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1.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113919, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731944

RESUMEN

Coral bleaching has increasingly impacted reefs worldwide over the past four decades. Despite almost 40 years of research into the mechanistic, physiological, ecological, biophysical and climatic drivers of coral bleaching, metrics to allow comparison between ecological observations and experimental simulations still do not exist. Here we describe a novel metric - experimental Degree Heating Week (eDHW) - with which to standardise the persistently variable thermal conditions employed across experimental studies of coral bleaching by modify the widely used Degree Heating Week (DHW) metric used in ecological studies to standardise cumulative heat loading.


Asunto(s)
Antozoos , Calor , Animales , Arrecifes de Coral
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150178, 2022 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798733

RESUMEN

Coral reefs are likely to be exposed to more intense cyclones under climate change. Cyclone impacts are spatially highly variable given complex hydrodynamics, and coral-specific sensitivity to wave impacts. Predicting reef vulnerability to cyclones is critical to management but requires high resolution environmental data that are difficult to obtain over broad spatial scales. Using 30m-resolution wave modelling, we tested cyclonic and non-cyclonic wave metrics as predictors of coral damage on 22 reefs after severe cyclone Ita impacted the northern Great Barrier Reef, Australia in 2014. Analyses of coral cover change accounting for the type of coral along a gradient of vulnerability to wave damage (e.g., massive, branching, Acroporids) excluded cyclone-generated surface wave metrics (derived from wave height) as important predictors. Increased bottom stress wave environment (near-bed wave orbital velocity) due to Ita (Ita-Ub) explained spatial patterns of 17% to 46% total coral cover loss only when the initial abundance of Acroporids was accounted for, and only when exceeding 35% cover. Greater coral losses occurred closer to the cyclone path irrespective of coral type. Massive and encrusting corals, however, had losses exacerbated in higher non-cyclonic bottom-wave energy environments (nc-Ub). The effect of community composition on structural vulnerability to wave damage was more important predicting damage that the magnitude of the cyclone-generated waves, especially when reefs are surveyed well beyond where damaging waves are expected to occur. Exposure to Ita-Ub was greater in typically high nc-Ub environments with relatively low cover of the most fragile morphologies explaining why these were the least affected overall. We reveal that the common surface-wave metrics of cyclone intensity may not always be able to predict spatial impacts and conclude that reef vulnerability assessments need to account for chronic wave patterns and differences in community composition in order to provide predictive tools for future conservation and restoration.


Asunto(s)
Antozoos , Tormentas Ciclónicas , Animales , Benchmarking , Cambio Climático , Arrecifes de Coral , Ecosistema
3.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(12): 828, 2021 Nov 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34796405

RESUMEN

Within Pacific Small Island Developing States (Pacific SIDS), the ridge-to-reef (R2R) approach has emerged as a framework for monitoring river connectivity between terrestrial and marine ecosystems. The study measured water quality, including pH, over 88.40 km of the Ba River in Fiji. The sampling design focused on measuring spatio-temporal variability in pH throughout the sugarcane season with three rapid sampling periods (RSP1, 2 & 3) along the Ba River, together with continuous measurement of temperature and pH using stationary data loggers at two locations upstream and downstream of the sugar mill. Spatial variability in pH and water quality was characterised before (RSP1 and RSP2) and during (RSP3) the sugarcane season. Mean pH measured before the sugarcane crushing season for RSP1 and RSP2 were 8.16 (± 0.49) and 8.20 (± 0.61) respectively. During the sugarcane crushing season (RSP3), mean pH declined by 3.06 units to 6.94 within 42 m downstream of the sugar mill (P ≤ 0.001). The 3.06 unit decline in pH for RSP3 exceeded both the mean diurnal variation in pH of 0.39 and mean seasonal variation in pH of 2.01. This decline in pH could be a potential source of acidification to downstream coastal ecosystems with implications for coral reefs, biodiversity and fishery livelihoods.


Asunto(s)
Antozoos , Saccharum , Animales , Arrecifes de Coral , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Fiji , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Estaciones del Año
4.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 147: 47-61, 2021 Nov 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34789587

RESUMEN

Sponges are fundamental components of coral reef communities and, unfortunately, like other major benthic members, they too have been impacted by epizootic and panzootic events. We report on the prevalence of disease-like conditions affecting populations of the giant barrel sponge Xestospongia muta across shallow and mesophotic coral reefs off La Parguera Natural Reserve (LPNR) and Mona Island Marine Reserve (MIMR) in Puerto Rico. Four different conditions affecting X. muta were observed during our surveys, of which 3 have been previously reported: cyclic spotted bleaching (CSB; apparently non-lethal), Xestospongia-tissue wasting disease (X-TWD; apparently lethal), and sponge orange band disease (SOB; sparsely associated with X-TWD infected individuals). Additionally, we describe a fourth condition, Xestospongia-tissue hardening condition (X-THC), a previously unreported disease recently observed along the insular shelf margin off LPNR and MIMR. Within LPNR, a total of 764 specimens of X. muta were inspected and measured. Of these, 590 sponges (72.2%) had CSB, 25 (3.27%) had signs of X-TWD, 7 (0.92%) had SOB, and the remaining 142 (18.6%) were apparently healthy. Three colonies inhabiting upper mesophotic depths on the LPNR insular shelf showed signs of CSB and X-TWD. At MIMR, video-transect surveys revealed a total of 514 colonies, of which 40 (7.78%) had signs of CSB and/or XTWD, 14 (2.72%) were affected by X-THC, while the remaining 460 (89.5%) showed no external signs of disease and appeared healthy. The presence of 4 concomitant disease-like conditions in barrel sponges of Puerto Rico is alarming, and indicative of the deteriorating status of Caribbean coral reefs.


Asunto(s)
Antozoos , Xestospongia , Animales , Arrecifes de Coral , Ecosistema , Puerto Rico/epidemiología
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5731, 2021 09 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593802

RESUMEN

As coral reefs struggle to survive under climate change, it is crucial to know whether they have the capacity to withstand changing conditions, particularly increasing seawater temperatures. Thermal tolerance requires the integrative response of the different components of the coral holobiont (coral host, algal photosymbiont, and associated microbiome). Here, using a controlled thermal stress experiment across three divergent Caribbean coral species, we attempt to dissect holobiont member metatranscriptome responses from coral taxa with different sensitivities to heat stress and use phylogenetic ANOVA to study the evolution of gene expression adaptation. We show that coral response to heat stress is a complex trait derived from multiple interactions among holobiont members. We identify host and photosymbiont genes that exhibit lineage-specific expression level adaptation and uncover potential roles for bacterial associates in supplementing the metabolic needs of the coral-photosymbiont duo during heat stress. Our results stress the importance of integrative and comparative approaches across a wide range of species to better understand coral survival under the predicted rise in sea surface temperatures.


Asunto(s)
Aclimatación/genética , Antozoos/microbiología , Dinoflagelados/genética , Respuesta al Choque Térmico , Microbiota/genética , Animales , Antozoos/fisiología , Región del Caribe , Arrecifes de Coral , Dinoflagelados/metabolismo , Evolución Molecular , Redes y Vías Metabólicas/genética , Fotosíntesis/genética , Filogenia , Simbiosis/genética
6.
Mar Genomics ; 60: 100877, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627550

RESUMEN

The settlement and metamorphosis of coral larvae are the bottleneck of coral recruitment. They are critical for the extension of coral population, which is the basis of the restoration of degraded coral reef ecosystem. In this study, we described the genomic characteristics of Metabacillus sp. cB07, which can efficiently induce larvae settlement and metamorphosis of coral Pocillopora damicornis. This function is first reported in the genus Metabacillus. Strain cB07 was isolated from the coral Porites pukoensis, and comprised one circular chromosome of 4,148,576 bp (44.14 mol% G + C content), containing 4148 protein coding sequences. To explore the potential mechanism of coral larvae settlement and metamorphosis induced by Metabacillus sp. cB07, we predicted that numerous genes related to the bacterial inductive ability. The genome of Metabacillus sp. cB07 will be helpful for further insights into the mechanism of bacterial induction of settlement and metamorphosis of coral larvae.


Asunto(s)
Antozoos , Animales , Antozoos/genética , Arrecifes de Coral , Ecosistema , Larva/genética , Metamorfosis Biológica
7.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0253867, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610033

RESUMEN

Sharks have declined worldwide and remote sanctuaries are becoming crucial for shark conservation. The southwest Indian Ocean is a hotspot of both terrestrial and marine biodiversity mostly impacted by anthropogenic damage. Sharks were observed during surveys performed from April to June 2013 in the virtually pristine coral reefs around Europa Island, a remote Marine Protected Area located in the southern Mozambique Channel. Observation events comprised 67 1-hour scientific dives between 5 - 35m depth and 7 snorkeling inspections, as well as 4 dinghy-based observations in the shallow lagoon. In a period of 24 days, 475 sharks were tallied. Carcharhinus galapagensis was most encountered and contributed 20% of the abundance during diving, followed by C. albimarginatus (10%). Both species were more abundant between 11-14h, and on the exposed sides of the island. Numbers of Sphyrna lewini were highest with 370 individuals windward and leeward, mostly schooling. S. lewini aggregations in the area are hypothesized to be attracted to the seamount archipelago offering favorable conditions for deep incursions and of which Europa Island forms part. C. amblyrhynchos, Galeocerdo cuvier and S. mokarran were uncommon, while there was an additional observation of Rhincodon typus. The lagoon of Europa was a nursery ground for C. melanopterus where it was the only species present. A total of 8 species was recorded, contributing to the shark diversity of 15 species reported from Europa since 1952 in the scientific and gray literature. Overall, with the occurrence of several species of apex predators in addition to that of R. typus, large schools of S. lewini, fair numbers of reef sharks and a nursery of C. melanopterus, Europa's sharks constitute a significant reservoir of biodiversity, which contributes to preserve the functioning of the ecosystem. Our observations highlight the relevance of Europa Island for shark conservation and the need for shark-targeted management in the EEZ of both Europa and Bassas da India.


Asunto(s)
Tiburones/fisiología , Animales , Biodiversidad , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos , Arrecifes de Coral , Ecosistema , Océano Índico , Mozambique , Densidad de Población , Especificidad de la Especie
8.
Mar Environ Res ; 172: 105490, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628146

RESUMEN

Emerging evidence have been supporting the idea that the better known South Atlantic coral reefs (located between 18°S and 24°S) are now essentially senescent structures that have experienced little or no additional vertical reef growth over the past millennia. This has often coincided with a shift to a dominance of non-coral calcifying organisms becoming the main CaCO3 producers in these high latitude and marginal marine settings. Here, we used Calcification Accretion Units (CAUs) and census-based methods to measure non-coral rates of CaCO3 production on the geologically senescent reef and adjacent rhodolith beds within the southernmost subtropical Atlantic reef (i.e., Queimada Grande Reef, QGR). The reef habitat is currently producing CaCO3 at rates of ∼126 g m-2 yr-1. In contrast, fragments of dead corals skeletons deposited adjacent to the reef over the last ∼2000 years are now colonized by crustose coralline red algae. These form a rhodolith bed that produces CaCO3 at rates of 858 g m-2 yr-1. Our results indicate that, whilst not sufficient to promote active net framework accumulation, CaCO3 production by coralline algae and bryozoans on the QGR appears to be sufficient to at least limit net large-scale erosion of the underlying reef structure, allowing the reef structure to persist in a state close to budgetary stasis. Finally, our results are also of relevance for providing insights regarding the balance of CaCO3 production/dissolution/erosion processes in coral reefs, especially in these less understood marginal reefs.


Asunto(s)
Antozoos , Briozoos , Animales , Carbonato de Calcio , Arrecifes de Coral , Ecosistema
9.
Mar Environ Res ; 172: 105484, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34695696

RESUMEN

Research on marine invertebrate settlement provides baseline knowledge for restoration technique implementation, especially for biogenic engineers with limited dispersion ability. Previously, we determined that the maturity of a biofilm strongly enhances the settlement of the vermetid reef-builder Dendropoma cristatum. To elucidate settlement-related biofilm features, here we analyse the structure and composition of marine biofilms over time, through microscopic observations, eukaryotic and prokaryotic fingerprinting analyses and 16S rDNA Illumina sequencing. The vermetid settlement temporal increase matched with the higher biofilm coverage on the substratum and the reduction of the eukaryotic abundance and diversity. The prokaryotic assemblage become, over time, more similar to that found on the reef-associated biofilm. Vermetids may detect these differences and selectively settle on those biofilms which show an advantageous structure and composition. These outcomes may support the production of ideal substrates for vermetid colonization and their further translocation to repopulate degraded reefs.


Asunto(s)
Biopelículas , Invertebrados , Animales , Arrecifes de Coral
10.
Mar Environ Res ; 172: 105508, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710739

RESUMEN

Temperate reefs are being tropicalized worldwide. In temperate Western Australia, a marine heatwave led to a regime shift from kelp (Ecklonia radiata) dominated to canopy-free reefs, together with an increase in tropical herbivorous fishes that contribute to keeping low kelp abundances and even prevent kelp reestablishment in northern regions. However, whether tropical herbivorous fishes prefer kelps over other seaweeds and/or whether this preference changes with latitude remains untested. Multiple-choice experiments (young kelp vs. other seaweeds) with tropical, subtropical and temperate herbivorous fishes show shifting species-specific preferences and fish-to-fish interference shifting with latitude (assays replicated in two regions four degrees of latitude apart). Against expectations, only the temperate Kyphosus sydneyanus preferred kelp over other seaweeds, but only in the lower latitude region. Siganus fuscescens, the most abundant tropical herbivore in both regions, preferred grazing on turf, suggesting that tropical fish might reduce kelp recruitment by consuming microscopic sporophytes in turf matrix.


Asunto(s)
Kelp , Algas Marinas , Animales , Arrecifes de Coral , Ecosistema , Peces , Herbivoria
11.
Mar Environ Res ; 172: 105505, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34717128

RESUMEN

Concrete cubic frames and decommissioned steel naval vessels have been deployed in Thailand liberally to act as artificial substrates for coral restoration and marine recreation. We assessed recruitment at such substrate types at Koh Tao, Gulf of Thailand, and compared the community structure of scleractinian corals between artificial substrates and nearby natural reefs. Our results from a sample of 2677 recruits from nine sites highlighted significant differences in community structure between both reef types. Investigations of variables including time since deployment, distance from the natural reef, and seafloor depth revealed only the latter as a possible influencing factor. The diversity of recruits could not be explained by dynamics in coral spawning, and were found to represent groups with lower structural complexity. Our results suggest that coral community structure on artificial and natural reefs differs and supports distinct ecological and functional roles.


Asunto(s)
Antozoos , Animales , Arrecifes de Coral , Tailandia
12.
Mar Environ Res ; 172: 105504, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34717129

RESUMEN

Carnivorous fish are a key part of the Indonesian human population sustenance, and it is important to design marine protected areas that include environmental features that allow these species to thrive. Many studies report the role of coral cover and habitat complexity in determining fish distribution on coral reefs but broader environmental factors such as current velocity and productivity are less studied. Southern Indonesia is characterised by upwellings and strong currents, stemming from the tidal cycle and the Indonesian Throughflow. In this study we investigate how current velocity, chlorophyll-a (chl-a), sea surface height and temperature relate to the biomass of carnivorous fish, considering the influence of habitat complexity and coral cover. Data were collected by surveying seven sites around Nusa Penida MPA for a total of 97 h of observation. Serranids and Lutjanids showed higher dependency on coral cover than fish from family Lethrinidae, Carangidae and Scombridae for which current, sea surface height, chl-a, and temperature were more influential predictors. Considering the similar trophic ecology of these species, the different relationship with oceanographic factors is likely related to different body shapes, living, and feeding habits between fish families. Changes in sea surface temperature and current velocity induced by vertical mixing are affecting coral reef fisheries-targeted species distribution in Nusa Penida and investigating these relationships on a broader scale will better inform marine spatial planning decisions.


Asunto(s)
Antozoos , Arrecifes de Coral , Animales , Biomasa , Ecosistema , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Peces , Humanos
13.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 171: 112870, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507203

RESUMEN

In recent decades the declining health of the Great Barrier Reef has led to a number of government policies being implemented to reduce pollutant loads from the adjacent agricultural-based catchments. There is increasing use of cost-effectiveness measures to help prioritise between different programs and actions to reduce pollutants, given limited resources and the scale of the issues. However there are a small number of primary studies available, and the consistency of cost-effectiveness measures and their application is limited, particularly given the various uncertainties that underlie the measures. Unlike Europe and the United States of America water policy or benefit transfer approaches, there are no procedural guidance studies that must be followed in the context of the Great Barrier Reef catchments. In this study we review the use of cost effectiveness estimates for pollutant reduction into the Great Barrier Reef in the context of a benefit transfer framework, where estimates of costs from a particular case study are transferred to various scenarios within different catchments. The conclusions suggest a framework be developed for the Great Barrier Reef, which is consistent, transparent, and rigorous.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura , Calidad del Agua , Arrecifes de Coral , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Agua , Contaminación del Agua
14.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(suppl 3): e20200583, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550198

RESUMEN

The safest and most efficient method of avoiding costs and impacts associated with biological invasions is to prevent the introduction and establishment of non-native species. In Brazil, two invasive coral species have been causing ecological, economic and social impacts: Tubastraea coccinea and Tubastraea tagusensis. This work presents a protocol to analyze the risk of invasion in Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) in the State of Rio de Janeiro considering the main vector of these species on the Brazilian coast. This protocol takes five risk factors into account: environmental similarity between the donor area and the possible receiving area; available substrate for colonization; proximity to the donor region; proximity and quantity of oil platforms and drill ships that passed by the analyzed MPAs and proximity and quantity of oil platforms and drill ships that anchored near the MPAs. Results must be used by decision-makers for a better management of Marine Protected Areas. The protocol we present can be applied to analyze the relative risk of invasion throughout the Brazilian coast, in order to prioritize areas for early detection and monitoring of the presence of sun corals.


Asunto(s)
Antozoos , Animales , Brasil , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Arrecifes de Coral , Especies Introducidas
15.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 694, 2021 Sep 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563133

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A coral colony is composed of physiologically integrated polyps. In stony corals, coloniality adopts a wide diversity of forms and involves complex ontogenetic dynamics. However, molecular mechanisms underlying coloniality have been little studied. To understand the genetic basis of coloniality and its contribution to coral ecology, we induced polyp bail-out in a colonial coral, Pocillopora acuta, and compared transcription profiles of bailed-out polyps and polyps in normal colonies, and their responses to heat shock and hyposalinity. RESULTS: Consistent with morphological formation of a gastrovascular system and its neural transmission and molecular transport functions, we found genetic activation of neurogenesis and development of tube-like structures in normal colonies that is absent in bailed-out polyps. Moreover, relative to bailed-out polyps, colonies showed significant overexpression of genes for angiotensin-converting enzymes and endothelin-converting enzymes. In response to hyperthermal and hyposaline treatments, a high proportion of genetic regulation proved specific to either bailed-out polyps or colonies. Elevated temperatures even activated NF-κB signaling in colonies. On the other hand, colonies showed no discernible advantage over bailed-out polyps in regard to hyposalinity. CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides a first look at the genetic basis of coloniality and documents different responses to environmental stimuli in P. acuta colonies versus those in bailed-out polyps. Overexpression of angiotensin-converting enzymes and endothelin-converting enzymes in colonies suggests possible involvement of these genes in development of the gastrovascular system in P. acuta. Functional characterization of these coral genes and further investigation of other forms of the transition to coloniality in stony corals should be fruitful areas for future research.


Asunto(s)
Antozoos , Animales , Antozoos/genética , Arrecifes de Coral , Regulación de la Expresión Génica , Transducción de Señal , Transcriptoma
16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5432, 2021 09 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521825

RESUMEN

The relative importance of evolutionary history and ecology for traits that drive ecosystem processes is poorly understood. Consumers are essential drivers of nutrient cycling on coral reefs, and thus ecosystem productivity. We use nine consumer "chemical traits" associated with nutrient cycling, collected from 1,572 individual coral reef fishes (178 species spanning 41 families) in two biogeographic regions, the Caribbean and Polynesia, to quantify the relative importance of phylogenetic history and ecological context as drivers of chemical trait variation on coral reefs. We find: (1) phylogenetic relatedness is the best predictor of all chemical traits, substantially outweighing the importance of ecological factors thought to be key drivers of these traits, (2) phylogenetic conservatism in chemical traits is greater in the Caribbean than Polynesia, where our data suggests that ecological forces have a greater influence on chemical trait variation, and (3) differences in chemical traits between regions can be explained by differences in nutrient limitation associated with the geologic context of our study locations. Our study provides multiple lines of evidence that phylogeny is a critical determinant of contemporary nutrient dynamics on coral reefs. More broadly our findings highlight the utility of evolutionary history to improve prediction in ecosystem ecology.


Asunto(s)
Antozoos/fisiología , Peces/fisiología , Cadena Alimentaria , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Filogenia , Animales , Evolución Biológica , Ciclo del Carbono/fisiología , Región del Caribe , Arrecifes de Coral , Peces/clasificación , Humanos , Ciclo del Nitrógeno/fisiología , Nutrientes/química , Filogeografía , Polinesia
17.
Environ Pollut ; 290: 118010, 2021 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488160

RESUMEN

Plastic pollution is an emerging stressor that increases pressure on ecosystems such as coral reefs that are already challenged by climate change. However, the effects of plastic pollution in combination with global warming are largely unknown. Thus, the goal of this study was to determine the cumulative effects of microplastic pollution with that of global warming on reef-building coral species and to compare the severity of both stressors. For this, we conducted a series of three controlled laboratory experiments and exposed a broad range of coral species (Acropora muricata, Montipora digitata, Porites lutea, Pocillopora verrucosa, and Stylophora pistillata) to microplastic particles in a range of concentrations (2.5-2500 particles L-1) and mixtures (from different industrial sectors) at ambient temperatures and in combination with heat stress. We show that microplastic can occasionally have both aggravating or mitigating effects on the corals' thermal tolerance. In comparison to heat stress, however, microplastic constitutes a minor stressor. While heat stress led to decreased photosynthetic efficiency of algal symbionts, and increased bleaching, tissue necrosis, and mortality, treatment with microplastic particles had only minor effects on the physiology and health of the tested coral species at ambient temperatures. These findings underline that while efforts to reduce plastic pollution should continue, they should not replace more urgent efforts to halt global warming, which are immediately needed to preserve remaining coral reef ecosystems.


Asunto(s)
Antozoos , Animales , Arrecifes de Coral , Ecosistema , Respuesta al Choque Térmico , Microplásticos , Plásticos/toxicidad
18.
Adv Mar Biol ; 89: 1-51, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583814

RESUMEN

Global change is striking harder and faster in the Mediterranean Sea than elsewhere, where high levels of human pressure and proneness to climate change interact in modifying the structure and disrupting regulative mechanisms of marine ecosystems. Rocky reefs are particularly exposed to such environmental changes with ongoing trends of degradation being impressive. Due to the variety of habitat types and associated marine biodiversity, rocky reefs are critical for the functioning of marine ecosystems, and their decline could profoundly affect the provision of essential goods and services which human populations in coastal areas rely upon. Here, we provide an up-to-date overview of the status of rocky reefs, trends in human-driven changes undermining their integrity, and current and upcoming management and conservation strategies, attempting a projection on what could be the future of this essential component of Mediterranean marine ecosystems.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Ecosistema , Cambio Climático , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Arrecifes de Coral , Humanos , Mar Mediterráneo
19.
Water Res ; 204: 117656, 2021 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537628

RESUMEN

The current lack of research on the evaluation of marine ecosystem services makes the value of marine protection, development and restoration underestimated during the decision-making process. Based on the non-monetary ecosystem service evaluation framework, a marine ecosystem service classification and accounting method has been established in this study, and the world's coastal ecosystem services have been measured as an example. The results show that (1) the world's coastal ecosystem service value is about 4.13E+23 sej/yr, of which Asia and North America contribute about 55% of the total service value; (2) the top ten countries in terms of the world's coastal ecosystem service values are Canada, Indonesia, Australia, the United States, Brazil, the Russian Federation, Norway, the Philippines, Mexico, and China, which contribute about 60% of the total service value; (3) estuaries have the highest ecosystem service values, followed by mangroves, seagrass beds, tidal flats, salt marshes, and warm water coral reefs; (4) developed countries can make better use of their coastal resources and pay more attention to the marine protection while the opposite is true in developing countries, which means that developed countries still occupy an advantageous position in the process of marine protection, development and utilization. This study assesses the coastal ecosystem service values in various coastal countries from the perspective of ecosystem contributors, emphasizes the importance of protecting them in marine management, and provides a certain reference basis and theoretical support for decision-makers in formulating marine-related protection and development strategies.


Asunto(s)
Arrecifes de Coral , Ecosistema , Australia , Estuarios , Humedales
20.
Elife ; 102021 09 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550071

RESUMEN

The ability of corals to adapt to global warming may involve trade-offs among the traits that influence their success as the foundational species of coral reefs.


Asunto(s)
Antozoos , Arrecifes de Coral , Animales , Calentamiento Global
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