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1.
Science ; 368(6487)2020 04 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32273437

RESUMEN

Davis et al (Research Articles, 30 August 2019, p. 891) report human occupation at Cooper's Ferry, Idaho, USA, ~16,000 years ago, well before Greenland Interstadial 1 (GI-1). Critical review suggests that this early date is not supported by the evidence. Human occupation might have begun in the mid-16th millennium before the present, but would have been more likely after ~15,000 years ago, coeval with GI-1.


Asunto(s)
Arqueología , Ocupaciones , Humanos , Idaho
2.
Science ; 368(6487)2020 04 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32273440

RESUMEN

Manning builds an inappropriate Bayesian age model to assert that the initial occupation at Cooper's Ferry began only ~15,935 ± 75 to 15,130 ± 20 cal yr B.P., suggesting that our estimation of ~16,560 to 15,280 cal yr B.P. is unsupported. However, this analysis both ignores evidence of human occupation from the earliest undated cultural deposits and reflects a misapplication of Bayesian age-modeling techniques. Consequently, his results are unreliable.


Asunto(s)
Ocupaciones , Arqueología , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Idaho
3.
Science ; 367(6485)2020 03 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217702

RESUMEN

Marine food-reliant subsistence systems such as those in the African Middle Stone Age (MSA) were not thought to exist in Europe until the much later Mesolithic. Whether this apparent lag reflects taphonomic biases or behavioral distinctions between archaic and modern humans remains much debated. Figueira Brava cave, in the Arrábida range (Portugal), provides an exceptionally well preserved record of Neandertal coastal resource exploitation on a comparable scale to the MSA and dated to ~86 to 106 thousand years ago. The breadth of the subsistence base-pine nuts, marine invertebrates, fish, marine birds and mammals, tortoises, waterfowl, and hoofed game-exceeds that of regional early Holocene sites. Fisher-hunter-gatherer economies are not the preserve of anatomically modern people; by the Last Interglacial, they were in place across the Old World in the appropriate settings.


Asunto(s)
Dieta , Hombre de Neandertal , Exoesqueleto , Animales , Arqueología , Océano Atlántico , Aves , Cuevas , Peces , Mamíferos , Nueces , Pinus , Portugal , Alimentos Marinos , Tortugas
4.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228546, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027712

RESUMEN

A cave site Shelter in Smolen III (southern Poland) contains an approximately 2-m-thick stratified sequence of Upper Pleistocene and Holocene clastic sediments, unique for Central Europe. The sequence contents abundant fossil fauna, including mollusk, rodent and bat remains. The cave sites with long profiles of subfossil fauna present a great value for reconstructions of regional terrestrial paleoenvironment. We explore the stratigraphy of this site through analyses of the lithology and geochemistry of sediments, radiocarbon dating of faunal and human remains and charcoals, and archaeological study, as well as the paleoecology derived from the taxonomic composition of fossil faunal assemblages. Our data show that the entire period of the Holocene is recorded in the rockshelter, which makes that site an exceptional and highly valuable case. We present paleoenvironmental reconstructions of regional importance, and we propose to regard Shelter in Smolen III as a regional stratigraphic stratotype of Holocene clastic cave sediments.


Asunto(s)
Arqueología/métodos , Cuevas/química , Sedimentos Geológicos/análisis , Paleontología/métodos , Animales , Quirópteros/clasificación , Clasificación , Bases de Datos Factuales , Europa (Continente) , Fósiles/patología , Historia Antigua , Humanos , Moluscos/clasificación , Polonia , Roedores/clasificación
5.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0226628, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023252

RESUMEN

The Kimberley region of Western Australia is one of the largest and most diverse rock art provenances in the world, with a complex stylistic sequence spanning at least 16 ka, culminating in the modern art-making of the Wunumbal people. The Gunu Site Complex, in the remote Mitchell River region of the northwest Kimberley, is one of many local expressions of the Kimberley rock art sequence. Here we report excavations at two sites in this complex: Gunu Rock, a sand sheet adjacent to rock art panels; and Gunu Cave, a floor deposit within an extensive rockshelter. Excavations at Gunu Rock provide evidence for two phases of occupation, the first from 7-8 to 2.7 ka, and the second from 1064 cal BP. Excavations at Gunu Rock provide evidence for occupation from the end of the second phase to the recent past. Stone for tools in the early phase were procured from a variety of sources, but quartz crystal reduction dominated the second occupation phase. Small quartz crystals were reduced by freehand percussion to provide small flake tools and blanks for manufacturing small points called nguni by the Wunambal people today. Quartz crystals were prominent in historic ritual practices associated with the Wanjina belief system. Complex methods of making bifacially-thinned and pressure flaked quartzite projectile points emerged after 2.7 ka. Ochre pigments were common in both occupation phases, but evidence for occupation contemporaneous with the putative age of the oldest rock art styles was not discovered in the excavations. Our results show that developing a complete understanding of rock art production and local occupation patterns requires paired excavations inside and outside of the rockshelters that dominate the Kimberley.


Asunto(s)
Arqueología , Arte , Cuevas , Geografía , Imagenología Tridimensional , Australia Occidental
6.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0227579, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027685

RESUMEN

Questions about the evolution of material culture are widespread in the humanities and social sciences. Statistical modeling of long-term changes in material culture is less common due to a lack of appropriate frameworks. Our goal is to close this gap and provide robust statistical methods for examining changes in the diversity of material culture. We provide an open-source and quantitative workflow for estimating rates of origination, extinction, and preservation, as well as identifying key shift points in the diversification histories of material culture. We demonstrate our approach using two distinct kinds of data: age ranges for the production of American car models, and radiocarbon dates associated with archaeological cultures of the European Neolithic. Our approach improves on existing frameworks by disentangling the relative contributions of origination and extinction to diversification. Our method also permits rigorous statistical testing of competing hypotheses to explain changes in diversity. Finally, we stress the value of a flexible approach that can be applied to data in various forms; this flexibility allows scholars to explore commonalities between forms of material culture and ask questions about the general properties of cultural change.


Asunto(s)
Arqueología , Evolución Cultural , Modelos Teóricos , Vehículos a Motor , Flujo de Trabajo , Bases de Datos como Asunto , Europa (Continente) , Factores de Tiempo
7.
Microb Biotechnol ; 13(2): 406-409, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053292

RESUMEN

The cultivation of yeasts from up to 5000-year-old beer vessels in Israel allows insights into early domestication of microbes for food production, but also raises questions about long-term survival of microbes under dormancy or slow growth.


Asunto(s)
Arqueología , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Cerveza
8.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229363, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092129

RESUMEN

Post-marital residence patterns are an important aspect of human social organization. However, identifying such patterns in prehistoric societies is challenging since they leave almost no direct traces in archaeological records. Cross-cultural researchers have attempted to identify correlates of post-marital residence through the statistical analysis of ethnographic data. Several studies have demonstrated that, in agricultural societies, large dwellings (over ca. 65 m2) are associated with matrilocality (spouse resides with or near the wife's family), whereas smaller dwellings are associated with patrilocality (spouse resides with or near the husband's family). In the present study, we tested the association between post-marital residence and dwelling size (average house floor area) using phylogenetic comparative methods and a global sample of 86 pre-industrial societies, 22 of which were matrilocal. Our analysis included the presence of agriculture, sedentism, and durability of house construction material as additional explanatory variables. The results confirm a strong association between matrilocality and dwelling size, although very large dwellings (over ca. 200 m2) were found to be associated with all types of post-marital residence. The best model combined dwelling size, post-marital residence pattern, and sedentism, the latter being the single best predictor of house size. The effect of agriculture on dwelling size becomes insignificant once the fixity of settlement is taken into account. Our results indicate that post-marital residence and house size evolve in a correlated fashion, namely that matrilocality is a predictable response to an increase in dwelling size. As such, we suggest that reliable inferences about the social organization of prehistoric societies can be made from archaeological records.


Asunto(s)
Arqueología , Composición Familiar , Vivienda , Matrimonio , Filogenia , Antropología , Demografía/historia , Composición Familiar/historia , Femenino , Historia Antigua , Vivienda/historia , Humanos , Masculino , Matrimonio/historia , Dinámica Poblacional/historia , Características de la Residencia/historia
10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 939, 2020 02 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32094358

RESUMEN

The island of Sardinia has been of particular interest to geneticists for decades. The current model for Sardinia's genetic history describes the island as harboring a founder population that was established largely from the Neolithic peoples of southern Europe and remained isolated from later Bronze Age expansions on the mainland. To evaluate this model, we generate genome-wide ancient DNA data for 70 individuals from 21 Sardinian archaeological sites spanning the Middle Neolithic through the Medieval period. The earliest individuals show a strong affinity to western Mediterranean Neolithic populations, followed by an extended period of genetic continuity on the island through the Nuragic period (second millennium BCE). Beginning with individuals from Phoenician/Punic sites (first millennium BCE), we observe spatially-varying signals of admixture with sources principally from the eastern and northern Mediterranean. Overall, our analysis sheds light on the genetic history of Sardinia, revealing how relationships to mainland populations shifted over time.


Asunto(s)
ADN Antiguo , ADN Mitocondrial/genética , Genética de Población/historia , Migración Humana , Modelos Genéticos , Arqueología/métodos , Restos Mortales , Cromosomas Humanos X/genética , Cromosomas Humanos Y/genética , Conjuntos de Datos como Asunto , Femenino , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Historia Antigua , Historia Medieval , Humanos , Italia , Masculino , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN
11.
Nature ; 578(7796): 490, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32103199
12.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0228290, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999766

RESUMEN

The lithic assemblage of Barranco León (BL), attributed to the Oldowan techno-complex, contributes valuable information to reconstruct behavioral patterning of the first hominins to disperse into Western Europe. This archaic stone tool assemblage comprises two, very different groups of tools, made from distinct raw materials. On the one hand, a small-sized toolkit knapped from Jurassic flint, comprising intensively exploited cores and small-sized flakes and fragments and, on the other hand, a large-sized limestone toolkit that is mainly linked to percussive activities. In recent years, the limestone macro-tools have been the center of particular attention, leading to a re-evaluation of their role in the assemblage. Main results bring to light strict hominin selective processes, mainly concerning the quality of the limestone and the morphology of the cobbles, in relation to their use-patterning. In addition to the variety of traces of percussion identified on the limestone tools, recurrences have recently been documented in their positioning and in the morphology of the active surfaces. Coupled with experimental work, this data has contributed to formulating hypothesis about the range of uses for these tools, beyond stone knapping and butchery, for activities such as: wood-working or tendon and meat tenderizing. The abundance of hammerstones, as well as the presence of heavy-duty scrapers, are special features recognized for the limestone component of the Barranco León assemblage. This paper presents, for the first time, another characteristic of the assemblage: the presence of polyhedral and, especially, subspheroid morphologies, virtually unknown in the European context for this timeframe. We present an analysis of these tools, combining qualitative evaluation of the raw materials, diacritical study, 3D geometric morphometric analysis of facet angles and an evaluation of the type and position of percussive traces; opening up the discussion of the late Oldowan beyond the African context.


Asunto(s)
Hominidae/fisiología , Comportamiento del Uso de la Herramienta/fisiología , Animales , Arqueología , Evolución Cultural , Fósiles , Historia Antigua , España
13.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227259, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31968000

RESUMEN

The paper discusses results of an interdisciplinary research project integrating lead isotope, chemical, and archaeological analysis of 20 early metal objects from central Italy. The aim of the research was to develop robust provenance hypotheses for 4th and 3rd millennia BC metals from an important, yet hitherto neglected, metallurgical district in prehistoric Europe, displaying precocious copper mining and smelting, as well as socially significant uses of metals in 'Rinaldone-style' burials. All major (and most minor) ore bodies from Tuscany and neighbouring regions were characterised chemically and isotopically, and 20 Copper Age axe-heads, daggers and halberds were sampled and analysed. The objects were also reassessed archaeologically, paying special attention to find context, typology, and chronology. This multi-pronged approach has allowed us to challenge received wisdom concerning the local character of early metal production and exchange in the region. The research has shown that most objects were likely manufactured in west-central Italy using copper from Southern Tuscany and, quite possibly, the Apuanian Alps. A few objects, however, display isotopic and chemical signatures compatible with the Western Alpine and, in one case, French ore deposits. This shows that the Copper Age communities of west-central Italy participated in superregional exchange networks tying together the middle/upper Tyrrhenian region, the western Alps, and perhaps the French Midi. These networks were largely independent from other metal displacement circuits in operation at the time, which embraced the north-Alpine region and the south-eastern Alps, respectively.


Asunto(s)
Arqueología , Metalurgia/historia , Minería/historia , Aleaciones/historia , Entierro/historia , Carbón Mineral/historia , Cobre/historia , Geografía , Historia Antigua , Isótopos/análisis , Italia , Plomo/análisis
14.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227288, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31968007

RESUMEN

The history of mudbrick production and construction in the southern Levant may be dated as far back to the Pre-Pottery Neolithic A. However, at many of the sites where mudbrick remains were noted, their preservation was poor, so investigation of their production and the related construction techniques in antiquity was precluded. The 7,200 year old (cal BP) site of Tel Tsaf, located in the Jordan Valley, is distinguished by outstanding preservation of mudbrick architecture, which enables us to delve into various issues related to mudbrick technology, construction and preservation. The present paper discusses some of the mudbrick features at Tel Tsaf and their characteristics and offers a comprehensive analytical study of the mudbricks from multiple contexts and phases. These demonstrate consistency in three of the four measured variables: magnetic susceptibility, organic content and calcium carbonate equivalent. The results of our study suggest that while we can identify morphometric variability between bricks and walls, by and large, a uniform composition characterized the tested assemblages without any temporal or spatial variability. This indicates that a single locally-sourced raw material was used and that recycling of old decayed mudbricks was likely practiced. The consistency of mudbrick-production during all phases of the occupation at Tel Tsaf and the absence of multiple recipes implies that a shared production and technological know-how was maintained for at least 500 years at the site.


Asunto(s)
Arquitectura/historia , Materiales de Construcción/historia , Arqueología , Historia Antigua , Humanos , Israel
15.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227276, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31968012

RESUMEN

The earliest Neolithic of southwest Asia is generally perceived and portrayed as a period of emerging economic practices that anticipated full-fledged food-producing economies. This first Neolithic, however, can also be seen as the last gasp of an earlier way of life that remained fundamentally Epipaleolithic in character. While people at this time had begun to cultivate some of the plant foods gathered in preceding periods, and to live for lengthy periods in sites with substantial architecture, they also relied on hunting for a significant portion of their diet and logistical movement across landscapes to exploit diverse environments. The objective of our research on Nachcharini Cave, the only excavated early Neolithic site in the high mountains of northeastern Lebanon, is to evaluate its role in a form of logistical organization not well attested at other sites in the Levant during this period. On the basis of material that Bruce Schroeder excavated in the 1970s, we present here for the first time analyses of faunal and lithic evidence from Nachcharini Cave, along with new radiocarbon dates that place the major occupation layer of the site firmly in the earliest Neolithic. We conclude that Nachcharini was a short-term hunting camp that was periodically used over some two centuries.


Asunto(s)
Animales Salvajes , Arqueología , Dieta Paleolítica/historia , Actividades Humanas/historia , Ovinos , Altitud , Animales , Ecosistema , Historia Antigua , Humanos , Líbano
17.
Nature ; 577(7792): 665-670, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969706

RESUMEN

Our knowledge of ancient human population structure in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly prior to the advent of food production, remains limited. Here we report genome-wide DNA data from four children-two of whom were buried approximately 8,000 years ago and two 3,000 years ago-from Shum Laka (Cameroon), one of the earliest known archaeological sites within the probable homeland of the Bantu language group1-11. One individual carried the deeply divergent Y chromosome haplogroup A00, which today is found almost exclusively in the same region12,13. However, the genome-wide ancestry profiles of all four individuals are most similar to those of present-day hunter-gatherers from western Central Africa, which implies that populations in western Cameroon today-as well as speakers of Bantu languages from across the continent-are not descended substantially from the population represented by these four people. We infer an Africa-wide phylogeny that features widespread admixture and three prominent radiations, including one that gave rise to at least four major lineages deep in the history of modern humans.


Asunto(s)
Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana/genética , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana/historia , Conducta Alimentaria/etnología , Migración Humana/historia , Filogenia , Alelos , Animales , Arqueología , Entierro , Camerún , Niño , Preescolar , Cromosomas Humanos Y/genética , ADN Antiguo/análisis , Femenino , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Genética de Población , Genoma Humano/genética , Haplotipos/genética , Historia Antigua , Humanos , Lenguaje/historia , Masculino , Pan troglodytes/genética , Análisis de Componente Principal
18.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227433, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31990948

RESUMEN

A multidisciplinary approach, combining stable isotope analysis from bone proteins and investigations on dental calculus using DNA analysis, light microscopy, and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, was applied to reconstruct dietary and medicinal habits of the individuals recovered in the cemetery of the Castle of Santa Severa (7th-15th centuries CE; Rome, Italy). Stable isotope analysis was performed on 120 humans, 41 faunal specimens and 8 charred seeds. Dental calculus analyses were carried out on 94 samples. Overall, isotope data indicated an omnivorous diet based on C3-terrestrial protein, although some individuals possessed carbon values indicative of C4 plant consumption. In terms of animal protein, the diet was probably based on cattle, sheep, pig and chicken products, as witnessed by the archaeozoological findings. Evidence from calculus suggested the consumption of C3 cereals, Fabaceae, Fagaceae, milk and dairy products. Secondary metabolites of herbs and wine were also detected. The detection of marine fish ancient DNA, as well as of ω3 fatty acids in calculus, hypothesized the consumption of marine foodstuffs for this coastal population, despite the lack of a clear marine isotopic signal and the presence of polyunsaturated fatty acids in plant tissues. Moreover, the knowledge of ethnopharmacological tradition and the application of medicinal plants (e.g. Punica granatum L., Ephedra sp. L.) were also identified. The detection of artemisinin, known to have antimalarial properties, led to hypothesize the presence of malaria in the area. Altogether, the combined application of microscopy and biomolecular techniques provided an innovative reconstruction of Medieval lifeways in Central Italy.


Asunto(s)
Arqueología , Huesos/química , Cementerios , ADN Antiguo/análisis , Dieta/historia , Animales , Huesos/metabolismo , Historia Medieval , Humanos , Roma
19.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0226082, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923265

RESUMEN

This paper shows that local differences in house orientation in settlements from the Early Neolithic in Central Europe reflect a regular chronological trajectory based on Bayesian calibration of 14C-series. This can be used to extrapolate the dating of large-scale settlement plans derived from, among other methods, geophysical surveys. In the southwest Slovakian settlement of Vráble, we observed a progressive counter-clockwise rotation in house orientation from roughly 32° to 4° over a 300 year period. A survey of published and dated village plans from other LBK regions confirms that this counter-clockwise rotation per settlement is a wider Central European trend. We explain this observation as an unintentional, unconscious but systematic leftward deviation in the house builders' cardinal orientation, which has been termed "pseudoneglect" in studies of human perception. This means that whenever houses were intended to be oriented towards a specific direction and be parallel to each other, there was an error in perception causing slight counter-clockwise rotation. This observation is used as a basis to reconstruct dynamics of Early Neolithic settlement in the Slovakian Zitava valley, showing a rapid colonization, followed by increased agglomeration into large villages consisting of strongly autonomous farmsteads.


Asunto(s)
Arqueología , Vivienda/historia , Teorema de Bayes , Europa (Continente) , Historia Antigua , Humanos , Datación Radiométrica
20.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0226690, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940356

RESUMEN

Excavated in 1949, Grotta dei Moscerini, dated MIS 5 to early MIS 4, is one of two Italian Neandertal sites with a large assemblage of retouched shells (n = 171) from 21 layers. The other occurrence is from the broadly contemporaneous layer L of Grotta del Cavallo in southern Italy (n = 126). Eight other Mousterian sites in Italy and one in Greece also have shell tools but in a very small number. The shell tools are made on valves of the smooth clam Callista chione. The general idea that the valves of Callista chione were collected by Neandertals on the beach after the death of the mollusk is incomplete. At Moscerini 23.9% of the specimens were gathered directly from the sea floor as live animals by skin diving Neandertals. Archaeological data from sites in Italy, France and Spain confirm that shell fishing and fresh water fishing was a common activity of Neandertals, as indicated by anatomical studies recently published by E. Trinkaus. Lithic analysis provides data to show the relation between stone tools and shell tools. Several layers contain pumices derived from volcanic eruptions in the Ischia Island or the Campi Flegrei (prior to the Campanian Ignimbrite mega-eruption). Their rounded edges indicate that they were transported by sea currents to the beach at the base of the Moscerini sequence. Their presence in the occupation layers above the beach is discussed. The most plausible hypothesis is that they were collected by Neandertals. Incontrovertible evidence that Neandertals collected pumices is provided by a cave in Liguria. Use of pumices as abraders is well documented in the Upper Paleolithic. We prove that the exploitation of submerged aquatic resources and the collection of pumices common in the Upper Paleolithic were part of Neandertal behavior well before the arrival of modern humans in Western Europe.


Asunto(s)
Organismos Acuáticos , Hombre de Neandertal , Comportamiento del Uso de la Herramienta , Exoesqueleto , Animales , Arqueología , Bivalvos/anatomía & histología , Italia , Silicatos
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