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1.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(1): 148-151, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413811

RESUMEN

Community transmission of severe acute respiratory illness Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Arizona was noted in March 2020. It was our hypothesis that the associated implementation of physical distancing and masking led to a decline in circulation and detection of common respiratory viruses. Nasopharyngeal swabs processed with the Biofire, Film Array respiratory panel at Mayo Clinic Arizona were reviewed from January 1, 2017, to July 31, 2020. A total of 13,324 nasopharyngeal swabs were analyzed. Between April and July 2017- 2019 (Period A) a mean of 262 tests were performed monthly, falling to 128 for the corresponding months of 2020 (Period B). A reduction in the monthly mean number of positive tests (Period A 71.5; Period B 2.8) and mean positivity rate (Period A 25.04%; Period B 2.07%) was observed. Rhinovirus/enterovirus was the most prevalent virus, with a monthly mean of 21.6 cases (30.2% of positives) for Period A and 2 cases (72.7% of positives) for Period B. Positivity for a second virus occurred in a mean of 2.1 positive tests (3.3%) in Period A but was absent in Period B. Implementation of distancing and masking coincides with a marked reduction in respiratory virus detection and likely circulation. Data from the fall/winter of 2020 will help clarify the potential role for distancing and masking as a mitigation strategy, not only for SARS-CoV-2 but also in the seasonal battle against common respiratory viruses.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Máscaras , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/virología , Arizona/epidemiología , /transmisión , Humanos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión
3.
Chemosphere ; 265: 129049, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33250226

RESUMEN

The U.S. Department of the Interior recently included uranium (U) on a list of mineral commodities that are considered critical to economic and national security. The uses of U for commercial and residential energy production, defense applications, medical device technologies, and energy generation for space vehicles and satellites are known, but the environmental impacts of uranium extraction are not always well quantified. We conducted a screening-level ecological risk analysis based on exposure to mining-related elements via diets and incidental soil ingestion for terrestrial biota to provide context to chemical characterization and exposures at breccia pipe U mines in northern Arizona. Relative risks, calculated as hazard quotients (HQs), were generally low for all biological receptor models. Our models screened for risk to omnivores and insectivores (HQs>1) but not herbivores and carnivores. Uranium was not the driver of ecological risk; arsenic, cadmium, copper, and zinc were of concern for biota consuming ground-dwelling invertebrates. Invertebrate species composition should be considered when applying these models to other mining locations or future sampling at the breccia pipe mine sites. Dietary concentration thresholds (DCTs) were also calculated to understand food concentrations that may lead to ecological risk. The DCTs indicated that critical concentrations were not approached in our model scenarios, as evident in the very low HQs for most models. The DCTs may be used by natural resource and land managers as well as mine operators to screen or monitor for potential risk to terrestrial receptors as mine sites are developed and remediated in the future.


Asunto(s)
Uranio , Animales , Arizona , Exposición Dietética , Minería , Medición de Riesgo , Estados Unidos , Uranio/análisis , Uranio/toxicidad
4.
J Environ Manage ; 280: 111644, 2021 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33234318

RESUMEN

As a multi-jurisdictional, non-fire-adapted region, the Sonoran Desert Ecoregion is a complex, social-ecological system faced increasingly with no-analogue conditions. A diversity of management objectives and activities form the socioecological landscape of fire management. Different managers have different objectives, resources, and constraints, and each therefore applies different activities. As a result, it can be difficult to predict the regional consequences of changing fire regimes. We interviewed and surveyed managers of 53 million acres of government-managed lands across the Sonoran Desert Ecoregion of Arizona, asking them to describe their management objectives and activities as well as expected changes in the face of projected fire regime change across the region. If current activities were deemed unlikely to meet objectives into the future, this represents a likely adaptation turning point, where new activities are required in order to meet objectives. If no potential activity will meet an objective, it may be necessary to select a new objective, indicating an adaptation tipping point. Here, we report which current objectives and activities are deemed by managers most likely and least likely to succeed. We also discuss constraints reported by managers from different jurisdictions. We find that agriculture, military, and resource extraction objectives are perceived by managers as most likely to be met, whereas conservation of natural and cultural resources is considered least likely to be achieved. Federal land managers reported higher likelihood of both achieving current objectives and adopting new activities than did non-federal land managers. This study illustrates how rapid global change is affecting the ability of land managers differing in missions, mandates, and resources to achieve their central objectives, as well as the constraints and opportunities they face. Our results indicate that changing environmental conditions are unlikely to affect all management entities equally and for some jurisdictions may result in adaptation turning points or tipping points in natural and cultural resource conservation.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Fuego , Agricultura , Arizona , Ecosistema
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 752: 141845, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892044

RESUMEN

Introductions of dreissenid mussels in North America have been a significant concern over the last few decades. This study assessed the distribution of synthetic organic compounds (SOCs) in the food web of Lake Mead, Nevada/Arizona, USA and how this distribution was influenced by the introduction of invasive quagga mussels. A clear spatial gradient of SOC concentrations in water was observed between lake basins downstream of populated areas and more rural areas. Within the food web, trophic magnification factors (TMF) indicated statistically significant biomagnification for nine, and biodilution for two, of 22 SOCs examined. The highest value recorded was for PCB 118 (TMF, 5.14), and biomagnification of methyl triclosan (TMF, 3.85) was also apparent. Biodilution was observed for Tonalide® (0.06) and Galaxolide® (0.38). Total SOC concentration in quagga mussels was higher than in three pelagic fishes. Also, 19 of 20 SOC examined in Largemouth Bass (Micropterus salmoides) had substantially lower concentrations in 2013, when quagga mussels had become well established, than in 2007/08, soon after quagga mussels were introduced. Estimates of SOC concentrations in the water column and quagga mussels suggest that a considerable portion (~10.5%) of the SOC mass in the lake has shifted from the pelagic to the benthic environments due to quagga mussel growth. These observations suggest that benthic species, such as the endangered Razorback Sucker, may be experiencing increased risk of SOC exposure. In addition, stable isotope analysis (carbon and nitrogen) indicated a decrease in the nutritional value of zooplankton to consumers (e.g., Razorback Sucker larvae) since quagga mussels became established. These changes could affect Razorback Sucker larval survival and recruitment. Results from this study strongly suggest that the introduction of quagga mussels has greatly altered the dynamics of SOCs and other processes in the food web of Lake Mead.


Asunto(s)
Bivalvos , Dreissena , Animales , Arizona , Cadena Alimentaria , Lagos , Nevada , América del Norte
6.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0242588, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33264308

RESUMEN

Beginning in March 2020, the United States emerged as the global epicenter for COVID-19 cases with little to guide policy response in the absence of extensive data available for reliable epidemiological modeling in the early phases of the pandemic. In the ensuing weeks, American jurisdictions attempted to manage disease spread on a regional basis using non-pharmaceutical interventions (i.e., social distancing), as uneven disease burden across the expansive geography of the United States exerted different implications for policy management in different regions. While Arizona policymakers relied initially on state-by-state national modeling projections from different groups outside of the state, we sought to create a state-specific model using a mathematical framework that ties disease surveillance with the future burden on Arizona's healthcare system. Our framework uses a compartmental system dynamics model using a SEIRD framework that accounts for multiple types of disease manifestations for the COVID-19 infection, as well as the observed time delay in epidemiological findings following public policy enactments. We use a compartment initialization logic coupled with a fitting technique to construct projections for key metrics to guide public health policy, including exposures, infections, hospitalizations, and deaths under a variety of social reopening scenarios. Our approach makes use of X-factor fitting and backcasting methods to construct meaningful and reliable models with minimal available data in order to provide timely policy guidance in the early phases of a pandemic.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Necesidades y Demandas de Servicios de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Arizona/epidemiología , /terapia , Hospitales/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Modelos Estadísticos , Pandemias , Políticas , Cuarentena/estadística & datos numéricos
7.
Immunity ; 53(5): 925-933.e4, 2020 11 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129373

RESUMEN

We conducted a serological study to define correlates of immunity against SARS-CoV-2. Compared to those with mild coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases, individuals with severe disease exhibited elevated virus-neutralizing titers and antibodies against the nucleocapsid (N) and the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein. Age and sex played lesser roles. All cases, including asymptomatic individuals, seroconverted by 2 weeks after PCR confirmation. Spike RBD and S2 and neutralizing antibodies remained detectable through 5-7 months after onset, whereas α-N titers diminished. Testing 5,882 members of the local community revealed only 1 sample with seroreactivity to both RBD and S2 that lacked neutralizing antibodies. This fidelity could not be achieved with either RBD or S2 alone. Thus, inclusion of multiple independent assays improved the accuracy of antibody tests in low-seroprevalence communities and revealed differences in antibody kinetics depending on the antigen. We conclude that neutralizing antibodies are stably produced for at least 5-7 months after SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/inmunología , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/inmunología , Inmunidad Humoral , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/inmunología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/sangre , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Arizona/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/sangre , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Proteínas de la Nucleocápside/inmunología , Pandemias , Fosfoproteínas , Neumonía Viral/sangre , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Prevalencia , Dominios y Motivos de Interacción de Proteínas , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/química , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/inmunología , Adulto Joven
9.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(44): 1654-1659, 2020 Nov 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151922

RESUMEN

On June 3, 2020, a woman aged 73 years (patient A) with symptoms consistent with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (1) was evaluated at the emergency department of the Hopi Health Care Center (HHCC, an Indian Health Services facility) and received a positive test result for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. The patient's symptoms commenced on May 27, and a sibling (patient B) of the patient experienced symptom onset the following day. On May 23, both patients had driven together and spent time in a retail store in Flagstaff, Arizona. Because of their similar exposures, symptom onset dates, and overlapping close contacts, these patients are referred to as co-index patients. The co-index patients had a total of 58 primary (i.e., direct) and secondary contacts (i.e., contacts of a primary contact); among these, 27 (47%) received positive SARS-CoV-2 test results. Four (15%) of the 27 contacts who became ill were household members of co-index patient B, 14 (52%) had attended family gatherings, one was a child who might have transmitted SARS-CoV-2 to six contacts, and eight (30%) were community members. Findings from the outbreak investigation prompted the HHCC and Hopi Tribe leadership to strengthen community education through community health representatives, public health nurses, and radio campaigns. In communities with similar extended family interaction, emphasizing safe ways to stay in touch, along with wearing a mask, frequent hand washing, and physical distancing might help limit the spread of disease.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/etnología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Brotes de Enfermedades , Indios Norteamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/etnología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Arizona/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Niño , Preescolar , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico , Trazado de Contacto , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Laboratorios , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Adulto Joven
11.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242681, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33232356

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is ongoing debate about whether friends' greater similarity in Body Mass Index (BMI) than non-friends is due to friend selection, shared environments, or peer influence. METHODS: First-year college students (n = 104) from a southwestern U.S. university were randomly assigned roommates during the university's housing process, effectively removing friend selection effects. Participant BMI was measured up to four times (T1-T4) across 2015-2016. The influence of roommate baseline BMI (T1) on change in participant BMI over time (T2-T4) was analyzed using a linear mixed effects model adjusted for individual socio-demographics, linear time trends, baseline BMI, and physical clustering of students. A sensitivity analysis examining floormates was also conducted. RESULTS: Consistent with roommate influence, participants randomized to roommates with a higher BMI gained more weight between times T2 and T4 (ß = 0.06; 95% CI = 0.02, 0.10). No shared environment effects (shared campus or floor) were found. CONCLUSIONS: Randomly assigned roommates influenced each other's weight trajectories. This clarifies that BMI convergence can occur outside of friend selection or shared environments mechanisms.


Asunto(s)
Índice de Masa Corporal , Conducta Social , Estudiantes , Universidades , Adolescente , Adulto , Arizona , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
12.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241502, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147289

RESUMEN

Assessing chemical loading from streams in remote, difficult-to-access watersheds is challenging. The Grand Canyon area in northern Arizona, an international tourist destination and sacred place for many Native Americans, is characterized by broad plateaus divided by canyons as much as two-thousand meters deep and hosts some of the highest-grade uranium deposits in the U.S. From 2015-2018 major surface waters in Grand Canyon were monitored for select elements associated with breccia-pipe uranium deposits in the area, including uranium, arsenic, cadmium, and lead. Dissolved constituents in the Colorado River were monitored upstream (Lees Ferry), in the middle (Phantom Ranch), and downstream (Diamond Creek) of uranium mining areas. Concentrations of uranium, arsenic, cadmium, and lead at these main-stem sites varied little during the study period and were all well below human health and aquatic life benchmark criteria (30, 10, 5, and 15 µg/L maximum contaminant levels and 15, 150, 0.8, and 3.1 µg/L aquatic life criteria, respectively). Additionally, dissolved and sediment-bound constituents were monitored during a wide range of streamflow conditions at Little Colorado River, Kanab Creek, and Havasu Creek tributaries, whose watersheds have experienced different levels of uranium mining activities over time. Samples from the tributary sites contained ≤3.8 µg/L of dissolved cadmium and lead, and ≤17 µg/L of dissolved uranium. Dissolved arsenic also was mostly below human and aquatic life criteria at Little Colorado River and Kanab Creek; however, 63% of water samples from Havasu Creek were above the maximum contaminant level for arsenic. Arsenic in suspended sediment was greater than sediment quality guidelines in 9%, 35%, and 35% of samples from Little Colorado River, Kanab Creek, and Havasu Creek, respectively. At the concentrations observed during this study, tributaries contributed on average only about 0.12 µg/L of arsenic and 0.03 µg/L of uranium to the main-stem river. This study demonstrates how chemical loading from mined watersheds may be reliably assessed across a wide range of flow conditions in challenging locations.


Asunto(s)
Ríos/química , Oligoelementos/análisis , Uranio/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Arizona , Agua Potable/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Geografía , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Control de Calidad , Estaciones del Año , Calidad del Agua
13.
Zootaxa ; 4778(1): zootaxa.4778.1.3, 2020 May 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055832

RESUMEN

Fringe-toed lizards (Uma) are among the most specialized lizards in North America, adapted to insular windblown sand habitats in the hyper-arid southwestern deserts, with allopatric distributions, subtle morphological variation, and an unstable taxonomic history. We analyzed a morphological dataset of 40 characters for 65 specimens and a molecular dataset of 2,286 bases from three mitochondrial loci for 92 individuals and interpreted these data alongside published analyses of multi-locus genetic data with the goal of revising the taxonomy of the Uma notata (Baird 1858) species complex. We confirmed that fringe-toed lizards from the Mohawk Dunes in southwestern Arizona (U. sp.) constitute a cryptic species sister to the rest of the complex that can be diagnosed with DNA barcoding and geography, so we describe and name this species Uma thurmanae sp. nov. We also confirmed the evolutionary distinctiveness of U. inornata (Cope 1895), an endangered species endemic to Coachella Valley in southern California. We designate a lectotype for the taxon U. "rufopunctata", but we put its name in quotation marks to reflect its uncertain taxonomic status with respect to its neighboring species U. cowlesi and U. notata.


Asunto(s)
Lagartos , Animales , Arizona , Evolución Biológica , Filogenia
14.
J Environ Manage ; 275: 110239, 2020 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059842

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The water footprint provided a full methodology to operationalise the virtual water concept (the volume of water used along a supply chain to produce products and services). A key theme in the water footprint literature is the efficient allocation of water resources at the global scale given the feasibility of trading water intensive commodities from water rich to water poor areas: this is an economic problem of resource allocation between alternative and competing demands, albeit with a novel international component. Moreover, given that price signals indicating relative scarcity are usually either absent or distorted for water, it is also a problem that can be seen through the lens of environmental (or non-market) valuation. However, to date environmental valuation has not been used to inform the efficient use and allocation of water within and between the different locations encompassed by international supply chains. METHODS: Drawing on an agri-food supply chain framework that we propose in this paper, we begin by conceptualising the economic values that accrue to water consumption (blue and green water) and degradation (grey water) at different points along a supply chain. Based on this conceptualisation, we assess the extent to which it is possible to approximate these economic values by relying on existing secondary data on the shadow value of water in different contexts. The use of secondary data in this way is known as benefit (or value) transfer. To achieve this, 706 unit estimates of the economic value of water are collected, standardised and reviewed encompassing off-stream water applications (agriculture, industry and municipal) and in-stream ecosystem services (waste assimilation, wildlife habitat, recreation, hydrological functions and passive uses). From this, a proposed methodology for valuing virtual water is presented and illustrated using the case study of global durum wheat pasta production. RESULTS: The case study shows the total value of the virtual water used to produce one tonne of durum wheat pasta ($212). More importantly, the case study also highlights how variations in economic value between multiple locations where durum wheat is cultivated (Saskatchewan $0.10 m3, Arizona $0.08 m3 and Baja California $0.24 m3) indicate relative water scarcity and thus impact, as well as the potential for a more efficient allocation of virtual water. CONCLUSIONS: The main conclusion from this research is that when geographical disparities in the economic value of water use within a supply chain are accounted for, what was perhaps considered sustainable in volume terms, might not, in fact, represent the optimal allocation. However, future research opportunities highlight the need for additional data collection on the economic value of water in several contexts. This additional data would help the environmental valuation community to undertake a more comprehensive and robust approach to virtual water valuation. This paper is accompanied by the Data in Brief article entitled "Dataset on the in-stream and off-stream economic value of water."


Asunto(s)
Abastecimiento de Agua , Agua , Arizona , Ecosistema , México
15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33003508

RESUMEN

Sleep disparities exist among Hispanics/Latinos, although little work has characterized individuals at the United States (US)-Mexico border, particularly as it relates to acculturation. This study examined the association of Anglo and Mexican acculturation to various facets of sleep health among those of Mexican descent at the US-Mexico border. Data were collected from N = 100 adults of Mexican descent in the city of Nogales, Arizona (AZ). Surveys were presented in English or Spanish. Acculturation was assessed with the Acculturation Scale for Mexican-Americans (ARSMA-II). Insomnia was assessed with the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), sleepiness was assessed with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), sleep apnea risk was assessed with the Multivariable Apnea Prediction (MAP) index, weekday and weekend sleep duration and efficiency were assessed with the Sleep Timing Questionnaire, sleep quality was assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and sleep duration and sleep medication use were assessed with PSQI items. No associations were found between Mexican acculturation and any sleep outcomes in adjusted analyses. Anglo acculturation was associated with less weekend sleep duration and efficiency, worse insomnia severity and sleep quality, and more sleep apnea risk and sleep medication use. These results support the idea that sleep disparities may depend on the degree of acculturation, which should be considered in risk screening and interventions.


Asunto(s)
Aculturación , Americanos Mexicanos/psicología , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/etnología , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia/etnología , Sueño/fisiología , Adulto , Arizona/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , México/etnología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/psicología , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
16.
Math Biosci Eng ; 17(5): 4891-4904, 2020 07 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120533

RESUMEN

The outbreak of COVID-19 disrupts the life of many people in the world. The state of Arizona in the U.S. emerges as one of the country's newest COVID-19 hot spots. Accurate forecasting for COVID-19 cases will help governments to implement necessary measures and convince more people to take personal precautions to combat the virus. It is difficult to accurately predict the COVID- 19 cases due to many human factors involved. This paper aims to provide a forecasting model for COVID-19 cases with the help of human activity data from the Google Community Mobility Reports. To achieve this goal, a specific partial differential equation (PDE) is developed and validated with the COVID-19 data from the New York Times at the county level in the state of Arizona in the U.S. The proposed model describes the combined effects of transboundary spread among county clusters in Arizona and human activities on the transmission of COVID-19. The results show that the prediction accuracy of this model is well acceptable (above 94%). Furthermore, we study the effectiveness of personal precautions such as wearing face masks and practicing social distancing on COVID-19 cases at the local level. The localized analytical results can be used to help to slow the spread of COVID- 19 in Arizona. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first attempt to apply PDE models on COVID-19 prediction with the Google Community Mobility Reports.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Internet , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Algoritmos , Arizona/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Recolección de Datos , Geografía , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Humanos , Máscaras , Modelos Teóricos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Política Pública , Aislamiento Social
17.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(40): 1460-1463, 2020 Oct 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031366

RESUMEN

Mitigating the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), requires individual, community, and state public health actions to prevent person-to-person transmission. Community mitigation measures can help slow the spread of COVID-19; these measures include wearing masks, social distancing, reducing the number and size of large gatherings, pausing operation of businesses where maintaining social distancing is challenging, working from or staying at home, and implementing certain workplace and educational institution controls (1-4). The Arizona Department of Health Services' (ADHS) recommendations for mitigating exposure to SARS-CoV-2 were informed by continual monitoring of patient demographics, SARS-CoV-2 community spread, and the pandemic's impacts on hospitals. To assess the effect of mitigation strategies in Arizona, the numbers of daily COVID-19 cases and 7-day moving averages during January 22-August 7, 2020, relative to implementation of enhanced community mitigation measures, were examined. The average number of daily cases increased approximately 151%, from 808 on June 1, 2020 to 2,026 on June 15, 2020 (after stay-at-home order lifted), necessitating increased preventive measures. On June 17, local officials began implementing and enforcing mask wearing (via county and city mandates),* affecting approximately 85% of the state population. Statewide mitigation measures included limitation of public events; closures of bars, gyms, movie theaters, and water parks; reduced restaurant dine-in capacity; and voluntary resident action to stay at home and wear masks (when and where not mandated). The number of COVID-19 cases in Arizona peaked during June 29-July 2, stabilized during July 3-July 12, and further declined by approximately 75% during July 13-August 7. Widespread implementation and enforcement of sustained community mitigation measures informed by state and local officials' continual data monitoring and collaboration can help prevent transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and decrease the numbers of COVID-19 cases.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Política Pública , Arizona/epidemiología , Humanos , Incidencia
18.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 82(4): 543-557, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091146

RESUMEN

The Amblyomma maculatum Koch group of ixodid ticks consists of three species: A. maculatum, A. triste, and A. tigrinum. However, since Koch described this group in 1844, the systematics of its members has been the subject of ongoing debate. This is especially true of A. maculatum and A. triste; recent molecular analyses reveal insufficient genetic divergence to separate these as distinct species. Further confounding this issue is the discovery in 2014 of A. maculatum group ticks in southern Arizona (AZ), USA, that share morphological characteristics with both A. triste and A. maculatum. To biologically evaluate the identity of A. maculatum group ticks from southern Arizona, we analyzed the reproductive compatibility between specimens of A. maculatum group ticks collected from Georgia (GA), USA, and southern Arizona. Female ticks from both Arizona and Georgia were mated with males from both the Georgia and Arizona Amblyomma populations, creating two homologous and two heterologous F1 cohorts of ticks: GA ♀/GA ♂, AZ ♀/AZ ♂, GA ♀/AZ ♂, and AZ ♀/GA ♂. Each cohort was maintained separately into the F2 generation with F1 females mating only with F1 males from their same cohort. Survival and fecundity parameters were measured for all developmental stages. The observed survival parameters for heterologous cohorts were comparable to those of the homologous cohorts through the F1 generation. However, the F1 heterologous females produced F2 egg clutches that did not hatch, thus indicating that the Arizona and Georgia populations of A. maculatum group ticks tested here represent different biological species.


Asunto(s)
Ixodidae , Rickettsia , Garrapatas , Animales , Arizona , Femenino , Georgia , Ixodidae/genética , Masculino
19.
Public Health Rep ; 135(6): 756-762, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962529

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: In response to a declared statewide public health emergency due to opioid-related overdose deaths, the Arizona Department of Health Services guided the creation of a modern, statewide, evidence-based curriculum on pain and addiction that would be relevant for all health care provider types. METHODS: The Arizona Department of Health Services convened and facilitated 4 meetings during 4 months with a workgroup comprising the deans and curriculum representatives of all 18 medical, osteopathic, physician assistant, nurse practitioner, dental, podiatry, and naturopathic programs in Arizona. During this collaborative and iterative process, the workgroup reviewed existing curricula, established a philosophical framework, and developed a flexible and practical structure for a curriculum that would suit the needs of all program types. RESULTS: The Arizona Pain and Addiction Curriculum was finalized in June 2018. The curriculum aims to redefine pain and addiction as multidimensional public health issues and is structured as 10 core components, each supported by a detailed set of evidence-based objectives. The curriculum includes a set of annual metrics to collect from both programs (focused on implementation progress and barriers) and learners (focused on knowledge, attitudes, and practice plans). CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first example of a statewide collaboration among diverse health professional education programs to create a single, standard curriculum. This collaborative process and the nonproprietary Arizona Pain and Addiction Curriculum may serve as a useful template for other states to enhance pain and addiction education.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Adictiva/epidemiología , Conducta Adictiva/terapia , Educación Continua/organización & administración , Dolor/tratamiento farmacológico , Dolor/epidemiología , Arizona , Conducta Adictiva/prevención & control , Conducta Adictiva/psicología , Conducta Cooperativa , Curriculum , Educación Continua/normas , Humanos , Relaciones Interprofesionales , Dolor/psicología
20.
Environ Res ; 191: 110189, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919963

RESUMEN

This study draws the link between COVID-19 and air pollution (ground ozone O3) from February 29, 2020 to July 10, 2020 in the top 10 affected States of the US. Utilizing quantile-on-quantile (QQ) estimation technique, we examine in what manner the quantiles of COVID-19 affect the quantiles of air pollution and vice versa. The primary findings confirm overall dependence between COVID-19 and air pollution. Empirical results exhibit a strong negative effect of COVID-19 on air pollution in New York, Texas, Illinois, Massachusetts, and Pennsylvania; especially at medium to higher quantiles, while New Jersey, Illinois, Arizona, and Georgia show strong negative effect mainly at lower quantiles. Contrarily, COVID-19 positively affects air pollution in Pennsylvania at extreme lower quantiles. On the other side, air pollution predominantly caused to increase in the intensity of COVID-19 cases across all states except lower quantiles of Massachusetts, and extreme higher quantiles of Arizona and New Jersey, where this effect becomes less pronounced or negative. Concludingly, a rare positive fallout of COVID-19 is reducing environmental pressure, while higher environmental pollution causes to increase the vulnerability of COVID-19 cases. These findings imply that air pollution is at the heart of chronic diseases, therefore the state government should consider these asymmetric channels and introduce appropriate policy measures to reset and control atmospheric emissions.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Contaminación del Aire/efectos adversos , Arizona , Betacoronavirus , Contaminación Ambiental , Georgia , Humanos , Illinois , Massachusetts , New Jersey , New York , Pennsylvania , Texas
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