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1.
Zootaxa ; 4747(1): zootaxa.4747.1.10, 2020 Mar 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230126

RESUMEN

Phytoecia (Neomusaria) kazaryani sp. nov. similar to Ph. (N.) suvorowi Pic, 1905 is described from Armenia; Phytoecia (Parobereina) kashanica sp. nov. similar to Ph. (P.) vittipennis Reiche, 1877 is described from Iran.


Asunto(s)
Escarabajos , Animales , Armenia , Irán
3.
Environ Pollut ; 261: 114210, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32109822

RESUMEN

Mining activities change the chemical composition of the environment and have negative reflection on people's health and there is no single measure to deal with adverse consequences of mining activities, as each case is specific and needs to be understood and mitigated in a unique way. In this study, the combination of compositional data analysis (CoDA), k-means algorithm, hierarchical cluster analysis applied to reveal the geochemical associations of potentially toxic elements (PTE) in soil of Alaverdi city (Armenia) (Ti, Fe, Ba, Mn, Co, V, Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, Mo, As). Additionally, to assess PTE-induced health risk, two commonly used approaches were used. The obtained results show that the combination of CoDA and machine learning algorithms allow to identify and describe three geochemical associations of the studied elements: the natural, manmade and hybrid. Moreover, the revealed geochemical associations were linked to the natural pattern of distribution of the element concentrations including the influence of the natural mineralization of the parent rocks, as well as the emission from the copper smelter and urban management related activities. The health risk assessment using the US EPA method demonstrated that the observed contents of studied elements are posing a non-carcinogenic risk to children in the entire territory of the city. In the case of adults, the non-carcinogenic risk was identified in areas situated close to the copper smelter. The Summary pollution index (Zc) values were in line with the results of the US EPA method and indicated that the main residential part of the city was under the hazardous pollution level suggesting the possibility of increase in the overall incidence of diseases among frequently ill individuals, children with chronic diseases and functional disorders of vascular system. The obtained results indicated the need for further in-depth studies with special focus on the synergic effect of PTE.


Asunto(s)
Análisis de Datos , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Aprendizaje Automático , Minería , Medición de Riesgo , Contaminantes del Suelo , Adulto , Armenia , Niño , Ciudades , Humanos , Metales Pesados/análisis , Metales Pesados/toxicidad , Suelo/química , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Contaminantes del Suelo/toxicidad
4.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228353, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040511

RESUMEN

Counting chromosomes is the first step towards a better understanding of the karyotype evolution and the role of chromosome evolution in species diversification within Carex; however, the chromosome count is not known yet for numerous sedges. In this paper chromosome counts were performed for 23 Carex taxa from Armenia, Austria, the Czech Republic, and Poland. Chromosome numbers were determined for the first time in three species (Carex cilicica, 2n = 54; C. phyllostachys, 2n = 56; C. randalpina, 2n = 78), two subspecies (C. muricata subsp. ashokae, 2n = 58; C. nigra subsp. transcaucasica, 2n = 84) and two hybrids (C. ×decolorans, 2n = 74; C. ×walasii, 2n = 108). Among the taxa whose number of chromosomes had been known before, the largest difference was found in C. hartmaniorum (here 2n = 52) and C. aterrima subsp. medwedewii (here 2n = 52). A difference in the chromosome count was demonstrated for C. cilicica (2n = 54) versus the species of the section Aulocystis (2n = 30 to 40) and for C. tomentosa (2n = 48) versus the species of the section Acrocystis (2n = 18 to 38). The results of this study indicate that the position of C. cilicica in Aulocystis section may raise doubts. Attention was paid to the relationship between C. phyllostachys and taxa of the subgenus Carex section Gynobasidae.


Asunto(s)
Carex (Planta)/clasificación , Carex (Planta)/genética , Cromosomas de las Plantas/genética , Evolución Molecular , Variación Genética , Filogenia , Armenia , Austria , República Checa , Polonia
5.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228344, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012185

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Migration caused by poverty is a growing public health issue around the world. Migrants are at heightened risk of HIV/STIs and yet the vulnerability to poor sexual health of their left-behind partners, in relation to their household wealth, remain understudied. This investigation examines differences in sexual health from 2010 to 2015 among Armenian mothers, with a specific focus on their left-behind migration status and household wealth. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using the population-based Demographic and Health Surveys from Armenia, multilevel logistic models were used to examine the various relationships between sexual health, left-behind status, and household wealth. The multivariate analysis results showed that self-reported sexually transmitted infection (STI) symptoms (AOR = 1.45; p<0.01) and intimate partner violence (IPV) (AOR = 1.45; p<0.01) increased from 2010 to 2015; furthermore, negotiation power over sex (AOR = 0.77; p<0.01) declined among Armenian mothers. Left-behind mothers (LBMs) were more likely to report STI symptoms than their non-LBM counterparts (AOR = 1.61; p<0.01). In addition, significant differences in sexual health between LBMs and non-LBMs with different levels of household wealth were observed. The poorest wealth quintiles were associated with a higher likelihood of self-reported STI symptoms (AOR = 1.74; p<0.05) and IPV (AOR = 1.78; p<0.01), as well as a lower likelihood of utilizing HIV testing (AOR = 0.48; p<0.01) and negotiating power over sex (AOR = 0.47; p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: This study strives to fill gaps in the literature related to the relationship between left-behind status, household wealth, and sexual health among Armenian mothers in a context of economic expansion. Among these mothers, poor sexual health outcomes increased from 2010 to 2015. Both low household wealth and a left-behind status were associated with adverse sexual health outcomes. These findings suggest future campaigns aimed at improving the sexual health of Armenian mothers need to be migration-status appropriate and socioeconomic-sensitive.


Asunto(s)
Demografía/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Madres/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Sexual/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Armenia , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Madres/psicología , Migrantes/psicología , Migrantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 716: 137071, 2020 May 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069695

RESUMEN

The holoparasitic genus Cistanche (Orobanchaceae) has been the most widely used and well known genus in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries. This is the first study that reports the phytochemical profile of Cistanche armena - an endemic species from Armenia and evaluates the composition and biological activity in relation to specific organs of the parasite (flowers vs stem with tuber) and its interaction with two host species: Alhagi maurorum (Fabaceae) and Salsola dendroides (Chenopodiaceae). We identified polyphenolic compounds using the UPLC-PDA-MS/MS method and quantified the antioxidative effects; inhibitory activities; polyphenol, nitrate III and nitrate V contents; ABTS+, DPPH, and FRAP activities; and colour parameters. A total of 28 polyphenolic compounds were tentatively identified. In C. armena, 9 compounds belonged to the phenylethanoid glycosides, mainly acteoside, B-hydroxyverbascoside and echinacoside, and in its hosts, 19 compounds belonged mainly to hydroxycinnamic acid and the flavanols. The profile of polyphenols in the host species was qualitatively and quantitatively different than the profile of the compounds in the parasite; this indicates the existence of a unique pathway of compound biosynthesis in the parasite. The colour and the amount and bioactivity of the polyphenolic compounds found in Cistanche were very diverse and depended on both the host plant and their location (organs) in the parasite. The stem and tuber of Cistanche hosted by Salsola had the highest polyphenol content, which was approximately 4 times higher than that in the stem and flowers of Cistanche individuals that parasitized A. maurorum. In addition, the stem and tuber of Cistanche that parasitized S. dendroides was characterized by the highest antioxidant activity (ABTS+, DPPH and FRAP) and high inhibitory activities. Conversely, the amount of polyphenols in the host Alhagi was 12 times higher than that in S. dendroides. These results highlight the importance of C. armena as a promising source of functional and bioactive ingredients (harvested from potential cultivation, not from natural endangered localities) and also draws the attention of future researchers to an important aspect regarding the parasite organ and the host's influence on the harvested material of various parasitic herbs.


Asunto(s)
Cistanche , Armenia , Interacciones Huésped-Parásitos , Fitoquímicos , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem
7.
Indoor Air ; 30(2): 361-369, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724228

RESUMEN

Lavash is a traditional flatbread commonly baked at home by women in Armenia and other Middle Eastern and Caucasus countries. The baking process follows centuries' old recipes and is done primarily in open fire ovens. Data are limited regarding the impact of baking on indoor air quality and health outcomes. This study aimed at assessing the effects of lavash baking on household air pollution and cardiovascular outcomes among women who bake lavash in rural Armenia. A convenience sample of 98 bakers, all women, never-smokers, representing 36 households were enrolled. Carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations and carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels were monitored before, during, and/or after baking. As expected, exposure to concentrations of CO peaking at/or above 35-ppm during baking was more likely to occur in homes with fully enclosed and poorly ventilated baking rooms, compared to those with three or fewer walls and/or one or more windows. Bakers in homes where CO concentrations peaked at/or above 35-ppm were more likely to have an increase in post-baking COHb levels compared to those in homes with lower CO concentrations.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire Interior/estadística & datos numéricos , Monóxido de Carbono/análisis , Carboxihemoglobina/metabolismo , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Armenia , Pan , Culinaria/métodos , Culinaria/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Población Rural
8.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(6): 6352-6361, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31873896

RESUMEN

Endemic fish species of Armenian ichthyofauna-Sevan trout (Salmo ischchan Kessler, 1877)-is registered in the Red Book of Animals of the Republic of Armenia as "Critically Endangered" (corresponds to IUCN category: CR A2cd). Its natural reproduction hardly occurs as a result of numerous problems related to the use and management of water and bio-resources in the Lake Sevan drainage basin. Masrik River is formerly known as a spawning river for two ecological races of the Sevan trout, but there is no up-to-date and in-depth studies of its potential to support natural reproduction. Thus, a set of spawning criteria was arranged as matrix and state of Masrik River as spawning area for the Sevan trout was assessed. The results showed that the potential of different parts of Masrik River to support natural reproduction of Sevan trout varied from quite appropriate to inappropriate. The main limiting factors revealed were water temperature, velocity and substrate conditions.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Ríos , Trucha/fisiología , Animales , Armenia , Lagos , Reproducción , Alimentos Marinos
9.
Chemosphere ; 239: 124809, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527008

RESUMEN

Honey is a highly nutritious natural product widely produced and consumed by people in Shirak and Syunik regions of Armenia. Unlike Shirak, Syunik is under the impact of mining industry. Since the environmental pollution can adversely impact the safety of honey and entail a probable risk to human health, it is important to evaluate the presence of potentially toxic trace elements in honey samples from both regions and draw comparisons. This study assesses the dietary exposure to trace elements and persistent organic pollutants through the intake of honey for the first time among people in Shirak and Syunik regions. 24-hour dietary recall method was used to investigate the consumption of honey. The presence of seven trace elements (Pb, Cd, As, Hg, Cu, Zn, and Ni) and persistent organic pollutants (hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites) were determined in honey samples using atomic absorption spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, respectively. In several samples, the concentrations of Cu were above the maximum allowable level. Non-carcinogenic risk values did not exceed the acceptable level, while carcinogenic risk values for Ni and As exceeded the risk level of 10-6 in both regions. Moreover, among the persistent organic pollutants, only the concentration of DDT in honey from Shirak was above the European Union maximum residue level.


Asunto(s)
Carcinógenos/análisis , DDT/análisis , Exposición Dietética/análisis , Miel/análisis , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Oligoelementos/análisis , Armenia , Contaminantes Ambientales/análisis , Contaminación Ambiental/análisis , Miel/toxicidad , Humanos , Metales Pesados/análisis , Minería , Espectrofotometría
10.
Zootaxa ; 4576(2): zootaxa.4576.2.11, 2019 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715769

RESUMEN

A report is given on the Calliphoridae (Diptera) collected by Adrian C. Pont during recent fieldwork in Armenia. Twenty-six (26) named species have been identified, and of these 21 are newly recorded from Armenia. Various taxonomic characters of Pollenia paragrunini Rognes, 1988, including the large variation in the width of the male frons, are discussed. One new species is described: Pollenia agneteae sp. nov., and is assigned to the Pollenia semicinerea species-group.


Asunto(s)
Dípteros , Animales , Armenia , Cabeza , Masculino
11.
Zootaxa ; 4565(3): zootaxa.4565.3.4, 2019 Mar 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716464

RESUMEN

Two new species of Campoletis Förster (Ichneumonidae: Campopleginae) are described: Campoletis katalinarum sp. nov. from Georgia and Turkey, and Campoletis margaritae sp. nov. from Romania and Armenia. Affixes to the identification key of the most recent revision of the genus are given. Additionally, contributing to the knowledge on biogeographical distribution of several species of the genus, 27 new records of 14 Campoletis species are reported, representing first records for 12 countries in the Palaearctic region.


Asunto(s)
Himenópteros , Animales , Armenia , Georgia , Rumanía , Turquia
12.
Int J Health Care Qual Assur ; 32(8): 1145-1161, 2019 Oct 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566515

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to report the assessment results of the quality of neonatal care services in Armenia and to describe the identified obstacles to improving the quality of care for newborn infants. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: The study carried out a cross-sectional descriptive design. The data were collected in health facilities with different levels of neonatal care that were selected employing a multi-stage, stratified purposeful sampling design. The quality of neonatal services was assessed using the generic WHO tool. Data collection was performed using face-to-face semi-structured interviews, hospital statistics, medical records and direct observations. FINDINGS: In 31 study hospitals, 31,976 deliveries were performed resulting in 31,701 live births and 734 stillbirths. About 85 percent of all neonatal deaths was attributable to early neonatal deaths with over 48 percent occurring during the first 24 h of life. The proportion of neonatal deaths was highest in infants with low birth weight constituting 92.8 percent of all neonatal deaths. The total neonatal mortality rate was 3.50 per 1,000 live births, whereas stillbirth rate and perinatal mortality rate were 22.60 and 25.26 per 1,000 total births in 2015. Specific indicators with relatively lower mean scores included neonatal resuscitation, early breastfeeding, monitoring of newborn conditions, neonatal sepsis, feeding standards, total parenteral nutrition, and infection treatment. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: Given the limited scope of research on quality assessment, this paper provides valuable information on the status of quality of neonatal care services in Armenian health facilities. This work also extends the existing studies focused on quality assessment through applying the model of Avedis Donabedian with the structure-process-outcomes approach as a theoretical basis.


Asunto(s)
Unidades de Cuidado Intensivo Neonatal/normas , Mejoramiento de la Calidad , Armenia/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Hospitales , Humanos , Lactante , Mortalidad Infantil/tendencias , Recién Nacido , Mortinato
13.
Parasitol Res ; 118(12): 3449-3457, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31659453

RESUMEN

We assessed the risk for toxoplasmosis in 10 school restaurants in Armenia (Quindio, Colombia). We analyzed the presence of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in the food, water, and living and inert surfaces of school restaurants, and we correlated these findings with the results of food safety inspection scores and with the prevalence of specific anti-T. gondii antibodies in children who ate at these restaurants. Of the 213 samples, 6.1% were positive using PCR to test for T. gondii DNA. Positive samples were found in meat, water, cucumber, guava juice, inert surfaces, and living surfaces. In 60% (6/10) of the public school restaurants, there was at least one PCR T. gondii-positive sample. In 311 serum samples from children who attended the restaurants, 101 (33%) were positive for IgG and 12 (3.9%) for IgM anti-T. gondii. The median of the compound score for the fulfillment of inspection for food safety conditions was of 60.7% (range 50-72). Higher T. gondii PCR positivity in surfaces, food, or water at each restaurant was correlated with lower inspection scores for water supply and water storage conditions. Lower scores in physical infrastructure and disinfection procedures and higher scores in furniture were correlated with a higher prevalence of IgG anti-T. gondii in children who ate at those restaurants. Inspection scores can identify restaurants with a higher risk for the presence of T. gondii.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Parasitología de Alimentos , Toxoplasma/aislamiento & purificación , Toxoplasmosis/epidemiología , Animales , Anticuerpos Antiidiotipos/sangre , Anticuerpos Antiprotozoarios/sangre , Armenia/epidemiología , Niño , Colombia/epidemiología , Femenino , Inocuidad de los Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Carne/parasitología , Prevalencia , Restaurantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores de Riesgo , Instituciones Académicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Toxoplasma/clasificación , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasmosis/sangre , Toxoplasmosis/diagnóstico , Toxoplasmosis/parasitología
14.
Health Educ Res ; 34(5): 495-504, 2019 10 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504495

RESUMEN

Local coalitions can advance public health initiative but have not been widely used or well-studied in low- and middle-income countries. This paper provides (i) an overview of an ongoing matched-pairs community-randomized controlled trial in 28 communities in Armenia and Georgia (N = 14/country) testing local coalitions to promote smoke-free policies/enforcement and (ii) characteristics of the communities involved. In July-August 2018, key informants (e.g. local public health center directors) were surveyed to compare their non-communicable disease (NCD) and tobacco-related activities across countries and across condition (intervention/control). More than half of the informants (50.0-57.1%) reported their communities had programs addressing hypertension, diabetes, cancer and human papilloma virus, with 85.7% involving community education and 32.1% patient education programs. Eleven communities (39.3%) addressed tobacco control, all of which were in Georgia. Of those, all included public/community education and the majority (72.7-81.8%) provided cessation counseling/classes, school/youth prevention programs, healthcare provider training or activities addressing smoke-free environments. Informants in Georgia versus Armenia perceived greater support for tobacco control from various sectors (e.g. government, community). No differences were found by condition assignment. This paper provides a foundation for presenting subsequent analyses of this ongoing trial. These analyses indicate wide variability regarding NCD-related activities and support across communities and countries.


Asunto(s)
Participación de la Comunidad , Promoción de la Salud/organización & administración , Servicios de Salud Escolar/organización & administración , Política para Fumadores , Adolescente , Armenia , Consejo , Georgia (República) , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Enfermedades no Transmisibles/prevención & control , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Factores Socioeconómicos
15.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0222813, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557211

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: A lack of physician training is a major obstacle for effective tobacco dependence treatment. This study assessed the feasibility of an active learning training program and its effects on smoking cessation counselling skills of medical residents in Armenia, an Eastern European country with high smoking prevalence. STUDY DESIGN: The study used a pre-post assessment of smoking cessation counselling activities and a course evaluation survey to assess the feasibility of the intervention in a different environment. METHODS: We adapted an active learning training model developed in Switzerland. Residents were trained in Yerevan, Armenia, using video-taped counselling sessions, role plays, standardized patients (actors), group discussions and immediate feedback. The training evaluation was done using a semi-structured anonymous questionnaire. The study assessed the physicians' self-reported smoking cessation counselling activities before and 6 months after the training. A non-parametric Mann-Whitney test was used to assess pre-post differences in physicians' counselling skills measured on ordinal scale. RESULTS: Of the 37 residents trained, 75% were female, 89% aged 20-29 years and 83% were never-smokers. Twenty-eight trainees (76%) returned the course evaluation survey and 32 (86%) answered a questionnaire on skills self-assessment at 6 months follow-up. The majority agreed the course was successful in achieving its learning objectives (64%-96%) and increased their confidence in assisting their patients to quit (74%). After 6 months, the physicians were more likely than at baseline to adhere to evidence-based counselling strategies, including assessing the smoking status and dependence and matching the advice to the patient motivation. The training did not, however, improve the prescription of tobacco dependence medications. CONCLUSIONS: Six months after the training, several self-reported smoking cessation counselling activities had significantly improved compared to baseline. This training model is acceptable for medical residents in Yerevan, Armenia and offers a promising approach in addressing the lack of physician counselling skills in similar settings and populations.


Asunto(s)
Consejo/educación , Educación Médica Continua/organización & administración , Médicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Tabaquismo/terapia , Adulto , Armenia , Consejo/estadística & datos numéricos , Educación Médica Continua/métodos , Educación Médica Continua/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios de Factibilidad , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Modelos Educacionales , Simulación de Paciente , Aprendizaje Basado en Problemas/métodos , Aprendizaje Basado en Problemas/organización & administración , Aprendizaje Basado en Problemas/estadística & datos numéricos , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Fumadores/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/estadística & datos numéricos , Tabaquismo/diagnóstico , Adulto Joven
16.
Georgian Med News ; (292-293): 122-129, 2019.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560677

RESUMEN

The organizational aspects of the public health department in the police system play an important role and are of fundamental importance for the preservation and improvement of employees' health. The purpose of this research is to improve the medical support of the Police of the Republic of Armenia on the basis of mathematical modeling of the activities of its various structures and their psycho-emotional state and appealability, morbidity and expert's judgment of validity. The object of the research were the activities of the Medical Department structures of the Police in the Republic of Armenia (indicators of appealability to the polyclinic and hospital, morbidity, experimental decisions of the medical board on validity for the service, results of testing according to Spielberger C.D. and Hanin Y.L, biological age indicators and the RA police officers' aging pace). To perform the work, we used historical, descriptive, social and statistical methods. The final stage was the implementation of multifactorial analysis system in order to obtain a mathematical model of the process. According to the analysis, in terms of their importance, the influence on the formation of the presented integral mathematical model has a particularly significant impact on the indicators of biological age and aging rate, as well as classes of diseases and activities of the police departments of the RA Police, and relatively low impact of other indicators, such as expert decisions, appealability to the polyclinic of the MA Police of Armenia both in therapeutic and surgical diseases. At the same time, seems that both the polyclinic and the medical commission of the police medical administration in their current format of activity practically are not integrated into the functioning of the medical police administration of the Republic of Armenia for medical support of employees. The latter suggests the need for restructuring and optimization of both the structure and functioning of the medical management of the RA Police.


Asunto(s)
Modelos Teóricos , Policia , Armenia , Humanos
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418625

RESUMEN

The article presents the results of a dynamic study (spring, summer, and fall) of the residues of certain xenobiotics such as organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), synthetic surfactants (SSs) in surface water, soil, sludge, snow and phytotoxic activity in Ararat and Lori marzes of Armenia (2016-2017). A comparative analysis of the environmental status showed that all pollutants studied such as γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH), 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (4,4'-DDT), and p-p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (4,4'-DDE) were identified in Ararat marz with the average concentrations and detection rates higher than in Lori marz. The prominent contaminant was γ-HCH. The findings indicated the concentrations of OCPs below of regulatory concern. In Ararat marz an increase in the number of sterile pollen grains of certain wild plants was revealed (14.8-26.0%), compared with Lori marz with the levels within the contingent standard of 5-11%. The phytotoxic activity of soil samples from the Ararat marz studied on Avena sativa seedlings was significantly higher in the summer-fall period. These data correlated with monitoring findings showed an increase in the levels of γ-HCH, 4,4'-DDT, SS in the soil and sludge sampled in summer-fall in Ararat marz. This difference in the environmental status can be considered as the result of active agriculture in Ararat marz, whose share of contribution to a relevant branch of the economy of Armenia is two times higher than in Lori marz, 15.4% and 7.9%, respectively. Mentioned rates of agricultural production may be one of the reasons for the environmental deterioration in Ararat marz. The detection of 4,4-DDT, γ-HCH residues testifies the circulation of these formulations in the environment indicating their use in recent past and confirming their persistence. Although since the 70s of the last century the application of OCPs in the Republic of Armenia has been prohibited. The current situation may be explained by low awareness of farmers on different issues related to the safe management of pesticides. To ensure safe working conditions and raise awareness among the farmers we have developed "Recommendations on Safety requirements when working with pesticides" that are approved by the State Service for Food Safety at the Ministry of Agriculture of RA and included in the reference booklets for farmers as guiding information. Our study shows the understanding of associations between the deterioration of the environmental status and share of agriculture contribution to the economy that provides the evidence for future research programs.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura , Herbicidas/análisis , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Suelo/química , Xenobióticos/análisis , Armenia , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Contaminantes Ambientales/análisis , Herbicidas/toxicidad , Humanos , Hidrocarburos Clorados/análisis , Plaguicidas/análisis , Estaciones del Año , Contaminantes del Suelo/toxicidad , Pruebas de Toxicidad , Xenobióticos/toxicidad
18.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 294(6): 1547-1559, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31372716

RESUMEN

Distinctive peculiarities of Armenians such as their millennia-long genetic isolation and strong national identity attract a keen interest while studying the demographic history of the West Asia. Here, to examine their fine-scale matrilineal genetic structure, ancestry and relationships with neighboring populations, we analyzed 536 complete mitogenomes (141 of which are novel) from 8 geographically different Armenian populations, covering the whole stretch of historical Armenia. The observed patterns highlight a remarkable degree of matrilineal genetic heterogeneity and weak population structuring of Armenians. Moreover, our phylogeographic analysis reveals common ancestries for some mtDNA lineages shared by West Asians, Transcaucasians, Europeans, Central Asians and Armenians. About third of the mtDNA subhaplogroups found in Armenian gene pool might be considered as Armenian-specific, as these are virtually absent elsewhere in Europe, West Asia and Transcaucasia. Coalescence ages of most of these lineages do not exceed 3.1 kya and coincide well with the population size growth started around 1.8-2.8 kya detectable only in the Bayesian Skyline Plots based on the Armenian-specific mtDNA haplotypes.


Asunto(s)
Genoma Mitocondrial , Armenia , Asia Central , Asia Occidental , ADN Mitocondrial/química , Europa (Continente) , Variación Genética , Haplotipos , Humanos , Filogenia , Filogeografía
19.
Ann Parasitol ; 65(2): 113-120, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375024

RESUMEN

The review provides data on species composition of nematode parasites of cattle, sheep, goats and wild ruminants (Ovis orientalis gmelini, Capreolus capreolus, Capra aegagrus aegagrus) of Armenia. Six species of lung nematodes and 22 species of gastrointestinal ones have been registered in ruminants of Armenia. Five of the species listed in the review (Protostrongylus davtiani, Protostrongylus muraschkinzewi, Nematodirus davtiani, Trichostrongylus andreevi, Trichostrongylus skrjabini) have been first identified in Armenia. The ruminant host species most studied for this territory is a domestic sheep. Data on nematodes of goats and wild ruminants are limited to sporadic reports. Data on nematodes of cattle are limited to the only one species ­ Neoascaris vitulorum. Most of the nematode species found in Armenia are common for all ruminant host species living here and noted as widespread all over the world. Eight species of nematodes detected in ruminants of Armenia able to infect humans. The taxonomy of some rare species of nematodes reported from ruminants in Armenia is not entirely clear and should be re-evaluated basing on thorough studies.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Nematodos , Infecciones por Nematodos , Rumiantes , Animales , Animales Domésticos/parasitología , Animales Salvajes/parasitología , Armenia , Nematodos/clasificación , Infecciones por Nematodos/parasitología , Infecciones por Nematodos/veterinaria , Rumiantes/parasitología
20.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 6939684, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31380434

RESUMEN

Background: Intimate partner violence is a major problem worldwide and it is one of the most social issues in Armenia. Empowerment is one of the important factors that helps women to break the cycle of violence by their husband/partner. The aim of this research is to explore the impact of intimate partner violence on empowerment of Armenian women of reproductive age group. Methods: This cross-sectional study used data Armenia Demography and Health Survey Data 2015-16. A total 6116 women were selected from 8749 households at both urban and rural places of Armenia for interview using multistage cluster sampling technique. Data analysis was performed using SPSS version 24. Results: The respondents aged between 35 and 49 years are more likely to face violence compared to other age group (p≤0.001). The respondents who have no decision-making power, about 89% of them, are experiencing intimate partner violence, whereas only 11% are facing intimate partner violence among those who have decision-making power (p≤0.001). The logistic regression analysis reveals that age of the respondents, number of children in the households, wealth index, and empowerment status are significantly associated with intimate partner violence. Conclusion: Intimate partner violence has significant impact on the empowerment of women in Armenia. This study revealed that women with no empowerment are more likely to experience intimate partner violence compared to those women who are empowered in Armenian society.


Asunto(s)
Empoderamiento , Violencia de Pareja , Parejas Sexuales/psicología , Adulto , Armenia/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores de Riesgo , Esposos/psicología
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