left grip, shoulder extension and flexion, and leg strength) and power (standing long jump distance). Anthropometric (adiposity, fat-free mass), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), flexibility, speed capability, physical activity (individual and parental), dietary quality and intake (fruit, vegetable, protein) and sociodemographic (area-level socioeconomic status (SES), school type) data were available. Statistical analyses included sex-stratified linear regression. Of all examined factors, measures of adiposity, fat-free mass, CRF, flexibility and speed capability were associated with muscular fitness at levels that met Cohen's threshold for important effects (r-squared = 0.02 to 0.28). These findings highlight the multifactorial relationship between muscular fitness and its determinants. Collectively, these factors were powerful in explaining muscular strength (females: r-squared = 0.32; males: r-squared = 0.41) and muscular power (females: r-squared = 0.36; males: r-squared = 0.42). These findings highlight modifiable and environmental factors that could be targeted to increase childhood muscular fitness.


Asunto(s)
Fuerza Muscular/fisiología , Músculo Esquelético/fisiología , Aptitud Física/fisiología , Adiposidad/fisiología , Adolescente , Australia , Índice de Masa Corporal , Capacidad Cardiovascular/fisiología , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Dieta , Ambiente , Ejercicio Físico/fisiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Fenotipo , Clase Social
7.
J Sports Sci ; 38(3): 273-279, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774367

RESUMEN

Purpose: The present study aimed to investigate and compare physical activity (PA) and health-related fitness in Asian adolescents, and to examine the associations between meeting PA guidelines and attaining fitness standards. Methods: A sample of 12,590 adolescents (Mage = 13.63 years, SD = 1.01) from eight Asian metropolitan cities completed measurements of PA, five field-based fitness tests, and covariates. The fitness test scores were further classified into Healthy Fitness Zone (HFZ) or Needs Improvement Zone (NIZ). Results: Findings showed that adolescents' levels of PA and fitness components differed by cities. City differences were also found in proportions of meeting PA guidelines and achieving the HFZs of aerobic capacity, muscular fitness, and body composition. After controlling covariates, meeting PA guidelines positively associated with being in the HFZs of aerobic and muscular fitness, but the association was not significant with being in the body composition HFZ. Conclusion: There was a large variation in PA and health-related fitness in adolescents across the eight Asian cities. Asian adolescents achieving PA guidelines were more likely to be in the HFZ of aerobic and muscular fitness. Prospective follow-up studies are warranted to gain better insights into the relationships between objectively-measured PA and fitness.


Asunto(s)
Salud del Adolescente , Ejercicio Físico/fisiología , Aptitud Física/fisiología , Adolescente , Asia , Composición Corporal , Índice de Masa Corporal , Niño , Comparación Transcultural , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Fuerza Muscular/fisiología , Conducta Sedentaria
8.
J Sports Sci ; 38(3): 256-263, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735120

RESUMEN

When analysing physical activity (PA) levels using accelerometry, the epoch setting is critical to capture intensity-specific PA correctly. The aim of the present study was to investigate the PA intensity signatures related to metabolic health in children using different epoch settings. A sample of 841 Norwegian children (age 10.2 ± 0.3 years; BMI 18.0 ± 3.0; 50% boys) provided data on accelerometry (ActiGraph GT3X+) and several indices of metabolic health (aerobic fitness, abdominal fatness, insulin sensitivity, lipid metabolism, blood pressure) that were used to create a composite metabolic health score. We created intensity spectra from 0-99 to ≥ 10000 counts per minute (cpm) for files aggregated using 1, 10, and 60-second epoch periods and used multivariate pattern analysis to analyse the data. The association patterns with metabolic health differed substantially between epoch settings. The intensity intervals most strongly associated with metabolic health were 7000-8000 cpm for data analysed using 1-second epoch, 5500-6500 cpm for data analysed using 10-second epoch, and 4000-5000 cpm analysed using 60-second epoch. Aggregation of data over different epoch periods has a clear impact on how PA intensities in the moderate and vigorous range are associated with childhood metabolic health.


Asunto(s)
Acelerometría/métodos , Salud del Niño , Ejercicio Físico/fisiología , Monitores de Ejercicio , Aptitud Física/fisiología , Grasa Abdominal , Presión Sanguínea , Índice de Masa Corporal , Capacidad Cardiovascular , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Homeostasis , Humanos , Resistencia a la Insulina , Metabolismo de los Lípidos , Masculino , Análisis Multivariante , Noruega
9.
Disabil Health J ; 13(1): 100828, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422168

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Few researchers have examined the effects of surf programs on children with disabilities. Due to previous research findings, surfing is being used, as the focus of physical activity intervention due to its numerous health and therapeutic benefits. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of an eight-week surfing intervention on various physical fitness measures in 71 children with disabilities such as autism spectrum disorder, down syndrome, global developmental delays, and cerebral palsy. The study also sought to compare the differences in overall fitness levels between the surf therapy group and an unstructured pool playgroup. Researchers predicted significant differences in the surf therapy group. METHODS: The assessment procedure consisted of pre and post physical fitness measures selected from the Brockport Physical Fitness Test in two groups: surfing (n = 71) and an unstructured aquatic program (n = 20). RESULTS: The results demonstrated significant improvements in core strength (p = 0.00), upper body strength (p = 0.00), flexibility (p = 0.01) and cardiorespiratory endurance (p = 0.00) in the surfing group. However, there were no significant differences in overall fitness levels between the surfing and unstructured pool playgroups. Body composition measurements on the surfing group demonstrated a significant reduction in total body fat % (p = 0.016) and fat free mass (p = 0.008) and a significant improvement in bone mineral density (p = 0.004) pre to post surf therapy. CONCLUSIONS: This research demonstrated the effectiveness and physiological benefits of surf therapy for children with selected disabilities.


Asunto(s)
Niños con Discapacidad , Ejercicio Físico/fisiología , Aptitud Física , Deportes para Personas con Discapacidad/fisiología , Tejido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adolescente , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/terapia , Composición Corporal , Compartimentos de Líquidos Corporales/metabolismo , Densidad Ósea , Parálisis Cerebral/terapia , Niño , Discapacidades del Desarrollo/terapia , Síndrome de Down/terapia , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Fuerza Muscular , Resistencia Física , Aptitud Física/fisiología , Juego e Implementos de Juego , Rango del Movimiento Articular , Deportes/fisiología , Resultado del Tratamiento , Agua
10.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 24(1): 70, 2019 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787069

RESUMEN

AIMS: This study focused on the newest evidence of the relationship between forest environmental exposure and human health and assessed the health efficacy of forest bathing on the human body as well as the methodological quality of a single study, aiming to provide scientific guidance for interdisciplinary integration of forestry and medicine. METHOD: Through PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library, 210 papers from January 1, 2015, to April 1, 2019, were retrieved, and the final 28 papers meeting the inclusion criteria were included in the study. RESULT: The methodological quality of papers included in the study was assessed quantitatively with the Downs and Black checklist. The methodological quality of papers using randomized controlled trials is significantly higher than that of papers using non-randomized controlled trials (p < 0.05). Papers included in the study were analyzed qualitatively. The results demonstrated that forest bathing activities might have the following merits: remarkably improving cardiovascular function, hemodynamic indexes, neuroendocrine indexes, metabolic indexes, immunity and inflammatory indexes, antioxidant indexes, and electrophysiological indexes; significantly enhancing people's emotional state, attitude, and feelings towards things, physical and psychological recovery, and adaptive behaviors; and obvious alleviation of anxiety and depression. CONCLUSION: Forest bathing activities may significantly improve people's physical and psychological health. In the future, medical empirical studies of forest bathing should reinforce basic studies and interdisciplinary exchange to enhance the methodological quality of papers while decreasing the risk of bias, thereby raising the grade of paper evidence.


Asunto(s)
Ensayos Clínicos Controlados como Asunto , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Bosques , Depresión/prevención & control , Depresión/terapia , Humanos , Salud Mental , Aptitud Física/fisiología , Terapia Recreativa
11.
J Sports Sci Med ; 18(4): 669-673, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31827351

RESUMEN

Regular physical activity and exercise interventions are suspected to have anti-inflammatory effects depending on exercise modality, thereby potentially reducing the risk and progress of several chronic diseases. Alterations in the kynurenine pathway may represent a link between inflammatory responses following acute exercise and chronic anti-inflammatory properties, such as increased levels of regulatory T-cells (Treg). Here, we hypothesize that acute exercise activates the kynurenine pathway and physical fitness is associated with proportions of circulating anti-inflammatory Treg in older healthy women. Nineteen older healthy female participants (55 years (SD: ± 5.6)) completed a cardiopulmonary incremental exercise test (CPET) with spirometry on a bicycle ergometer until exhaustion with maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) as outcome. Blood samples were taken before (T0) and one minute after (T1) the CPET. Levels of tryptophan, serotonin and kynurenine were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Flow cytometry was used to identify proportions of T-cell subsets. Both, kynurenine (p = 0.003, d = 0.40) and the kynurenine/tryptophan ratio (p = 0.034, d = 0.48) increased significantly after acute exercise. Moreover, participants` VO2max was strongly correlated with Treg levels (p < 0.001, r = 0.689). This is the first study indicating a kynurenine pathway activation following acute exercise in older healthy women. The observed correlation between Treg levels and VO2max emphasizes a potential link between short-term upregulated kynurenine levels and longer-term anti-inflammatory properties of exercise. Future research is needed to clarify to what extend acute exercise-induced activations of the kynurenine pathway contribute to Treg differentiation.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico/fisiología , Quinurenina/sangre , Linfocitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Anciano , Biomarcadores/sangre , Índice de Masa Corporal , Diferenciación Celular , Femenino , Humanos , Consumo de Oxígeno/fisiología , Resistencia Física/fisiología , Aptitud Física/fisiología , Proyectos Piloto , Serotonina/sangre , Linfocitos T Reguladores/inmunología , Triptófano/sangre
12.
Rev. int. med. cienc. act. fis. deporte ; 19(76): 627-639, dic. 2019. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-187236

RESUMEN

El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo analizar la fiabilidad de varias pruebas de condición física en adultos mayores en función de la edad. Los participantes fueron 135 mujeres mayores entre 60 y 90 años y se distribuyó en 5 grupos de edad. Todos los participantes realizaron una batería de pruebas de condición física con un intervalo entre mediciones de 1 semana. Los índices de fiabilidad obtenidos en las pruebas dinamometría bi-manual y 6 minutos caminando fueron excelentes ICC> 0,90, mientras que en el resto fueron buenos (ICC 0,70-0,89). No se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en el error de medida de estas pruebas entre grupos de edad. Se concluye que la fiabilidad de las pruebas de condición física utilizadas en población adulto mayor no varía significativamente en función de la edad


The aim of this study was to analyze if age affects the reliability of some fitness test widely used in elderly adults. Participants were 135 elderly women aged between 60 and 90 years old distributed into 5 age groups. All participants performed twice a battery of fitness tests with an interval between measurements of 1 week. The reliability indexes obtained in the bi-handgrip tests and 6 minutes walking were excellent (ICC> 0.90), while the rest were good (ICC 0.70-0.89). No statistically significant differences were found in the measurement error of these tests between age groups. It is concluded that age does not significantly affect to the reliability of the analyzed fitness tests


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Rendimiento Físico Funcional , Ejercicios de Estiramiento Muscular/métodos , Anciano Frágil , Aptitud Física/fisiología , Análisis de Varianza
13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31878319

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of a 24 week exergame intervention and 24 weeks of detraining on lower-limb strength, agility, and cardiorespiratory fitness in women with fibromyalgia (FM). It was performed as a single-blinded randomized controlled trial of 55 women with FM. University facilities were used. The 24 week exergame intervention was focused on mobility, postural control, upper- and lower-limb coordination, aerobic fitness, and strength. Participants performed 120 min of exergaming per week, which was divided into two sessions. Twenty-four weeks after the end of the intervention, participants were re-evaluated. A chair-stand test, 10 step stair test, and six-minute walk test were conducted to assess lower-body strength, agility, and cardiorespiratory fitness, respectively. The exergame intervention significantly improved lower-limb strength and cardiorespiratory fitness. However, no significant effects on agility were observed. After the detraining period, lower-limb strength and agility returned to their baseline level, but improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness were sustained over time. Exergaming was therefore shown to be beneficial for physical fitness in people with FM. However, exergames had to be played regularly to maintain the benefits. This long-term intervention (24 weeks) may have changed the lifestyle of women with FM, which could explain why cardiorespiratory fitness improvements remained after the detraining period. Future research should focus on lifestyle changes after long-term interventions.


Asunto(s)
Capacidad Cardiovascular , Ejercicio Físico/fisiología , Fibromialgia/terapia , Fuerza Muscular/fisiología , Aptitud Física/fisiología , Equilibrio Postural/fisiología , Rango del Movimiento Articular/fisiología , Adulto , Anciano , Terapia por Ejercicio , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , España
14.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(4): e20181264, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778458

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to compare the effects of ten-week multicomponent training with different exercise frequencies on body composition (BC) and physical fitness (PF) in overweight and obese young children. METHODS: 40 children, aged 12-15 (14.77±1.49), were randomly selected and assigned to experimental groups to train three times/week (EG1) or two times/week (EG2) for 10 weeks and a CG group (no training program). RESULTS: It was shown that experimental groups (EG1 and EG2) improved similarly aerobic capacity (3.8% and 3.5%, respectively), muscular strength (29.7% and 25.2%), flexibility (6.1% and 9.9%), body mass index (5.0% and 4.6%), and body fat (6.4% and 5.6%) from pre- to post-training. CG group showed no significant improvements on BC and PF variables. CONCLUSION: Short-term multicomponent training seems to be effective on PF improvements, independently of the exercise frequency, in overweight and obese young children. However, it seems to be more effective to perform a multicomponent exercise training three times/week to improve muscular strength, body mass index, and decrease body fat percentage. This knowledge should be considered by professionals in physical education or youth sport in order to adapt practical tasks depending on the training purposes.


Asunto(s)
Composición Corporal/fisiología , Índice de Masa Corporal , Ejercicio Físico/fisiología , Fuerza Muscular/fisiología , Obesidad/fisiopatología , Aptitud Física/fisiología , Adolescente , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
15.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 94(11): 2230-2240, 2019 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685151

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations of objectively measured cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and grip strength (GS) with incident heart failure (HF), a clinical syndrome that results in substantial social and economic burden, using UK Biobank data. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Of the 502,628 participants recruited into the UK Biobank between April 1, 2007, and December 31, 2010, a total of 374,493 were included in our GS analysis and 57,053 were included in CRF analysis. Associations between CRF and GS and incident HF were investigated using Cox proportional hazard models, with adjustment for known measured confounders. RESULTS: During a mean of 4.1 (range, 2.4-7.1) years, 631 HF events occurred in those with GS data, and 66 HF events occurred in those with CRF data. Higher CRF was associated with 18% lower risk for HF (hazard ratio [HR], 0.82; 95% CI, 0.76-0.88) per 1-metabolic equivalent increment increase and GS was associated with 19% lower incidence of HF risk (HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.77-0.86) per 5-kg increment increase. When CRF and GS were standardized, the HR for CRF was 0.50 per 1-SD increment (95% CI, 0.38-0.65), and for GS was 0.65 per 1-SD increment (95% CI, 0.58-0.72). CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that objective measurements of physical function (GS and CRF) are strongly and independently associated with lower HF incidence. Future studies targeting improving CRF and muscle strength should include HF as an outcome to assess whether these results are causal.


Asunto(s)
Capacidad Cardiovascular/fisiología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/fisiopatología , Fuerza de la Mano/fisiología , Fuerza Muscular/fisiología , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/mortalidad , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Aptitud Física/fisiología , Factores de Riesgo , Reino Unido
16.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 59(9): 1513-1525, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610639

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Physical fitness is a performance factor that is characterized by its ability to be assessed using closed tests. Among the existing tests today, there are no data on which are the most optimal ones for the sport for which they are applied. Tests of a generic nature are widely used regardless of the sample of players or the sport to which is being referred as they allow to compare the performance among athletes. In spite of this, it is necessary to identify and develop specific tests of physical fitness for each sport. Thus, the main purpose of this review on physical fitness in basketball players was to identify and group the different tests described in the literature up until November 2018. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A literature search was conducted in the different data base to systematically ascertain the most commonly used tests for assessing physical fitness in basketball players. A total of 40 articles were selected, after passing the selection and exclusion criteria. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Finally, they were classified according to the tests assessed in each document. The capacities more frequently studied in literature are jump (N.=21) aerobic capacity (N.=17) and anaerobic capacity (N.=16). On the contrary, the least common evaluated capacities are speed and agility (N.=14). CONCLUSIONS: The results and discussion showed that few specific tests are used to assess this quality in athletes. The analyzed bibliography reveals the lack of design and use of specific tests to highlight the qualities involved in the targeted sport.


Asunto(s)
Baloncesto/fisiología , Aptitud Física/fisiología , Prueba de Esfuerzo/métodos , Tolerancia al Ejercicio/fisiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614946

RESUMEN

Physical exercise results in very important benefits including preventing disease and promoting the quality of life of older individuals. Common interruptions and training cessation are associated with the loss of total health profile, and specifically cardiorespiratory fitness. Would detraining (DT) promote different effects in the cardiorespiratory and health profiles of trained and sedentary older women? Forty-seven older women were divided into an experimental group (EG) and a control group (CG) (EG: n = 28, 70.3 ± 2.3 years; CG: n = 19, 70.1 ± 5.6 years). Oxygen uptake (VO2) and health profile assessments were conducted after the exercise program and after three months of detraining. The EG followed a nine-month multicomponent exercise program before a three-month detraining period. The CG maintained their normal activities. Repeated measures ANOVA showed significant increases in total heath and VO2 (p < 0.01) profile over a nine-month exercise period in the EG and no significant increases in the CG. DT led to greater negative effects on total cholesterol (4.35%, p < 0.01), triglycerides (3.89%, p < 0.01), glucose (4.96%, p < 0.01), resting heart rate (5.15%, p < 0.01), systolic blood pressure (4.13%, p < 0.01), diastolic blood pressure (3.38%, p < 0.01), the six-minute walk test (7.57%, p < 0.01), Pulmonary Ventilation (VE) (10.16%, p < 0.01), the Respiratory Exchange Ratio (RER) (9.78, p < 0.05), and VO2/heart rate (HR) (16.08%, p < 0.01) in the EG. DT may induce greater declines in total health profile and in VO2, mediated, in part, by the effectiveness of multicomponent training particularly developed for older women.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico/fisiología , Aptitud Física/fisiología , Anciano , Capacidad Cardiovascular , Femenino , Frecuencia Cardíaca , Humanos , Ventilación Pulmonar , Calidad de Vida , Factores de Tiempo
18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581429

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Ageing is a life-long process characterized by a progressive loss of physical fitness compromising strength, flexibility, and agility. The purpose of this study was to use accelerometry to examine the relationship between sedentary time, light physical activity (LPA), and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with the elderly's physical fitness. Additionally, we aimed to examine the association between the aforementioned variables on older adults who fulfilled global recommendations on physical activity for health and on those who did not fulfil these recommendations. METHODS: Eighty-three elderly (mean ± SD: 72.14 ± 5.61 years old) of both genders volunteered to participate in this cross-sectional study, being divided into an active group (n = 53; 71.02 ± 5.27 years old) and an inactive group (n = 30; 74.13 ± 5.72 years old) according to the established guidelines. Sedentary and physical activity times were assessed using an ActiGraph® GT1M accelerometer, whereas physical fitness was evaluated with the Senior Fitness Test. RESULTS: MVPA time was correlated with lower body mass index (BMI) ((rs = -0.218; p = 0.048; -0.3 < r ≤ -0.1 (small)) and shorter time to complete the agility test ((rs = -0.367; p = 0.001; -0.5 < r ≤ -0.3 (low)). Moreover, MVPA time was positively correlated with aerobic endurance ((rs = 0.397; p = 0.000; 0.5 < r ≤ 0.3 (low)) and strength ((rs = 0.243; p = 0.027; 0.3 < r ≤ 0.1 (small)). In the inactive group, MVPA time was positively correlated with upper limb flexibility ((rs = 0.400; p = 0.028; 0.5 < r ≤ 0.3 (low)); moreover, sedentary time was negatively correlated with upper limb flexibility ((r = -0.443; p = 0.014; -0.5 < r ≤ -0.3 (low)), and LPA time was negatively correlated with BMI ((r = -0.423; p = 0.020; -0.5 < r ≤ -0.3 (low)). In the active group, MVPA time was correlated with lower BMI ((rs = -0.320; p = 0.020; -0.5 < r ≤ -0.3 (low)), and shorter time to complete agility test ((rs = -0.296; p = 0.031; -0.3 < r ≤ -0.1 (small)). CONCLUSIONS: Our results reinforce the importance of promoting MVPA practice among the elderly, thereby allowing physical fitness maintenance or improvement.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/fisiología , Ejercicio Físico/fisiología , Aptitud Física/fisiología , Conducta Sedentaria , Acelerometría , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Índice de Masa Corporal , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581690

RESUMEN

Besides strength and balance, flexibility is an important indicator of health-related physical fitness. Thus, the aim of this two-armed randomized controlled pilot trial was to investigate whether sauna yoga at a moderate temperature (50 °C) beneficially affects flexibility, strength, balance, and quality of life (QOL) in healthy elderly community dwellers. Participants were randomly assigned to an intervention group (INT, n = 11, age: 68.7 ± 5.9) or control group (CON, n = 12, age: 69.3 ± 4.9), using the minimization method. Age, physical activity, gender, and the primary outcome flexibility were used as strata for group allocation. Both groups completed similar exercises in the sauna over eight weeks. Only the INT group was exposed to moderate temperatures of 50 °C. Large and statistically significant improvement in favor of the sauna group (INT) was observed for the chair sit-and-reach test (INT: +83%, CON +3%, p = 0.028, nр² = 0.24). The shoulder and lateral spine flexibility were not relevantly affected. Strength in the lower extremities merely showed a tendency to significant changes (INT: 16%, CON: 3%, p = 0.061, nр² = 0.181). Additionally, balance abilities, with eyes closed, improved (INT: 187%, CON +58%, p = 0.056, nр² = 0.189) in favor of the INT group. QOL only improved in favor of the INT for environmental dimension (INT: +7%, CON: 0%, p = 0.034, nр² = 0.227). These first but preliminary findings indicate that sauna yoga may serve as a promising and feasible means to improve flexibility in elderly people. Strength and balance do not meaningfully benefit from a sauna environment, although strength improved to a slightly higher extent in the sauna group. Future large-scale research is needed to elucidate underlying mechanisms and corroborate these findings.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico/fisiología , Estado de Salud , Aptitud Física/fisiología , Equilibrio Postural/fisiología , Rango del Movimiento Articular/fisiología , Baño de Vapor , Yoga , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Calidad de Vida/psicología
20.
Rev Prat ; 69(4): 438-443, 2019 Apr.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626503

RESUMEN

The prescription of physical activity for patients living with a long-term condition has been enshrined in legislation since 2016. The French National Cancer Institute published a literature review on the expected effects of physical activity in patients living with cancer. The benefits are prevention or correction of physical deconditioning, a preservation and/or a normalization of body composition, a reduction of cancerrelated fatigue, an overall quality-of-life improvement, the improvement of treatments tolerance and their medium and long-term effects, an increased life expectancy and a lower risk of cancer recurrence. These effects can be observed for a mixed physical activity program -cardio respiratory fitness and muscular strength-, with moderate to vigorous intensity activity, 30 minutes a day at least 5 days a week. The benefits are all the more important as physical activity starts early. Health professionals have an important part to play in helping patients engage in physical activity, with a regular even moderate practice which is always beneficial as compared with sedentary behaviors.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico , Neoplasias , Ejercicio Físico/fisiología , Promoción de la Salud , Humanos , Fuerza Muscular/fisiología , Neoplasias/rehabilitación , Aptitud Física/fisiología , Conducta Sedentaria
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