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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33946978

RESUMEN

Background: This study aims to investigate the mental health of COVID-19 patients in Saudi Arabia. Method: A cross-sectional study was carried out targeting confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia. Due to travel and time constraints as well as the accessibility of patients, cases were included from East Jeddah Hospital, King Abdulaziz Hospital, and the Oncology Center in Jeddah. The data were collected using a predesigned self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire addressed COVID-19 cases, personal data, medical history, smoking, traveling abroad, and work-related conditions. Additionally, data regarding contact level with COVID-19 cases were considered. The mental health statuses of the patients were assessed using a validated Arabic version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) scale. The study included 261 COVID-19 patients whose ages ranged from 18 to 65 years. Results: The survey findings revealed that 13% of COVID-19 patients had a borderline level of anxiety, 26.8% were considered anxiety cases, while 60.2% were normal. The findings also revealed that 29.9% had a borderline level of depression, 18.4% were considered depression cases, while 51.7% were normal. Conclusions: This study concluded that COVID-19 patients experience anxiety and depression, and as the COVID-19 epidemic continues to spread, the results of the study are particularly useful in developing a strategy to psychologically support COVID-19 patients.


Asunto(s)
Salud Mental , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Arabia Saudita/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
2.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250026, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852627

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic led to surprising and unexpected experiences for Saudi university students. Precautionary and preventive measures taken to contain this pandemic impacted the social and educational aspects of these students' lives. All Umm Al-Qura University (UQU) students were invited to participate in an online survey on 30 impacts, both positive and negative, of the COVID-19 pandemic on their lives. Social impact theory (SIT) was applied to illustrate these impacts. The survey yielded 1,360 responses. The results showed high to moderate levels of agreement regarding students' perceptions of the positive and negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on their lives, with social aspects impacted more than educational ones; and no statistically significant gender differences. Weak correlations were found between the social aspects and the educational aspects of students' lives in relation to the impact of the pandemic, although all aspects were correlated positively. The SIT framework provided insights into how the COVID-19 pandemic impacted students' lives.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Estudiantes/psicología , Adulto , Escolaridad , Femenino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Arabia Saudita/epidemiología , Conducta Social , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Universidades/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(17): e25567, 2021 Apr 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33907106

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: Surgical site infections (SSIs) are common complications after spinal surgery that result in increased morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. It was estimated that SSIs after spinal surgery resulted in a 4-fold increase in health care costs. The reported SSI rate following spinal surgery remains highly variable between approximately 0.5% and 18%. In this study, we aimed to estimate the SSI rate and identify possible risk factors for SSI after spinal surgery in our Saudi patient population.We conducted a single-center, retrospective case-control study in Saudi Arabia that included patients who developed SSIs, while the controls were all consecutive patients who underwent spinal surgery between January 2014 and December 2016. We extracted data on patient characteristics, anthropometric measurements, preoperative laboratory investigations, preoperative infection prevention measures, intraoperative measures, comorbidities, and postoperative care.We included 201 consecutive patients in our study; their median age was 56.9 years, and 51.2% were men. Only 4% (n = 8) of these patients developed SSIs postoperatively. Postoperative SSIs were significantly associated with longer postoperative hospital stays, hypertension, higher American Society of Anesthesia (ASA) scores, longer procedure durations, and the use of a greater number of blood transfusion units.This study revealed a low SSI rate following spinal surgery. We identified a history of hypertension, prolonged hospitalization, longer operative time, blood transfusion, and higher ASA score as risk factors for SSI in spine surgery in our population. As our findings are from a single institute, we believe that a national research collaboration among multiple disciplines should be performed to provide better estimates of SSI risk factors in our patient population.


Asunto(s)
Procedimientos Neuroquirúrgicos/efectos adversos , Columna Vertebral/cirugía , Infección de la Herida Quirúrgica/epidemiología , Infección de la Herida Quirúrgica/etiología , Anciano , Anestesia/efectos adversos , Anestesia/estadística & datos numéricos , Transfusión Sanguínea/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Femenino , Humanos , Hipertensión/complicaciones , Tiempo de Internación/estadística & datos numéricos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Tempo Operativo , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Arabia Saudita/epidemiología , Reacción a la Transfusión/etiología
4.
Libyan J Med ; 16(1): 1910195, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797350

RESUMEN

The outbreak of corona virus disease (COVID-19) caused by the new severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 began in Wuhan, China, resulting in respiratory disorders. In January of 2020, the World Health Organization declared the outbreak a pandemic owing to its global spread. Because no studies have investigated COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia, this study investigated similarities and differences between demographic data during the COVID-19 and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) outbreaks in Saudi Arabia. A retrospective trend analysis was performed to assess demographic data of all laboratory-confirmed MERS and COVID-19 cases. Patients' charts were reviewed for data on demographics, mortality, citizenship, sex ratio, and age groups with descriptive and comparative statistics; the data were analyzed using a non-parametric binomial test and chi-square test. Of all COVID-19 patients in Saudi Arabia,78%were male patients and 22% were female patients. This proportion of male COVID-19 patients was similar to that of male MERS patients, which also affected male patients more frequently than female patients. The number of COVID-19-positive Saudi cases was lower than that of non-Saudi cases, which were in contrast to that of MERS; COVID-19 appeared to be remarkably similar to MERS with respect to recovered cases. However, the numbers of critical and dead COVID-19 patients have been much lower than those of MERS patients. The largest proportion of COVID-19 and MERS cases (44.05% and 40.8%, respectively) were recorded in the Western region. MERS and COVID-19 exhibited similar threats to the lives of adults and the elderly, despite lower mortality rates during the COVID-19 epidemic. Targeted prevention of and interventions against MERS should be allocated populations according to the areas where they inhabit. However, much more information regarding the dynamics and epidemiology of COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia is needed.Abbrevation : MERS: Middle East Respiratory syndrome; COVID-19: Corona Virus Disease 2019.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Niño , Preescolar , Infecciones por Coronavirus/etiología , Demografía , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Arabia Saudita/epidemiología , Factores Sexuales , Adulto Joven
5.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 669302, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33868185

RESUMEN

Background: Overburdened healthcare systems during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic led to suboptimal chronic disease management, including that of pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The pandemic also caused delayed detection of new-onset diabetes in children; this increased the risk and severity of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). We therefore investigated the frequency of new-onset pediatric T1DM and DKA in Saudi Arabia during the COVID-19 pandemic and compared it to the same period in 2019. Methods: We conducted a multicenter retrospective cohort study, including patients aged 1-14 years admitted with new-onset T1DM or DKA during the COVID-19 pandemic (March-June 2020) and the same period in 2019. We assessed factors including age, sex, anthropometric measures, nationality, duration of diabetes, diabetes management, HbA1c levels, glycemic control, cause of admission, blood gas levels, etiology of DKA, DKA complications, length of hospital stay, and COVID-19 test status. Result: During the lockdown, 106 children, compared with 154 in 2019, were admitted to 6 pediatric diabetes centers. Among the admissions, DKA was higher in 2020 than in 2019 (83% vs. 73%; P=0.05; risk ratio=1.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.26), after adjusting for age and sex. DKA frequency among new-onset T1DM and HbA1c levels at diagnosis were higher in 2020 than in 2019 (26% vs. 13.4% [P=<0.001] and 12.1 ± 0.2 vs. 10.8 ± 0.25 [P<0.001], respectively). Females and older patients had a higher risk of DKA. Conclusion: The lockdown implemented in Saudi Arabia has significantly impacted children with T1DM and led to an increased DKA frequency, including children with new-onset T1DM, potentially owing to delayed presentation.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiología , Cetoacidosis Diabética/epidemiología , Pandemias , Cuarentena/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores de Edad , Antropometría , Análisis de los Gases de la Sangre , Niño , Estudios de Cohortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/terapia , Cetoacidosis Diabética/terapia , Manejo de la Enfermedad , Femenino , Hemoglobina A Glucada , Humanos , Tiempo de Internación , Masculino , Arabia Saudita/epidemiología , Factores Sexuales
6.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250554, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33901260

RESUMEN

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection has become a clinical threat to healthy people as well as immunocompromised patients and those with pre-existing chronic diseases around the world. This study, which used a cross-sectional correlational design, aimed to assess the levels of fear and health anxiety and to investigate their predictors during the current outbreak of COVID-19 in immunocompromised and chronic disease patients in Saudi Arabia. Sociodemographic and clinical data, fear of COVID-19, and health anxiety measurements were collected by online surveys from June 15 to July 15, 2020. Univariate and multiple linear regression analysis was used to identify predictors. A total of 1,030 patients in 13 provinces in Saudi Arabia completed the questionnaire. A significant number of patients with chronic diseases experienced considerable levels of fear and anxiety during the COVID-19 outbreak. It was found that 21.44% of participants met the criteria for anxiety cases, and 19.4% were considered borderline anxiety cases. In regression analysis, significant predictors of fear and health anxiety were female gender, lower education, middle-aged, divorced or widowed, receiving immunosuppressants, type of chronic disease (Crohn's disease, hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases), and media use as a source of knowledge about COVID-19. Immunocompromised and chronic disease patients are vulnerable to fear and anxiety during epidemic infectious diseases such as COVID-19. Optimizing this population's compliance with appropriate infection prevention and control strategies is crucial during the infectious outbreaks to ensure their safety, to decrease the risk of infection and serious complications, and reduce their fear and health anxiety. Effective positive psychological interventions and support strategies also need to be immediately implemented to increase psychological resilience and improve the mental health of these patients. Due to the COVID-19 outbreak, chronic disease patients in Saudi Arabia need special attention from health authorities, policymakers, and healthcare professionals to manage maladaptive forms of health anxiety and fear.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/patología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/psicología , Miedo , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Ansiedad/epidemiología , /virología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/patología , Estudios Transversales , Brotes de Enfermedades , Femenino , Humanos , Huésped Inmunocomprometido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Análisis de Regresión , Arabia Saudita/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
7.
Vasc Health Risk Manag ; 17: 161-168, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33907410

RESUMEN

Background: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a global pandemic with more than 60 million cases worldwide and over 1.5 million deaths by March 2021. Its outbreak has caused a huge burden on healthcare systems all over the world. Several studies in the medical literature have suggested that patients with underlying cardiovascular disease (CVD) are at higher risk for developing severe symptoms, poor prognosis, and high mortality rates. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of CVD risk factors among COVID-19 patients based on the Framingham risk score (FRS), and to evaluate the association of CVD risk factors with clinical outcomes. Patients and Methods: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, we identified 264 confirmed cases with COVID-19 at King Saud University Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Patients aged 18-80 years were included, and their electronic records were reviewed. They were classified into low, intermediate, and high risk of CVD according to FRS classification. Results: Two-hundred-six patients (67% male) were included in this study. The mean age was 55.3 ± 15.1 years. Most patients had comorbidities: the most common were hypertension (48.1%), diabetes (45.1%), and ischemic heart disease (11.2%). More than half required intensive care admission, and 58 (28.2%) patients died. Pneumonia was the most frequently observed complication (85%), followed by mechanical ventilation (28.3%) and acute kidney injury (27.7%). Age, male gender, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus showed significant differences between FRS categories, and were associated with intermediate and high-risk groups of FRS (p < 0.05). Pneumonia and length of stay were associated with the Intermediate risk group of FRS. Conclusion: Cardiovascular disease risk factors are prevalent in Saudi patients infected with COVID-19. FRS could be a useful tool to identify CVD risk factors among COVID-19 patients and predict a complicated course.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Pandemias , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Comorbilidad , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Arabia Saudita/epidemiología , Factores Sexuales
8.
Viruses ; 13(4)2021 03 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807288

RESUMEN

Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a persistent zoonotic pathogen with frequent spillover from dromedary camels to humans in the Arabian Peninsula, resulting in limited outbreaks of MERS with a high case-fatality rate. Full genome sequence data from camel-derived MERS-CoV variants show diverse lineages circulating in domestic camels with frequent recombination. More than 90% of the available full MERS-CoV genome sequences derived from camels are from just two countries, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and United Arab Emirates (UAE). In this study, we employ a novel method to amplify and sequence the partial MERS-CoV genome with high sensitivity from nasal swabs of infected camels. We recovered more than 99% of the MERS-CoV genome from field-collected samples with greater than 500 TCID50 equivalent per nasal swab from camel herds sampled in Jordan in May 2016. Our subsequent analyses of 14 camel-derived MERS-CoV genomes show a striking lack of genetic diversity circulating in Jordan camels relative to MERS-CoV genome sequences derived from large camel markets in KSA and UAE. The low genetic diversity detected in Jordan camels during our study is consistent with a lack of endemic circulation in these camel herds and reflective of data from MERS outbreaks in humans dominated by nosocomial transmission following a single introduction as reported during the 2015 MERS outbreak in South Korea. Our data suggest transmission of MERS-CoV among two camel herds in Jordan in 2016 following a single introduction event.


Asunto(s)
Camelus/virología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/veterinaria , Variación Genética , Coronavirus del Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio/genética , Zoonosis/virología , Animales , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Genoma Viral , Jordania/epidemiología , Coronavirus del Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio/clasificación , Coronavirus del Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio/aislamiento & purificación , Filogenia , República de Corea/epidemiología , Arabia Saudita/epidemiología , Emiratos Árabes Unidos/epidemiología , Zoonosis/epidemiología
9.
Neurosciences (Riyadh) ; 26(2): 141-151, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33814366

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To quantify the extent and variation of depression, anxiety and stress among medical and non-medical Saudi Arabian students. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, students from Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia, were recruited. The Faculty of Education was randomly selected to represent the non-medical colleges. The depression, anxiety and stress scale-21 items (DASS-21) was used to estimate the study outcomes. RESULTS: Of the 465 undergraduates recruited in this study, 49.68% (n=231) were medical students and 50.32% (n=234) were non-medical students. Approximately 54%, 53%, and 38% of the participants were found to be suffering from depression, anxiety, and stress, respectively. The analyses showed that the two groups did not differ significantly with respect to stress and depression (p=0.934 and 0.423, respectively). However, the non-medical students exhibited a significantly higher anxiety score compared to the medical students (p=0.002). Family conflicts was a common risk factor for the studied psychological disturbances. Female gender and travel time from home to university were significant predictors of depression and anxiety, whereas a positive history of a psychological condition increased the likelihood of depression and stress. CONCLUSION: There was a high prevalence of anxiety, stress, and depression among the students, with a significantly higher anxiety levels among the non-medical students.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/epidemiología , Depresión/epidemiología , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Estudiantes de Medicina/psicología , Estudiantes/psicología , Adolescente , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Arabia Saudita/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
10.
Neurosciences (Riyadh) ; 26(2): 171-178, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33814370

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To assess the overall and domain-specific quality of life (QOL) in post-stroke patients using the stroke-specific quality of life (SS-QOL) scale and to identify variables that may affect the QOL after stroke. METHODS: A prospective cross-sectional study, included 80 stroke patients, was conducted in the Neurology department at King Fahad Hospital of the University (KFHU), Khobar, Saudi Arabia, from December 2019 to February 2020. Stroke patients were interviewed using the Arabic version of the SS-QOL questionnaire and modified Rankin scale (mRS). RESULTS: The overall quality of life in the surveyed participants was at the level of 3.72 points, which is above the average recognized in the middle of the scale that ranges from 1 to 5. The overall quality of life was not significantly correlated with sex, age, type of stroke, recurrence of stroke, and time since stroke (p>0.05). Hypertension and atrial fibrillation were the only comorbidities that were determined to be significantly associated with the overall quality of life at the level of (3.53), and (2.97) respectively (p<0.05). There was a statistically significant correlation between the mRS score and the overall quality of life (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Performing a comprehensive assessment of the overall QOL in post-stroke patients will result in better health outcomes, particularly in terms of quality of functioning in psycho-social aspects.


Asunto(s)
Actividades Cotidianas/psicología , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Accidente Cerebrovascular/psicología , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Fibrilación Atrial/complicaciones , Fibrilación Atrial/psicología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Hipertensión/complicaciones , Hipertensión/psicología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Arabia Saudita , Accidente Cerebrovascular/complicaciones , Rehabilitación de Accidente Cerebrovascular
11.
Neurosciences (Riyadh) ; 26(2): 186-191, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33814372

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To study the prevalence of seizures in children with GDD and identify the characteristics of such patients; to examine the association of GDD with epilepsy and to determine the effect of certain risk factors on this association. METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional study conducted at the pediatric neurology and developmental assessment clinic at King Fahad specialist hospital (KFSH), Saudi Arabia. All data were collected by reviewing the electronic medical records of 200 pediatric patients who presented with global developmental delay from February 2016 to April 2018. RESULTS: The sample includes 200 children (113 males, 87 females) aged zero to 12 years. The largest group of participants came from the Dammam region, representing 27.5% of the sample. The prevalence of epilepsy in GDD patients was 56%; the epilepsy and non-epilepsy groups differed significantly in age. The most common type of seizure was generalized onset motor, which were observed in 37.5% of the sample. Problems during labor occurred in 15% of the sample; consanguineous marriage occurred in 61.6% of the participants. Neither of these factors differed significantly in the epilepsy and non-epilepsy groups. Advanced paternal age did differ significantly in the two groups (p=0.003). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of epilepsy is high in children with GDD, and of the factors studied here, the most significant variables affecting this correlation are the type of seizure and advanced paternal age.


Asunto(s)
Discapacidades del Desarrollo/epidemiología , Convulsiones/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Comorbilidad , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Prevalencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Arabia Saudita
12.
Neurosciences (Riyadh) ; 26(2): 199-206, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33814374

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To present the experience on stroke thrombolysis of a tertiary care center in Riyadh, KSA. METHODS: Cross-sectional, observational study of patients thrombolyzed between January 2012 and December 2018. RESULTS: Thrombolysis was performed in 148 patients (mean age: 58.2±14.5 years), 94 (63.5%) of them were men. The median onset-to-door time was 81 minutes, and 25% of the patients arrived within 1 hour. The median National Institute of Health Stroke Scale score upon admission was 13. Hypertension (68.9%), diabetes (56.1%), and dyslipidemia (40.5%) were the most common risk factors for stroke. The most common mechanism of stroke was cardioembolism (43.2%), which was associated with a more severe presentation (p=0.031). Intravenous thrombolysis alone was given to 98 patients (66.2%); the rest received intravenous tissue plasminogen activator plus endovascular therapy or endovascular therapy alone. The median door-to-needle (DTN) time was 70.5 min, with a significant improvement from 2012 (111.6 minutes) to 2018 (69.9 minutes) (p<0.001). Among the patients, 53 (35.8%) showed a good outcome (with a modified Rankin score of 0-2) whereas 14 (9.5%) died. Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH) was seen in 8.1%. All vascular risk factors were more common in patients aged >60 years, except smoking, which was more common in the younger age group (p=0.007). CONCLUSION: In our cohort, the utilization of thrombolysis and the DTN time improved over time. One-thirds of the patients received endovascular treatment. Moreover, the frequency of the vascular risk factors was high. Compared with the published findings, our results showed that cardioembolic strokes were the most frequent and had severe presentation and were likely the cause of the slight increase in mortality and sICH.


Asunto(s)
Procedimientos Endovasculares , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapéutico , Trombolisis Mecánica/métodos , Accidente Cerebrovascular/terapia , Activador de Tejido Plasminógeno/uso terapéutico , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Terapia Combinada , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Arabia Saudita , Accidente Cerebrovascular/tratamiento farmacológico , Centros de Atención Terciaria , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805977

RESUMEN

The study objective was to construct and validate a tool to assess, measure, and evaluate the barriers and obstacles that patients with orofacial clefts (OFCs), and their families, face during treatment. The Effective Accessibility and Accommodation subscale, based on the translated Primary Care Assessment Survey and Primary Care Assessment Tool scales, was used as a reference for the questionnaire. A total of 165 parents from three main cleft referral centers in Saudi Arabia were interviewed. Questionnaire content validity was conducted by calculation of a content validity index for each item (I-CVI) as well as for the total scale (S-CVI). Reliability was tested using Cronbach's alpha. Factor analysis and principal components analysis were performed to determine the factor structure of the instrument. The final questionnaire had nine items. Rating results showed both I-CVI and S-CVI scores of 1 and Cronbach's alpha was 0.86. There were three factors (geographic accessibility, appointment availability and accessibility, and scheduling-related barriers) with eigenvalues above 1.00, which collectively accounted for 73% of the variance. In conclusion, this tool is valid and reliable to evaluate accessibility and barriers to care of patients with OFCs in Saudi Arabia.


Asunto(s)
Labio Leporino , Fisura del Paladar , Labio Leporino/epidemiología , Humanos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Arabia Saudita , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807142

RESUMEN

The Hajj mass gathering annually attracts over two million Muslim pilgrims worldwide to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). We aimed to establish demographics and health profiles for the South African pilgrims performing the 2017 Hajj. Methods: This is a longitudinal survey-based study conducted on 1138 adult South African pilgrims in two phases (during and post-Hajj). Data on demographics, vaccination status, underlying health conditions, pre-Hajj training, health promotion, travel history, and health issues during and post-Hajj were collected using pre-designed questionnaires. Results: Participants had a mean age of 49.2 years (SD = 13.3; range 18-81), with a male: female ratio of 1.2:1. The majority of pilgrims were married (88.2%), of Indian/Asian background (73%), and literate (>99%). Nearly all pilgrims were vaccinated against meningococcal disease and yellow fever, but only 23.7% were vaccinated against Influenza. Hypertension, diabetes, and elevated cholesterol levels were the most common underlying health conditions reported by 22.6%, 13.2%, and 11.5% of pilgrims, respectively. One month after return to South Africa, nearly 65% of pilgrims reported illness during Hajj, while 40% reported falling ill post event upon return to South Africa. Nevertheless, only a few were admitted to hospitals (12 during Hajj and 15 post-Hajj). Among ill pilgrims, respiratory symptoms were the most commonly experienced symptoms during (70.2%) and post-Hajj (82.2%). Other symptoms such as walking-related symptoms include symptoms directly related or mainly caused by walking (e.g., leg pain, sore feet, blisters on the feet), dehydration, and gastrointestinal tract symptoms reported during Hajj. Medication to treat respiratory symptoms and antibiotics were the most commonly used medications during and post-Hajj. Having an underlying health condition was an independent predictor of falling ill during or post Hajj. Conclusion: Our study indicates that a sizable proportion of South African pilgrims are elderly with underlying health conditions and most contract respiratory tract infections during and post Hajj. Our study highlights the need for systematic collection of prospective pilgrims' demographics and health data and more attention to post-Hajj health follow-ups of pilgrims.


Asunto(s)
Viaje , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Arabia Saudita , Sudáfrica/epidemiología
15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801910

RESUMEN

The heavy metal (HM) pollution in sediment is of serious concern, particularly in the Red Sea environment. This study aimed to review and compile data on the concentrations of four HMs (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in the coastal surface sediments from the Red Sea, mainly from Saudi Arabia, Egypt, and Yemen, published in the literature from 1992 to 2021. The coastal sediments included those from mangrove, estuaries, and intertidal ecosystems. It was found that the mean values of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in coastal Red Sea sediments were elevated and localized in high human activity sites in comparison to the earth upper continental crust and to reference values for marine sediments. From the potential ecological risk index (PERI) aspect, 32 reports (47.1%) were categorized as 'considerable ecological risk' and 23 reports (33.8%) as 'very high ecological risk'. From the human health risk assessment (HHRA) aspect, the non-carcinogenic risk (NCR) values (HI values < 1.0) of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn represented no NCR for the ingestion and the dermal contact routes for sediments from the Red Sea countries. The reassessment of the HM data cited in the literature allowed integrative and accurate comparisons of the PERI and HHRA data, which would be useful in the management and sustainable development of the Red Sea area, besides being a helpful database for future use. This warrants extensive and continuous monitoring studies to understand the current and the projected HM pollution situation and to propose possible protective and conservative measures in the future for the resource-rich Red Sea ecosystem.


Asunto(s)
Metales Pesados , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , China , Ecosistema , Egipto , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Sedimentos Geológicos , Humanos , Océano Índico , Metales Pesados/análisis , Medición de Riesgo , Arabia Saudita , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Yemen
16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801988

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Saudi Arabia has a high burden of diabetes mellitus and vitamin D deficiency. The objective of this study was to explore the association between glycosylated hemoglobin and 25-hydroxyvitamin D in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: An interview based cross-sectional study was conducted on 606 patients with type 2 diabetes, aged 30-75 years, visiting primary health care centers. Blood samples were collected for measuring HbA1c, 25(OH)D and bone and lipid markers. Multivariable linear regression analysis was conducted to explore the association between HbA1c and 25(OH)D. RESULTS: The mean (±SD) levels for HbA1c and 25(OH) D were 7.69 (±1.77) and 44.28 (±23.06), respectively. Around 55% of patients had uncontrolled HbA1c (>7.0), whereas vitamin D deficiency (<50 nmol/L) was found in 52.3% (=317). Multiple linear regression analysis found that a unit increase in vitamin D levels and parathyroid hormone levels was associated with -0.17 (-0.02, -0.01, p < 0.001) and -0.20 (-2.66, -1.18, p < 0.001) unit decrease in levels of HbA1c, respectively. Similarly, increasing age was associated with -0.15 (-0.01, -0.04, p = 0.002) unit decrease in HbA1c levels, whereas unit increases in serum alkaline phosphatase, calcium and diabetes duration were associated with 0.22 (0.01, 0.02, p < 0.001), 0.14 (1.03, 3.88, p = 0.001) and 0.26 (0.42, 0.78, p < 0.001) unit increase in HbA1c levels, respectively. CONCLUSION: HbA1c levels are associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. For better control of HbA1c levels, it is important to maintain 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and bone markers within normal range.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Deficiencia de Vitamina D , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiología , Hemoglobina A Glucada/análisis , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Arabia Saudita/epidemiología , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Deficiencia de Vitamina D/epidemiología
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(15): e25290, 2021 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33847627

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: Health care employees are the front liners whom are directly involved in the management of COVID-19 at high risk of developing psychological distress and other mental health illness. We aim to assess the burden of depression during this pandemic on health care employees treating COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia. We also will shed the light on the best solutions of how to encounter depression.A cross-sectional, hospital-based survey conducted via a region-stratified, 2-stage cluster sample was conducted for 554 participants in >15 hospitals from April 29, 2020, to June 30, 2020. Depression is measured using the established PHQ9 score system. We grade PHQ9 depression scores as: normal, 0 to 4, mild, 5 to 9, significant (moderate or severe), 10 to 27. χ2/Fisher exact test was used; significant association between level of depression and survey characteristics were made. P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant.A total of 554 participants completed the survey. A total of 18.9% (n = 105) were aged <29 years, 51.2% (n = 284) were between 30 to 39 years and female represent 70% of all participants. Of all participants, 53.7% (n = 298) were nurses, and 38.6% (n = 214) were physicians; 68.5% (n = 380) worked in central area hospitals in Saudi Arabia. No significant (P = .432, 95% confidence interval [CI]) association was observed between sex and depression classifications. However, female had high proportion of significant depression 75.0% (n = 76) was observed as compared to male 24.8% (n = 25). Depression was significant in Saudis 61.4% (n = 62) (P < .001, 95% CI) and medical staff who encountered corona patients 51.5% (n = 52) (P < .002, 95% CI). Hospital preparedness associated with more freedom of depression symptoms 69.1% (n = 199/288) (P < .001, 95% CI).Frontline young health care workers especially physician in Saudi Arabia reported a high rate of depression symptoms. Countermeasures for health care workers represent a key component for the mental and physical well-being as part of public health measures during this pandemic. Attention to hospital preparedness and adequacy of personal protective equipment contributed to milder depression symptoms. Further studies need to be conducted on crisis management and depression.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad , Depresión , Personal de Salud , Control de Infecciones , Estrés Laboral , Adulto , Ansiedad/diagnóstico , Ansiedad/etiología , Ansiedad/prevención & control , /psicología , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/diagnóstico , Depresión/etiología , Depresión/prevención & control , Femenino , Personal de Salud/clasificación , Personal de Salud/psicología , Médicos Hospitalarios/psicología , Médicos Hospitalarios/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Control de Infecciones/métodos , Control de Infecciones/organización & administración , Control de Infecciones/normas , Masculino , Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Laboral/normas , Estrés Laboral/prevención & control , Estrés Laboral/psicología , Equipo de Protección Personal/provisión & distribución , Arabia Saudita/epidemiología
18.
F1000Res ; 10: 177, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33824717

RESUMEN

Background: Online learning or E-learning are approaches to broadcasting teaching by the means of internet technology and software applications. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is likewise embarking on the rapid growth in online education. The purpose of this study is to investigate the student's perceptions regarding online teaching and learning during COVID 19. Methods: An online computer-based cross-sectional study was conducted between May and June 2020. A pre-validated questionnaire was used and administrated to health sciences students studying at Dammam Universities through online software QuestionPro. Results: Out of total 281, 68% of the participants were females (n=188) while 31.9% (n=88) were male students with an average age of 23.1(4.5) years. Overall, 176 (62%) of the students expressed their satisfaction with online learning. Conclusion: Findings will help academicians to identify strengths, areas of improvement, and encourage faculty to think deeply to restructure course learning objectives, teaching techniques to engage students and improve learning process.


Asunto(s)
Educación a Distancia , Universidades , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Arabia Saudita , Adulto Joven
19.
Hum Resour Health ; 19(1): 46, 2021 04 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823857

RESUMEN

Very few studies have been concerned with assessing the prevalence of burnout and depressive symptoms, especially during an infectious outbreak on non-frontline health care workers, such as a psychiatrist. In such instances, the role of psychiatrists and other mental health providers as a source of psychological support to the public and frontline workers is indispensable and valuable. This study aims to assess the prevalence of burnout and depressive symptoms, and their correlation, during the COVID-19 pandemic among psychiatry residents in Saudi Arabia. A total of 121 out of 150 psychiatry residents in Saudi Arabia completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory and Patient's Health Questionnaire for the assessment of burnout and depressive symptoms. Burnout symptoms were found in 27.3%, and another 27.3% reported having depression symptoms. In addition, 16.5% reported having both burnout and depressive symptoms, with a significant relationship between them. Participants in the first 2 years of training and having a history of receiving mental health treatment in the past 2 years were at higher risk. The need is urgent to increase investment in mental health services and to construct a plan to reduce this risk of burnout and depression among psychiatrists by developing preventative strategies to prevent burnout and promote wellness is more important than ever.


Asunto(s)
Agotamiento Psicológico/epidemiología , Depresión/epidemiología , Personal de Salud/psicología , Internado y Residencia , Pandemias , Psiquiatría , Adulto , Agotamiento Profesional , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Mental , Prevalencia , Arabia Saudita , Adulto Joven
20.
Saudi Med J ; 42(4): 355-362, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795490

RESUMEN

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of bronchiolitis and viral pneumonia in pediatrics worldwide. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), the prevalence of RSV is 23.5% in pediatric patients with acute lower respiratory tract illness. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) poses critical public health and socioeconomic challenges in KSA. The Saudi Pediatric Pulmonology Association (SPPA), a subsidiary of the Saudi Thoracic Society (STS), developed a task force to determine the potential challenges and barriers to the RSV immunoprophylaxis program during the era of COVID-19 and to compose a practical, nationwide, and multidisciplinary approach to address these challenges. Some of the recommendations to manage these challenges include increasing the number of RSV immunoprophylaxis clinics, drive-thru visits, home-care services, and swift referrals to the RSV immunoprophylaxis program specialists. Additional training is required for healthcare personnel to add RSV immunoprophylaxis to the regular immunization schedule.


Asunto(s)
Antivirales/uso terapéutico , Bronquiolitis Viral/prevención & control , Prestación de Atención de Salud/métodos , Programas de Inmunización/métodos , Palivizumab/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por Virus Sincitial Respiratorio/prevención & control , Comités Consultivos , /prevención & control , Servicios de Atención de Salud a Domicilio , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Inyecciones , Neumología , Arabia Saudita , Sociedades Médicas
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