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1.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(1): 343-353, 2020 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584698

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Herbs are rich in various beneficial bioactive compounds and they can be used for many different purposes. One of the most common is maceration of herbs in alcohol. Different substances respond differently to extraction in prepared solutions. It is very important to enhance the highest proportion of beneficial ingredients during the maceration process in a herbal liqueur. A comparative analysis of numerous different phenolic compounds from eight of the most frequently used herbs for making aperitifs in Europe was performed. RESULTS: In the comparison among all studied herbs, the highest phenolic content was found with Artemisia absinthium (wormwood) (14.61 mg g-1 ) and Mentha piperita (peppermint) (13.89 mg g-1 ), while the lowest content was found with Centaurium erythraea (common centaury) (3.96 mg g-1 ). Salvianolic acid isomers and caffeic acid derivatives were the greatest contributors to the total phenolic content in lemon balm, wormwood, peppermint, fennel and sage. These compounds contain more hydroxyl groups and they were better extracted at the beginning of the maceration process. Caraway and common centaury contain more flavonols (quercetin and kaempferol derivatives), with higher chemical stability and fewer hydroxyl groups in their structure. CONCLUSION: The compositions of eight herbal liqueurs were highly related to the presence of different herbal ingredients and their solubility in the extract over time. Most flavonol derivatives were extracted over a longer time and the two liqueurs (common centaury and caraway) therefore had the highest phenolic contents after 3 weeks of maceration. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Asunto(s)
Bebidas Alcohólicas/análisis , Extractos Vegetales/química , Plantas Medicinales/química , Artemisia/química , Carum/química , Centaurium/química , Europa (Continente) , Manipulación de Alimentos , Isomerismo , Mentha piperita/química , Fenoles/química
2.
J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol ; 38(3): 205-216, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679308

RESUMEN

Artemisia vulgaris is a traditional Chinese herb believed to have a wide range of healing properties; it is traditionally used to treat numerous health ailments. The plant is commonly called mugwort or riverside wormwood. The plant is edible, and in addition to its medicinal properties, it is also used as a culinary herb in Asian cooking in the form of a vegetable or in soup. The plant has garnered the attention of researchers in the past few decades, and several research studies have investigated its biological effects, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, hypolipidemic, and antimicrobial properties. In this review, various studies on these biological effects are discussed along with the tests conducted, compounds involved, and proposed mechanisms of action. This review will be of interest to the researchers working in the field of herbal medicine, pharmacology, medical sciences, and immunology.


Asunto(s)
Artemisia/química , Fitoterapia , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Antiinfecciosos/farmacología , Antiinflamatorios/farmacología , Antineoplásicos/farmacología , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Hipolipemiantes/farmacología , Plantas Medicinales/química
3.
Fitoterapia ; 139: 104372, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669720

RESUMEN

Four new sesquiterpene lactones, named artemargyinolides A-D (1-4), and seven known sesquiterpenoids (5-11) were isolated from Artemisia argyi. Their structures were elucidated based on the extensive analysis of spectroscopic data. The absolute configuration of 1 was assigned by X-ray crystallographic analysis. Compound 1 is an unprecedented sesquiterpene dimer-monoterpene lactone. The cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2) inhibitory activities of all isolated compounds were evaluated. Compounds 1, 2, 4, and 6-11 showed inhibitory activity against COX-2 with IC50 values ranging from 35.78 ±â€¯0.39 to 256.07 ±â€¯0.38 µM. However, compounds 7, 9, and 10 exhibited weak inhibitory activity against COX-1 with IC50 values of 465.70 ±â€¯1.53, 281.43 ±â€¯3.56, and 490.45 ±â€¯6.07 µM, respectively. Other compounds are inactive against COX-1. Therefore, compounds 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 11 displayed selective COX-2 inhibitory activity.


Asunto(s)
Artemisia/química , Inhibidores de la Ciclooxigenasa 2/farmacología , Lactonas/farmacología , Sesquiterpenos/farmacología , China , Inhibidores de la Ciclooxigenasa 2/aislamiento & purificación , Lactonas/aislamiento & purificación , Estructura Molecular , Fitoquímicos/aislamiento & purificación , Fitoquímicos/farmacología , Hojas de la Planta/química , Sesquiterpenos/aislamiento & purificación
4.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 288, 2019 Oct 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660943

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Extracts from medicinal plants with phytochemicals with known antimicrobial properties can be an effective adjunct in the complex treatment of infectious diseases. This study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of wormwood extracts collected in Kazakhstan (Artemisia gmelinii Weber ex Stechm.), along with their phytochemical analysis. METHODS: The ethanolic and chloroform extracts were subjected to HPLC combined with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry method. For quantitative assessment of antimicrobial activity, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the tested extracts was determined by micro-dilution broth method for the panel of the reference microorganisms. Minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) or minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) were also determined. RESULTS: LC/MS analysis showed the presence of 13 compounds in the tested extracts, including flavonoids: apigenin, luteolin, rutin, two O-methylated flavonols (isorhamnetin, rhamnazine), coumarin compounds (umbelliferone, scopoletin and scopolin (scopoletin 7-glucoside), 3-hydroxycoumarin and 4-hydroxycoumarin), chlorogenic acid and two dicaffeoylquinic acid isomers. Quantitative HPLC analysis showed that umbelliferone was dominant in the chloroform extract while chlorogenic acid was identified as a main compound in the ethanolic extract. The antibacterial and antifungal activity of chloroform and ethanolic extracts was comparable. The most sensitive were the Gram-positive bacteria represented by staphylococci, Micrococcus luteus and Bacillus spp. (MIC = 1.25-5 mg/ml) and yeasts represented by Candida spp. (MIC = 2.5-5 mg/ml), irrespective of the assayed extract. CONCLUSIONS: Extracts of wormwood Artemisia gmelinii have shown a wide spectrum of antibacterial and antifungal activity. Luteolin, rutin, isorhamnetin and scopolin were identified in A. gmelinii species for the first time. The determining of the most potential compounds of Artemisia gmelinii can be used to develop effective antibacterial and antifungal agents.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos/farmacología , Artemisia/química , Fitoquímicos/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Antiinfecciosos/química , Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Bacterias/crecimiento & desarrollo , Ácido Clorogénico/química , Ácido Clorogénico/aislamiento & purificación , Ácido Clorogénico/farmacología , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/aislamiento & purificación , Flavonoides/farmacología , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Fitoquímicos/química , Fitoquímicos/aislamiento & purificación , Extractos Vegetales/química , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , Plantas Medicinales/química , Levaduras/efectos de los fármacos , Levaduras/crecimiento & desarrollo
5.
J Food Sci ; 84(10): 3037-3044, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509245

RESUMEN

Extracts of several plants possess antithrombotic effects. Herein, we examined the antithrombotic effects of different extracts of Artemisia princeps Pampanini prepared using distilled water, hot distilled water, 70% ethanol, or subcritical water. The antithrombotic effects were determined using a co-culture system consisting of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-treated EA.hy926 cells and THP-1 cells. In addition, the coagulation time of plasma collected from healthy volunteers was evaluated in terms of the prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time. A carotid arterial thrombosis model was induced by ferric chloride in Sprague Dawley rats. The rats were treated with either sterile water or three different doses of the subcritical water extract for 2 weeks. The thrombus weight, gene expression of cell adhesion molecules, and histological characteristics were assessed. The results of in vitro studies revealed a significant inhibition in the adhesion of monocytes to EA.hy926 cells stimulated by TNF-α in the subcritical water extract-treated group. We also observed considerable suppression of the occlusion and mRNA expression of cell adhesion molecules in the in vivo experiments. This study suggests that Artemisia princeps Pampanini may have the potential to improve blood coagulation.


Asunto(s)
Artemisia/química , Cloruros/efectos adversos , Compuestos Férricos/efectos adversos , Fibrinolíticos/administración & dosificación , Extractos Vegetales/administración & dosificación , Trombosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Adulto , Animales , Adhesión Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Moléculas de Adhesión Celular/genética , Moléculas de Adhesión Celular/metabolismo , Femenino , Fibrinolíticos/aislamiento & purificación , Humanos , Masculino , Monocitos/efectos de los fármacos , Monocitos/metabolismo , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , Ratas , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Trombosis/inducido químicamente , Trombosis/metabolismo , Trombosis/fisiopatología , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/genética , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Adulto Joven
6.
Z Naturforsch C J Biosci ; 74(9-10): 275-278, 2019 Sep 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490779

RESUMEN

A new compound, integracid (1), together with four known compounds were isolated from the dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) extract from Artemisia integrifolia L. The structures of compounds (1-5) were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, including ultraviolet, infrared (IR), high resolution-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS) and extensive one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques, and by comparison with data reported in the references. Antibacterial activities of the compounds were evaluated against various bacteria.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos/química , Artemisia/química , Extractos Vegetales/química , Antiinfecciosos/farmacología , Bacillus cereus/efectos de los fármacos , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Staphylococcus aureus/efectos de los fármacos , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/farmacología , Yersinia enterocolitica/efectos de los fármacos
7.
Fitoterapia ; 138: 104312, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419464

RESUMEN

The Alpine wormwood Artemisia vallesiaca All. was considered the most valuable ingredient of vermouth, a celebrated aromatized wine. A. vallesiaca has a very limited geographical distribution, and the booming market of vermouth decimated its natural population, resulting in the eventual replacement of this rare species with more common and less expensive wormwoods like A. absinthium L.. Over the past years, attempts to revive the original recipe(s) of vermouth have fostered the establishment of cultivations of A. vallesiaca in pre-montane settings. In order to assist these projects, the phytochemical profile of cultivated plants and of several native populations of A. vallesiaca from the Swiss Valais were comparatively evaluated, focusing on sesquiterpene lactones and on lipophilic flavonoids, the hallmark constituents of Artemisia species. Remarkably, no significant difference was detected between the samples, despite the different origins. The lipophilic flavonoids of A. vallesiaca were similar to those of related species used in the production of vermouth, but the presence of C-9 oxygenated 11ß-methyl germacranolides and eudesmanolides (herbolides) made its sesquiterpene lactone profile peculiar. In addition to known compounds, two novel germacranolides were also characterized (herbolides J and K), and the major sesquiterpene lactone from the plant, the bitter germacranolide herbolide D (4), was detected and quantified by 1H NMR in a bitter liqueur aromatized with A. vallesiaca. Taken together, these observations qualify herbolides as marker to identify A. vallesiaca in aromatized alcohol matrixes.


Asunto(s)
Artemisia/química , Lactonas/química , Sesquiterpenos de Germacrano/química , Vino , Italia , Fitoquímicos/química
8.
Phytother Res ; 33(10): 2661-2684, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31453659

RESUMEN

Several reviews have been published on Artemisia's derived natural products, but it is the first attempt to review the chemistry and pharmacology of more than 80 alkaloids and allied nitrogen compounds obtained from various Artemisia species (covering the literature up to June 2018). The pharmacological potential and unique skeleton types of certain Artemisia's alkaloids provoke the importance of analyzing Artemisia species for bioactive alkaloids and allied nitrogen compounds. Among the various types of bioactive Artemisia's alkaloids, the main classes were the derivatives of rupestine (pyridine-sesquiterpene), lycoctonine (diterpene), pyrrolizidine, purines, polyamine, peptides, indole, piperidine, pyrrolidine, alkamides, and flavoalkaloids. The rupestine derivatives are Artemisia's characteristic alkaloids, whereas the rest are common alkaloids found in the family Asteraceae and chemotaxonomically links the genus Artemisia with the tribes Anthemideae. The most important biological activities of Artemisia's alkaloids are including hepatoprotective, local anesthetic, ß-galactosidase, and antiparasitic activities; treatment of angina pectoris, opening blocked arteries, as a sleep-inducing agents and inhibition of HIV viral protease, CYP450, melanin biosynthesis, human carbonic anhydrase, [3H]-AEA metabolism, kinases, and DNA polymerase ß1 . Some of the important nitrogen metabolites of Artemisia include pellitorine, zeatin, tryptophan, rupestine, and aconitine analogs, which need to be optimized and commercialized further.


Asunto(s)
Alcaloides/farmacología , Artemisia/química , Alcaloides/análisis , Humanos , Compuestos de Nitrógeno/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología
9.
Molecules ; 24(15)2019 Aug 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387251

RESUMEN

The Artemisia argyi leaf (AL) has been used as a traditional medicine and food supplement in China and other Asian countries for hundreds of years. Phytochemical studies disclosed that AL contains various bioactive constituents. Among bioactive constituents, phenolic acids have been recognized as the main active compounds in AL. To the best of our knowledge, no research has been focused on extraction method for the bioactive phenolic acids from AL. Nowadays, deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are emerging as a new type of green and sustainable solvent for efficient extraction of bioactive compounds from natural products. In the present study, an environmentally friendly extraction method based on DESs was established to extract bioactive phenolic acids from ALs. Diverse tailor-made solvents, including binary and ternary DESs, were explored for simultaneous extraction of four phenolic acids (3-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, and 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid) from AL. The results indicated that the ternary DES composed of a 2:1:2 molar ratio of choline chloride, malic acid, and urea showed enhanced extraction yields for phenolic acids compared with conventional organic solvents and other DESs. Subsequently, the extraction parameters for the four phenolic acids by selected tailor-made DESs, including liquid-solid ratios, water content (%) in the DESs, and extraction time, were optimized using response surface methodology and the optimal extraction conditions were: extraction time, 23.5 min; liquid-solid ratio, 57.5 mL/g (mL of DES/g dry weight of plant material); water content, 54%. The research indicated that DESs were efficient and sustainable green extraction solvents for extraction of bioactive phenolic acids from natural products. Compared to the conventional organic solvents, the DESs have a great potential as possible alternatives to those organic solvents in health-related areas such as food and pharmaceuticals.


Asunto(s)
Artemisia/química , Hidroxibenzoatos/química , Extractos Vegetales/química , Hojas de la Planta/química , Solventes/química , Análisis de Varianza , Cromatografía , Hidroxibenzoatos/análisis , Estructura Molecular , Extractos Vegetales/análisis , Análisis Espectral
10.
Carbohydr Polym ; 222: 115009, 2019 Oct 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31320075

RESUMEN

We obtained four soluble acid xylan fractions AGP-III-A, AGP-III-B, AGP-III-C and AGP-III-D from the insoluble Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch gum (ASKG) polysaccharide by weak alkali treatment combined with H2O2-Vc oxidative degradation. Activity studies showed that the degradation components could reduce the cell viability of several cancer cell lines in a concentration-dependent manner, especially 4-O-Methylglucuronoxylan AGP-III-C with specific molecular weight and branching degree significantly reduced cancer cells viability and induced HepG2 apoptosis, also caused mitochondrial membrane dysfunction upregulated ROS levels, and induced G0/G1 arrest in HepG2 cells by cell cycle assay. Further, AGP-III-C mediates apoptosis in HepG2 cells by upregulating MAPK phosphorylation. The structure of AGP-III-C was characterized by uronic acid reduction, permethylation with GC-MS, and 2D-NMR analysis. The structure of AGP-III-C had a linear (1→4)-linked ß-Xylf residue backbone with one branched 4-O-Me-α-GlcAp attached to the main chain by a (1→2)-glycosidic bond at every two ß-(1→4)-Xylf units.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos/farmacología , Artemisia/química , Xilanos/farmacología , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/aislamiento & purificación , Apoptosis/efectos de los fármacos , Línea Celular Tumoral , Puntos de Control de la Fase G1 del Ciclo Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Sistema de Señalización de MAP Quinasas/efectos de los fármacos , Potencial de la Membrana Mitocondrial/efectos de los fármacos , Mitocondrias/efectos de los fármacos , Peso Molecular , Solubilidad , Xilanos/química , Xilanos/aislamiento & purificación
11.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(13): 2667-2674, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359675

RESUMEN

Chemical profiling of a given herbal medicine( HM) is the prerequisite for clarifying the effective material basis and therapeutic mechanisms,and it is an important integral part of traditional Chinese medicine chemical biology( TCMCB). In current study,we aimed to propose a new strategy for fast chemical characterization of HM by using reversed phase liquid chromatography-hydrophilic interaction chromatography-predictive multiple reaction monitoring( RPLC-HILIC-p MRM),and Artemisiae Scopariae Herba was employed in this study to illustrate the entire strategy. In response to wide polarity spanning of the diverse chemical clusters in Artemisiae Scopariae Herba,RPLC and HILIC were coupled in series to retain and separate hydrophilic and hydrophobic components simultaneously by identifying the characteristics of chromatographic separation. Most of the chemical constituents in traditional Chinese medicine can be predicted by summarizing the results of chemical constituents of the same genera and introducing primary metabolites and possible substitution reaction types. Therefore,we constructed predictive ion pairs to rapidly identify the chemical constituents of Artemisiae Scopariae Herba. After comparison with control products,discussion on fragmentation pattern,and access to relevant information from literature and databases,a total of 139 components were detected and structurally annotated by matching the obtained spectral data with the information of authentic compounds. Above all,RPLC-HILIC-p MRM could be used as an eligible analytical tool for the chemical profiling of HMs.


Asunto(s)
Artemisia/química , Cromatografía de Fase Inversa , Plantas Medicinales/química , Interacciones Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Medicina China Tradicional
12.
Phytochemistry ; 164: 144-153, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151061

RESUMEN

Triquinane is a type of sesquiterpenoid with a unique structure that contains a fused tricyclopentane ring and exhibits a wide range of bioactivities. Like other sesquiterpenoids, the first committed step in triquinane-type sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis is the cyclization of farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP), a common precursor of all sesquiterpenoids, catalyzed by sesquiterpene synthase. Artemisia abrotanum L. (Asteraceae), a common plant used in the culinary and cosmetics industries, has been reported to accumulate high levels of triquinane silphiperfol-5-en-3-one A. This compound is potentially biosynthesized from the cyclization of FPP into 7-epi-silphiperfol-5-ene followed by a multi-step oxidation to silphiperfol-5-en-3-one A. In this study, we aimed to identify the sesquiterpene synthase responsible for the synthesis of 7-epi-silphiperfol-5-ene. We performed RNA sequencing of A. abrotanum leaves and gene candidates were mined by homology searches using the triquinane α-isocomene synthase of chamomile (MrTPS2) as query. After gene cloning, we obtained five variants of putative sesquiterpene synthase showing greater than 85% amino acid identity to MrTPS2 and greater than 95% amino acid identity to each other. Heterologous expression of these variants in a FPP-high-producing yeast strain revealed the first four variants to be (+)-α-bisabolol synthases (AabrBOS1-4). However, the fifth candidate cyclized FPP into 7-epi-silphiperfol-5-ene and can therefore be defined as a 7-epi-silphiperfol-5-ene synthase (AabrSPS). These findings revealed the first committed enzyme involved in silphiperfol-5-en-3-one A and (+)-α-bisabolol biosyntheses in A. abrotanum. Furthermore, the results of this study will be useful for enhancing the production of these compounds for further applications.


Asunto(s)
Transferasas Alquil y Aril/análisis , Artemisia/química , Artemisia/enzimología , Sesquiterpenos/análisis , Transferasas Alquil y Aril/metabolismo , Artemisia/metabolismo , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Conformación Molecular , Sesquiterpenos/metabolismo , Relación Estructura-Actividad
13.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 5016483, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31179326

RESUMEN

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the second most common human urinary tumor. Eupatilin is the main active ingredient of the traditional Chinese medicine Artemisia asiatica. The effect of Eupatilin on RCC and the underlying mechanism remain unknown. Here, we investigated the anticancer effects and mechanisms of Eupatilin in RCC in vivo and in vitro, laying an experimental foundation for the clinical application of Eupatilin in the treatment of RCC. The results showed that Eupatilin significantly inhibited 786-O cell viability and migration and promoted apoptosis. Eupatilin inhibited the expression of miR-21 in 786-O cells, and overexpression of miR-21 suppressed the effect of Eupatilin on viability, apoptosis, and migration in 786-O cells. Eupatilin inhibited the growth of renal tumors in nude mice by downregulating miR-21. YAP1, which was identified as a target of miR-21, showed significantly lower expression in RCC tissues than in healthy tissues. miR-21 significantly inhibited YAP1 protein expression in 786-O cells and tumor tissues isolated from nude mice, and YAP1 attenuated the effect of miR-21 on the viability, apoptosis, and migration of 786-O cells. In conclusion, Eupatilin inhibited the expression of miR-21, which mediated the proapoptotic and antimigratory effects of Eupatilin by suppressing YAP1 in renal cancer cells. These results suggested that Eupatilin could be a potent agent for the treatment of RCC.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas Adaptadoras Transductoras de Señales/metabolismo , Flavonoides/farmacología , Neoplasias Renales/tratamiento farmacológico , MicroARNs/metabolismo , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Animales , Apoptosis , Artemisia/química , Carcinoma de Células Renales/patología , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular , Línea Celular Tumoral , Movimiento Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Proliferación Celular , Supervivencia Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Regulación hacia Abajo , Humanos , Neoplasias Renales/patología , Masculino , Medicina China Tradicional , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C , Ratones Desnudos
14.
Chem Biodivers ; 16(7): e1900125, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31241852

RESUMEN

The essential oil composition of the aerial parts of Artemisia magellanica Sch. Bip. (Asteraceae), native to Patagonia, was analyzed by GC-FID-MS. This is the first report on the essential oil composition of A. magellanica. A total of 113 components were identified accounting for 95.6-95.7 % of the oil. The essential oil was characterized by a high percentage of γ-costol (21.0-43.5 %), selina-4,11-diene, (Z)-ß-ocimene, (E)-ß-farnesene, (Z)-en-yn-dicycloether and 23 different esters (28.7 %). In turn, Artemisia biennis, a species native to North America, which is considered by some authors to be conspecific with A. magellanica, yielded an essential oil that was rich in (Z)-ß-ocimene (34.7 %), (E)-ß-farnesene (40.0 %) and the acetylenes (Z)- and (E)-en-yn-dicycloethers (11.0 %). Thus, as A. biennis lacks the three main components present in A. magellanica, namely γ-costol, 2-methylbutyl 2-methylbutyrate and selina-4,11-diene, these compounds could be considered as potential chemical markers for A. magellanica since they are absent or only found as minor constituents in other members of the genus. The data presented herein is also useful for genus taxonomy.


Asunto(s)
Artemisia/química , Aceites Volátiles/aislamiento & purificación , Estructura Molecular , Aceites Volátiles/química , Especificidad de la Especie
15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31058875

RESUMEN

Achillea fragrantissima (Forssk.) Sch. Bip. (known as Qaysoom), Echinops spinosus L. (known as Shoak Elgamal) and Artemisia judaica L.(known Shih Baladi) are members of the Asteraceae family known for their traditional medical use in Egypt. The ethanol extracts of these plants were evaluated for their efficacy against a protozoan parasite (Blastocystis). Two different molecular subtypes of Blastocystis were used (ST1 and ST3). Significant growth inhibition of Blastocystis was observed when exposed to both A. judaica (99.3%) and A. fragrantissima (95.6%) with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC90) at 2000 µg/mL. Under the effect of the extracts, changes in Blastocystis morphology were noted, with the complete destruction of Blastocystis forms after 72 h with the dose of 4000 µg/mL. Different subtypes displayed different responses to the herbal extracts tested. ST1 exhibited significantly different responses to the herbal extracts compared to ST3. A. judaica was selected as the herb of choice considering all of its variables and because of its effective action against Blastocystis. It was then exposed to further fractionation and observation of its effect on ST1 and ST3. Solvent portioned fractions (dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and n-hexane) in A. judaica were found to be the potent active fractions against both of the Blastocystis subtypes used.


Asunto(s)
Artemisia/química , Blastocystis/efectos de los fármacos , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Egipto , Humanos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Fitoterapia , Extractos Vegetales/química , Plantas Medicinales , Solventes
16.
J Basic Microbiol ; 59(7): 701-712, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31032943

RESUMEN

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are at the forefront of the swiftly developing scope of nanotechnology. In the current study, we investigated the green synthesis of AgNPs using Artemisia scoporia as a reducing and capping agent. The biosynthesized AgNPs were characterized using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-Transform infrared spectroscopy, dispersive absorption spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The efficacy of the nanoparticle synthesis was assessed by comparing the antibiofilm activity with commercial AgNPs. The effect of sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of AgNPs on biofilm formation was determined by microtiter plate assay. The expression level of the icaA and icaR genes was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. The structural and functional aspects of AgNPs were confirmed. The expression levels of icaA and icaR in the isolates exposed to sub-MIC of both commercial and biosynthetic AgNPs were lower and higher than in the control group, respectively. Our results also indicated that greater reduction and induction in icaA and icaR gene expression were noticed with the sub-MIC doses of biosynthetic AgNP versus commercial AgNP, respectively. This study suggested the application of AgNPs as a significant therapeutic and clinical option in the future and usage for fabricating medical implants. Nevertheless, further investigation is required for examining the pharmaceutical and medicinal properties of AgNPs.


Asunto(s)
Artemisia/química , Biopelículas/efectos de los fármacos , Expresión Génica/efectos de los fármacos , Nanopartículas del Metal/química , Plata/química , Plata/farmacología , Staphylococcus aureus/efectos de los fármacos , Antibacterianos/síntesis química , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Proteínas Bacterianas/genética , Biopelículas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple , Tecnología Química Verde , Humanos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Nanomedicina , Extractos Vegetales/química , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/microbiología , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/crecimiento & desarrollo , Staphylococcus aureus/aislamiento & purificación
17.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(5): 983-989, 2019 Mar.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989859

RESUMEN

The study aims to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze phenolic acids and flavonoids in Artemisiae Argyi Folium cultivated in Qichun(Qiai) for the quality control of this genuine regional herbs. UPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS was used for rapid separation and structural identification of the constituents. Samples were separated on an UPLC column(2. 1 mm×100 mm,1. 8 µm) by gradient elution using 0. 1% formic acid and acetonitrile as mobile phases at a flow rate of 0. 4 m L·min-1. By UPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS,16 compounds including phenolic acids and flavonoids were identified by comparison with reference standards or literature data. For quantitative analysis,12 identified compounds were simultaneously determined by UPLC-DAD at wavelengths of 330 nm. The method was validated with respect to linearity,precision,repeatability,stability and recovery. The contents of these compounds were found to differ significantly between the samples from Qichun and other areas. This strategy was novel,effective and straightforward,which provided a potential approach for holistic quality control of Qiai.


Asunto(s)
Artemisia/química , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/análisis , Flavonoides/análisis , Hidroxibenzoatos/análisis , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Espectrometría de Masas , Fitoquímicos/análisis , Hojas de la Planta/química
18.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 100: 82-93, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30948119

RESUMEN

An improved active packaging system was developed for fresh fruits using silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) coupled with calcium alginate (Ca-ALG). For the synthesis of AgNPs aqueous, ethanol and methanol extracts of Artemisia scoparia (AS) were used. These AgNP's were characterized using UV-Vis, SEM, EDS, AFM, FTIR and gel electrophoresis. Ethanol extract of AS (ASE) produced AgNPs with smallest size in comparison to aqueous AS (ASA) and methanol extract of AS (ASM). AgNPs synthesized from ASE had a size range of 12.0-23.3 nm and were tested on Human Corneal Epithelial Cells to evaluate their cytotoxicity. At 0.05 ng/mL of AgNP's concentration, no toxic effects were observed on the evaluated cell line. Therefore, 0.05 ng/mL of AgNPs mixed with edible coating of Ca-ALG were applied on strawberries and loquats as active coating to increase their shelf life. Significant improvement was observed in the quality parameters of strawberries and loquats such as microbial analysis, acidity loss, soluble solid content loss, weight loss and quality decay. Ca-ALG coating incorporated with AgNPs enhanced the shelf life of strawberries and loquats in comparison to no treatment and simple Ca-ALG coatings. This study provides an insight to food industry to extend the shelf life of fresh fruits using AgNP's formulated coatings.


Asunto(s)
Artemisia/química , Embalaje de Alimentos/métodos , Nanopartículas del Metal/química , Plata/química , Artemisia/metabolismo , Línea Celular , Supervivencia Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Frutas/química , Frutas/microbiología , Humanos , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Nanopartículas del Metal/toxicidad , Extractos Vegetales/química
19.
J Med Food ; 22(6): 623-630, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31021282

RESUMEN

This study was designed to determine whether the ethanol extract of Artemisia princeps could inhibit the cariogenic activity of Streptococcus mutans. The increase in acid production and biofilm formation by S. mutans were evaluated. The expression levels of virulence factor genes were determined by performing the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The bactericidal effect was tested by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The A. princeps extract was observed to inhibit the growth of S. mutans at concentrations >0.05 mg/mL (P < .05). After using the safranin staining method, we found that the A. princeps extract had an inhibitory effect against biofilm formation at a concentration of >0.05 mg/mL. These experimental results were similar to that observed with the scanning electron microscopy. The results of the confocal microscopy revealed that the A. princeps extract at high concentrations of 0.4-3.2 mg/mL showed a bactericidal effect in a concentration-dependent manner. According to the results of the real-time PCR analysis, it was observed that the A. princeps extract inhibited the expression of virulence factor genes. These results suggest that A. princeps may inhibit the cariogenic activity of S. mutans, and may be useful as an anticariogenic agent.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Artemisia/química , Proteínas Bacterianas/genética , Biopelículas/efectos de los fármacos , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Streptococcus mutans/efectos de los fármacos , Streptococcus mutans/genética , Factores de Virulencia/genética , Proteínas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Regulación Bacteriana de la Expresión Génica/efectos de los fármacos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Streptococcus mutans/crecimiento & desarrollo , Streptococcus mutans/fisiología , Factores de Virulencia/metabolismo
20.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 171: 35-42, 2019 Jul 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30965219

RESUMEN

Screening of bioactive ligands for a certain protein target from medicinal herbs is a highly important yet challenging task during drug discovery process. In this study, a surface plasmon resonance biosensor-based active ingredient recognition system (SPR-AIRS) was applied to screen p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38) ligands from herbal extracts. After p38 protein was immobilized on a SPR chip and the suitability of SPR-AIRS was validated, thirty-four p38-related medicinal herbs were selected and pre-screened. Two medicinal herbs having high response signal with p38-immobilized chip, Folium Ginkgo and Herba Artemisiae Scopariae, were injected into SPR system for ligand fishing. Among them, two active compounds, eupatilin (EPT) and ginkgolide B (GKB), were identified as p38 ligands, and then the KD values of EPT and GKB were measured as 21.68 ± 2.21 and 44.71 ± 1.80 µM, respectively. They can inhibit p38 activities significantly and bind to the ATP binding site on p38. Furthermore, EPT and GKB can inhibit cell proliferation (IC50 = 30.31 ± 6.84 and 42.97 ± 0.83 µM), induce apoptosis and G2/M cell cycle arrest against K562 cell line. This is the first time that EPT and GKB are reported as effective p38 binding ligands. These results prove that SPR-AIRS could be an effective method to screen active compounds acting on a specific protein from complex systems.


Asunto(s)
Artemisia/química , Flavonoides/aislamiento & purificación , Ginkgo biloba/química , Ginkgólidos/aislamiento & purificación , Lactonas/aislamiento & purificación , Resonancia por Plasmón de Superficie/métodos , Proteínas Quinasas p38 Activadas por Mitógenos/antagonistas & inhibidores , Unión Competitiva , Técnicas de Cultivo de Célula , Puntos de Control del Ciclo Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Proliferación Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Flavonoides/farmacología , Ginkgólidos/farmacología , Humanos , Células K562 , Lactonas/farmacología , Ligandos , Unión Proteica
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