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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 752: 141864, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890832

RESUMEN

The effects of volcanic disturbance on aquatic communities and their recovery are poorly studied. To fill this gap, we explored the effects on fish communities in rivers in Argentina of the 2008 eruption of Chaitén Volcano in southern Chile (42.8° lat. S). The eruption produced volcanic plumes of ash that persisted in the atmosphere for several months. Borne on westerly winds, deposits of tephra crossed the Andes Mountains, reaching the Atlantic coast (Argentina). We compared the pre- and post-eruption abundances of a native catfish Hatcheria macraei, and two introduced trout from rivers covered by the volcanic plumes (Argentina) using Before-After-Control-Impact analysis to explore fish recovery. Total suspended solids from volcanic ashfall, macroinvertebrate abundance and richness, and species ecological attributes influenced the spatial arrangement of fish in rivers. Twenty-one months after the eruption, Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, had not returned to pre-eruption abundances in the sampled rivers, and only four rivers had regained pre-eruption species composition, suggesting that disturbance is still ongoing. The abundance of introduced fishes was strongly, negatively correlated with TSS, suggesting that ashfall affected these fish probably by clogging and abrasion of the gills. Fish recolonized previously occupied habitats 4 days to 9 months after the disturbance. Hatcheria macraei was the slowest to recolonize, whereas O. mykiss were the pioneer fish in 4 rivers following the eruption and recolonized all 5 rivers where they were present prior to the eruption. In one river, the catfish and the Brown Trout, Salmo trutta, were still absent 21 months post-eruption, potentially owing to the lack of riparian cover that would have deflected the entry of ash. Rainbow Trout suffered significant declines in abundance, whereas Brown Trout and catfish generally did not, owing to their ecological attributes. Total fish abundance was negatively correlated with ash thickness, but positively related to prey availability.


Asunto(s)
Bagres , Ríos , Animales , Argentina , Chile , Ecosistema
2.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 85(4): 475-482, 2020 12 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33136748

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, causative agent of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has necessitated widespread lockdown to mitigate the pandemic. This study examines the influence of resilience on the impact of COVID-related stress and enforced lockdown on mental health, drug use, and treatment adherence among people living with HIV (PLWH) in Argentina. SETTING: PLWH residing predominantly in Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area and urban regions of Argentina were identified from a private clinic electronic database. METHODS: Participants completed an anonymous online survey to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on economic disruption, resilience, mental health outcomes (depression, anxiety, stress, and loneliness), adherence to HIV treatment, and substance use. We performed ordinary least squares and logistic regressions to test whether resilient coping buffered the impact of economic disruption on mental health and drug use during quarantine. RESULTS: A total of 1336 PLWH aged 18-82 were enrolled. The impact of economic disruption on mental health ΔF(1,1321) = 8.86, P = 0.003 and loneliness ΔF(1,1326) = 5.77, P = 0.016 was buffered by resilience. A 3-way interaction between resilient buffering, stress, and sex was significant ΔF(1,1325) = 4.76, P = 0.029. Participants reported less than excellent adherence to medication (33%), disruption to mental health services (11%), and disruption to substance abuse treatment (1.3%) during lockdown. DISCUSSION: The impact of COVID-stress and lockdown on emotional distress seemed mitigated by resilience coping strategies, and the buffering impact of resilience on perceived stress was greater among women. Results highlight PLWH's capacity to adhere to treatment in challenging circumstances and the importance of developing resilience skills for better coping with stress and adversity.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Salud Mental/tendencias , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Trastornos de Estrés Traumático Agudo/psicología , Adaptación Psicológica , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Argentina , Infecciones por Coronavirus/complicaciones , Infecciones por Coronavirus/economía , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Humanos , Violencia de Pareja/tendencias , Análisis de los Mínimos Cuadrados , Modelos Logísticos , Soledad , Masculino , Servicios de Salud Mental/normas , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias/economía , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/complicaciones , Neumonía Viral/economía , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Resiliencia Psicológica , Factores Sexuales , Aislamiento Social/psicología , Apoyo Social , Trastornos de Estrés Traumático Agudo/etiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/etiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/terapia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Cumplimiento y Adherencia al Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
3.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(suppl 2): e20190025, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146261

RESUMEN

A new coenagrionid genus, Negragrion, is described for N. sagma sp.n. found in Argentina and Brazil (Holotype and allotype, pair in tandem. Argentina: Corrientes: Santo Tomé, arroyo Ita Cuá sobre RP 94, 28°26'48.30"S 56°00'33.11"W, 24.ii.2003, Muzón & Pessacq coll., MLP). The new genus is characterized by the shape of male cerci (decumbent from base; saddle-shaped; in lateral view with an acute apophysis directed dorsally located at 0.3 from base). The presence of a vulvar spine on S8 of females places this genus within Ischnurinae. A cladistics analysis using morphological data was carried out to determine its phylogenetic position. Negragrion gen.n. is recovered within the clade 4 as the sister group of the clade (Acanthallagma Acanthagrion (Oxyagrion, Fluminagrion)).


Asunto(s)
Odonata , Animales , Argentina , Brasil , Femenino , Masculino , Filogenia
4.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(suppl 2): e20190953, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146276

RESUMEN

This study aimed to examine spatiotemporal variations in chironomid assemblages and to detect how environmental variables affect their structure. We sampled seven streams at low and high altitudes in Northwest Argentina under contrasting climate conditions (Puna and Chaco Serrano) during high- and low-water periods. The environmental variables that affected Chironomidae community structure were water temperature, conductivity, hardness, current velocity and type of substrate. Fine substrates, gravel and low water temperature favoured cold stenothermal fauna, composed of Orthocladiinae, Diamesinae and Podonominae specimens in the high-altitude streams, whereas warm waters with low conductivity and higher velocity favoured increased species diversity in lowland streams, where there was greater abundance of Chironominae (which corresponds to warm eurythermal fauna). The studied environments belong to a transition zone that should be preserved where cold stenothermic and warm eurythermal Chironomidae overlap.


Asunto(s)
Chironomidae , Altitud , Animales , Argentina , Ecosistema , Ríos , Temperatura
5.
Epilepsy Behav ; 112: 107493, 2020 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181913

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess parent satisfaction with the management of ketogenic diet therapies (KDTs) through telemedicine using WhatsApp as the main tool. METHODS: Parent satisfaction was longitudinally evaluated through questionnaires. The survey was developed with Google Questionnaire forms and sent via WhatsApp. The questionnaire consisted of 13 items concerning the management of KDTs using telemedicine in the context of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Our population of patients has limited financial resources and low levels of education. Given that many families did not have either computers or WIFI, or any other access to information or communication technology, WhatsApp was chosen as a tool as it was available on the cell phones of all families and the professionals. RESULTS: Our survey showed that 96.3% of the parents were satisfied with the management of KDTs through telemedicine. The main benefits observed were the possibility of continuing treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic and the ease of accessing the professional team from the comfort of their home. Overall, 72.2% of the families would recommend using telemedicine for KDTs in any situation regardless of the pandemic. None of the families reported that they would recommend against treatment by telemedicine. The availability of a social support network (parents WhatsApp group) coordinated by professionals from the KDT team was considered to be useful by most respondents (90%). CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that management of children with DRE on KDTs through telemedicine is feasible, well accepted by the families, and probably as safe as conventional medicine. WhatsApp may be an interesting telemedicine tool to start and maintain KDTs.


Asunto(s)
Dieta Cetogénica/métodos , Epilepsia Refractaria/dietoterapia , Padres/psicología , Telemedicina , Adolescente , Adulto , Argentina , Betacoronavirus , Niño , Preescolar , Coronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Epilepsia Refractaria/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Pandemias , Satisfacción Personal , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
6.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 142: 33-40, 2020 Nov 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33210609

RESUMEN

Pinniped tuberculosis, commonly caused by Mycobacterium pinnipedii, is a zoonotic disease reported in free-living and captive otariid species of the southern hemisphere. Currently, data concerning pinniped tuberculosis in South America are scarce, reinforcing the need for further studies of the disease in free-ranging pinnipeds. In this study, we investigated the presence of tuberculosis in South American sea lions Otaria flavescens (SASLs) stranded along the Chubut coastline (Argentina). Necropsies were performed in 9 SASLs, and tissue samples were collected for histopathology, bacteriology, and molecular diagnosis. Four SASLs showed enlarged tracheobronchial lymph nodes (TBLNs) with multifocal to coalescing granulomas. In these animals, a direct IS6110-PCR amplification confirmed the presence of a Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex member in TBLNs (n = 4) and lungs (n = 2), but the agent could not be further identified. In one SASL, Mycobacterium murale was isolated from lungs without lesions. This study confirms the presence of tuberculosis in SASLs from Chubut, where tourist activities promote close interaction with the animals, generating a potential risk to human health. Further research is currently focusing on addressing the prevalence of tuberculosis in wild SASLs, to assess the risk for public health and develop management strategies to avoid human infection.


Asunto(s)
Mycobacterium , Leones Marinos , Tuberculosis , Animales , Argentina/epidemiología , Humanos , América del Sur , Tuberculosis/epidemiología , Tuberculosis/veterinaria
7.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(12): 746, 2020 Nov 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33145668

RESUMEN

Herbicide-resistant oilseed rape (Brassica napus) cultivation in our country entails the risk of gene transfer to related wild species. One of these species is the wild turnip (B. rapa), an important weed of winter crops widely distributed in the Pampas region. Despite hybridization risks, Clearfield ® oilseed rape is available in Argentina. In 2008, a B. rapa population, which was sympatric to an imidazolinone-resistant and a conventional oilseed rape cultivar, was located on a farm in the main cropping area of the country. Herbicide-resistant individuals were found in the progeny of this population in a herbicide screening test. Therefore, a molecular characterization using cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers was conducted on these plants to determine their hybrid nature and to establish the origin of the imidazolinone resistance trait. The results of this study, along with information of field records, confirmed that the resistant plants were first generation interspecific hybrids. Imidazolinone resistance had been effectively transferred from the herbicide-resistant oilseed rape, even in the particular situation of pollen competition. Oilseed rape resistant cultivars are becoming more common in the country. So, considering that seed loss and crop volunteers are common in these species, it is crucial to avoid the dispersion of new resistant weed biotypes as they reduce the effectiveness of chemical control technologies.


Asunto(s)
Brassica napus , Brassica rapa , Argentina , Brassica napus/genética , Brassica rapa/genética , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Plantas Modificadas Genéticamente
8.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(suppl 2): e20181166, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33084754

RESUMEN

Knowing about the spatio-temporal patterns in the structure of ichthyoplankton assemblages allows inferring about the spawning behaviour of adult fishes, understanding the recruitment dynamics, and predicting the potential effects of mid- and long-term changes. Here, we studied the ichthyoplankton assemblages from the San José Gulf (Northern Patagonia, Argentina) and investigated their changes in space and time. To do that, we took monthly samples during two consecutive years, in spring and summer. A total of 2088 larvae were caught; they comprised 36 taxa, from which 14 were identified to species, two to genus, one to family and one to order. There were large differences in the structure of the assemblages between years, coincidently with marked changes in the surface water temperature. The structure of the ichthyoplankton assemblages also showed significant differences between the spring and summer: Helcogrammoides cunninghami, Dules auriga and larvae belonging to the family Engraulidae contributed most to these differences. The species diversity was higher in the colder year than in the warmer one. We discuss the potential role of environmental and oceanographic features on the interannual variability in the early stages of coastal fishes within a small gulf.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Peces , Animales , Argentina , Ecosistema , Larva , Estaciones del Año
9.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(suppl 2): e20190459, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33084759

RESUMEN

In order to characterize Patagonian (Argentina) ecoregions using non-marine ostracods, their associations in 69 environments were assessed. Twenty eight taxa were recorded, including 12 endemic of the Neotropical region. Our results indicate that Patagonian ostracods are mainly influenced by electrical conductivity (EC), altitude, pH, and temperature; and shows a correlation with Argentinian ecoregions. Assemblage I is composed of sites located at high altitude in the Andean Patagonian forest ecoregion. Host waters have low temperature, EC and pH, and support as representative species Cypris pubera, Eucypris virens, Bradleystrandesia fuscata, Tonacypris lutaria and Amphicypris nobilis. Assemblage II, related to mid-altitude environments in the Patagonian Steppe ecoregion, thrived in waters with moderate to high EC, and alkaline pH values. Dominant species includes Limnocythere rionegroensis, L. patagonica, E. virgata, Riocypris whatleyi, Riocypris sarsi, Newnhamia patagonica, Kapcypridopsis megapodus, Ilyocypris ramirezi and Penthesinelula incae. Assemblage III inhabited environments within Monte and Espinal ecoregions, situated in the eastern part of the study area at low altitude, EC moderate and temperate waters, supporting Heterocypris hyalinus, Amphicypris argentinensis, Sarscypridopsis aculeata, Cypridopsis vidua, Herpetocypris intermedia and Chlamidotheca incisa. Our results indicates that Argentinian Patagonia hosts a diverse ostracod fauna and highlights their capacity as proxies in ecological and palaeoenvironmental studies.


Asunto(s)
Crustáceos , Bosques , Altitud , Animales , Argentina
10.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(suppl 2): e20190520, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33084760

RESUMEN

Sea anemones are considered as polyphagous opportunistic predators and it has been suggested that their diet reflects the structure of the community they inhabit. The feeding ecology of intertidal species is an interesting topic to study due to their wide variety of strategies to obtain food. In this sense, we studied the diet of Bunodosoma zamponii, the most abundant actiniarian in the rocky intertidal of Punta Cantera (Mar del Plata, Argentina). The objectives were to describe it and compare its composition seasonally and between diurnal and nocturnal high tides. We examined the gastric cavity content of 154 specimens collected seasonally at both diurnal and nocturnal high tides, and 39 different prey items were identified, some of which are recorded here for the first time for this species. No variations on diet composition were found between seasons or between diurnal and nocturnal high tides, suggesting that the food available does not vary either. Bunodosoma zamponii ingests mostly items with low biomass, which contribute to the total biomass ingested in direct proportion to their frequency in the diet. The bivalve Brachidontes rodriguezii was the main prey for the anemone, followed to a lesser extent by certain amphipods, other mollusks and algae.


Asunto(s)
Anémonas de Mar , Animales , Argentina , Dieta/veterinaria , Ecología , Estaciones del Año
11.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 335: 108894, 2020 Dec 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032033

RESUMEN

A metagenome-based approach was used to assess the taxonomic affiliation and functional potential for bacteriocin production of the bacterial community in cow's milk artisanal cheeses from Northwestern Argentina. Three different samples were analyzed by high-throughput sequencing of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene and shotgun metagenomics. Taxonomic analysis showed that cheese A and C were quite similar whereas cheese B displayed a rather different bacterial composition. Overall, two families, Streptococceae and Enterococceae, dominated the artisanal cheese microbiota, being the former family prevalent in cheese B and the later family the most important in samples A and C. Besides the usual species associated to cheeses, a number of bacterial taxa that have not been previously found in Argentinean artisanal cheeses were reported in the present work such as Macrococcus caseolyticus and Streptococcus macedonicus Functional metagenomics analysis using the bacteriocin mining software BAGEL3, identified 2 ORFs encoding antimicrobial peptides in cheese B and 42 different peptides in sample C. The bacteriocin genes found showed good correlation with taxonomy. Based on the microbial diversity and functional features found through shotgun metagenomic sequencing, a culture-dependent approach was applied aiming to isolate bacteriocin-producing bacteria able to inhibit the growth of the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. From 151 bacterial colonies derived from the cheese samples, 10 were associated to high anti-Listeria activity. Based on partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing and RAPD-PCR analysis, all bacteriocinogenic isolates were identified as Enterococcus faecium. Finally, we carried out a pilot experiment with L. monocytogenes-contaminated cheese using one of the enterococcal isolates as a bioprotective adjunct culture. The use of E. faecium CRL1879 during artisanal cheese manufacturing did not alter the main organoleptic properties of the cheese and ensured an efficient control of the foodborne pathogen up to 30 days. This finding supports the use of E. faecium CRL1879 as an adjunct culture in the cheese-making process with a combination of both safety and minimal processing.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/biosíntesis , Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Bacteriocinas/biosíntesis , Queso/microbiología , Microbiota , Animales , Antibacterianos/análisis , Argentina , Bacterias/clasificación , Bacterias/genética , Bacterias/metabolismo , Bacteriocinas/análisis , Bacteriocinas/genética , Bovinos , Queso/análisis , Metagenómica , Microbiota/genética , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética
12.
J Water Health ; 18(5): 681-691, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095192

RESUMEN

The presence of nitrate in sources of drinking water is a matter of concern because of its potential risk for human health. In many countries like Argentina, an increasing proportion of the population chooses to consume bottled water, among other reasons, for lack of water access. The present study was conducted (a) to evaluate the quality of bottled waters by determining nitrate concentration, (b) to relate bottled water quality with water access, (c) to analyze public awareness about bottled water quality and consumption habits of the population in the urban area of Buenos Aires. Two locations were selected, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (C.A.B.A.) and Malvinas Argentinas in Buenos Aires Province (PBA), with percentages of water access of 99.6% and 8.8%, respectively. Random samples from both locations (n = 100) were analyzed. A survey was conducted in order to inquire about perception of population on bottled water quality and their consumption habits. In C.A.B.A., no sample exceeded the 45 mg/L limit value in force in Argentina, while in Malvinas Argentinas, 34% of the brands analyzed showed values above it. The survey revealed that 71.7% of people consume bottled water. While people in C.A.B.A. do so mainly out of habit, safety is the priority in PBA.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable , Argentina , Agua Potable/análisis , Humanos , Nitratos/análisis , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Abastecimiento de Agua
13.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 80(5): 417-424, 2020.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048783

RESUMEN

This is a preliminary, multicenter, retrospective cohort study, including 272 consecutive patients with COVID-19 admitted to hospitals in Buenos Aires Province, between May 15th and July 1st, 2020, included in an expanded access program to convalescent plasma. Our objectives were to analyze mortality and its independent risk factors, and to assess the occurrence of a favorable evolution, defined as hospital discharge, or stay at the ward, or transfer from ICU to ward. Patients were stratified int o 4 subgroups: admission to the ward with pneumonia and/or oxygen requirement (WARD; n = 100); ICU admission (ICU; n = 87); ICU admission with requirement of mechanical ventilation (ICU-MV; n = 56), and ICU-MV plus septic shock (ICU-MV-SS; N = 29). Mortality at 28 days was 26.1% for the entire group, 14.0% for WARD group, 18.4% for ICU, 44.6% for ICU-MV, and 55.2% for ICU-MV-SS. Mean survival time (days) was 25.6 ± 0.6 (WARD); 25.3 ± 0.7 (ICU); 20.8 ± 1.2 (ICU-MV) and 18.2 ± 1.8 (ICU-MV-SS). Independent predictors of mortality were MV, septic shock and weight. A favorable evolution occurred in 81.4% of WARD patients; in 70.9% of ICU; in 39.6% of ICU-MV and in 27.6% of ICU-MV-SS patients. Severity of illness on admission, age, weight and heart rate were independently associated with evolution. No major adverse effects were recorded. The lack of a control group precluded the estimation of efficacy. However, our 26% mortality rate was higher than that of the treatment arm of clinical trials comparing plasma with usual treatment, which might be ascribed to higher proportion of patients with MV and septic shock in our cohort.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/terapia , Adulto , Anciano , Argentina/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Femenino , Humanos , Inmunización Pasiva/métodos , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento
14.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 80(5): 425-432, 2020.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048784

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to measures of social isolation, labor restrictions, a strong information campaign and the suspension of scheduled medical activities. The aim of this study was to describe the impact of these measures on the number of hospitalizations in Cardiovascular Intensive Care Units, with the hypothesis that the social behavior generated by this emergency promotes a decreased demand for medical care, even when severe cardiovascular disease is involved. We compared the number of admissions in March-April 2010-2019 versus March-April 2020, based on a prospective study including six institutions (three public and three private) that use Epi-Cardio® as a multicenter registry of cardiovascular care unit discharge. Altogether, we included 6839 patients discharged during the 11-year study period (2010-2020). The average number of patient admissions on March-April 2010-19 was 595 (CI 95%: 507-683) and decreased to 348 in 2020 (fall of 46.8%, p < 0.001). The reasons for hospitalization were classified into 11 groups and a statistically significant reduction was seen in 10 of these groups: cardiovascular surgery 72.3%, electrophysiological interventions 67.8%, non-ST acute coronary syndromes 52.6%, angioplasties 47.6%, arrhythmias 48.7%, heart failure 46%, atrial fibrillation 35.7%, ST elevation myocardial infarction 34.7%, non cardiac chest pain 31.8%, others 51.6%. Although with low prevalence, hypertensive crisis increased in 89%. The abrupt decrease observed in the number of admissions due to critical pathologies may be considered an "adverse effect" related to the measures adopted, with potentially severe consequences. This trend could be reversed by improving public communication and policy adjustment.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos/estadística & datos numéricos , Pandemias , Admisión del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral , Argentina/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Humanos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Estudios Prospectivos
15.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 80(5): 433-438, 2020.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048785

RESUMEN

Infection with the SARS coronavirus type 2 (COVID-19) has a variety of presentations, with little data on the evolution of affected patients in Argentina. This is a retrospective and observational study of patients with virological confirmation of coronavirus treated during the months of March to May in a private third-level university hospital in Buenos Aires. O ne hundred and fifty-five adult patients were included, of which 30.3% attended only for a swab; 59.4% were admitted to the hospital and 10.3% were hospitalized at home with daily telephone follow-up. Fifty-four point two percent of participants were women and the median age was 35 years (ICQ 29 to 50). About 59.3% of patients had some risk factor, including age (65 years old or more), underlying chronic disease, were health workers or personnel/residents in a nursing home. The most frequent symptom was fever (75.9%), followed by cough (65.7%), and odyno phagia (48.2%). Globally, 93.5% experienced some symptoms while 17.6% of the participants presented some symptoms but without fever. Chest tomographies were performed to 5 patients. Their chest radiograph was normal or non-diagnostic. Fourteen patients required intensive therapy and 6 of them required mechanical ventilation, 4 of them died. The remaining 2 patients were referred to chronic care centers. No patient with home hospitalization required admission to hospital or died. While this observation is encouraging, it will need to be confirmed with new studies.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Adulto , Argentina/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus , Femenino , Hospitales Privados , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos
16.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 80(5): 439-441, 2020.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048786

RESUMEN

During the SARSCoV-2 pandemic many drugs have been used as potential treatments in order to improve the clinical outcome and reduce the mortality. But since it is a currently unknown disease, the evidence about efficacy and safety is built as the drugs are prescribed. In this context, intensive pharmacovigilance allows early detection of adverse events, and thereby infer the safety profile of the indication. We conducted an observational, retrospective, single-center study involving adult patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. All adverse events detected in 23 patients in the Intensive Care Unit between March 15 and June 15, 2020 were registered. We describe type and severity of the adverse events and if treatment suspension was needed. The results show a high rate of adverse events (10/23, 43%) in treatment with lopinavir/ritonavir. In most cases early treatment suspension was required. Even though the limitations of our study derived from the small sample size, these results could help in building evidence about the safety of using lopinavir/ritonavir for severe SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Inhibidores del Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/efectos adversos , Lopinavir/efectos adversos , Neumonía Viral/tratamiento farmacológico , Ritonavir/efectos adversos , Adulto , Anciano , Argentina/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Enfermedad Crítica , Inhibidores del Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/uso terapéutico , Femenino , Humanos , Lopinavir/uso terapéutico , Masculino , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Ritonavir/uso terapéutico , Resultado del Tratamiento
17.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 80(5): 505-511, 2020.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048795

RESUMEN

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic requires rapid medical responses. The risk of venous and arterial thromboembolism increases in critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. There is a hypercoagulable state that includes elevated levels of D-dimer, with an increased risk of organ failure and increased mortality. The abnormalities described in hemostasis should be considered for therapeutic decision making. We analyzed the available scientific evidence for the therapeutic approach of coagulopathy in the course of the disease with the objective of designing realistic therapeutic recommendations aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality in patients with COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de la Coagulación Sanguínea/etiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/sangre , Coronavirus , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/sangre , Tromboembolia/complicaciones , Argentina/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus , Trastornos de la Coagulación Sanguínea/diagnóstico , Trastornos de la Coagulación Sanguínea/epidemiología , Trastornos de la Coagulación Sanguínea/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/complicaciones , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Citocinas , Coagulación Intravascular Diseminada , Heparina , Humanos , Neumonía Viral/complicaciones , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Sepsis
18.
Aquat Toxicol ; 228: 105647, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038724

RESUMEN

The intertidal mussel B. rodriguezii is a representative species from hard bottom substrates where both anthropogenic and natural stressors are present. Pre-exposure to these different stressors can modify the tolerance to additional stressors such as warming. Moreover, this tolerance can vary depending on intraspecific variables such as the organism's sex. The effects of warming and its intraspecific variability in representative coastal species are crucial to understanding the tolerance to future environmental scenarios. The mussels were collected in different environmental scenarios, including low (Control), chemical (Harbour) and natural stressed (Estuary) sites, and then exposed to different water temperatures (10-30 °C) for 14 days. Lethal and sublethal responses were evaluated in different mussel populations. Thus, cumulative death rate, air survival time, heat shock proteins (HSC70/HSP70), total ubiquitin, catalase (CAT), glutathione-s-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation (TBARS) were assessed in mussels from different areas and different sexes. The results revealed diminished air survival time and high cumulative mortality rate in mussels collected at the harbour and those exposed to higher temperatures, respectively. The sublethal responses of the field animals showed different patterns according to the different areas investigated. Besides, the results revealed that these differences were also observed between sexes. Regarding the sublethal responses in mussels exposed to warming, the interactive effects of temperature and sites showed a strong influence on all biochemical parameters analyzed (p < 0.001). Therefore, harbour mussels showed a distinct pattern compared to other locations and reflecting the most damaging effects of warming. The influence of sex and its interactions with warming were also crucial in most of the sublethal responses (p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis was performed with all sublethal responses, and the different warming scenarios showed different groups according to the sites. In the predicted warming scenarios, males showed no differences between sites. In contrast to males, females showed differences between sites in the predicted and the worse-case warming scenarios. Our results highlight the importance of compensatory mechanisms in the mussel warming tolerance like HSP70. The influence of sex is also crucial in understanding warming tolerance in mussels chronically exposed to pollutants in their natural environment. Also, lethal endpoints are essential for understanding the non-reversibility signature of the observed biochemical responses.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Calor , Estrés Fisiológico , Animales , Argentina , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Bivalvos , Femenino , Geografía , Modelos Lineales , Masculino , Análisis Multivariante , Análisis de Componente Principal
19.
Toxicon ; 188: 27-38, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007351

RESUMEN

Samples of Apis mellifera mellifera venom from different hives in two regions of the Buenos Aires province and its pool were analyzed for their lethal potency, myotoxic, defibrinogenating, hemolytic and inflammatory-edematizing activity and for the histological alterations they produce in the heart, lungs, kidneys, skeletal muscle and liver of mice. In vitro studies focused on the venom's hemolytic activity in different systems and species (horse, man, sheep and rabbit), the cytotoxicity in cellular lines, and on the proteolytic and coagulant activity in plasma and fibrinogen. Hemolytic activity, either observed in vitro or in vivo, showed similar toxicity levels for all samples. Erythrocytes of different species varied in their sensitivity to the venom pool, equines being the most sensitive and sheep the most resistant to direct hemolytic action. Local and systemic myotoxicity was evidenced by either the elevation of serum creatine kinase and/or histopathological lesions, observed in different muscles. All samples caused significant pathological alterations; pulmonary, cardiac, renal and skeletal muscle lesions were substantive and can be related to the pathophysiological mechanisms of envenomation. The venoms from different apiaries and regions of the Buenos Aires province showed very similar toxicological characteristics. These results suggest that severity of envenomation in case of a swarming could therefore be more related to the number of bees than to the differential toxicity of the venom from different regions of the province. This is the first study on the toxicity and toxicological characteristics of Apis mellifera venom in Argentina.


Asunto(s)
Venenos de Abeja , Abejas , Animales , Argentina
20.
Artículo en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52915

RESUMEN

[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Estimar la tendencia de la mortalidad infantil, de la desigualdad entre jurisdicciones y de la desigualdad asociada a las condiciones sociales en Argentina entre 1980 y 2017. Métodos. Estudio ecológico y de serie temporal de la mortalidad infantil y de su desigualdad. Se obtuvieron los datos oficiales de mortalidad infantil, de nacimientos y de necesidades básicas insatisfechas; se calculó la tasa de mortalidad infantil, el índice de Gini y el índice de concentración. También se analizó la tendencia con un modelo de regresión lineal y se calculó el coeficiente de regresión y su significación estadística. Resultados. La mortalidad infantil se redujo 71,2% (de 32,41 a 9,34 por 1 000 nacidos vivos). La desigualdad por jurisdicción también se redujo y el índice de Gini pasó de 0,163 a 0,09. La desigualdad asociada a las condiciones sociales también mostró una reducción, y el índice de concentración disminuyó de -0,153 a -0,079. Si bien la mortalidad infantil se redujo en todo el período, este descenso no siempre se acompañó de una reducción del índice de Gini y del índice de concentración. Conclusiones. La tendencia de la tasa de mortalidad infantil fue al descenso mientras que la desigualdad en su distribución por jurisdicción y la desigualdad asociada a las condiciones sociales no siempre acompañaron esa reducción.


[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To estimate the trend in infant mortality, inequality between jurisdictions and inequality associated with social conditions in Argentina between 1980 and 2017. Methods. Ecological and time series study of infant mortality and its inequality. Official data on infant mortality, births and unmet basic needs were obtained; the infant mortality rate, the Gini index and the concentration index were calculated. The trend was also analyzed with a linear regression model and the regression coefficient and its statistical significance were calculated. Results. Infant mortality was reduced by 71.2% (from 32.41 to 9.34 per 1 000 live births). Inequality by jurisdiction also decreased, and the Gini index fell from 0,163 to 0,09. Inequality associated with social conditions also showed a reduction, and the concentration index was reduced from -0.153 to -0.079. Although infant mortality declined throughout the period, this decline was not always accompanied by a reduction in the Gini index and the concentration index. Conclusions. The trend in the infant mortality rate decreased while the inequality in its distribution by jurisdiction and the inequality associated with social conditions did not always accompany this reduction.


Asunto(s)
Mortalidad Infantil , Salud del Niño , Equidad en Salud , Inequidad Social , Estudios Ecológicos , Argentina , Mortalidad Infantil , Salud del Niño , Equidad en Salud , Inequidad Social , Estudios Ecológicos
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